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Reference Tables

Fundamental Constants
Name Symbol Value

Avogadro’s Number N 6.022 3 1023 mol21

Boltzmann’s Constant kb 1.381 3 10223 J K21

Electron Charge e 1.602 3 10219 C

Faraday’s Constant F 5 Ne 9.649 3 104 C mol electrons21

Ideal Gas Constant R 5 Nkb 0.08206 L atm mol–1 K21


8.314 L kPa mol–1 K21

Planck’s Constant h 6.626 3 10234 J s

Rydberg Constant R 1.097 3 107 m21

Speed of Light (in vacuum) c 2.998 3 108 m s21

Standard Acceleration (due to gravity) g 9.807 m s22

Universal Gravitational Constant G 6.674 3 10–11 m3 kg21 s22

Vacuum Permittivity eo 8.854 3 10–12 C2 J21 m21

Mass of Electron me 9.109 3 10231 kg

Mass of Neutron mn 1.675 3 10227 kg

Mass of Proton mp 1.673 3 10227 kg

Reference Tables 834

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Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures
Temperature (ºC) Vapor Pressure (torr) Temperature (ºC) Vapor Pressure (torr)
–10 2.1 23 21.1
–5 3.2 24 22.4
0 4.6 25 23.8
1 4.9 26 25.2
2 5.3 27 26.7
3 5.7 28 28.3
4 6.1 29 30.0
5 6.5 30 31.8
6 7.0 35 42.2
7 7.5 40 55.3
8 8.0 45 71.9
9 8.6 50 92.5
10 9.2 55 118.0
11 9.8 60 149.4
12 10.5 65 187.5
13 11.2 70 233.7
14 12.0 75 289.1
15 12.8 80 355.1
16 13.6 85 433.6
17 14.5 90 525.8
18 15.5 95 633.9
19 16.5 100 760.0
20 17.5 105 906.1
21 18.7 110 1074.6
22 19.8

Reference Tables 835

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Average Bond Enthalpies (kJ/mol) at 25 ºC

Single Bonds

H C N O F Si P S Cl Br I

H 436 413 391 463 565 318 322 347 432 366 299

C 346 305 358 485 --- --- 272 339 285 213

N 163 201 283 --- --- --- 192 243 ---

O 146 184 452 335 --- 218 201 201

F 155 565 490 284 253 249 278

Si 222 --- 293 381 310 234

P 201 --- 326 --- 184

S 226 255 213 ---

Cl 242 216 208

Br 193 175

I 151

Average Bond Enthalpies (kJ/mol) at 25 ºC


Multiple Bonds

Double Bonds TripleBonds


(kJ/mol) (kJ/mol)

C!C 602 C;C 835

O!O 498
C!O 732 C;O 1072

N!O 607

N!N 418 N;N 945

C!N 615 C;N 887

Reference Tables 836

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Acid Ionization Constants at 25 °C

Acid Formula Ka1 Ka2 Ka3

Acetic acid CH3COOH 1.8 3 10–5

Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) HC9H7O4 3.0 3 10–4

Aluminum ion Al(H2O)43! 1.2 3 10–5

Arsenic acid H3AsO4 2.5 3 10–4 5.6 3 10–8 3.0 3 10–13

Ascorbic acid H2C6H6O6 7.9 3 10–5 1.6 3 10–12

Benzoic acid C6H5COOH 6.3 3 10–5

Carbonic acid H2CO3 4.2 3 10–7 4.8 3 10–11

Ferric ion Fe(H2O)63! 4.0 3 10–3

Formic acid HCOOH 1.8 3 10–4

Hydrocyanic acid HCN 4.0 3 10–10

Hydrofluoric acid HF 7.2 3 10–4

Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 2.4 3 10–12

Hydrosulfuric acid H2S 1.0 3 10–7 1.0 3 10–19

Hypochlorous acid HClO 3.5 3 10–8

Nitrous acid HNO2 4.5 3 10–4

Oxalic acid H2C2O4 5.9 3 10–2 6.4 3 10–5

Phenol C6H5OH 1.0 3 10–10

Phosphoric acid H3PO4 7.5 3 10–3 6.2 3 10–8 3.6 3 10–13

Sulfuric acid H2SO4 very large 1.2 3 10–2

Sulfurous acid H2SO3 1.7 3 10–2 6.4 3 10–8

Zinc ion Zn(H2O)42! 2.5 3 10–10

Reference Tables 837

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Base Ionization Constants at 25 °C

