MCRP 3-40.

3B
(Formerly MCRP 6-22C)



Radio Operator's
Handbook

















U.S. Marine Corps







PCN 144 00067 00

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: approved for public release; distribution is unlimited










DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
Headquarters United States Marine Corps
Washington, D.C. 20380-1775
2 June 1999
FOREWORD
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 6-22, Communications
and Information Systems, provides the doctrine and tactics, techniques,
and procedures for the conduct of communications and information sys-
tems across the spectrum of Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF)
operations. Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 3-40.3B, Radio
Operator’s Handbook, complements and expands upon this information
by detailing doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures for operating
single-channel high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF), and
ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radios. The primary target audience for this
publication is Marine Corps radio operators and other users of single-
channel radios.
MCRP 3-40.3B describes—
l Basic radio principles.
l Single-channel radio.
l Equipment sighting and grounding techniques.
l Antennas.
l Interference.
l Radio operations under unusual conditions.
l Electronic warfare.
MCRP 3-40.3B provides the requisite information needed by Marine radio
operators to understand, plan, and execute successful single-channel
radio operations in support of the MAGTF.
MCWP 3-40.3B supersedes FMFM 3-35, Radio Operator’s
Handbook, dated 26 September 1991.
Reviewed and approved this date.
BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS
J. E. RHODES
Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps
Commanding General
Marine Corps Combat Development Command
DISTRIBUTION: 144 000067 00
Radio Operator’s Handbook
Table of Contents
Page
Chapter 1. Radio Principles
Section I. Theory and Propagation
Basic Components of Radio Equipment 1-2
Radio Waves 1-3
Radio Wave Propagation 1-6
Section II. Modulation and Single Side Band
Transmission
Modulation 1-14
Single Side Band Transmission 1-16
Chapter 2. Single-Channel Radio
Single-Channel Radio Communications Equipment 2-1
High Frequency Radio 2-2
Very High Frequency Radio 2-6
Ultrahigh Frequency Radio 2-11
Data Communications 2-15
Chapter 3. Equipment Siting and Grounding Techniques
High Frequency 3-1
Very High Frequency and Ultrahigh Frequency 3-3
Grounding Techniques 3-10
Data Communications 2-15
Chapter 4. Antennas
High Frequency Antennas 4-1
Very High Frequency Antennas 4-6
Antenna Length 4-7
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___________________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
Chapter 5. Interference
Natural Interference 5-1
Manmade Interference 5-1
Poor Equipment Condition and Improper Usage 5-2
Frequency Interference and Intermodulation 5-2
Use of Unauthorized Frequencies 5-3
Frequency Reuse 5-3
Chapter 6. Radio Operations Under Unusual Conditions
Operations in Desert Areas 6-1
Operations in Jungle Areas 6-3
Operations in a Cold Weather Environment 6-5
Operations in Mountainous Areas 6-9
Operations in Special Environments 6-9
Chapter 7. Electronic Warfare
Electronic Attack Techniques 7-1
Electronic Protection Techniques 7-6
Electronic Warfare Support Techniques 7-10
Appendices
A Map Coordinates A-1
B Time Zones B-1
C Prowords C-1
D Phonetic Alphabet D-1
E Phonetic Numerals E-1
F Prosigns F-1
G Instructions for Preparing Field Messages G-1
H Radio Log H-1
I Metric System Conversion Table I-1
J Authentication J-1
K International Morse Code K-1
L Frequency Prediction Means L-1
MPosition and Navigation Systems M-1
N Size of Dipole and Inverted L Antennas N-1
O Field Repair and Expedients O-1
P Radio Operator’s Checklist P-1
Q Glossary Q-1
R References and Related Publications R-1
Toc.fm Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:49 AM
Chapter 1
Radio Principles
Communications and information systems (CIS) are any systems whose
primary functions are to collect, process, or exchange information. The
fundamental requirement is to provide the Marine air-ground task force
(MAGTF) commander with a reliable, secure, fast, and flexible commu-
nications network.
