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Petro Canada Calgary Alberta and Mobil Oil Canada Ltd Calgary Alberta


Secondary porosity in sandstones can be classified according to origin and pore texture Five significant
genetic classes of secondary porosity are defined by the following processes of origin I fracturing 2 shrinkage
3 dissolution of
sedimentary grains and matrix 4 dissolution of authigenic pore filling cement and 5 dissolution
of authigenic
replacive minerals Hybrid pores are characterized either by the coexistence of several genetic
classes of secondary
porosity or by the coexistence of primary and secondary porosity
Secondary porosity appears in five major groups of pore textures I intergranular pores 2 oversized pores
3 moldic pores 4 intra constituent pores and 5 open fractures Some
secondary porosity mimics the entire
range of pore sizes and pore textures of primary sandstone porosity Other secondary porosity bears a
resemblance to the textures of primary
porosity but differs in detail Secondary porosity may also appear in
textures that are entirely different from those of
primary porosity
In most instances it is
possible to identify the occurrence of secondary porosity in thin section using a
set of simple
petrographic criteria that include I partial dissolution 2 molds 3 inhomogeneity of packing
4 oversized pores 5 elongate pores 6 corroded
grains 7 intra constituent pores and 8 fractured grains
In medium and coarse
grained sandstones secondary porosity can in some instances be observed by the naked
The detailed analysis of the petrological attributes of secondary porosity may require the use of advanced
analytical techniques such as cathode luminescence petrography scanning electron microscopy pore cast
examination microprobe analysis and stable isotope analysis In most sandstones however a
surprising amount
of important information can be obtained
simply by the careful and methodical use of conventional petrographic

published account of textural and diagnostic as

The importance of in sand pects of secondary sandstone porosity Schmidt
secondary porosity
stones and itsrole in the course of sandstone et aI 1977 We hope that this paper will be
have been explained useful to those who pursue the fascinating
diagenesis in detail in subject
Schmidt and McDonald this volume of sandstone diagenesis so that secondary
Secondary porosity
in sandstones
porosity constitutes the predominant or exclusive can be more consistently and ac
form of effective in the reservoir sand curately reported in future
stones of many oil and gas fields The exploration
and exploitation of such sandstone reservoirs will GENETIC TEXTURAL CLASSES OF POROSITY

clearly benefit from an accurate identification of Secondary porosity in sandstones is mainly the
the secondary nature of the porosity and of its result of dissolution of non silicate constituents
textural relationship with the host rock Hayes
predominantly carbonate minerals The soluble
this volume Pittman this volume
precursors of this dissolution porosity occur in
Frequently secondary sandstone porosity with three textural forms sedimentary material authi
the exception of fractures is still largely mistaken
genic cement and authigenic replacement Frac
for primary porosity and
commonly goes unno turing and shrinkage of rock constituents may
ticed This is due to the wide variety of textures also create significant secondary
of secondary porosity which often mimic those porosity in sand
though usually in subordinate amounts
of primary porosity and to the fact that most
It is useful for geological interpretations to
investigators are unfamiliar with the diagnostic base the definition of the principal classes of
criteria for recognizing secondary porosity in
secondary porosity on textural origin In addition
sandstones the textures in which secondary
The intention in this paper is to outline the porosity occurs
must be classified in such a manner as to make
textural spectrum of secondary sandstone poro their description easy and objective
sity and to provide criteria which facilitate its Principal genetic classes We recognize five
recognition It is an extension of a
previously principal classes of secondary porosity that can
be differentiated on the basis of process of origin
and textural relationships Fig I I porosity
Present address Petro Canada Calgary Alberta created by fracturing 2 porosity created by
Copyright @ 1979 The Society of Economic
Paleontologists and Mineralogists 209

210 VOLKMAR SCHMIDT AND DA VID A MCDONALD in size from submicroscopic dimensions to the shrinkage 3 porosity created by dissolution of dimensions of adjacent sand grains However sedimentary constituents 4 porosity created by dissolution of authigenic cementing minerals 5 larger shrinkage pores may occur porosity created by dissolution of authigenic Porosity created by dissolution of sedimentary material is very common and important It results replacive minerals Porosity created by fracturing encompasses any from the selective dissolution of soluble grains These are in most cases newly formed fractures Fig 3A including those and soluble matrix formed due to stresses resulting from shrinkage carbonate minerals Fig 3C A composed of whole rocks If fractures of porosity textures arise from the of rock constituents or large number become filled cement or sediment then these dissolution of sedimentary constituents Pore size by fillers or replacive successors may be dis their varies from submicroscopic voids a fraction of solved selectively giving rise to second cycle a micron in diameter to vugs several centimeters fracture porosity Such reopened fractures would across Voids frequently exceed the size of adja be included in the appropriate class of dissolution cent grains porosity Porosity originating from dissolution of authi Shrinkage porosify excluding shrinkage frac genic cement is probably the most common po tures forms through dehydration and or recrys rosity class The majority of dissolved cements tallization of a number of minerals such as glau consist of the carbonate minerals calcite dolomite and siderite Fig 3D The precursor cements conite Fig 3B and hematite or aggregates such as mud Shrinkable constituents may occur may have occupied any type of primary or sec as grains parts of grains matrix authigenic ondary porosity Dissolution of cement may cement and authigenic replacement Accordingly therefore reopen any conceivable type of primary shrinkage porosity consists of a large variety of and secondary porosity textures porosity textures Shrinkage pores generally vary Porosity resultingfrom dissolution of authigenic replacive minerals commonly forms a significant It percentage of secondary sandstone porosity is formed by the selective dissolution of soluble minerals dominantly calcite dolomite and side FRACTURING rite that previously replaced sedimentary constit uents and or authigenic cements Fig 3E The itself have been either precursor replacement may selective or non selective as defined by Choquette Pray 1970 Dissolution of replacive SHRINKAGE minerals with the dissolution of cements may as createany imaginable type of porosity texture III d DISSOLUTION OF SEDIMENTARY MATERIAL II Pores of hybrid origin be of several complex Individual pores may origin either being composed of genetic classes of secondary porosity or being part primary and part secondary in origin Such pores of hybrid origin can be termed hybrid II DISSOLUTION OF AUTHIGENIC CEMENT g pores Fig 2 For example replacement of the margins of sand grains frequently occurred simultaneously with the cementation of the adja cent intergranular spaces by the same mineral Q 7 Fig 3F Complete dissolution of the authigen ic mineral will create hybrid pores because both removed pore cement and grain replacement are A large percentage of secondary porosity is DISSOLUTION OF AUTHIGENIC REPLACEMENT found in hybrid pores and they may appear in the form of all the pore textures shown by secondary porosity Generally individual pores of each porosity texture can form through nu Quartz merous combinations of genetic classes Carbonate or Sulfate Matrix W C j grains D Porosity TEXTURAL SPECTRUM OF SECONDARY POROSITY Soluble replacement material The textures in which sandstone secondary occurs must be classified in such a FIGURE I Genetic classes of secondary sandstone porosity porosity manner as to make their description objective .

TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 211 DEPOSITION AUTHIGENESIS DISSOLUTION informative and manageable Several descriptive groups of pore textures can be differentiated in Hybrid sandstones using in part the nomenclature for pores Primary Incomplete 01 textures that Choquette porosity cementation primary pore Pray 1970 secondary origin for carbonate rocks These groups in proposed clude the following I intergranular pore tex cf i G tures 2 oversized pore texture 3 moldic pore textures 4 intra constituent pore textures 5 l 7 0@ fracture pore textures Each group of pore textures consists of two distinct Hybrid secondary or more types of pore textures The Primary Cementation textural spectrum of secondary sandstone pores 01 complex poros porosity replacement origin ity is represented by these types of pore textures as they occur in various 0 genetic classes of secon dary porosity Table I I O Gj o Intergranu ar pore textures Pores between grains form the textural group of intergranular pores Fig 5 The intergranular pores may be lined by fringing cement or syntaxial cement Three types of secondary llllIIIl Carbonate 1 J Quartz grains D Porosity intergranular pore tex tures can be distinguished I regular intergranu FIGURE 2 lar 2 reduced intergranular and 3 Textural development of hybrid pores enlarged intergranular TABLE I TEXTURAL SPECTRUM OF SECONDARY SANDSTONE POROSITY Genetic Classes of Secondary Porosity Result of Result of Result of Dissolution Porosity Result of Result of Dissolution Dissolution of Textures Fracturing Shrinkage ofSediment of Cement Replacement INTERGRANULAR TEXTURES Regular intergranular XP XP C XP C X P C Reduced intergranular XP XP C XP C XP C Enlarged intergranular XP XP C XP C XP C OVERSIZED TEXTURES Oversized fabric selective X X X X Oversized crosscutting X X MOLDIC TEXTURES Grain mold XP XP C XP C XP C Cement mold XP XP C XP C Replacement mold XP XP C XP C INTRA CONSTITUENT TEXT Intragranular X X X X Intra matrix X X X X Intra cement X X X Intra replacement X X X X FRACTURE TEXTURES Rock fractures X XP C XP C XP C Grain fractures X XP C XP C Intergranular fractures X XP C X P C P C indicates open void may extend over part of the textural precursor or over the complete textural precursor P indicates open void may extend only over part of textural precursor .

212 VOLKMAR SCHMIDT AND DA VID A MCDONALD p G F G 4t 9 l M A MM B 01 5 I r I I I c 1 MM D 2 E 2 MM F 1 sandstone porosity A Example of fracture porosity secondary FIG 3 Examples ofgenetic classes of secondary from fracturing of feldspar grains Half crossed nicols Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta pores resulting Canada P porosity blue F fractured feldspar B Example of shrinkage porosity secondary pores resulting from shrinkage of glauconite grains Polarizer only Cretaceous Scotian Shelf Canada P porosity blue after dissolved sedimentary material secondary G glauconite olive Q quartz white C Example of porosity matrix and siderite grains Polarizer only Jurassic pores resulting from dissolution of sedimentary siderite Statfjord field North Sea P porosity blue S microcrystalline siderite very dark brown D Example calcite cement of porosity after dissolved cement secondary pore resulting from dissolution of intergranular Half crossed nicols Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada P porosity blue C calcite red G glauconite grain green E Example of porosity after dissolved replacement secondary Q quartz grains .

TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 213 Regular intergranular pore texture essentially intergranular space can take place in three ways reflects depositional intergranular spaces in size I shrinkage of the grain framework e g shrink and shape Figs 4A B and is identical with age of glauconite grains 2 dissolution of grain primary intergranular pore texture The secondary margins syntaxial cement or fringing cement e g pores may occupy intergranular spaces entirely dissolution of the margins of siderite grains and or they may share individual intergranular 3 replacement of grain margins syntaxial cement spaces with matrix cement replacement or primary or fringing cement followed by selective dissolu porosity thus forming complete or partial tion of the replaced mineral e g marginal re secondary pores of this texture placement of quartz grains by siderite followed Secondary pores of regular intergranular texture by dissolution of the siderite In most instances form a significant percentage of secondary sand secondary enlarged intergranular pores differ in stone porosity They result from the following shape from regular or reduced primary inter I shrinkage of intergranular sedimentary matrix granular pores Pore boundaries are predomi e g shrinkage of glauconite matrix 2 dissolu nantly concave and the adjacent grains are often tion of intergranular sedimentary matrix e g corroded dissolution of carbonate matrix 3 dissolution Pores of enlarged intergranular texture consti of intergranular cement e g dissolution of inter tute a major portion of secondary sandstone granular carbonate and sulfate cement 4 dis porosity They may occur either in the partial solution of intergranular replacement dis or in the e g complete mode A single textural genetic solution of carbonate that replaced glauconite process may open both the precursor intergranular matrix and 5 any combination of these genetic space and its enlargement e g dissolution of textural processes of origin e g dissolution of sedimentary intergranular matrix associated with both carbonate and carbonate matrix cement marginal dissolution of adjacent grains Most within the intergranular space same commonly however enlarged intergranular pores Reduced intergranular pore texture develops are of hybrid origin e g dissolution of inter where depositional intergranular spaces are re granular cement associated with dissolution of duced by any of the following I grain deforma replacive minerals at the margins of adjacent tion 2 chemical compaction through dissolution grains Genetic porosity classes and hybrid pore at grain contacts 3 syntaxial cementation and types are the same as those previously indicated 4 fringing cementation This pore texture mimics for regular intergranular pore texture that of reduced primary intergranular Oversized pore textures porosity Pores that exceed the Fig 4C diameter of adjacent grains by a factor of at least Secondary pores of reduced intergranular tex 1 2 are with the exception of fractures included ture represent a considerable portion of secondary in the textural group of oversized pores Two sandstone porosity They occur both in the partial types of secondary oversized pore textures can and in the complete form The genetic porosity be differentiated I oversized fabric selective classes and hybrid genetic pore types encountered and 2 oversized cross cutting are the same as those listed for regular intergranu Oversizedjabric selective pore texture describes lar pore texture The secondary porosity appearing pores whose shape generally follows fabric ele in the reduced intergranular texture commonly ments of the host rock Figs 4 E F The same experienced little or no modification after it ori texture is described as fenestrate by Choquette ginated Fig 6 However regular intergranular Pray 1970 It developed selectively at the pores of secondary origin and enlarged inter expense of certain textural elements of the sand granular pores can be altered to reduced inter stone Similar pore textures of primary origin are granular pores during further diagenesis rare but do occur e g keystone vugs formed Enlarged intergranular pore texture forms either in muds by escaping air by enlargement of depositional intergranular space Secondary pores of oversized fabric selective or by enlargement of previously reduced inter texture fairly important and fall into four are granular space Fig 4D The enlargement of the genetic classes I shrinkage e g shrinkage of resulting from dissolution of pores replacive siderite that partially replaced feldspar grain Polarizer only Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada P porosity blue F feldspar honeycombed grain Q quartz white F Example of hybrid porosity hybrid secondary pores resulting from the dissolution of intergranular siderite cement and siderite that the replaced margins of quartz and chert grains Polarizer only Triassic Prudhoe Bay Field North Slope Alaska P porosity blue S siderite brownish high relief Q quartz grains white CH chert grains light tan low relief .


TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 215 Regular inter granular pore texture Reduced inter granular pore texture gi ri i itfff Enlarged inter granular pore texture A Iteration of regular inter f 0 granular space 10 W J Z r FIG 6 Two forms of reduced intergranular porosity I reduced intergranular porosity oflamellar shape that is part primary and part secondary in Enlarged inter granular pore texture origin 2 reduced A Iteration of reduced inter intergranular pores of polygonal shape are of secondary origin resulting from the dissolution of carbonate cement granular space after the intergranular spaces had been reduced by diagenesis Scanning electron photomicrograph of epoxy replica of porosity Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada PL lamellar pores PP L iYd Quartz grains D porosity polygonal pores Q quartz grains removed by treatment with FIG 5 hydrofluoric acid Intergranular textures of secondary porosity oversized patches of highly shrinkable matrix primary intergranular pores combine with second 2 dissolution of sedimentary material e g dis ary porosity created by dissolution of soluble solution of intergranular matrix and adjacent grains grains 3 dissolution of cement e g dissolution Oversized crosscutting pore texture is charac of cement filling oversized pores and 4 dis terized by pore boundaries that cut across the solution of replacement e g dissolution of car fabric elements of the host rock Such a texture bonate that replaced matrix and adjacent grains cannot be of primary origin Hybrid pores are common and may represent any Pores of oversized crosscutting texture are combination of these classes e g dissolution of but be valuable extremely rare can as a criterion intergranular cement and adjacent grains Over to establish diagenetic sequences They result sized fabric selective pore texture also is fre mainly from the dissolution of minerals that indis quently of hybrid primary secondary origin e g criminately replaced patches of the sandstone and FIG 4 Example of secondary pore textures in sandstones A Regular intergranular pores of primary origin filledby calcite and anhydrite cement Incipient dissolution of cement created partial secondary pores of regular intergranular texture Polarizer only Cambrian Northwest Territories Canada Union IO E Stopover L 34 2794 ft 852 m P porosity Q quartz grains C calcite cement A anhydrite cement B Regular intergranular pores of secondary origin resulting from dissolution of intergranular carbonate and sulfate cement Polarizer only Same location as for Fig 41 Depth 2786 ft 849 m P porosity blue Q quartz grains white 0 residual oil yellow C Secondary pores of reduced intergranular texture resulting from dissolution of intergranular calcite cement Polarizer only Cambrian Northwest Territories Canada P porosity blue Q quartz white C calcite red D Secondary pores of enlarged intergranular texture resulting from dissolution of siderite cement and replacive siderite In places the enlarged intergranular pores are connected and form channels Half crossed nicols Jurassic Beryl Field North Sea P porosity blue Q quartz grains CH chert grain S siderite remnant E Secondary pore of oversized fabric selective texture resulting from the dissolution of replacive siderite and intergranular siderite cement Polarizer only Jurassic Beryl Field North Sea P porosity blue Q quartz grains white S siderite remnant high relief F Secondary pores of oversized fabric selective texture resulting from dissolution of sedimentary siderite grains and siderite matrix Polarizer only Jurassic Statfjord Field North Sea P porosity blue S microcrystalline siderite very dark .