Base Formula Kb

Ammonia NH3 1.8 3 10–5

Aniline C6H5NH2 7.4 3 10–10

Caffeine C8H10N4O2 4.1 3 10–4

Codeine C18H21O3N 8.9 3 10–7

Diethylamine (C2H5)2NH 6.9 3 10–4

Dimethylamine (CH3)2NH 5.9 3 10–4

Ethylamine C2H5NH2 4.3 3 10–4

Hydroxylamine NH2OH 9.1 3 10–9

Isoquinoline C9H7N 2.5 3 10–9

Methylamine CH3NH2 4.2 3 10–4

Morphine C17H19O3N 7.4 3 10–7

Piperidine C5H11N 1.3 3 10–3

Pyridine C5H5N 1.5 3 10–9

Quinoline C9H7N 6.3 3 10–10

Triethanolamine C6H15O3N 5.8 3 10–7

Triethylamine (C2H5)3N 5.2 3 10–4

Trimethylamine (CH3)3N 6.3 3 10–5

Urea N2H4CO 1.5 3 10–14

Reference Tables 838

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Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K) Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K)

Aluminum DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K) DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K)


Al(s) 0 0 28.3 Cd(OH)2(s) –561.0 –474.0 96.0
AlCl3(s) –704.2 –628.8 110.7 CdS(s) –162.0 –156.0 65.0
Al2O3(s) –1675.7 –1582.3 50.9 CdSO4(s) –935.0 –823.0 123.0
Al(OH)3(s) –1277.0 Calcium
Barium Ca(s) 0 0 41.4
Ba(s) 0 0 67.0 Ca(g) 178.2 144.3 158.9
BaCl2(s) –858.6 –810.4 123.7 Ca (g)
2!
1925.9
BaCO3(s) –1219.0 –1139.0 112.0 CaC2(s) –59.8 –64.9 70.0
BaO(s) –553.5 –525.1 70.4 CaCO3(s, calcite) –1206.9 –1128.8 92.9
Ba(OH)2(s) –946.0 CaCl2(s) –795.8 –748.1 104.6
BaSO4(s) –1473.2 –1362.2 132.2 CaF2(s) –1219.6 –1167.3 68.9
Beryllium CaH2(s) –186.2 –147.2 42.0
Be(s) 0 0 9.5 CaO(s) –635.1 –604.0 39.8
BeO(s) –599.0 –569.0 14.0 CaS(s) –482.4 –477.4 56.5
Be(OH)2(s) –902.5 –815.0 51.9 Ca(OH)2(s) –986.1 –898.5 83.4
Bromine Ca(OH)2(aq) –1002.8 –868.1 –74.5
Br(g) 111.9 82.4 175.0 Ca3(PO4)2(s) –4126.0 –3890.0 241.0
Br2(!) 0 0 152.2 CaSO4(s) –1434.1 –1321.8 106.7
Br2(g) 30.9 3.1 245.5 CaSiO3(s) –1630.0 –1550.0 84.0
Br2(aq) –3.0 4.0 130.0 Carbon

Br (aq) –121.0 –175.0 82.0 C(s, graphite) 0 0 5.7
BrF3(g) –255.6 –229.4 292.5 C(s, diamond) 1.9 2.9 2.4
HBr(g) –36.3 –53.5 198.7 C(g) 716.7 671.3 158.1
Cadmium CCl4(!) –135.4 –65.2 216.4
Cd(s) 0 0 52.0 CCl4(g) –102.9 –60.6 309.9
CdO(s) –258.0 –228.0 55.0 CHCl3(!) –134.5 –73.7 201.7
continued

Reference Tables 839

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Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K) Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K)

DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K) DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K)


