You are on page 1of 16

Task sheet – Writing a Disposition

Examine the three dispositions below in terms of their structure and content.

Disposition A: pages 1-7
Disposition B: pages 8-11
Disposition C: pages 12-16

Disposition A

Software Terminology and Its Localization into Slovene

Problem and Objectives, Research Question

The thesis will deal with software terminology in English and Slovene. In this field, the
two languages occupy two highly different positions. English is clearly the dominant
language, in which most of the developments take place and in which new concepts usually
first get their designations. Slovene is the receiving language; concepts are practically
always introduced via English and terms have to be translated.

The dissemination of specialized terminologies is generally controlled by subject field
experts and terminologists. With software terminology, however, the situation is somewhat
different. The public rarely comes into contact with these terms in texts in the traditional
sense, but rather in software products themselves, where the terms used are usually not
subject to any officially imposed standards. Regarding localization, the publisher controls
what languages the product will be localized into and how exactly this process of localization
takes place.

This thesis will examine the localization of widely-used software into Slovene. It will
focus on the different approaches of forming terms in Slovene. These are: borrowing from a
foreign language (with a varying degree of assimilation into Slovene), calquing (literal
translation from a foreign language), and forming new terms within Slovene (employing
several word-formation techniques). The aim of the dissertation is to determine whether any
of these approaches is particularly prominent within the field of software.

Another characteristic of software terminology is that, unlike most specialized
terminologies, it reaches a very large number of people. With so many people using
computers on a regular basis, terms in software have to be as user-friendly as possible if the
products are to be successful. The second aim of this thesis is to compare the English and

To sum up. dictionaries. or the set of terms . the internet browser Mozilla Firefox. this is usually called terminography). on the other hand. (Note that while I may point out some mistakes or dubious choices of terms. it does have a terminology of its own that can compare with that of a computer program). Facebook. Terms The following is an explanation of some key terms that are likely to be used throughout the thesis. and the social networking service Facebook (while the last is technically a website rather than a program. What approaches are used in software localization into Slovene to form new terms and which are more prominent? 2. The quality of the translations of terms therefore varies.) Another reason to base the research on several programs and not just on one is to provide a broader and more representative view of the topic. this thesis deals with two basic research questions: 1. These three products have been chosen because of their large pool of users and because of their different approaches to localization. The user-friendliness of the Slovene terms will also be assessed by means of a survey conducted among speakers of Slovene. databases. especially in comparison with their English equivalents? Delimitation The terms to be analysed will be taken directly from some commonly used computer programs – that is. The term can refer to the discipline dealing with specialized terms. puts the localization process into the hands of its users by providing a translation app. Mozilla relies on volunteers. the practice of compiling these terms (into glossaries. Are the Slovene terms user-friendly enough. An additional purpose of the survey is to determine whether there is any correlation between the methods of forming new Slovene terms described above and their user- friendliness.Slovene terms from this point of view by examining their form. this is not the aim of the thesis. their English and Slovene versions. Terminology has three related but distinct meanings. which can be used by virtually anyone. but the work is still at least semi-professional. The plan is to use the word processor Microsoft Word. Microsoft employs dedicated teams of professionals to localize their products.

but some more detailed literature will probably be required.g. medmrežje for internet).g. A consequence of this is that the line distinguishing terms from general lexemes is not very clear (see Cabré 1999. The three basic categories are borrowing. terms would only be used by experts in clearly established subject fields. this thesis will focus on the translation of terms. the term will mostly be used in the third meaning. 51–55).” This is the official definition of localization by the now closed Localisation Industry Standards Association. ubežni znak for Escape character) or morpheme for morpheme (e. Terms are words (or word combinations) “used to designate concepts pertaining to special disciplines and activities” (Cabré 1999. Frame of Reference For the theoretical background on terminology. Regarding term formation in Slovene. They can be translated word for word (e. 81). as with the examples above.used in a particular specialized subject field (Cabré 1996. While localization involves more than mere translation. also 1996). Calques (also called loan translations) are cases of literal translation of terms from one language to another. According to the broader view generally accepted today. though I may also consider the theory of socioterminology. while processor has been orthographically and phonetically modified to procesor. Borrowings can be further subdivided according to their level of assimilation to Slovene. 114). which can also take a Slovene suffix to form the adjective procesorski. In this thesis. referring to the collection of terms found in software. “Localization involves taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale (country/region and language) where it will be used and sold. . the main source used will probably be Cabré (1999. for example. any specialized field or activity can have its own terminology and it need not be used by experts only – software is a good example of a field where terms are used by a wide range of people. as quoted in Esselink (2000. however. calquing and forming new terms within Slovene. According to the traditional view. 3). the form of Enter (the name of the key) has been left intact when borrowed into Slovene. 16). the categories are (for now) based on Vintar (2008. What follows is a brief description of these categories. but some are accepted. such as medicine or law. Calques are often frowned upon and speakers are reluctant to use them. the main source will probably be Esselink (2000). For information on the practice of localization.

