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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

KIG160001

TITLE: U6 CHARACTERISTICS OF DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

1. ABSTRACT
The purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of direct current motor. This is achieved
by doing some test on the motor. The basis for this experiment show that all component in the circuit
is related to each other. In this experiment there were 5 test to be done. The first test is the starting
where we will learn how to use the meter from the control panel. Next, we did the armature voltage-
speed relation where we fix the current to 0.2A and record the armature voltage from the various
speed. The next test is to relate the armature current and speed with field current. This can be done by
fixing the voltage at 150V and slowly change the field current until the maximum speed. The
armature current and field current were recorded. Another test that we have done is the relation
between armature current to the torque. This time, we fixed the speed to 2000rpm and varies the
armature current. The torque was recorded. The final test is the load test. This test is done by
maintaining the armature voltage to 220V. The motor is loaded from no load to full load, then N, T,
and 𝐼𝐹 were recorded. From here, the 𝑃𝑚 , 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 , efficiency, copper loss, core loss and frictional loss
can be calculated. The observation were discussed.

2. INTRODUCTION
“A DC motor is any of a class of electrical machines that converts direct current electrical power
into mechanical power. The most common types rely on the forces produced by magnetic fields. A
coil of wire with a current running through it generates an electromagnetic field aligned with the
center of the coil. The direction and magnitude of the magnetic field produced by the coil can be
changed with the direction and magnitude of the current flowing through it. A simple DC motor has a
stationary set of magnets in the stator and an armature with one or more windings of insulated wire
wrapped around a soft iron core that concentrates the magnetic field. The windings usually have
multiple turns around the core, and in large motors there can be several parallel current paths. The
ends of the wire winding are connected to a commutator. The commutator allows each armature coil
to be energized in turn and connects the rotating coils with the external power supply through
brushes. The sequence of turning a particular coil on or off dictates what direction the effective
electromagnetic fields are pointed. By turning on and off coils in sequence a rotating magnetic field
can be created. These rotating magnetic fields interact with the magnetic fields of the magnets
(permanent or electromagnets) in the stationary part of the motor (stator) to create a force on the
armature which causes it to rotate. In some DC motor designs, the stator fields use electromagnets to
create their magnetic fields which allow greater control over the motor. The speed of a DC motor can
be controlled by changing the voltage applied to the armature. The introduction of variable resistance
in the armature circuit or field circuit allowed speed control. Small DC motors are used in tools, toys,
and appliances. The universal motor can operate on direct current but is a lightweight motor used for
portable power tools and appliances. Larger DC motors are used in propulsion of electric vehicles,
elevator and hoists, or in drives for steel rolling mills. If external power is applied to a DC motor it
acts as a DC generator, a dynamo. This feature is used to slow down and recharge batteries on hybrid
car and electric cars or to return electricity back to the electric grid used on a street car or electric
powered train line when they slow down. This process is called regenerative braking on hybrid and
electric cars.”

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
KIG160001

3. OBJECTIVE

a) To study the characteristics of direct current motor.

4. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
“ This DC or direct current motor works on the principal, when a current carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field, it experiences a torque and has a tendency to move. This is known as
motoring action. If the direction of current in the wire is reversed, the direction of rotation also
reverses. When magnetic field and electric field interact they produce a mechanical force, and based
on that the working principle of DC motor is established. “

The direction of rotation of a this motor is given by Fleming’s left hand rule, which states that if the index
finger, middle finger and thumb of your left hand are extended mutually perpendicular to each other and
if the index finger represents the direction of magnetic field, middle finger indicates the direction of
current, then the thumb represents the direction in which force is experienced by the shaft of the DC
motor. There are three types of DC motor :
1) Shunt wound DC motor
2) Series wound DC motor
3) Compound wound DC motor

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
KIG160001

Structurally and construction wise a direct current motor is exactly similar to a DC generator, but
electrically it is just the opposite. Here we unlike a generator we supply electrical energy to the input port
and derive mechanical energy from the output port. We can represent it by the block diagram shown below.

Here in a DC motor, the supply voltage E and current I is given to the electrical port or the input
port and we derive the mechanical output i.e. torque T and speed ω from the mechanical port or output port.

The input and output port variables of the direct current motor are related by the parameter K.

So from the picture above we can well understand that motor is just the opposite phenomena of a DC
generator, and we can derive both motoring and generating operation from the same machine by simply
reversing the ports.