Communications and information systems automate routine functions,
thereby freeing commanders and staffs to focus on those aspects of com-
mand and control that require experience, judgment, and intuition.
These systems and the personnel who install, operate, and maintain them
play a key role in the command and control of the MAGTF. Communi-
cations and informations systems support the commander and every staff
section in every phase of operations planning and execution.
These systems facilitate information flow throughout the MAGTF and
provide shared situational awareness, informed decisionmaking, and
rapid dissemination of decisions.
The success of the MAGTF in the modern battlespace depends on the
effective employment of communications and information systems.
Single-channel radio (SCR) is one of the most important components of
MAGTF CIS.
1-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Section I. Theory and Propagation
BASIC COMPONENTS OF RADIO EQUIPMENT
The radio equipment for communication between two stations and the
path the signal follows through the air is called a radio link. A radio link
consists of seven components: the transmitter, power supply, transmis-
sion lines, transmitting antenna, propagation path, receiving antenna,
and receiver (see figure 1-1).
The transmitter generates a radio signal. The power supply (i.e., battery
or generator) supplies power for the operating voltage of the radio. The
transmission line delivers the signal from the transmitter to the antenna.
TRANSMISSION
LINES
TRANSMITTING
ANTENNA
PROPAGATION
PATH
RECEIVING
ANTENNA
POWER
SUPPLY
TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
Figure 1-1. Radio Link.
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1-3
The transmitting antenna sends the radio signal into space toward the
receiving antenna. The path in space that the radio signal follows as it
goes to the receiving antenna is the propagation path. The receiving
antenna intercepts or receives the signal and sends it through a transmis-
sion line to the receiver. The receiver processes the radio signal so the
human ear can hear it.
When transmitting, the radio operator aims to provide the strongest pos-
sible signal at the site of the receiving station. The best possible signal is
that signal which will provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio at the
receiving antenna.
To transmit the best possible signal, select or determine the—
l Optimum frequency.
l Best antenna for that frequency based on the available space of the
transmitting site.
l Proper propagation path.
RADIO WAVES
Propagation Velocity (Speed)
Radio waves travel near the surface of the Earth and radiate skyward at
various angles to the Earth’s surface. These electromagnetic waves
travel through space at the speed of light, approximately 300,000 kilo-
meters (km) or 186,000 miles (mi) per second.
Wavelength
Wavelength is the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest
of the next wave (see figure 1-2 on page 1-4). It can also be the length of
one complete cycle of the waveform. It is also the distance traveled dur-
ing one complete cycle. The length of the wave is always measured in
meters.
1-4
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Radio Frequency
The frequency of a radio wave is the number of complete cycles that
occur in one second. The longer the cycle, the longer the wavelength and
the lower the frequency. The shorter the cycle, the shorter the wave-
length and the higher the frequency. Frequency is measured and stated in
units called hertz (Hz). One cycle per second is stated as 1 hertz.
Because the frequency of a radio wave is very high, it is generally mea-
sured and stated in thousands of hertz (kilohertz [KHz]) or in millions of
hertz (megahertz [MHz]). One KHz is equal to 1,000 cycles per second,
and 1 MHz is equal to a million cycles per second. Sometimes frequen-
cies are expressed in billions of hertz (gigahertz [GHz]). One GHz is
equal to a billion cycles per second.
For practical purposes, the velocity of a radio wave is considered to be
constant, regardless of the frequency or the amplitude of the transmitted
wave. Therefore, to find the frequency when the wavelength is known,
divide the velocity by the wavelength.
To find the wavelength when the frequency is known, divide the velocity
by the frequency.
Frequency (hertz)
=
300 million (meters per second)
Wavelength (meters)
Wavelength (meters)
=
300 million (meters per second)
Frequency (hertz)
STRENGTH
TIME OR DISTANCE
ONE CYCLE
WAVELENGTH
PEAK
PEAK
0
Figure 1-2. Radio Waves.
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1-5
Within the radio frequency spectrum (see figure 1-3), radio frequencies
are divided into groups or bands of frequencies. The radio frequency
spectrum is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Most tactical radio sets
operate within a 2- to 400-MHz range within the frequency spectrum.