e. The exact structure of this section will depend on the results. There are three basic ways to form new terms within Slovene itself. the results will be presented. First. the percentages of the three different categories. The second is assigning a new meaning to an existing word.g. e. and possibly also its results in full. first in general form. This will include a brief description of the three analysed programs (Microsoft Word. Another appendix will include the survey on the usage of terms as seen by the participants. varnostna kopija for backup (copy). It is important that the criteria for distinguishing terms from non-terms and the criteria for categorizing terms according to their form are clearly stated. probably their categorization (how the Slovene term was formed). This will include at least the English terms and their Slovene equivalents. iskalnik (search engine) is derived from the verb iskati. Structure Apart from the introduction and other necessary sections. Mozilla Firefox and Facebook) and their approaches to localization.g. there will be an appendix in the form of a glossary containing the analysed terms. calquing. There will also be a more specific part on software terminology and localization. and possibly other information considered relevant. as the boundaries can be blurred. Then the empirical part will follow. Special attention will be given to the problem of distinguishing terms from general lexemes. The third option is to form phrasal terms from existing words. the thesis will start with a theoretical background section. The first part will discuss terminology and terms in general. forming new terms within Slovene). and to the principles terms must follow if they are to be user-friendly. After the methodology is sufficiently explained. especially in Slovene. e. explaining in detail the three approaches (borrowing. e. The most significant findings will be stressed in the conclusion. mreža as the term for a network of computers as opposed to its meaning as a general lexeme (‘net’). pointing out their special characteristics (mostly stemming from the fact that the terms have a very large pool of users). The next part will deal with term formation. The first is derivation. This will be followed by an in-depth discussion on groups of analysed terms and individual terms. the methodology will be explained (see next section for more information on the planned research methods).g. their source (what program they were taken from).g. After the conclusion. .

menus. Facebook’s community-based localization approach can pose a few other problems: the translation of terms can change and is often inconsistent. However. In such cases. The procedure for the selection of terms to be analysed is not yet determined. So far. Difficulties are also expected in deciding whether individual cases are terms or not. to include every nth term. Instead. Once a list of English terms and their Slovene equivalents is compiled. The simplest solution would be to extract and analyse all the terms from each program. the terms to be analysed will be taken directly from Microsoft Word. or term formation within Slovene. where the version number is easily consulted. I will only consider the state at the time of extraction and eliminate untranslated terms from the analysis. This will be especially problematic with word combinations. The first step will be to categorize the Slovene terms according to whether they are the result of borrowing. such as the Islovar dictionary of information science (available at islovar. I expect quite a few borderline cases where the decision will have to be subjective to some extent. clear objective criteria for distinguishing terms from non-terms will have to be established before the actual extraction.Procedure. more feasible options are to only include terms from specific parts (e. The selected terms should be representative. Even so. The best option would probably be to build a corpus out of the entire text of each program and extract the terms from there. a selection will be made to include approximately the same number (perhaps approximately 50) of examples from each of the three programs. I have not come up with a good objective way to achieve this. though). and in cases of inconsistencies. but it might be a problem in the case of Facebook. Mozilla Firefox and Facebook in English and in Slovene. especially with single- . Methodology and Research Design As already stated. Some secondary sources.g. Care will be taken that the same version of each program is used – this is not problematic with Word and Firefox. select the translation of the term which has the highest frequency (this can be checked quite easily in the translation app). or to include the terms featured in functions that are used most frequently (such a selection would be quite subjective. toolbars) of the program. this would probably entail a lot of work for little effect. but that would probably prove too much to handle. Some other. and then make either a random selection or a selection on the basis of frequency. The distinction between calques and native formations might be problematic in some cases. which is updated often and without notice. The extraction of terms from there will therefore have to be done over a short period of time. if it is at all technically possible. where the line between multi- word terms and mere collocations is blurred. and some terms can be (at least temporarily) untranslated. the analysis can start. To minimize the number of such dilemmas. may be consulted for help.