CHCl3(g) –103.1 –70.3 295.7 Cl2(g) 0 0 223.1
CH4(g) –74.8 –50.7 186.3 Cl2(aq) –23.0 7.0 121.0
CH3OH(g) –200.7 –162.0 239.8 Cl–(aq) –167.0 –131.0 57.0
CH3OH(!) –238.7 –166.3 126.8 Cl–(g) –233.1
H2CO(g) –116.0 –110.0 219.0 HCl(g) –92.3 –95.3 186.9
HCOOH(g) –363.0 –351.0 249.0 HCl(aq) –167.2 –131.2 56.5
HCN(g) 135.1 125.0 202.0 Chromium
C2H2(g) 226.7 209.2 200.9 Cr(s) 0 0 23.8
C2H4(g) 52.3 68.2 219.6 Cr2O3(s) –1139.7 –1058.1 81.2
CH3CHO(g) –166.0 –129.0 250.0 CrO3(s) –579.0 –502.0 72.0
C2H4O(g, ethylene –53.0 –13.0 242.0 CrCl3(s) –556.5 –486.1 123.0
oxide)
Copper
CH3CH2OH(!) –277.7 –174.8 160.7
Cu(s) 0 0 33.2
CH3CH2OH(g) –235.1 –168.5 282.7
CuCl2(s) –220.1 –175.7 108.1
CH3COOH(!) –484.0 –389.0 160.0
CuCO3(s) –595.0 –518.0 88.0
C2H6(g) –84.7 –32.8 229.6
Cu2O(s) –170.0 –148.0 93.0
C3H6(g) 20.9 62.7 266.9
CuO(s) –157.3 –129.7 42.6
C3H8(g) –103.8 –23.5 269.9
Cu(OH)2(s) –450.0 –372.0 108.0
CH2"CHCN(!) 152.0 190.0 274.0
CuS(s) –49.0 –49.0 67.0
C6H6(!) 49.0 124.5 172.8
Fluorine
C6H12O6(s) –1275.0 –911.0 212.0
F2(g) 0 0 202.8
CO(g) –110.5 –137.2 197.7
F(g) 79.0 61.9 158.8
CO2(g) –393.5 –394.4 213.7 –
F (g) –255.4
CS2(g) 117.4 67.1 237.8 –
F (aq) –332.6 –278.8 –13.8
COCl2(g) –218.8 –204.6 283.5
HF(g) –271.1 –273.2 173.8
Cl(g) 121.7 105.7 165.2
continued

Reference Tables 840

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Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K) Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K)

DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K) DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K)


HF(aq) –332.6 –278.8 88.7 Fe3O4(s, magnetite) –1118.4 –1015.4 146.4
Hydrogen Fe2O3(s, hematite) –824.2 –742.2 87.4
H2(g) 0 0 130.7 FeS(s) –95.0 –97.0 67.0
H(g) 218.0 203.2 114.7 FeS2(s, pyrite) –178.2 –166.9 52.9
H (g)
!
1536.2 FeSO4(s) –929.0 –825.0 121.0
H (aq)
!
0 Fe(CO)5(!) –774.0 –705.3 338.1
OH (aq) –
–230.0 –157.0 –11.0 Lead
H2O(!) –285.8 –237.1 69.9 Pb(s) 0 0 64.8
H2O(g) –241.8 –228.6 188.8 PbCl2(s) –359.4 –314.1 136.0
H2O2(!) –187.8 –120.4 109.6 PbO(s, yellow) –217.3 –187.9 68.7
Iodine PbO2(s) –277.0 –217.0 69.0
I2(s) 0 0 116.1 PbS(s) –100.4 –98.7 91.2
I2(g) 62.4 19.3 260.7 PbSO4(s) –920.0 –813.0 149.0
I2(aq) 23.0 16.0 137 Magnesium
I(g) 106.8 70.3 180.8 Mg(s) 0 0 32.7

I (g) –197.0 MgCl2(s) –641.3 –591.8 89.6
I–(aq) –55.0 –52.0 106.0 MgCO3(s) –1095.8 –1012.1 65.7
ICl(g) 17.8 –5.5 247.6 MgO(s) –601.7 –569.4 26.9
Iron Mg(OH)2(s) –924.5 –833.5 63.2
Fe(s) 0 0 27.8 MgS(s) –346.0 –341.8 50.3
Fe3C(s) 21.0 15.0 108.0 Manganese
FeCl2(s) –341.8 –302.3 118.0 Mn(s) 0 0 32.0
FeCl3(s) –399.5 –333.9 142.3 MnO(s) –385.0 –363.0 60.0
Fe0.95O(s)(wustite) –264.0 –240.0 59.0 Mn3O4(s) –1387.0 –1280.0 149.0
FeO(s) –272.0 Mn2O3(s) –971.0 –893.0 110.0
continued

Reference Tables 841

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Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K) Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K)

DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K) DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K)