Each frequency band has certain characteristics. The ranges and power
requirements shown in table 1-1 are for normal operating conditions
(proper siting and antenna orientation and correct operating procedures).
The ranges will change according to the condition of the propagation
medium and the transmitter output power.
Table 1-1. Frequency Range Characteristics.
Band
Ground Wave
Range
Sky Wave
Range
Power
Required
HF 0-50 miles 100-8000 miles .5-5 kW
VHF 0-30 miles 50-150 miles .5 or less
kW
UHF 0-50 miles N/A .5 or less
kW
Figure 1-3. Electromagnetic Spectrum.
V
I
S
I
B
L
E
UV X-RAY GAMMA-
RAY
COSMIC-
RAY
3
M
H
z
3
0
M
H
z
3
0
0
M
H
z
3
G
H
z
H
F
V
H
F
U
H
F
IR
RADIO
1-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION
There are two principal paths by which radio waves travel from a trans-
mitter to the receiver (See figure 1-4): ground wave—which travels
directly from the transmitter to the receiver and sky wave—which trav-
els up to the ionosphere and is refracted (i.e., bent downward) back to
the Earth. Short-distance, ultrahigh frequency (UHF), and upper very
high frequency (VHF) transmissions are by ground waves. Long-dis-
tance, high frequency (HF) transmission is principally by sky waves.
Single-channel radio sets can use ground wave or sky wave propagation
for communications.
Ground Wave Propagation
Radio communications which use ground wave propagation do not use
or depend on waves that are refracted from the ionosphere (i.e., sky
waves). Ground wave propagation is affected by the electrical character-
istics of the Earth and by the amount of diffraction (i.e., bending) of the
GROUND WAVES
IONOSPHERE
SKY WAVES
Figure 1-4. Principle Paths of Radio Waves.
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1-7
waves along the curvature of the Earth. The strength of the ground wave
at the receiver depends on the power output and frequency of the trans-
mitter, the shape and conductivity of Earth along the transmission path,
and the local weather. The following paragraphs describe the compo-
nents of a ground wave. See figure 1-5.
Direct Wave. The direct wave is that part of the radio wave which travels
directly from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. This part
of the wave is limited to the line of sight (LOS) distance between the
transmitting and receiving antennas, plus the small distance added by
atmospheric refraction and diffraction of the wave around the curvature
of the Earth. This distance can be extended by increasing the height of
the transmitting antenna, the receiving antenna, or both.
Ground Reflected Wave. The ground reflected wave is that portion of the
radio wave which reaches the receiving antenna after being reflected
from the surface of the earth. Cancellation of the radio signal can occur
when the ground reflected component and the direct wave component
arrive at the receiving antenna at the same time and are 180° out of phase
with each other.
Surface Wave. The surface wave, which follows the curvature of the
Earth, is that part of the ground wave which is affected by the conductiv-
ity and dielectric constant of the Earth.
GROUND REFLECTED
DIRECT WAVE
SURFACE
WAVE
WAVE
Figure 1-5. Ground Wave Propagation.
1-8
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Sky Wave Propagation
Radio communications that use sky wave propagation depend on the
ionosphere to provide the signal path between the transmitting and
receiving antennas.
Ionospheric Structure. The ionosphere has four layers (see fig. 1-6). In
order of increasing heights and decreasing molecular densities, these
layers are labeled D, E, F1, and F2. During the day, when the rays of the
F1 & F2
F1
E
D
F2
COMBINE
F2 250-500 km (250-420 km at night)
F1 200-250 km
E 90-130 km
D 75-90 km
SUN
AT NIGHT
F2
F1
E
D
DAYLIGHT POSITIONS
Figure 1-6. Layers of the Ionosphere.
