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I CS MD RD FRS

Torque Monitoring Measurments


Technical Description

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Frei verwendbar
High dynamic torque measurements

Torque is a primary process signal that • overload situations


describes the load in a drive train the
• low load situations
best way. Following information can be
derived from that: • high dynamic torque vibration
• torsion vibration
• resonance phenomena
• unequal load distribution
• Torque Amplification Factor, TAF
• load collectives
• verification of simulation models
• active Torque control
• Power and efficiency analyses

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Why not measure only the motor current
Example: Real measurement at a vertical mill drive

• Dynamical parts are filtered out, because of air gap damping and rotor inertia
• Current measurement shows changes with delay
• If motor is switched of, torque measuring is impossible but torques might be
still high
• Due to the dynamic structure of the spring mass system, the torques in the air
gap maybe completely different to the ones at the gearbox input or output shaft

torque at motor shaft, measured by strain gauges (in blue) shows true dynamic
and peak loads compared to calculated motor torque (in black)

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Torque measurement method

Signal amplifier Rotating Antenna Siplus 2000 Basic Unit


fixation on shaft Evaluation unit

Shaft
Stationary
Strain gauges Pickup Antenna

RS
R1 R4
Shunt calibration
U0

R2 R3
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Installation of strain gauges and
measuring instruments

Strain gauge

cold hardening
glue

Signal amplifier

Glass fibre ring


with
rotating antenna

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Mounted telemetric system

Stationary antenna

Rotating antenna,
Signal amplifier

Cabinet with evaluation unit

Common method for measurement:


=> Strain gauge based measurements by use of digital rotor telemetry
Experience at Siemens/Flender from more then 400 installations
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Torque Monitoring System Basic
Configuration based on SIPLUS CMS 2000

Access Server Access Portal Remote Service

Torque
Monitoring System

SIPLUS CMS 2000 Simatic IPC,


Bsic UNit X-Tools
software

• Torque Signal (0 - 1000 Hz)


• Speed signal by impulse sensor

torque
telemetry

Compact, cheap and simple, however expandable


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2015-02-20
Standard Setup in a Rittal Cabinet

Parts:
1. Microbox PC
2. Siplus CMS2000 Basic Unit
3. Power supply
  4. Torque evaluation unit
 5. Circuit breaker
6. Electrical socket
7. Terminal strip


 

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Analysis functions:
Raw data measurement with ring buffer

• Data collection with Siemens X-Tools


• Typical sampling rate 4 kHz (Bandwidth of Telemetry: 0 ... 1 kHz)
• Raw data are stored in a ring buffer for several days in case in-depth
analysis is needed.

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Analysis functions:
Min, Max, Average Torque as long-term storage

• Long term trend with typically 30 seconds Average ( ),


Maximum ( ), Minimum ( ) for data reduction.
• Trend data can be transferred daily to remote monitoring centre

T [kNm]

30 60 90 120 time [sec]

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Analysis functions:
Long-term data, example vertical mill gearbox

High peak Torque


event
Maximum
Nominal Average
Torque

Dynamics

Minimum

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Online calculation and monitoring of absolute
and relative dynamic torque values

Calculated absolute dynamic torque

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Analysis functions:
Eventmonitoring with pre- and post history

• Eventmonitoring with Pre- und Posttrigger, Sampling rate 2500 to 4000 Hz


• Email notification in case of an event. Events will be transferred an stored.

Trigger

Trigger level

pre history post history

40 [sec] 20 [sec]

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Analysis functions:
Load Classification

• Torque signals are classified online by rainflow counting and load duration
distribution (LDD) counting and results are stored once a day.
• Results are used by engineering departments for calculation of application
factors and fatigue life calculation for gears, shafts and bearings.

Rainflow Counting Load duration distribution


number of load cycles

rel. exposure time


load range

mean load
Torque
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Frequency selective monitoring, example
Comparison of torque and vibration acceleration

T op [kNm] raw mill\Vertical Mill Gearbox\M-1 torque [kNm]\1019 AC Spectrum Torque 25.08.2008 00:20:20
5.0
4.5 4-times rotation frequency Torque
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
f [Hz]
v op [mm/s] raw mill\Vertical Mill Gearbox\A-7 input shaft bearing 151 \1002 SV3,0kHz0,25Hz20s 25.08.2008 00:18:04
1.0
MesSt2H1

MesSt1H1
RotSh1H1

0.9 Acceleration
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
f [Hz]

Local tooth defect can be diagnosed by sideband diagnosis.


4-times rotational frequency can be seen clearly.
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Frequency selective monitoring, example
Trend of the fault symptom

T [kNm] raw mill\Vertical Mill Gearbox\M-1 torque [kNm], 1105\1019 AC Spectrum Torque\RotSh1H4
2.0
Torque
1.5
Dt
1.0
1. Warning
0.5

0.0

25.08.08 08.09.08 22.09.08 06.10.08 20.10.08 03.11.08 17.11.08 01.12.08 15.12.08


date
v [mm/s] raw mill\Vertical Mill Gearbox\A-7 input shaft bearing 151,1203\1002 SV3,0kHz0,25Hz20s\RotSh1H4
0.6
0.5 Acceleration
0.4
0.3 1. Warning
0.2
0.1
0.0
25.08.08 08.09.08 22.09.08 06.10.08 20.10.08 03.11.08 17.11.08 01.12.08 15.12.08
date

Torque shows beginning tooth defect 6 days before the


vibration acceleration signal
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Frequency selective monitoring, example
Visual inspection

Early detected fault by means of torque signal

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Alarming on Torque overload by digital output
or by software, e. g. OPC-UA, TCP-Telegram, Email

• Directly after the alarm situation (high torque event, high dynamic event), the
system automatically sends out an email to the responsible persons via the
cRSP Servers. The receiver addresses can be freely configured and are not
limited.
• Alarms can be transferred by different software protocols to the automation
system. Software engineering for linkage with the automation system can be
ordered as an option.