MnO2(s) –521.0 –466.0 53.0 N2O5(s) –42.0 134.0 178.0
MnO4–(aq) –543.0 –449.0 190.0 N2H4(!) 50.6 149.3 121.2
Mercury N2H3CH3(!) 54.0 180.0 166.0
Hg(!) 0 0 75.9 HNO3(aq) –207.4 –111.3 146.4
HgCl2(s) –224.3 –178.6 146.0 HNO3(!) –174.1 –80.7 155.6
Hg2Cl2(s) –265.4 –210.7 191.7 HNO3(g) –135.1 –74.7 266.4
HgO(s, red) –90.8 –58.5 70.3 NH4ClO4(s) –295.0 –89.0 186.0
HgS(s, red) –58.2 –50.6 82.4 NH4Cl(s) –314.4 –202.9 94.6
Nickel NH4Cl(aq) –299.7 –210.5 169.9
Ni(s) 0 0 29.9 NH4NO3(s) –365.6 –183.9 151.1
NiCl2(s) –305.3 –259.0 97.7 NH4NO3(aq) –339.9 –190.6 259.8
NiO(s) –239.7 –211.7 38.0 Oxygen
Ni(OH)2(s) –538.0 –453.0 79.0 O2(g) 0 0 205.1
NiS(s) –93.0 –90.0 53.0 O(g) 249.2 231.7 161.1
Nitrogen O3(g) 142.7 163.2 238.9
N2(g) 0 0 191.6 Phosphorus
N(g) 472.7 455.6 153.3 P(s, white) 0 0 164.4
NH3(g) –46.1 –16.5 192.5 P(s, red) –70.4 –48.4 91.2
NH3(aq) –80.0 –27.0 111.0 P(s, black) –39.0 –33.0 23.0
NH4!(aq) –132.0 –79.0 113.0 P(g) 314.6 278.3 163.2
NO(g) 90.3 86.6 210.8 P4(s, white) 0 0 41.1
NOCl(g) 51.7 66.1 261.8 P4(s, red) –17.6 –12.1 22.8
NO2(g) 33.2 51.3 240.1 P4(g) 59.0 24.0 280.0
N2O(g) 82.1 104.2 219.9 PF5(g) –1578.0 –1509.0 296.0
N2O4(g) 9.2 97.9 304.3 PH3(g) 5.4 13.4 210.2
N2O4(!) –20.0 97.0 209.0 PCl3(g) –287.0 –267.8 311.8
continued

Reference Tables 842

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Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K) Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K)
DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K) DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K)
H3PO4(!) –1279.0 –1119.1 110.5 AgCN(s) 146.0 164.0 84.0
H3PO4(aq) –1288.0 –1143.0 158.0 AgCl(s) –127.1 –109.8 96.2
P4O10(s) –2984.0 –2697.7 228.9 Ag2CrO4(s) –712.0 –622.0 217.0
Potassium AgI(s) –62.0 –66.0 115.0
K(s) 0 0 64.2 Ag2O(s) –31.1 –11.2 121.3
KCl(s) –436.7 –409.1 82.6 AgNO3(s) –124.4 –33.4 140.9
KClO3(s) –397.7 –296.3 143.1 Ag2S(s) –32.0 –40.0 146.0
KClO4(s) –433.0 –304.0 151.0 Sodium
KI(s) –327.9 –324.9 106.3 Na(s) 0 0 51.2
K2O(s) –361.0 –322.0 98.0 Na(g) 107.3 76.8 153.7
K2O2(s) –496.0 –430.0 113.0 Na!(g) 609.4
KO2(s) –283.0 –238.0 117.0 Na!(aq) –240.0 –262.0 59.0
KOH(s) –424.8 –379.1 78.9 NaBr(s) –361.0 –349.0 86.8
KOH(aq) –482.4 –440.5 91.6 Na2CO3(s) –1130.7 –1044.4 135.0
Silicon NaHCO3(s) –948.0 –852.0 102.0
Si(s) 0 0 18.3 NaCl(s) –411.2 –384.1 72.1
SiBr4(!) –457.3 –443.9 277.8 NaCl(g) –176.7 –196.7 229.8
SiC(s) –65.3 –62.8 16.6 NaCl(aq) –407.3 –393.1 115.5
SiCl4(g) –657.0 –617.0 330.7 NaH(s) –56.0 –33.0 40.0
SiH4(g) 34.3 56.9 204.6 NaI(s) –288.0 –282.0 91.0
SiF4(g) –1614.9 –1572.7 282.5 NaNO2(s) –359.0
SiO2(s, quartz) –910.9 –856.6 41.8 NaNO3(s) –467.0 –366.0 116.0
Silver Na2O(s) –416.0 –377.0 73.0
Ag(s) 0 0 42.6 Na2O2(s) –515.0 –451.0 95.0
Ag (aq)
!
105.0 77.0 73.0 NaOH(s) –425.6 –379.5 64.5
AgBr(s) –100.0 –97.0 107.0 NaOH(aq) –470.1 –419.2 48.1
continued