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1-9
Sun are directed toward that portion of the atmosphere, all four layers
may be present. At night, the F1 and F2 layers seem to merge into a sin-
gle F layer, and the D and E layers fade out. The actual number of layers,
their height above the Earth, and their relative intensity of ionization var-
ies constantly. The following are layers of the ionosphere:
l D—exists only during daylight hours and has little effect in bending
the paths of high frequency radio waves. The main effect of the D
layer is to attenuate high frequency waves when the transmission path
is in sunlit regions.
l E—used during the day for high frequency radio transmission over
intermediate distances (less than 2,400 km [1,500 mi]). At night, the
intensity of the E layer decreases, and it becomes useless for radio
transmission.
l F—exists at heights up to 380 kilometers (240 mi) above the Earth
and is ionized all the time. It has two well-defined layers (F1 and F2)
during the day, and one layer (i.e., F) during the night. At night, the F
layer remains at a height of about 260 kilometers (170 mi) and is use-
ful for long-range radio communications (over 2,400 km [1,500 mi]).
The F2 layer is the most useful of all layers for long-range radio com-
munications, even though its degree of ionization varies appreciably
from day to day.
Factors Affecting the Ionosphere. The movements of the Earth around
the Sun and changes in the Sun’s activity contribute to ionospheric vari-
ations. There are two main classes of variations: regular, which is pre-
dictable; and irregular, which occurs from abnormal behavior of the Sun.
Regular Variations of the Ionosphere. The regular variations are—
l Daily—caused by the rotation of the Earth.
l Seasonal—caused by the north and south progression of the Sun.
l 27-day—caused by the rotation of the Sun on its axis.
l 11-year—caused by the sunspot activity cycle going from maximum
to minimum, back to maximum levels of intensity.
1-10
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Irregular Variations of the Ionosphere. The current status of the four reg-
ular variations must be anticipated when planning a communications
system. There are also unpredictable, irregular variations that must be
considered. They have a degrading effect (at times blocking communica-
tions) which cannot be controlled or compensated for at present. Some
irregular variations are—
l Sporadic E. When it is excessively ionized, the E layer often blocks
out the reflections back from the higher layers. It can also cause unex-
pected propagation of signals hundreds of miles beyond the normal
range. This effect can occur at any time.
l Sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID). A sudden ionospheric distur-
bance coincides with a bright solar eruption and causes abnormal ion-
ization of the D layer. This effect causes total absorption of all
frequencies above approximately 1 MHz. It can occur without warn-
ing during daylight hours and last from a few minutes to several
hours. When SID occurs, receivers seem to go dead.
l Ionospheric storms. During these storms, sky wave reception above
approximately 1.5 MHz shows low intensity and is subject to a type
of rapid blasting and fading called “flutter fading.” These storms may
last from several hours to days and usually extend over the entire
Earth.
Sunspots. Sunspots generate bursts of radiation that cause high levels of
ionization. The more sunspots, the greater the ionization. During periods
of low sunspot activity, frequencies above 20 MHz tend to be unusable
because the E and F layers are too weakly ionized to reflect signals back
to earth. At the peak of the sunspot cycle, however, it is not unusual to
have worldwide propagation on frequencies above 30 MHz.
Frequency Characteristics in the Ionosphere. The range of long-distance
radio transmission is determined primarily by the ionization density of
each layer. The higher the frequency, the greater the ionization density
required to reflect radio waves back to Earth. The upper (i.e., E and F)
layers reflect the higher frequencies because they are the most highly
ionized. The D layer, which is the least ionized, does not reflect frequen-
cies above approximately 500 KHz. Thus, at any given time and for each
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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1-11
ionized layer, there is an upper frequency limit at which radio waves sent
vertically upward are reflected back to Earth. This limit is called the crit-
ical frequency.
Radio waves directed vertically at frequencies higher than the critical
frequency pass through the ionized layer out into space. All radio waves
directed vertically into the ionosphere at frequencies lower than the crit-
ical frequency are reflected back to Earth. Radio waves used in commu-
nications are generally directed towards the ionosphere at some oblique
angle, called the angle of incidence. Radio waves at frequencies above
the critical frequency will be reflected back to Earth if transmitted at
angles of incidence smaller than a certain angle, called the critical angle.
At the critical angle and all angles larger than the critical angle the radio
waves will pass through the ionosphere if the frequency is higher than
the critical frequency. When the angle of transmission becomes smaller,
the radio waves will be reflected back to Earth.
Transmission Paths. The distance from the transmitting antenna to the
place where the sky waves first return to Earth is called the skip distance.