or the participants might feel discouraged to finish the survey. a borrowing of the verb like used on Facebook). which are usually borrowings (e. this basic categorization will provide an insight into the distribution of the three approaches in term formation regarding software terminology. though. clear criteria have to be established beforehand. and this will be linked with the results of the survey. . and they will be asked to select one or several terms from a list of possible Slovene equivalents. e. or an examination of prefixes and suffixes in terms formed by means of derivation. The survey will probably start with some questions on the background of the participant.g. the level of assimilation to Slovene for borrowings. the respective contexts in which they use the variants they have selected. The analysis will not stop there. This will include. The main part of the survey will consist of questions on the usage of terms.g. Again. What exactly will be included in this section is yet to be determined. speaking to a friend etc. the reason why they choose one variant over another. as those who are not are unlikely to access it in the first place. lajkati. but rather the term(s) they actually use. there is no need to explicitly limit the participants to people who are users of software. The number of terms included in the survey depends on the number of terms with several possible variants in the analysed list. though it should not exceed 30 or so. a variant not listed above. for example. It will be based on the terms from the previously compiled list which have several possible variants in Slovene. piškotek – is it to be considered a calque formed on the basis of cookie or a native term formed by assigning a new meaning to the existing word for the type of food?). but the final decisions will probably be somewhat subjective. This includes variation within the programs themselves and elsewhere. The survey’s aim is to gauge the actual usage of Slovene software terms. sending an e-mail to an acquaintance. which are generally uncommon. A question on the level of familiarity with software or the specific analysed products may be included. Term by term. This may include anything they consider relevant. On each page. to be relatively high in this field. Once finished. including colloquial and jargon variants. I expect the number of calques. The instructions will clearly state that they are not required to select the standardized term. The terms will be analysed further to provide a basis for a more detailed discussion. the participants will select the variant(s) they use themselves in any context – when writing a formal text. The Slovene terms will also be compared to their English counterparts from the point of view of user-friendliness. Approximate age and level of education might be relevant to the results.g.word terms (e. the participants will be provided with an English term and possibly a definition in Slovene. Each page will also provide an optional field for possible comments of the participant. As the survey will be posted on the internet.

1995. Cabré. Terminology: Theory. and Sven Tarp. Bibliography These are some basic works that have proved useful so far and are likely to be consulted when writing the thesis: Bergenholtz. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 1999. 2008. Teresa. 2000. Terminologija: Terminološka veda in računalniško podprta terminografija. Esselink. Cabré. LSP and Translation: Studies in language engineering in honour of Juan C. eds. Ljubljana: Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete. edited by Harold Somers. Bert. This would suggest that the English terminology is much more user-friendly than its Slovene counterpart. methods and applications. M. . Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Vintar. Manual of Specialised Lexicography: The preparation of specialised dictionaries. I expect to find that a high percentage of people prefer to use a colloquial borrowed term based on English over the standard Slovene term in many cases. Špela. Teresa. “Terminology today”. 15– 33. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. The results of the survey will be used to evaluate the user-friendliness of software terminology in Slovene. Henning. Sager. M. 1996. A Practical Guide to Localization. In Terminology.