Reference Tables 843

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Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K) Selected Thermodynamic Data (at 298.15 K)
DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K) DHfo(kJ/mol) DGfo(kJ/mol) So(J/mol K)
Sulfur TiCl4(!) –804.2 –737.2 252.3
S(s, rhombic) 0 0 31.8 TiCl4(g) –763.2 –726.7 354.9
S(s, monoclinic) 0.3 0.1 33.0 TiO2(s) –939.7 –884.5 49.9
S(g) 278.8 238.3 167.8 Uranium
S2–(aq) 33.0 86.0 –15.0 U(s) 0 0 50.0
S8(g) 102.0 50.0 431.0 UF6(s) –2137.0 –2008.0 228.0
S2Cl2(g) –18.4 –31.8 331.5 UF6(g) –2113.0 –2029.0 380.0
SF6(g) –1209.0 –1105.3 291.8 UO2(s) –1084.0 –1029.0 78.0
H2S(g) –20.6 –33.6 205.8 U3O8(s) –3575.0 –3393.0 282.0
SO2(g) –296.8 –300.2 248.2 UO3(s) –1230.0 –1150.0 99.0
SO3(g) –395.7 –371.1 256.8 Xenon
SOCl2(g) –212.5 –198.3 309.8 Xe(g) 0 0 170.0
SO42–(aq) –909.0 –745.0 20.0 XeF2(g) –108.0 –48.0 254.0
H2SO4(!) –814.0 –690.0 156.9 XeF4(s) –251.0 –121.0 146.0
H2SO4(aq) –909.3 –744.5 20.1 XeF6(g) –294.0
Tin XeO3(s) 402.0
Sn(s, white) 0 0 51.6 Zinc

Sn(s, gray) –2.1 0.1 44.1 Zn(s) 0 0 41.6


SnCl4(!) –511.3 –440.1 258.6 ZnCl2(s) –415.1 –369.4 111.5
SnCl4(g) –471.5 –432.2 365.8 ZnO(s) –348.3 –318.3 43.6
SnO(s) –285.0 –257.0 56.0 Zn(OH)2(s) –642.0
SnO2(s) –580.7 –519.6 52.3 ZnS(s, wurtzite) –193.0
Sn(OH)2(s) –561.0 –492.0 155.0 ZnS(s, zinc blende) –206.0 –201.3 57.7
Titanium ZnSO4(s) –983.0 –874.0 120.0
Ti(s) 0 0 30.6

Reference Tables 844

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Standard Reduction (Electrode) Potentials at 25 °C
Half–Cell Reaction Eo (volts) Half–Cell Reaction Eo (volts)

F2 ! 2 e– S 2 F– 2.87 2 H! ! 2 e– S H2 0.0000
Ce4! ! e– S Ce3! 1.61 Pb2! ! 2 e– S Pb –0.126
– – 2! 2! –
MnO4 ! 8 H ! 5 e S Mn !
! 4 H2O 1.51 Sn ! 2 e S Sn –0.14
– – 2! –
Cl2 ! 2 e S 2 Cl 1.36 Ni ! 2 e S Ni –0.25
2– – 3! 2! –
Cr2O7 ! 14 H ! 6 e S 2 Cr !
! 7 H2O 1.33 Co ! 2 e S Co –0.28
– 2! –
O2 ! 4 H ! 4e S 2 H2O
!
1.229 Cd ! 2 e S Cd –0.403
Br2 ! 2 e– S 2 Br – 1.08 Cr3! ! e– S Cr2! –0.41
NO3– ! 4 H! ! 3 e– S NO ! 2 H2O 0.96 2 H2O ! 2 e– S H2 ! 2 OH– (10–7 M) –0.41
2 Hg2! ! 2 e– S Hg22! 0.920 Fe2! ! 2 e– S Fe –0.44
Hg2! ! 2 e– S Hg 0.855 Cr3! ! 3 e– S Cr –0.74
–7 – 2! –
O2 ! 4 H (10 M) ! 4 e S 2 H2O
!
0.82 Zn ! 2 e S Zn –0.763
– – –
Ag ! e S Ag
!
0.799 2 H2O ! 2 e S H2 ! 2 OH –0.83
2! – 2! –
Hg2 ! 2 e S 2 Hg 0.789 Mn ! 2 e S Mn –1.18
3! – 2! 3! –
Fe ! e S Fe 0.771 Al ! 3 e S Al –1.66
I2 ! 2 e– S 2 I– 0.535 Mg2! ! 2 e– S Mg –2.37
Fe(CN)63– ! e– S Fe(CN)44– 0.48 Na! ! e– S Na –2.714
Cu2! ! 2 e– S Cu 6 0.337 K! ! e– S K –2.925
Cu2! ! e– S Cu! 0.153 Li! ! e– S Li –3.045