The skip distance is dependent on the angle of incidence, the operating
frequency, and the height and density of the ionosphere. The antenna
height, in relation to the operating frequency, affects the angle that trans-
mitted radio waves strike and penetrate the ionosphere and then return to
Earth. This angle of incidence can be controlled to obtain the desired
area of coverage. Lowering the antenna will increase the angle of trans-
mission and provide broad and even signal patterns in a large area. The
use of near-vertical transmission paths is known as near-vertical inci-
dence sky wave (NVIS). Raising the antenna will lower the angle of
incidence. Lowering the angle of incidence can produce a skip zone in
which no usable signal can be received. This area is bounded by the
outer edge of usable ground wave propagation and the point nearest the
antenna at which the sky wave returns to Earth. In most communications
situations, the skip zone is not a desirable condition. However, low
angles of incidence make long-distance communications possible.
When a transmitted wave is reflected back to the surface of the Earth,
part of its energy is absorbed by the Earth. The remainder of its energy is
reflected back into the ionosphere to be reflected back again. This means
1-12
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MCRP 3-40.3B
of transmission—by alternately reflecting the radio wave between the
ionosphere and the Earth—is called hops, and it enables radio waves to
be received at great distances from the point of origin.
Maximum Usable and Lowest Usable Frequencies. There is a maximum
frequency at which a radio wave will return to Earth at a given distance
when a given ionized layer and a transmitting antenna with a fixed angle
of radiation is used. This frequency is called the maximum usable fre-
quency (MUF). It is the monthly median of the daily highest frequency
that is predicted for sky wave transmission over a particular path at a
particular hour of the day. The MUF is always higher than the critical
frequency because the angle of incidence is less than 90°. If the distance
between the transmitter and the receiver is increased, the maximum
usable frequency will also increase. Radio waves lose some of their
energy through absorption by the D layer and the portion of the E layer
of the ionosphere at certain transmission frequencies.
The total absorption is less and communications are more satisfactory as
higher frequencies are used up to the level of the MUF. The absorption
rate is greatest for frequencies ranging from approximately 500 KHz to 2
MHz during the day. At night, the absorption rate decreases for all fre-
quencies. As the frequency of transmission over any sky wave path is
decreased from high to low frequencies, a frequency will be reached at
which the received signal just overrides the level of atmospheric and
other radio noise interference. This is called the lowest useful frequency
(LUF) because frequencies lower than the LUF are too weak for useful
communications. The LUF also depends on the power output of the
transmitter as well as the transmission distance. When the LUF is greater
than the MUF, no sky wave transmission is possible.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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1-13
Section II. Modulation and Single Side Band
Transmission
Radio communications equipment is used primarily to transmit voice
and data. Although sound can be converted to audio frequency electrical
energy, it is not practical to transmit it in this energy form through the
Earth’s atmosphere by electromagnetic radiation. For example, efficient
transmission of a 20-hertz audio signal would require an antenna almost
8,000 kilometers (5,000 mi) long. This would not apply when radio fre-
quency electrical energy is used to carry the intelligence. When radio
frequency electrical energy is used, great distances can be covered; effi-
cient antennas for radio frequencies are of practical lengths; and antenna
power losses are at reasonable levels.
The frequency of the radio wave affects its propagation characteristics.
In the low frequency band (.03 to.3 MHz), the ground wave is very use-
ful for communications over great distances. The ground wave signals
are quite stable and show little seasonal variation. In the medium fre-
quency band (.3 to 3.0 MHz), the range of the ground wave varies from
about 24 kilometers (15 mi) at 3 MHz, to about 640 kilometers (400 mi)
at the lowest frequencies of this band. Sky wave reception is possible
during the day or night at any of the lower frequencies in this band. At
night, the sky wave is receivable at distances up to 12,870 kilometers
(8,000 mi). In the high frequency band (3 to 30 MHz), the range of the
ground wave decreases as frequency increases, and the sky waves are
greatly influenced by ionospheric considerations.
In the very high frequency band (30 to 300 MHz), there is no usable
ground wave and only slight refraction of sky waves by the ionosphere
at the lower frequencies. The direct wave provides communications if
the transmitting and receiving antennas are elevated high enough above
the surface of the Earth.