elements of science fiction. connecting the character’s stories to create a sense of development and connectedness. Kilgore Trout. but rather stem from the author’s own humanistic ideas and altruistic beliefs. ranging from pedagogical texts on writing to highly critical views on the state of the American society. apocalypse. Tally. Jr. has theoretically tackled the constant repetition of certain characters throughout Vonnegut’s opus. He tries to put forward the message that no one is alone in this world: “Many people need desperately to receive this message: 'I feel and think much as you do. 123 short stories. the bombing of Dresden). literary critics have mostly focused on the way Vonnegut’s work displays the characteristics of literary Postmodernism. care about many of the things you care about.o. He is celebrated as one of the greatest American authors and is seen almost as an icon. I intend to tackle the interconnectedness of Kurt Vonnegut’s opus and demonstrate that connections that are made are not a matter of coincidence. and their history. You are not alone. although most people do not care about them. providing a unified image of “the Vonnegut Universe”. He provides us with a family of literary characters to almost act as our family. A lot of critics (Robert T. His massive opus consists of 14 novels. belonging to the literary current of Postmodernism. He uses his work to provide some sort of . My goal is to provide an overview of their development and the reasoning that lies behind the image of an organized and unified literary world. religion. Campbell. A lot of works have also been written on the abundance of humanistic ideas presented in his work and his praise of altruistic beliefs (Todd F. however. Vonnegut strives to provide solutions to the problems of our society and puts forward the idea that most of the issues that we’re facing can be dealt with through dealing with literature (through reading and writing literary works).).) focused on the prominent themes and motifs that kept reappearing in his opus – war (most eminently. Focus has also been put on his criticism of the American society and his critique of egalitarianism. Problems and objectives Kurt Vonnegut is an American writer. and a great number of articles. His use of black humour and satire have been subject to many a discussion. a. No one. That altruistic desire to “fix the broken world” displays in his works. so his work has already been subject to a number of theoretical discussions.o. His work is littered with his personal views on society and his opinions of the world. I intend to focus on the characters of Billy Pilgrim. In the past. In my master’s thesis I’m going to focus on exactly those characters that keep reappearing. 1998:1993) Vonnegut uses his writing to turn our lonesome world a little bit more familial. Davis a. Howard W.Disposition B KURT VONNEGUT’S LITERARY UNIVERSE: THE WORLD OF KURT VONNEGUT’S CHARACTERS 1.” (Timequake. Tralfamadorians.

by focusing on an article. This was kept alive in the oral tradition. 3. where nothing is true anymore. comfort and stability. The characters that are given to us almost acts as anchors. however. 2. Because of Vonnegut’s 1 I use the term “readers” very loosely. The elements of oral literature that Kurt Vonnegut uses are not used in the traditional sense. Brian MacHale’s work Constructing Postmodernism (1992). which deal with modern-day “orature” as well as on texts that focus on the notion of cyclicity in epic heroic poetry. I am going to take advantage of postmodern literary theory to put Kurt Vonnegut’s opus in the right context. they originate in the oral tradition of myths. I intend to read the entirety of Vonnegut’s literary work. That is why I am going to focus on tackling the characteristics of oral literature. and the works in which they just make a minor appearance. titled Strah pred naivnostjo (2000). focusing on Tomislav Virk’s collection of essays on Postmodernism. . Timequake. Myths and epics have always revolved around the notion of cyclicity. I will mostly focus on its notion of cyclicity and repetition. a feeling that Vonnegut tries to put forward in his work.stability and connections to his readers. and Janko Kos’s views on Postmodernism as presented in Na poti v postmoderno (1995). That is necessary because a notion of character development can then be properly presented. His literary work is clearly the consequence of a reality. namely the works that feature the reappearing characters. I intend to provide a brief overview of the postmodern era and how its characteristics are displayed in postmodern literature. and a reality. providing us with some reassurance. Frame of Reference I will base my discussion in the field of postmodern literary theory. The Sirens of Titan. limit my discussion only to the novels and short stories suitable for my research. which will later be applied to Kurt Vonnegut’s work. Because one of the characteristic features of postmodern writing is also the reinvention of traditional forms of writing and because I see Vonnegut’s work as a sort of reinterpretation of some patterns belonging to the genre of oral literature. Further on. I will. providing some sort of stability to their “readers1”. seeing that we are mostly talking about play that were enacted for audiences. in order to provide a thorough background understanding of his opus. titled “Nothing’s Ever Final: Vonnegut’s Concept of Time”. Focus will be put on theories. on which our shattered world can be finally fixed. which came crashing down. Delimitation and Terms For the purpose of this research. Rubens. I do not intend to differentiate between the works in which those characters are seen as having the main role. His opus cannot be placed in field of traditional oral literature. Following is a list of works that are definitely going to be dealt with: Mother Night. In my master’s thesis I intend to demonstrate that Kurt Vonnegut uses the notion of repetition in his opus to put forward the idea of cyclical time. The former as the cause for Vonnegut’s reusing of several of his literary characters. and the latter as the mode of familiarisation. Cat’s Cradle. I intend to provide a correlation between those principles and the features of Vonnegut’s work. Even though his works dive in the postmodern tradition with their modern-day topics. written by Philip M. I will also include theoretical works dealing with the concept of oral literature. Slaughterhouse Five.