S ! 2 H ! 2 e S H2S
!
0.14

Reference Tables 845

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Solubility Product Constants (Ksp) at 25 °C

Formula Ksp Formula Ksp


Bromides PbBr2 6.3 3 10–6 Fluorides CaF2 3.9 3 10–11

AgBr 3.3 3 10–13 PbF2 3.7 3 10–8

Carbonates BaCO3 8.1 3 10–9 MgF2 6.4 3 10–9

CaCO3 3.8 3 10–9 Hydroxides AgOH 2.0 3 10–8

CoCO3 8.0 3 10–13 Al(OH)3 1.9 3 10–33

CuCO3 2.5 3 10–10 Ca(OH)2 7.9 3 10–6

FeCO3 3.5 3 10–11 Cr(OH)3 6.7 3 10–31

PbCO3 1.5 3 10–13 Co(OH)2 2.5 3 10–16

MgCO3 4.0 3 10–5 Cu(OH)2 1.6 3 10–19

MnCO3 1.8 3 10–11 Fe(OH)2 7.9 3 10–15

NiCO3 6.6 3 10–9 Fe(OH)3 6.3 3 10–38

Ag2CO3 8.1 3 10–12 Pb(OH)2 2.8 3 10–16

ZnCO3 1.5 3 10–11 Mg(OH)2 1.5 3 10–11

Chlorides PbCl2 1.7 3 10–5 Mn(OH)2 4.6 3 10–14

AgCl 1.8 3 10–10 Ni(OH)2 2.8 3 10–16

Chromates BaCrO4 2.0 3 10–10 Zn(OH)2 4.5 3 10–17

CaCrO4 7.1 3 10–4 Iodides PbI2 8.7 3 10–9

PbCrO4 1.8 3 10–14 AgI 1.5 3 10–16

Ag2CrO4 9.0 3 10–12 Oxalates BaC2O4 1.1 3 10–7

Cyanides Ni(CN)2 3.0 3 10–23 CaC2O4 2.3 3 10–9

AgCN 1.2 3 10–16 MgC2O4 8.6 3 10–5

Zn(CN)2 8.0 3 10–12 Phosphates AlPO4 1.3 3 10–20

Fluorides BaF2 1.7 3 10–6 Ba3(PO4)2 1.3 3 10–29

Reference Tables 846

06516_em_834-848.indd 846 6/1/12 9:12 AM


Solubility Product Constants (Ksp) at 25 °C

Formula Ksp Formula Ksp


Phosphates Ca3(PO4)2 1.0 3 10–25 Sulfides CuS 7.9 3 10–37

CrPO4 2.4 3 10–23 FeS 4.9 3 10–18

Pb3(PO4)2 3.0 3 10–44 Fe2S3 1.4 3 10–88

Ag3PO4 1.3 3 10–20 PbS 3.2 3 10–28

Zn3(PO4)2 9.1 3 10–33 MnS 5.1 3 10–15

Sulfates BaSO4 1.1 3 10–10 NiS 3.0 3 10–21

CaSO4 2.4 3 10–5 Ag2S 1.0 3 10–49

PbSO4 1.8 3 10–8 ZnS 2.0 3 10–25

Ag2SO4 1.7 3 10–5 Sulfites BaSO3 8.0 3 10–7

Sulfides CaS 8 3 10–6 CaSO3 1.3 3 10–8

CoS 5.9 3 10–21 Ag2SO3 1.5 3 10–14

Reference Tables 847

06516_em_834-848.indd 847 6/1/12 9:12 AM


06516_em_834-848.indd 848 6/1/12 9:12 AM