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Storage functions, Offline data analysis

• Data will be stored locally on the Industry PC.


• Long-term data (Min/Max/AV and speed) will be stored for the
complete service life of the gearbox.
• High resolution torque data will be stored with 2500 Hz in a configurable
ring storage. Typical storage time is 2 Weeks, oldest data will be overwritten.
• All high resolution torque event recordings will be stored permanently.
• When as remote service contract is signed, long-term data and event
recordings will be stored on secure network drives in the Siemens Network.
• For offline data analysis and reporting the data can be visualized by means
of the Freeware X-Tools Offline data viewer.

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Delivery and assembly

• The Torque Monitoring System will come in one Rittal cabinet


• The strain gauges need to be glued on a suitable shaft of the drive train.
• Standard shaft diameters can be up to 300 mm. Above this size, a telemetry
system with a higher output power is necessary, that can be ordered as an option.
• 50 mm axial clearance at the shaft is needed for installation of the rotating parts of
the telemetry. If this space is not available a special engineering is necessary.
• In-Situ mounting of the strain gauges is possible in most cases. Typically an
8 hours standstill of the drive with ambient temperatures between 10°C and
40°C during installation is needed.
• The best way is to order the gearbox with the strain gauges readily mounted ex
works. Then it is a plug an play system. Only 110V/220 V power supply and an
internet connection is needed.
• The cabinet has to be mounted near the drive train, but on a vibration free
foundation with ambient conditions between 0°C and 45°C. No direct sun
radiation is allowed, because of possible overheating of the electronic parts. The
maximum cable length between the stationary antenna and the cabinet is < 12 m.
• Commissioning service is possible world wide and has to be paid separately.
© Siemens AG 2013 All rights reserved.
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Calibration and accuracy / Typical service life

• For calibrating the torque signal the so called electrical shunt calibration is done
as a standard. In this method, based on E-Modulus of the shaft material and the
geometry, a shunt resistance value is calculated that simulates a Wheatstone
bridge signal of the nominal torque. Typically the torque signal accuracy is better
then 8% of the nominal gearbox torque.
• If higher accuracy is needed a mechanical calibration has to be done that need
further engineering an time.
• Even if the strain gauges are glued geometrically very exactly, a temperature
related zero point drift cannot be avoided, because of the temperature sensitivity
of all electrical components. The deviations typically stay within the 8% accuracy.
• Service life of strain gauge applications is restricted be the glue and surrounding
environment. The service life is typically higher then 5 years.
• Siemens assumes no liability for the strain gauge application.

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Standard package

Rittal cabinet including:


• Torque telemetry evaluation unit
• Nanobox PC (8GB RAM, 320 GB HDD)
• SIPLUS CMS2000 Basic Unit
• wiring to terminal blocks

Sensors package:
• speed probe
• Torque Measurement Set (Ø < 300 mm)
 Strain gauges
 Pre-Amplifier
 Receiving unit
 Evaluation unit
 solid rotor ring antenna out of fibre glass

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Extensions

• Temperature module for 3 temperature sensors (max. 2 can be connected)

• 2nd Torque Measurement Set (Ø < 300 mm)


 Strain gauges
 Pre-Amplifier
 Receiving unit
 Evaluation unit
 solid rotor ring antenna out of fibre glass

• Sensors
 Flender Accelerometer F6110-2 (max. 2 can be connected)
 10 m cable and connector MIL5015 for Accelerometer F6110-2

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Nonstandard Extensions – On Request

• PT100 transmitter

• Phoenix contact galvanic isolator for transfer of +/- 10 Volt signal to automation

• Phoenix contact galvanic isolator for transfer of 4 ... 20 mA signal to automation

• Telemetry evaluation unit and U-Antenna for 5W HF-Power for shafts


Ø > 300 mm

• Installation of evaluation unit(s) in a separate Rittal cabinet, if no suitable place


for the TMC cabinet can be found at the gearbox .

• GPRS Modem for Remote Access

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Standard Packages for Torque Monitoring System

TMS Standard TMS with 3 channel temperature module

Hardware packages
TMS one channel

Inclusive:
1 Speed Sensor
1 Set of telemetric device 2LX6860-0HD35-0AA0
2LX6860-0HD37-0AA0
Free Inputs (sensor not inclusive)
2 channels for IEPE sensors
1 analog input-channel +/- 10V; 4 to 20 mA

TMS two channel

Inclusive:
1 Speed Sensor
2 Sets of telemetric device 2LX6860-0HD36-0AA0 2LX6860-0HD38-0AA0

Free Inputs (sensor not inclusive)


2 channels for IEPE sensors

Sensors and cables

IEPE sensor (Flender Accelerometer F6110-2) FFA:000001155841

10 m cable and connector MIL5015 for Accelerometer F6110-2 FFA:000001159686

Effort based Effort based


Installation and Commissioning of the hardware

Remote Service 2LX6860-0JE00 2LX6860-0KE00 add on second torque sensor

© Siemens AG 2013 All rights reserved.


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Contact address

Siemens AG
I CS LS MD RD FRS
Am Industriepark 2
64562 Voerde

norbert.dahlhaus@siemens.com
+49(0)2871-92-1063
holger.terhaar@siemens.com
+49(0)2871-92-1068

Fax: 0287192-1891

© Siemens AG 2013 All rights reserved.


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