To understand the DC motor in details lets consider the diagram below,

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
KIG160001

The direct current motor is represented by the circle in the center, on which is mounted the brushes, where
we connect the external terminals, from where supply voltage is given. On the mechanical terminal we
have a shaft coming out of the Motor, and connected to the armature, and the armature-shaft is coupled to
the mechanical load. On the supply terminals we represent the armature resistance Ra in series.
“ Now, let the input voltage E, is applied across the brushes. Electric current which flows through the rotor
armature via brushes, in presence of the magnetic field, produces a torque T g. Due to this torque Tg the dc
motor armature rotates. As the armature conductors are carrying currents and the armature rotates inside
the stator magnetic field, it also produces an emf Eb in the manner very similar to that of a generator. The
generated Emf Eb is directed opposite to the supplied voltage and is known as the back Emf, as it counters
the forward voltage. The back emf like in case of a generator is represented by “

Where, P = no of poles
φ = flux per pole
Z= No. of conductors
A = No. of parallel paths
N is the speed of the DC Motor

“So, from the above equation we can see Eb is proportional to speed ‘N’. That is whenever a direct
current motor rotates, it results in the generation of back Emf. Now lets represent the rotor speed by ω in
rad/sec. So Eb is proportional to ω. So, when the speed of the motor is reduced by the application of load,
Eb decreases. Thus the voltage difference between supply voltage and back emf increases that means E −
Eb increases. Due to this increased voltage difference, armature current will increase and therefore torque
and hence speed increases. Thus a DC Motor is capable of maintaining the same speed under variable load.
Now armature current Ia is represented by ”

Now at starting,speed ω = 0 so at starting Eb = 0.

Now since the armature winding electrical resistance Ra is small, this motor has a very high starting
current in the absence of back Emf. As a result we need to use a starter for starting a DC Motor. Now as
the motor continues to rotate, the back Emf starts being generated and gradually the current decreases as
the motor picks up speed.

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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5. EQUIPMENT/APPARATUS
Shunt motor, control resistor-starter, ohm meter, voltage divider, other meter.

6. PROCEDURES

Figure 1

Figure 2

TEST 1: Starting

1. Study and understand the motor and load to be used. Write the rated value of the motor
(armature current, voltage, speed).
2. Study the circuit connection panel. Determine the symbols and function on the panel.
3. Measure the resistor value using the ohmmeter and record in Table 1.
4. Learn how to use the meter on the control panel.

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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TEST 2: Armature voltage-speed relation (Figure 1)

1. Connect the circuit for shunt motor as shown in Figure 1.


2. Set the torque brake value to zero. Start the motor by increasing the voltage slowly. When the
rotor starts rotating, slowly decrease the resistor value in the armature circuit until the starting
resistor is short-circuit.
3. Fix the field current, IF to 0.2 or 0.5 A for this test.
4. By using voltage divider, change the armature voltage from zero to maximum.
5. Change the rotor speed, N according to Table 2 and record the voltage V.

TEST 3: Armature current and speed with field current relation (Figure 1)

1. Repeat steps (1) and (2) in Test 2.


2. Set the armature voltage at 150 V for this test and maintain it.
3. Slowly change 𝐼𝐹 from high value until the maximum speed according to Table 3.
4. Record the field current, 𝐼𝐹 and armature current, 𝐼𝐴 .

TEST 4: Armature current - torque (Figure 1)

1. Repeat steps (1) and (2) in Test 2.


2. Set the speed, N to 2000 or 2100 rpm for this test.
3. Change 𝐼𝐴 from low value to the maximum according to Table 4 by increasing the torque brake
and maintain the speed. Record the torque, T in Table 4.
4. Decrease 𝐼𝐴 before disconnecting the supply

TEST 5: Load test (Figure 2)

1. Repeat steps (1) and (2) in Test 2.


2. Set the armature voltage at 220V.
3. Load the motor from no-load to full-load according to Table 5. Record N, T and 𝐼𝐹 in Table 5.
4. Calculate Pm, Pout, efficiency, copper loss, core loss and frictional loss.
5. Decrease 𝐼𝐴 before disconnecting the supply

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Experimental results

Table 1: Starting
Resistor (s) Resistance (Ω)

𝑅𝐴 6.6

𝑅𝐹 0.633

Table 2: Armature voltage-speed relation

Speed, N (rpm) 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

Voltage, V (V) 1.6 1.65 1.65 1.75 1.8

Table 3: Armature current and speed with field current relation

Speed, N (rpm) 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000

Field Current, 0.23 0.2 0.17 0.14 0.12


𝐼𝐹 (A)