Bibliography During the writing of my master’s thesis. Philip M. 6. I intend to consult the following theoretical works: Farrell. Print. “»Nothing is Ever Final«: Vonnegut’s Concept of Time”. London: Routledge. Critical Companion to Kurt Vonnegut. College Literature 6. Janko. The final part will be applying the theoretical views tackled in the first part of the master’s thesis to the aforementioned picture of “the Vonnegut Universe” trying to make the connection more clear and precise. Kos. Susan. 2008. I will base my research on some of the works dealing with those national literatures. . I intend to connect all of the listed characters and provide a unified view of “the Vonnegut Universe”. Na poti v postmoderno. 1992. A connection between the notion of time that is used in oral tradition and Vonnegut’s views on cyclicity will be made on the basis of Ruben’s article and some of the ideas I put forward in my diploma thesis. I first intend to gather data on the characters that keep reappearing. most particularly on a special characteristic of postmodern writing – the reinventing of the modes of old traditional writing. 5. as I already stated. Ljubljana: Literarno-umetniško Društvo Literatura. Procedure and Methodology As far as the methodology of my research work is concerned. 4. 1995. Lastly. The third chapter intends to focus on Vonnegut’s humanistic ideas and his ways of providing comfort and company to the lonesome reader by resorting to cyclicity. Constructing Postmodernism. Print. Later on I intend to provide a connecting factor between those modes of literary expression and Vonnegut’s style of writing. (1979): 64–72. meaning that I have to read the entirety of Vonnegut’s opus.fondness of old traditional societies (mostly African) and because theoretical works on orature mostly deal with African and Aboriginal literature. With that I am going to conclude the theoretical part and start the practical one. Print. I am going to present a brief overview of the works that deal with the reappearing characters and a basic overview of the characters’ development. McHale. which is by far more “comforting” than linear time. New York: Facts on File. Structure The first chapter of the master’s thesis will focus on postmodern literary theory. The second chapter of the master’s thesis will deal with the concept of oral literature and some of its features that ought to be familiar to the reader to provide sufficient background for the following chapters. Then I am going to provide a basic overview of each of the character’s development and an overview of the role each character possesses in each individual piece of work. In the first chapter of the practical part. Brian. Rubens. I will provide a connecting factor between them and put forward an image of a unified “Vonnegut Universe” and its development.

New York. Putnam's. Kurt. Kurt. The Sirens of Titan. Some of the literary works that will be presented are listed below: Vonnegut. or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-dance with Death. New York: Delacorte. 2000. NY: Delta Trade Paperbacks. Timequake. Kurt.Tisk. Kurt. . Print.: Dell Pub. New York: G. Virk. Mother Night. Ljubljana: Literarno-umetniško Društvo "Literatura". Print. New York: Delacorte. 1959. Vonnegut. Vonnegut.P. Kurt. Cat's Cradle. Slaughter-house Five . 1998.. Vonnegut. Strah pred naivnostjo: poetika postmodernistične proze. Print. Vonnegut. Tomo. 1982. Print. Print. 1997.p. N. Print. 1966.

Firstly. It may either reflect a concrete act of turning down a button (i. e. open up.e. in the opposite direction of turning it up). to sit down. the particle following the head verb has roughly two possible functions. The first is to express location or direction of the event denoted by the head verb. It appears that grammaticalization of locative particles into aspectual particles is not a completed process. or the more abstract notion of the sound going down rather than staying level or going up. . The perception of an adverb denoting location or movement has gradually changed and it can be now used to denote perfectiveness or imperfectiveness of the verb it qualifies. Those phrasal verbs are not relevant for the thesis and will not be dealt with. The verb shut has basically the same meaning as shut down. The process where a content word loses its literal meaning and becomes perceived as a function word is called grammaticalization.g. e. finish off. For example. Problem and Objectives In phrasal verbs in the English language. the meaning of ‘down’ is almost completely aspectual. Grammaticalization is always gradual. it adds a degree of negativity. But if it is put in parallel with the phrase to let somebody down. In the phrase to turn down an offer. but the particle ‘down’ emphasises the end point of the event conveyed by the verb.2 It is likely that the aspectual function originates in the locative meaning (cf. At the same time. In the phrase to shut down the system. the meaning of the particle ‘down’ is not as literal as in to sit down.Disposition C IT’S GOT TO BE PERFECT(IVE): GRAMMATICALIZATION OF LOCATIVE PARTICLES INTO ASPECTUAL PARTICLES IN ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS 1. Machonis (2009). 2 There is a large portion of phrasal verbs where the particle does not function in either of the defined ways. involving several steps which are not clearly set apart from one another. It nonetheless conveys a significant notion of location and space. Brinton (1988). The second function is to add or emphasise the grammatical aspect of the head verb. in the phrase to turn down the volume. talk away. most of the time particles seem to add to the verb some notion of their literal or metaphorical meaning. There are several possible indicators of that. the meaning of ‘down’ is not immediately discernible. ‘Down’ is apparently used metaphorically here to convey a notion of low space. as in the case of to turn down.).g. there is a sense of negativity observable in both. This can be observed also in phrasal verbs. The meaning of those phrasal verbs is non-compositional and is thus not deducible by looking at the constituents. Thim (2012) etc. even if their aspectual function is prevalent.