216 VOLKMAR SCHMIDT AND DA VID A MCDONALD euhedral crystal faces or an otherwise charac 1 Partial 5 Elongate teristicmorphology 2 the remaining pore was dissolution pores later filled by another material overlying the precursor cement and 3 the porosity creating process selectively affected the precursor cement Pores of cement mold texture are rare but criterion for establishing diagenetic 9 Molds 2 provide a good sequences Three genetic classes can be differen molds 2 tiated I shrinkage creating partial dissolution of cement and 3 dissolution of minerals that selectively replaced the charac 3 B Inhomogeneity teristic cement textures 01 packing and Replacement mold pore originate if textures floating grains euhedral crystal faces replacive minerals develop or an otherwise characteristic morphology and if subsequently a porosity creating process se Oversized 8 Fractured lectively affects the replacement 4 pores grains Pores of replacement mold texture are rare but are useful for establishing diagenetic sequences Three genetic classes can be observed I shrink Fel spar llllllI e a grams Dporosity FIG 1 Petrographic criteria for recognition of sec ondary sandstone porosity subordinately from the dissolution of cement following the cementation of such pores Moldic pore textures Pores that show charac teristic outlines of the texture of their precursors comprise with the exception of fractures and intergranular pores the textural group of moldic pores Three types of moldic pore textures can be found I grain molds 2 cement molds and 3 replacement molds Molds formed by dissolu tion can be either partial or complete Shrinkage can only create partial molds Moldic pore textures are always of secondary origin Grain mold pore texture forms where secondary porosity is created selectively at the expense of grains which are encased by other grains matrix and or cement or by minerals replacing the above Figures lOB IOE Pores of grain mold texture are very common and form a considerable percentage of secondary sandstone porosity Four genetic classes can be recognized I shrinkage e g partial molds created by shrinkage of glauconite grains 2 dissolution of sedimentary grains 3 dissolution of cement that filled a first cycle grain mold thus creating a second cycle grain mold 4 dissolution ofreplacive minerals e g dissolution of anhydrite FIG 8 of dissolution front contact be that selectively replaced carbonate grains Molds Example tween sandstone with high secondary porosity resulting of mixed primary secondary origin may occur from dissolution of calcite cement dark and non porous e g dissolution of a grain with primary intra amount of calcite cement sandstone containing a high granular porosity that filled primary porosity light Core photograph Cement mold pore texture is the result of at Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada P sandstone with least three successive diagenetic changes I the sandstone porosity app 25 T tight calcite cement precursor cement filled part of a pore developing 25 .

TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 217 relatively small amount of intragranular porosity the nature of the porosity is more difficult to ascertain because many grain types may have some primary intragranular porosity Both submi croscopic pore diameters less than 4 microns and microscopic pore diameters are common in this type of secondary pore texture Secondary pores of intragranular texture are fairly abundant They result from the following processes I internal shrinkage of grains e g shrinkage of a glauconite grain 2 internal dis solution of grains e g dissolution of siderite in a sideritic chert 3 internal selective dis grain solution of cement that may have occupied either primary or secondary intragranular voids e g dissolution of carbonate cement filling primary pores in a chert grain and 4 internal selective dissolution of minerals that replaced part of a grain e g dissolution of carbonate that incom pletely replaced a feldspar grain Some grains may contain both primary and secondary intra granular porosity Intra matrix pore textures develop within matrix in a similar fashion to that described for intra granular pore textures Fig liE Much of the intra matrix porosity is submicroscopic less than 4 microns in diameter In many instances it is difficult or even impossible to differentiate be tween primary and secondary intra matrix poros FIG 9 Example of macroscopic vuggy porosity ity conglomeratic sandstone contains high vuggy porosity Secondary pores of intra matrix texture are resulting largely from the dissolution of siderite clasts fairly common The same genetic classes are Core photograph Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta encountered as listed for intragranular pores Canada Coexistence of primary and secondary porosity is common Intra cement pore textures originate through age creating partial molds 2 dissolution of ce processes affecting the interior of cements Fig ment filling a first cycle replacement mold and liD Intra cement pores larger than 20 microns 3 dissolution of replacive minerals e g dissolu in diameter are in most cases of secondary origin tion of euhedral anhydrite crystals replacing car intra cement pores of that size are as primary bonate matrix and grains rare However smaller intra cement pores of Intra constituent pore textures The intra primary origin are common as for example in constituent pore textures include all pores within authigenic clay cements These are often difficult individual textural constituents Intra constituent to differentiate from secondary pores of similar pores range in size from a fraction of a micron size to nearly the diameter of the host constituent Secondary pores of intra cement texture rarely Four types of secondary intra constituent pore contribute a significant amount of sandstone textures be can recognized I intragranular 2 porosity However they do provide a good crite intra matrix 3 intra cement and 4 intra re rion for establishing the sequence of diagenetic placement events Intra cement pores develop through the Intragranular pore textures result from pro following processes I internal shrinkage of cesses creating porosity within grains rather than cement e g shrinkage of glauconite cement 2 only at the grain margins Grains with a high internal incomplete dissolution of cement 3 percentage of intragranular porosity can be termed internal selective dissolution of minerals that honeycombed grains Fig II B C Such grains replaced part of the cement e g selective dis ha e been described by Rowsell and De Swardt solution of calcite that the interior of replaced 1974 as skeleton grains and by Fox et al chert cement 1975 as leached grains They are clearly of Secondary and small primary intra cement secondary origin In grains containing only a pores commonly coexist .