Armature Current, 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1


𝐼𝐴 (A)

Table 4: Armature current – torque

Armature
Current, 𝐼𝐴 (A) 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

Torque, T (Nm) 0.02 0.12 0.16 0.2 0.24 0.28

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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𝑃𝑚 = 𝐼𝐴 × 𝑉
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 𝐼𝐹 × 𝑉
𝑃𝑚
Efficiency = 𝑃0𝑢𝑡
× 100%
Copper loss = 𝐼𝑅 × 𝐼𝐴
Frictional loss = 20% of total loss
Core loss = 80% of total loss

Table 5: Load Test

Armature 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0


current, 𝐼𝐴 (A)
Speed, N
(rpm) 2.45 2.35 2.20 2.05 1.95 1.70

Torque, T
(Nm) 0.04 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.24 0.25
Field current,
𝐼𝐹 (A) 0.14 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.17 0.17
𝑃𝑚 (W)
440 660 770 880 990 1100
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 (W)
30.8 35.2 35.2 37.4 37.4 37.4
Efficiency (%)
7.0 5.3 4.6 4.3 3.7 3.4

Copper loss,
𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 (W) 0 0 0 0 0 0
Core loss,
𝑃𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 (W) 327.4 499.9 587.8 674.0 762.0 850.0
Frictional
loss, 𝑃𝑓 (W) 81.9 125.0 146.9 168.5 190.5 212.5

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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Figure 3: N vs V

ARMATURE VOLTAGE-SPEED RELATION


2100

2000

1900

1800

1700

1600

1500
1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7 1.75 1.8 1.85

Figure 3 is tabulated from table 2. It shows that the speed of rotation N is linearly increased when the
voltage increases.

Figure 4: N vs IA

ARMATURE CURRENT-SPEED RELATION


2100

2000

1900

1800

1700

1600

1500
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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Figure 5: IA vs IF

ARMATURE CURRENT - FIELD CURRENT RELATION


1.85

1.8

1.75

1.7

1.65

1.6

1.55
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Figure 4 and Figure 5 is tabulated from table 3. It shows that the speed can manipulated the IF and IA with
a constant voltage. The graphs shown that when the speed of rotation decreased, the IA increased. Also, the
IA decreases when IF increases

Figure 6: Torque vs IA

TORQUE- ARMATURE CURRENT RELATION


0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Figure 6 is tabulated from table 4. It describes that when we increases the armature current, the amount of
torque will increased linearly.

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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Figure 7: Efficiency vs Pout

0
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Figure 7 shows that the efficiency decreased when the Output power increases.

Figure 8: Pcopper, Pcore, Pf VS Pout

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Pcopper Pcore Pf

Figure 8 shows that when the Output Power Pout increases, the Pcopper and Pcore also increases.The
copper loss is kept zero because we have reduced the armature resistance to zero at the rest.

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AAINAA SABRINA BT ISMAIL U6 – DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR
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Why is the starting resistor used?

The starting resistors are used to start the DC motor.

Why the field current must be increased when the motor is started?

The field current must be increased because it will opposes the armature current. When the current is
increased, the armature current will decreased, that will causes the motor to slow down.

Why does the shaft move in armature resistance measurement?

In order to measure the resistance of a circuit, the meter injects a current through the circuit and measures
the voltage drop generated by the current injected. Therefore, the magnetic field will be generated in the
armature winding. Then, it will interacted with the field winding and causes the shaft to move

Do we need to fix the speed in Test 4?

Yes, because the speed will affect the torque.

What will happen if disconnecting the supply while the armature current is still high

The motor will draw very large amount of current. The torque will increases to dangerously high value.

When the armature resistor is reduced in Test 5, what is observed from this condition?

The voltage drop in the variable resistance reduces the applied voltage to the armature and as a result, the
speed of the motor is reduced.

8. CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the component in the direct current circuit is related to the power output of DC
motor. A changed on a component might increases or decreases the speed or torque to the motor. The
result changes can be seen clearly from the above figure. Therefore, the efficiency of the motor must
be ensured highest to reduces the losses to its minimum value as possible.

9. REFERENCE

a) https://www.electrical4u.com/dc-motor-or-direct-current-motor/

b) Laughton M.A. and Warne D.F., Editors. Electrical engineer's reference book. 16th ed. Newnes, 2003.
Page 19-4.

c) Faculty Of Engineering, University Of Malaya (2013), Laboratory worksheet: Direct current


motor. Kuala Lumpur.

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