In the ultrahigh frequency band (300 to 3,000 MHz), the direct wave
must be used for all transmissions. Communications are limited to a
short distance beyond the horizon. Lack of static and fading in these
bands makes line of sight reception very satisfactory. Antennas that are
highly directional can be used to concentrate the beam of radio fre-
quency (RF) energy, thus, increasing the signal intensity.
1-14
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MCRP 3-40.3B
MODULATION
Both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) trans-
mitters produce RF carriers. The carrier is a wave of constant amplitude,
frequency, and phase which can be modulated by changing its ampli-
tude, frequency, or phase. Thus, the RF carrier “carries” intelligence by
being modulated. Modulation is the process of superimposing intelli-
gence (voice or coded signals) on the carrier.
Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude modulation is the variation of the RF power output of a trans-
mitter at an audio rate. In other words, the RF energy increases and
decreases in power according to the audio frequencies superimposed on
the carrier signal.
When audio frequency signals are superimposed on the radio frequency
carrier signal, additional RF signals are generated. These additional fre-
quencies are equal to the sum of, and the difference between the audio
frequencies and the radio frequency used. For example, assume a 500-
KHz carrier is modulated by a 1-KHz audio tone. Two new frequencies
are developed, one at 501 KHz (the sum of 500 KHz and 1 KHz) and the
other at 499 KHz (the difference between 500 KHz and 1 KHz). If a
complex audio signal is used instead of a single tone, two new frequen-
cies will be set up for each of the audio frequencies involved. The new
frequencies resulting from superimposing an audio frequency (AF) sig-
nal on an RF signal are called side bands.
When the RF carrier is modulated by complex tones such as speech,
each separate frequency component of the modulating signal produces
its own upper and lower side band frequencies. The side band that con-
tains the sum of the RF and AF signals is called the upper side band. The
side band that contains the difference between the RF and AF signals is
called the lower side band.
The space occupied by a carrier and its associated side bands in
the radio frequency spectrum is called a channel. In amplitude modula-
tion, the width of the channel (bandwidth) is equal to twice the highest
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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1-15
modulating frequency. For example, if a 5,000 KHz (5 MHz) carrier is
modulated by a band of frequencies ranging from 200 to 5,000 cycles (.2
to 5 KHz), the upper side band extends from 5,000.2 to 5,005 KHz. The
lower side band extends from 4,999.8 KHz to 4,995 KHz. Thus, the
bandwidth is the difference between 5,005 KHz and 4,995 KHz, a total
of 10 KHz.
Frequency Modulation
Frequency modulation is the process of varying the frequency (rather
than the amplitude) of the carrier signal in accordance with the varia-
tions of the modulating signals. The amplitude or power of the FM car-
rier does not vary during modulation.
The frequency of the carrier signal when it is not modulated is called the
center or rest frequency. When a modulating signal is applied to the
carrier, the carrier signal will move up and down in frequency, away
from the center or rest frequency.
The amplitude of the modulating signal determines how far away from
the center frequency the carrier will move. This movement of the carrier
is called deviation; how far the carrier moves is called the amount of
deviation. During reception of the FM signal, the amount of deviation
determines the loudness or volume of the signal.
The FM signal leaving the transmitting antenna is constant in amplitude
but varies in frequency according to the audio signal. As the signal trav-
els to the receiving antenna, it picks up natural and man-made electrical
noises that cause amplitude variations in the signal. All of these undesir-
able amplitude variations are amplified as the signal passes through suc-
cessive stages of the receiver until the signal reaches a part of the
receiver called the limiter. The limiter is unique to FM receivers as is the
discriminator.
The limiter eliminates the amplitude variations in the signal, then passes
it on to the discriminator which is sensitive to variations in the frequency
of the RF wave. The resultant constant amplitude, frequency-modulated
signal is then processed by the discriminator circuit which changes the
1-16
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MCRP 3-40.3B
frequency variations into corresponding voltage amplitude variations.
These voltage variations reproduce the original modulating signal in a
headset, loudspeaker, or teletypewriter. Frequency modulation is gener-
ally used by radiotelephone transmitters operating in the VHF and
higher frequency bands.