dating back to Old Germanic. but it still cannot form an acceptable combination with ‘up’. eat away. forms phrasal verbs (to finish off. drink up. only emphasising the feature of perfectiveness without adding any other meaning.g. but with the particle ‘up’. fiddle away (time) ‒ is usually related to a sense of idleness or futileness. Their meanings are completely opposite. the perfectiveness of the event is emphasised and brought into focus. Another possible explanation could lie in the origin of phrasal verbs. which is of French origin.g. if not Proto Indo-European (cf. They seem to be somehow restricted.e. *reject up or *reject down. *to penetrate up. It appears. drag up etc. In some instances. I am going to the doctor’s). The third possible indicator of the fact that the aspectual grammaticalization is not completed might be the lack of any phonological or morphological changes in the grammaticalized particles. it has acquired a . There is no additional meaning conveyed by ‘up’. if the phrase to open the window is compared to the phrase to open up the window. In the process. e. ‘Up’ can therefore act only as an aspectual particle. Moreover. Such is the case with the particle ‘up’. A possible reason for this could be the inherent aspect of these verbs. shrivel up. it is clear that the meaning is the same. is not a telic verbs. it is clear that their meanings are the same. it appears that combinations of a verb and a particle cannot be formed at random. This is another indicator that grammaticalization is only partial. the particle ‘down’ can relate to a sense of negativity. which can be used to add or stress the feature of imperfectiveness ‒ chatter away.As seen above. there is an important exception to this: the verb ‘to finish’.g. although they are both in combination with the particle ‘up’. meaning ‘to stop talking’.g. That can be checked by comparing the phrase to open up with its antonym to close up. There are only restricted uses of certain particles where solely the aspectual value is present. before the Norman Conquest). to finish up). The phenomenon may have ceased to be productive before the English language was influenced by non-Germanic languages (i. but the phrase with the particle emphasises the end point more. has been grammaticalized into a marker of the future (e. I am going to go to the doctor’s). However. the phrase which denotes the act of moving (e. If it is compared to the phrase to shut one’s mouth. namely. Another example is with the phrase to shut up. Particles have not (yet) been grammaticalized into aspectual markers or intensifiers to the extent where they could be assigned freely to any verb to change or emphasise its aspectual value. To cry. the particle ‘away’. however. For example. Phrasal verbs are an old language phenomenon. However. *to diminish up. that a particle cannot form a combination with most verbs of French origin (e. *propose up). But the following examples are unacceptable: *to cry up. it seems to have been fully grammaticalized into an aspectual particle. This is not a sufficient criterion. The exact criteria for valid combinations are therefore yet to be determined. Thim (2012)). To penetrate and to diminish can be seen as telic verbs. There are a number of verbs which can take the particle ‘up’ to stress the end point of the event. The valid aspectual combinations would then only be with those verbs that can form other types of phrasal verbs with different particles. For instance.