218 VOLKMAR SCHMIDTAND DA VID A MCDONALD 1 1 J G l i W e 1 1 1 j v C 1 lttit r 1 i l Il A J i to f n I r 0 c l G J h I i 11 j l ct f A 1 MM e 2 MM II E 2 MM F 2 MM .

TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 219 Intra replacement pore textures originate in the grains They may also cut through matrix cement interior of replacive rock constituents in a similar replacement a nd other diagenetic fabrics For style to that described for intra cement pore this reason they are excellent tools for the inves textures However pores inside replacive constit tigation of diagenetic sequences e g a stylolite uents can also be inherited from the precursors cut by an open fracture predates fracturing e g replacement of a grain with intragranular Shape orientation and size of rock fractures may porosity or they may be created during the provide clues to their origin Open rock fractures replacement e g replacement of a feldspar grain in sandstones range in size from microscopic hair by porous kaolinite The pore size ranges from fractures less than a millimeter long to fissures fractions of a micron to dimensions close to the of considerable length and width diameter of the replacement textures Open rock fractures are a very common textural Secondary pores of intra replacement texture type of porosity but their main importance is the usually form only very small volumes of porosity permeability they impart to many sandstone in sandstones They develop through the following formations Four genetic classes of open rock processes I internal shrinkage ofreplacive min fractures can be identified I original fractures erals e g shrinkage of replacive glauconite 2 2 reopened fractures resulting from dissolution internal selective dissolution of sedimentary ma of sedimentary material e g filling of a fissure terial during replacement process e g dissolution during exposure followed by dissolution 3 of feldspar during replacement by kaolinite 3 reopened fractures resulting from dissolution of internal selective dissolution of cement within cement and 4 reopened fractures resulting from replacive textures and 4 internal dissolution dissolution of replacive minerals Filled fractures of the replacive minerals may be partially or completely reopened by dis Fracture pore textures Parting and separation solution of rocks or rock constituents along certain planes Open grainfractures are characterized by planes creates fractures Dissolution of material that of parting that are confmed to individual grains subsequently filled fractures gives rise to Fig IIF Fractures cutting completely through reopened fractures Original and reopened grains are clearly of secondary origin whereas fractures are included in the group of fracture fractures traversing only part of a grain may be pore textures Three types of fracture pore tex either primary or secondary in origin tures can be distinguished in sandstones I open The incidence of open grain fractures varies rock fractures 2 open grain fractures and 3 considerably depending on the diagenetic history open intergranular fractures of the sandstones They contribute only an insig Open rock fractures have a plane of parting nificant amount of porosity but are of diagnostic that extends over more than a single grain or value for developing an understanding of diagene a single intergranular space Rock fractures often sis and porosity history Three genetic classes follow grain boundaries but in well indurated of open grain fractures occur I original frac sandstones they may cut through individual sand tures 2 reopened fractures resulting from dis FtG IO Examples of criteriafor recognition of secondary sandstone porosity A Example of partial dissolution high secondary porosity created by partial dissolution of calcite cement and calcite replacing glauconite Secondary porosity consists of intergranular pores and oversized fabric selective vugs Polarizer only Cretaceous Scotian Shelf Canada P porosity blue C calcite red Q quartz grains white G glauconite brownish greenish B Example of grain mold mold of large siderite grain resulting from nearly complete dissolution of siderite Mold surrounded by welded quartz grains Half crossed nicols Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada P porosity blue S siderite remnant high relief Q quartz grains white C Example of grain mold grain mold resulting from dissolution The original grain was coated by clay cement The remaining rim of clay cement has become the shell for the grain mold Half crossed nicols Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada P porosity blue Q quartz grains CH chert grain with intergranular porosity M grain mold S siderite remnant D Example of inhomogeneity of packing sandstone in part contains high effective porosity approx 25 vol and relatively loose packing Porosity was created by dissolution of siderite cement and siderite marginally replacing quartz grains Elsewhere the sandstone has lost all primary porosity through grain interpenetration and stylolitization and contains no effective porosity Polarizer only Jurassic Beryl Field North Sea P porosity blue Q quartz and quartzite grains white S stylolite E Example of oversized pores and floating grains exceedingly high secondary porosity approx 40 vol resulted from the dissolution of siderite matrix siderite grains and siderite that replaced the margins of sand grains Polarizer only Jurasssic Statfjord Field North Sea P porosity blue Q quartz grains white S siderite very dark F Example of corroded grains detail of Fig IOD Dissolution of replacive siderite gave rise to corroded margins of grains and intragranular pore in quartzite grain Polarizer only P porosity blue Q quartz grains in part fractured white QZ quartzite grain white .


TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 221 solution of cement and 3 reopened fractures 3 microporosity Secondary sandstone porosity is not restricted to the above class of dissolution resulting from dissolution of minerals that re placed fracture cement porosity but is also common in the classes of Open intergranular fractures are confined to intergranular porosity and microporosity constituents in single intergranular spaces They It is readily apparent that effective secondary occur in intergranular matrix in intergranular porosity porosity that gives rise to appreciable cement and in intergranular replacive minerals permeability is found in sandstones of any pri They are always of secondary origin The frac mary texture including unwinnowed sandstones tures may dissect the entire intergranular space that never possessed any effective primary poros or traverse only part of it ity Although effective secondary porosity may Open intergranular fractures are rare but pro simply add to existing effective primary porosity vide excellent evidence for establishing sequences it is commonly found in sandstones that have of diagenetic events including both mechanical lost their effective primary porosity and chemical compaction of the grain framework Porosity of a sandstone can only be increased The same genetic classes of open intergranular by fracturing shrinkage or dissolution if the grain fractures exist as are listed for grain fractures or crystal framework of the sandstones is suffi Synopsis ofporosity texture It is evident from ciently strong to prevent immediate collapse For the preceding discussion that any textural type this reason there is a limit to the amount of of secondary porosity can belong to at least three secondary porosity that can develop in a given genetic porosity classes including in every case sandstone lithology under specific conditions of voids after authigenic replacement and voids after stress because the supportive strength decreases with increasing porosity and the framework will authigenic cement In addition each textural type of secondary porosity includes hybrid pores con ultimately fail taining two or more genetic classes Most pore Secondary sandstone porosity may be reduced types can also be of mixed primary and secondary and texturally modified by the same processes origin that reduce primary porosity I authigenic ce The majority of secondary sandstone porosity mentation 2 dissolution at grain contacts and is found in textures that are either identical to 3 mechanical compaction These textural pro resemble to cesses notonly reduce the size of pores and change or some degree the textures of their shape but frequently obscure the evidence primary sandstone porosity However a consid erable portion of secondary sandstone porosity for their secondary origin is found in textures that are distinctly different RECOGNITION As will be discussed later these textures provide evidence for the identification of secondary po It isimportant to realize that most secondary rosity sandstone porosity closely resembles or exactly Pittmann this volume defines three geometric mimics primary porosity This is the reason why textural classes of sandstone porosity I inter secondary sandstone porosity has largely re 2 dissolution porosity and mained unnoticed until recently It follows that granular porosity FIG II Examples of criteria for recognition of secondary sandstone porosity A Example of elongate pores the elongate pores resulted from marginal replacement of quartz grains by carbonate minerals along irreducible lamellar pores followed by dissolution of carbonate Polarizer only Cambrian Northwest Territories Canada P porosity blue Q quartz grain white B Example of honeycombed grain dissolution of primary carbonate siderite inclusion in chert created high intragranular porosity in chert grain Polarizer only Lower Cretaceous Mackenzie Delta Canada P secondary intragranular and intergranular porosity blue Q quartz grains white CH chert grain C Example of honeycombed grain intragranular porosity in feldspar grain resulted from dissolution of replacive carbonate Half crossed nicols Cretaceous Scotian Shelf Canada P intergranular and intragranular porosity blue Q quartz grains F feldspar honeycombed D Example of intra cement pores partial dissolution of dolomite cement created intra cement pores which were later filled by bitumen Cambrian Northwest Territories Canada P porosity blue D dolomite cement and replacive dolomite light tan to golden B bitumen black Q quartz grains white E Example of intra matrix pores shrinkage of glauconite and or hematite created intra matrix pores Polarizer only Cambrian Northwest Territories Canada P porosity blue H hematite matrix which probably replaced glauconite matrix Q quartz grains white F Example of open grain fracture reducible primary intergranular porosity was completely lost as result of stylolitization chemical grain interpenetration and syntaxial quartz overgrowth Subsequent dissolulion of sedimentary and diagenetic carbonate created secondary porosity Grain fracturing resulted from increased stress in a pillar of grains supporting the roof of large adjacent secondary pores Jurassic Beryl Field North Sea Half crossed nicols P secondary porosity blue Q quartz grains and metaquartzite grains SH stylolitized argillaceous carbonaceous micro laminae black .