SINGLE SIDE BAND TRANSMISSION
The intelligence of an AM signal is contained solely in the side bands.
Each side band contains all the intelligence needed for communications.
Therefore, one side band and the carrier signal can be eliminated. This is
the principle on which single side band (SSB) communications is based.
Although both side bands are generated within the modulation circuitry
of the SSB radio set, the carrier and one side band are removed before
any signal is transmitted.
The side band that is higher in frequency than the carrier is called the
upper side band (USB). The side band that is lower in frequency than the
carrier is called the lower side band (LSB). Either side band can be used
for communications as long as both the transmitter and the receiver are
adjusted to the same side band. Most SSB equipment operates in the
USB mode. The transmission of only one side band leaves open that por-
tion of the RF spectrum normally occupied by the other side band of an
AM signal. This allows more emitters to be used within a given fre-
quency range.
Single side band transmission is used in applications when it is desired
to—
l Obtain greater reliability.
l Limit size and weight of equipment.
l Increase effective output without increasing antenna voltage.
l Operate a large number of radio sets without heterodyne interference
(e.g., whistles and squeals) from radio frequency carriers.
l Operate over long ranges without loss of intelligibility because of
selective fading.
Chapter 2
Single-Channel Radio
SINGLE-CHANNEL RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
EQUIPMENT
Single-channel radio is the principal means of communications support
for MAGTF maneuver units. SCR communications equipment is easy to
operate. The networks are easily established, rapidly reconfigured, and,
most importantly, easily maintained on the move. SCR provides secure
voice communications and supports limited data information exchange.
SCR in the VHF and UHF bands is normally limited to line of sight. In
the HF band, SCR can support long-range communications. SCR satel-
lite communications (SATCOM) provides mobility, flexibility, and ease
of operation with unlimited range. Limitations of SCR include suscepti-
bility to enemy electronic warfare (i.e., cosite, terrain, and atmospheric
interference); the requirement for close coordination and detailed plan-
ning (i.e., a need for common timing, frequency, and equipment); and
limited spectrum availability. The latter is particularly critical in the case
of SATCOM.
MAGTF SCR equipment is fielded in many configurations and includes
hand-held, manpack, vehicle-mounted, bench-mounted, and sheltered
radios. These radios operate in simplex and half-duplex modes. The
most widely employed tactical radios provide integrated communica-
tions security (COMSEC) and jam resistance through frequency hop-
ping. Tactical SCRs operate in the three military radio frequency bands
shown in Table 2-1 on page 1-2.
2-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO
HF radio equipment is capable of both long- and short-range secure
voice and data communications. Data communications capability is typi-
cally limited to rates of 2.4 kilobits per second (kbps). Data transmission
requires modems specifically designed for operation in this band of the
radio spectrum. The AN/PRC-104 is capable of remote operation by
using the analog AN/GRA-39B radio remote control. See fig. 2-1.
Table 2-1. SCR Equipment.
Frequency
Band
MAGTF SCR
Equipment Used
Operating
Frequency
Range
Typical
Application
HF AN/PRC-104
AN/GRC-193
AN/MRC-138
AN/TSC-120
2-29.999 MHz Radio line of
sight and
beyond/long
range
VHF AN/VRC-12 family:
AN/PRC-68
AN/PRC-77
SINCGARS family:
AN/PRC-119
AN/VRC-88 (A, D)
AN/VRC-89 (A, D)
AN/VRC-90 (A, D)
AN/VRC-91 (A, D)
AN/VRC-92 (A, D)
AN/GRC-213
AN/MRC-145
30-88 MHz Radio line of
sight and
relay/retrans-
mission
AN/PRC-113
AN/VRC-83
116-150 MHz Critical line of
sight (ground
to air)
UHF AN/PRC-113
AN/VRC-83
AN/GRC-171
225-400 MHz Critical line of
sight (ground
to air)
AN/PSC-3
AN/PSC-5
SATCOM
footprint
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
2-3
High frequency communications are capable of traveling around the
world under the right conditions. This accounts for the large number of
signals and noise in the receiver (e.g., thunderstorms). Conversely, the
HF transmission may be intercepted and traced by the enemy who is
many hundreds of miles away. VHF and UHF communications are nor-
mally limited to line of sight; therefore, their range is restricted. UHF
transmissions may also be used in satellite communications, increasing
ranges to thousands of miles.