the thesis will try to provide a set of criteria as to why certain verbs may take an aspectual particle whereas some cannot. Lehmann (1985) for grammaticalization). because with these examples. The particular focus of the thesis will be on the development and behaviour of three particles: ‘up’. the frame of reference for this thesis will be a combination of the traditional historical linguistic theory and descriptive linguistic theory. phrasal verbs. as yet so far. requiring the bare infinitive instead of the to-infinitive after it (e. 2. Structure The thesis will be of theoretical nature. I’m gonna go to the doctor’s tomorrow and not *I’m gonna to go to the doctor’s). but other possible aspectual particles of locative origin will also be considered. only those phrasal verbs will be looked at whose meaning derives from the combination of the verb and the particle. The morphological behaviour and phonetic realisation. etc. Non-compositional phrasal verbs (to break up an audience . elaborate on them and draw some conclusions regarding the productivity and the extent of the aspectual grammaticalization of verbal particles. In addition to that.‘to make an audience laugh’. Frame of Reference Since the main focus of the thesis will be on grammatical aspect.phonologically different version ‘gonna’ which reflects morphological changes as well. this type of grammaticalization has not taken place. In addition to this. It is true. Research Question The main question of the thesis is to which extent the grammaticalization of aspectual particles happened or is happening. It will thus be constructed following the IBC (Introduction-Body-Conclusion) composition. ‘away’.) will not be taken into account.g. and grammaticalization. In the case of the aspectual particles in phrasal verbs. that morphological and phonological changes do not occur as a rule. which are both synchronic and diachronic language phenomena (cf. The thesis will look at these notions. Delimitation and Terms The thesis will deal with grammaticalization as a micro-process in English phrasal verbs with aspectual particles. 4. to put up with your brother - ‘to tolerate your brother’. however. have remained intact. 5. 3. ‘down’. the change occurs only in meaning and function of the particle. . Notions of the origin of verbs and the productivity of grammaticalization will be important here. There are no such observable changes in phrasal verbs.

Moreover.2.say what? 2.2 Productivity of grammaticalization 3.2. taking into consideration the blurry lines between different stages. Conclusion . outlined in the following paragraphs. Phrasal verbs: from space to aspect 2.1.1 Why the aspect inherent to the verb might not really matter 4. down and away we go: adding the feature of perfectiveness and imperfectiveness in action 3. Then.1 Phrasal verbs: Fossils of the long-gone Germanic age 3. The history of phrasal verbs is important here and it will be outlined and explained accordingly. The exact outline will be made once the research is fully carried out.2 Up. is only provisional. In the first part of the body of the thesis. The second part of the body will try to establish the possible criteria for constructing grammatical and meaningful combinations of verbs and aspectual particles.1 General overview of grammaticalization 2.1.1 Digging deep: the history behind phrasal verbs 3.2. Possible table of contents: 1. aspectual particles: a war of many battles 2. ‘away’. This part will explain what grammaticalization is in general.2 Why grammaticalization could be vital in the creation of aspectual particles 2. The thesis will try to explain whether certain verbs can take an aspectual particle because they lack definite telicity. which seems to be the most grammaticalized aspectual particle. the main terms will be carefully described. Introduction 2. Three particles will be looked at in more detail: ‘down’. and most importantly ‘up’.2. how it works and why it can be assumed that grammaticalization plays an important role in the making of phrasal verbs. a distinction will be made between phrasal verbs with locative particles and phrasal verbs with aspectual particles. the semantic background of grammatical aspect will be taken into consideration.1 Grammaticalization . Searching the key to The Correct Combination 3.2 Is there felicity in telicity? 3. The structure of the thesis.1 Locative adverbials vs.1. Let’s start at the very beginning 2.1.

1988. diatopic and contrastive studies.. Rodríguez-Puente. . The effects of lexicalization.2: 200-212. 2002. Lingvisticae Investigationes 31. Closs Traugott. For grammatical aspect: .2: 253-264. ed. P. . P. by Carlos Prado-Alonso. Brinton. Bern: Peter Lang. P. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Linguistic Insights Series 103: 71-85. A. . 1997. Thoughts on Grammaticalization. Arbeitspapiere des Seminars für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Erfurt. Compositional phrasal verbs with up: Direction. . M. New trends and methodologies in applied English language research: diachronic. grammaticalization and idiomatization on phrasal verbs in English: some combinations with get as a test case. Hopper. Lehmann. Grammaticalization: Synchronic variation and diachronic change. Grammaticalization. L. R. Moon. The development of English aspectual systems. Lingvisticae Investigationes 32. A. . 2003. 2009.. Disambiguating phrasal verbs.5. London: Routledge. J. Smith. UK: Cambridge University Press. Topics in English Linguistics 78. Phrasal Verbs: The English Verb-Particle Construction and its History. Machonis. 2nd revised edition. Knowles. E. Kluwer Academic Press. . Basic bibliography For information on phrasal verbs. . 2009. Thim. intensity. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. P. . 2006. C. C. Cambridge. 2nd edition. Introducing metaphor. 2008. Linga e Stile. Lehmann. Machonis. aspect. Aspectualizers and post-verbal particles. S. C. Parameters of Aspect. 1985. 2012 For grammaticalization: . the following sources will be used: .