222 VOLKMAR SCHMIDT AND DA VID A MCDONALD in the study of secondary sandstone porosity it lacking intergranular matrix or cement In adja is necessary to develop readily observable diag cent areas the presence of intergranular constitu nostic criteria for recognizing or suspecting its ents prevented compaction and grain interpen presence Additionally a suitable analytical ap etration Later dissolution of soluble cement or proach must be chosen for verifying suspected matrix created the secondary porosity between cases and for recognizing the quantity texture the loosely packed grains Individual grains may origin and textural modification of secondary straddle the boundary between open and tight porosity packing thereby forming very diagnostic fabrics Petrographic criteria In many instances the For example one part of a mica fragment may secondary nature of sandstone porosity can be be strongly deformed between compacting grains identified by using petrographic criteria that are while the other part of the mica retained its original easily observable in thin sections under the pet shape and forms the boundary of a pore in an rographic microscope Some of these can also area of open packing be observed on occasion in hand specimens Inhomogeneity of packing can be seen best in The following eight petrographic criteria appear thin sections oriented normal to bedding How to be the most useful Fig 7 I partial dissolu ever it can often be recognized in drill cuttings tion 2 molds 3 inhomogeneity of packing cores or outcrop samples by means of a stereo 4 oversized pores 5 elongate pores 6 corrod microscope hand lens and on occasion the naked ed grain margins 7 intra constituent pores and eye 8 fractured grains Oversized pores that have a significantly larger Partial dissolution of soluble constituents is by diameter than that of adjacent grains are common far the most conclusive criterion and it is also and provide good evidence for secondary porosity very common Dissolution of soluble sedimentary Fig WE Most oversized pores are fabric selec and authigenic constituents is in many instances tive and result mainly from the selective dissolu incomplete and patches of remnant material occur tion of solublesedimentary clasts and lenses of adjacent to pores Fig lOA Frequently the matrix or of their replacive successors remnants have a corroded appearance Care must Oversized pores frequently occur together with be taken to determine the partial dissolution of inhomogeneity of packing and may also form cements because incomplete cementation of channels in which cases they clearly indicate the may produce very similar textures In presence of secondary porosity However as porosity dicators for the partial dissolution of authigenic mentioned earlier oversized pores can also be cements are I corroded surfaces 2 uniform created by sedimentary processes Oversized extinction of isolated remnants of poikilotopic pores can often be recognized without the aid cement crystals 3 intra cement pores and 4 of thin sections disrupted growth zonations in the cement In some Elongate pores if numerous indicate the pres instances partial dissolution produces large dia ence of secondary porosity Replacement pro genetic structures that can be observed in hand cesses often operate at the margins of tightly specimens without the aid of a microscope packed grains If these replacive minerals are Fig 8 dissolved the sandstone will exhibit a high inci Molds of sedimentary particles cement and dence of elongate intergranular pores Fig lIA replacive minerals Fig lOB C are excellent This criterion has to be used with caution because diagnostic features if the outlines of the moldic primary elongate pores are common in sandstones pores clearly portray the characteristic shapes of with abundant platy grains and in well packed their precursors Grain molds are especially useful and very fme grained sandstones with grains of because of their frequent and widespread occur high angularity Elongate pores are best observed rence Commonly molds can be identified directly in thin section in drill cuttings and hand specimens using only Corroded grains adjacent to pores very fre a wellsite binocular microscope or a handlens quently are a useful criterion for secondary po Molds of large debris Fig 9 and large authigenic rosity They generally are associated with enlarged textures are visible to the naked eye intergranular pores Fig WE and result mainly is a very useful and from dissolution of soluble minerals that unevenly Inhomogeneity of packing common criterion Sandstones displaying marked replaced the margins of sand grains Quartz grains inhomogeneity with areas of loosely packed grains with corroded syntaxial overgrowths of authigenic and high intergranular porosity adjacent to areas quartz are reliable indicators of secondary poros of tightly packed grains and little or no porosity ity However mildly corroded grains may be of Fig IOD reflect an original inhomogeneity in sedimentary origin Additionally unrounded fme the distribution of soluble matrix or cement The sand grains may easily be mistaken for corroded tight packingis the result of mechanical compac grains The criterion of corroded grain margins tion and chemical grain interpenetration in areas therefore must be applied with care The reliabil .

TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 223 ity generally increases with increasing severity alteration of secondary porosity of the corrosion because severely corroded grain The stratigraphic distribution of porosity may margins are not likely to survive sedimentary in some instances suggest secondary origin For transport example a plot of porosity versus depth may The observation of diagenetic corrosion of show a sudden increase in is porosity at great depth grains best accomplished in thin section beneath a long interval of gradually However declining corroded grains can be recognized in porosities Proshlyakov 1960 Certain physical drill samples of medium and coarse grained sand reservoir characteristics may also provide indi stones with the well site binocular microscope vidual evidence for secondary porosity Schmidt In the absence of cores loose corroded grains etaI 1976 may be the only direct evidence of the nature Direct evidence for of porosity secondary porosity can on if sandstones with high secondary occasion be observed macroscopically or else porosity are encountered in wells with the aid of a hand lens or a stereo microscope Intra constituent pores are fair to excellent In most instances however direct evidence can indicators of secondary porosity constit Among only be obtained by other methods of observation uents with intra granular pores honeycombed The occurrence of secondary porosity can usually grains provide conclusive evidence for be detected by examining a few dozen thin sec postdepositional leaching because they would tions with a good petrographic microscope and quickly disintegrate during sedimentary transport applying thecriteria mentioned earlier The pore They are mainly the result of leaching of carbon system of the sandstones should be thoroughly ates which partially replaced sand grains typi impregnated with colored epoxy resin before thin cally feldspars clay pellets and chert fragments sectioning in order to emphasize pores and to Figs lIB C Honeycombed grains are easy to prevent damage to pore boundaries during grind recognize in thin section and have been mentioned ing A combination of as many criteria as can as evidence for secondary porosity by several be observed should be taken into account because authors including Rowsell and De Swardt 1974 it may not be possible to arrive at a conclusion Stanton and McBride 1976 Hayes this volume by using only one or two criteria Thin section and Pittmann this volume Other types of intra analysis of drill cuttings can produce excellent constituent pores that occasionally provide evi results since a single thin section may show up dence for secondary porosity include I isolated to fifty cuttings portraying the entire lithologic intragranular pores 2 intra cement pores Fig spectrum of a sandstone interval lID 3 intra matrix pores Fig liE and 4 Conventional petrographic microscopy may not intrareplacement pores These intra constituent suffice to the positively identify secondary poros pores generally must be examined in thin section of ity some sandstones In such cases cathode in order to establish theirsecondary nature luminescence microscopy exography scanning Open grain fractures are a very useful criterion electronmicroscopy and microprobe analysis will in sandstones that experienced grain welding and probably permit detection of the secondary po syntaxial overgrowth of grains They generally rosity represent framework failure caused by the gener The accurate identification of the various tex ation of a high percentage of secondary porosity tural types of secondary porosity in a sandstone during burial Fig IIF Clearly open grain frac unit requires nothing less than a tures formed after thorough pet grain welding and syntaxial rographic examination of thin sections represent overgrowth had taken place since pre existing ing the entire spectrum of lithologies present In grain fractures would have been healed during addition a study of pore casts is always advisable the development of syntaxial overgrowths Grain If a significant amount of pores and other fractures are best examined in thin section textural features measure less than 10 microns Method For a thorough analysis of analysis then it is necessary to employ scanning electron of secondary sandstone porosity the following microscopy of rock samples and pore casts sequence of steps should be taken I recognize The detection of the textural of genetic origin the presence of secondary porosity 2 identify secondary porosity requires the petrographic the textural types of secondary porosity present comparison of samples showing fully developed 3 determine the textural genetic origin of the secondary porosity with those showing only in secondary porosity and any subsequent textural cipient development of secondary porosity and modification 4 ascertain the abundance of sec those without any secondary porosity In addition ondary porosity and the abundance and texture to petrographic microscopy and scanning electron of any coexisting primary porosity and 5 deter microscopy of samples and pore casts it is often mine the sequential order of diagenetic changes useful to apply cathode luminescence that affected the sandstone microscopy including the altera and microprobe analysis In the case of dissolution tion of primary porosity and the generation and porosity comparison of casts of artifical pores .

224 VOLKMAR SCHMIDT AND DA VID A MCDONALD with casts of natural pores provides a powerful multiple working hypotheses strictly The petrologic record of many sandstone units analytical tool The casts of artificial pores are obtained acid treatment of samples containing is insufficient to conclusively establish their dia by soluble constituents but devoid of secondary genetic history In these cases the integration of the petrological data with other geological porosity Absence of significant amounts of primary information such as burial history compaction porosity can usually be recognized in sandstones history and the history of fluid migration often with secondary porosity However in sandstones results in the correct interpretation of the dia with significant amounts of both primary and genesis secondary porosity it is often difficult to assess the relative abundance of each form of porosity CONCLUSIONS This is especially true if primary and secondary Secondary pores in sandstones can be objec porosity coexist in a large percentage of the pores tively described on the basis of their textural and In such cases it is advisable to study for compari genetic aspects and a very large number of son the texture of primary porosity in sandstones porosity types can be dermed Many of the of the same original lithology and the same state textures of secondary porosity strongly resemble of compaction but without the development of whereas other or mimic those of primary porosity secondary porosity In some instances only part textures of secondary porosity differ greatly In of the porosity can be recognized positively as most instances simple petrographic criteria permit primary or secondary while the origin of the the recognition of secondary porosity in thin remaining part of the porosity remains undeter section However the investigation of texture mined origin and alteration of secondary porosity some The final step in the petrographic analysis of times requires more advanced analytical methods secondary porosity is to establish the sequence The differentiation between coexist of diagenetic events The generation of secondary quantitative and the estab ing primary and secondary porosity porosity may have occurred only one time or lishment of the sequential order of diagenetic several times during the diagenetic history Much events the most difficult steps in the are analysis of the evidence for the sequence of diagenetic of secondary sandstone porosity events in a sandstone unit is established by the careful analysis of the types of textures of the ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS secondary porosity and its genetic origin For Research for this paper was conducted at the example the fabric relationships between frac tures and diagenetic textures and structures often geological laboratory of Mobil Oil Canada Ltd 1976 also at the research geological provides an excellent means of establishing se and since of Petro CanadaThe authors would quences of diagenetic events in sandstone More laboratory evidence may be obtained by comparison with like to thank both companies for their generous a sandstone unit of similar original composition support in every phase of the preparation of this that experienced less diagenetic alteration paper and for permission to publish Special In addition to the analytical techniques dis thanks are due to the drafting department of Mobil cussed above the following analytical methods Oil Canada for supplying the excellent illustra on occasion be useful in retracing the tions and to Petro Canada for providing funds may diagenetic history I X ray diffraction analysis for printing of the colored illustrations The au 2 stable isotope analysis 3 analysis of fluid thors greatly appreciate the expert assistance of inclusion and 4 analysis of the thermal altera Brian Miller microphotography and assembly of thin sections and tion of organic matter In working with all these the manuscript David Blair data it is necessary to apply the principle of Susan Peters typing REFERENCES CHOQUETTE P W AND PRAY L C Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary 1970 carbonates Am Assoc Petroleum Geologists Bull v 54 p 207 250 Fox J E LAMBERT P W MAST R F Nuss N W AND REIN R D 1975 Porosity variation in the Tensleep a log and petrographic analysis in D W and its equivalent the Weber Sandstone western Wyoming Colorado Rocky Mountain Bolyard ed Deep drilling frontiers of the central Rocky Mountains Denver Assoc Geologists p 185 216 B K 1960 Reservoir rocks as a function of their depth and lithology in Russian Geo Nefti PROSHLYAKOV i Gaza v 4 no 12 p 2429 .

TEXTURE AND RECOGNITION 225 ROWSELL D M AND DE SWARDT A M J 1974 in Middle Ecca Sandstones Secondary leaching porosity Geol Soc South Africa Trans and Proc v 77 p 131 140 SCHMIDT V McDONALD D A AND PLATT R L Pore geometry and reservoir aspects of secondary porosity in sandstones Canadian Soc Petroleum Geologists Bull v 25 p 271 290 STANTON G D McBRIDE E F 1976 Factors AND influencing porosity and permeability of Lower Wilcox Eocene Sandstone Karnes County Texas Am Assoc Petroleum labs Geologists and Soc Econ Paleontologists and Mineralogists Ann Meeting Abs v 1 119 p .