High Frequency Radio Employment Considerations.
The primary advantage of using HF radio is its capability to provide
long-range, over the horizon (OTH) communication. Successful data
communications over the HF range depends on several factors: equip-
ment siting, proper equipment grounding, types of antennas used, and
other considerations such as tactical employment of radio equipment,
path assessment and analysis, and frequency planning and assignment.
When commercial data terminal equipment (DTE) is used, users
employing HF radio equipment need to be aware of radio interference
and potential shock hazards that can easily affect unprotected DTE.
Whenever possible, HF radio equipment should be remoted from DTE.
Figure 2-1. AN/PRC-104 HF Radio.
2-4
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MCRP 3-40.3B
High Frequency Radio Environmental Limitations
The primary limiting factors when using HF radios are frequency alloca-
tion and management and bandwidth availability. Frequency allocation
and management is concerned with frequency, time of day, time of year,
and location. The ability to reflect HF radio waves off the ionosphere to
a distant location is in a constant state of flux because of activity in the
ionosphere. The Sun’s radiation causes disturbances in the ionosphere,
with most changes taking place in what is known as the F layer (see
chapter 1 for more details). Sunrise and sunset can be the most difficult
times for HF communications. The F layer splits into two separate layers
around sunrise and recombines into one layer around sunset. These splits
affect transmission distances as the area “skipped over” increases and
decreases. At times, solar storms can eliminate all HF communications.
HF transmission paths must be constantly monitored to achieve a
dependable HF link. HF radio data communications capabilities are lim-
ited by the bandwidth that is imposed by legal constraints and the phys-
ics of the spectrum. The bandwidth available in the HF spectrum limits
the channel bandwidth, which limits data throughput.
High Frequency Propagation
There are two modes of propagation in HF: ground wave and sky wave.
See figure 2-2.
Ground Wave. Ground wave propagation involves the transmission of a
signal along the surface of the ground. The maximum ground wave
range for most tactical HF communications is about 20 to 30 kilometers
(12 to 22 miles) for manpack equipment and 80 to 100 kilometers for
high-power vehicular and van equipment. The range may be decreased
by heavy vegetation (e.g., Camp Lejeune), mountainous terrain (e.g.,
Camp Pendleton), or dry desert soil (e.g., Twenty-nine Palms). A ground
wave circuit will generally be free of fading and may last for the entire
24-hour period without the need to change frequencies.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
2-5
Sky Wave. Beyond this range, it is necessary to communicate by sky
wave. Sky wave propagation involves the bending of the signal by the
ionosphere. Frequencies are very important, as those above a certain
value will not bend back to earth but will punch through the ionosphere
into outer space. On the other hand, lower frequencies are noisier and
become absorbed by the ionosphere. The reflective nature of the iono-
sphere will change when sunlight hits it each day. As a result, at least
two frequencies are usually required during a 24-hour period: a low,
night frequency and a higher, day frequency.
Skip Zone
A skip zone is where no signals will be received from a particular trans-
mitter for a particular frequency. Skip zones are formed when the nearest
point at which a sky wave is received is beyond the furthest point
at which a ground wave is received. By using an antenna with a high
Figure 2-2. HF Propagation.
GROUND WAVE
SKIP ZONE
SKIP ZONE
S
K
Y

W
A
V
E

S
K
Y

W
A
V
E

IO
NOSPHER
E
2-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
radiation take-off angle (i.e., the angle measured from the Earth’s sur-
face to horizon up to the direction of propagation towards the iono-
sphere), HF radio waves can be bounced off the ionosphere and come
back to earth closer than they can with more commonly used antennas.
This can cause the skip zone to disappear if the waves do not punch
through.
The use of high radiation take-off angles is called near-vertical incident
sky wave (NVIS) communications. The limit of the effective range of
NVIS communications is usually about 300 miles. NVIS communica-
tions require a horizontally polarized antenna and are done over frequen-
cies between 2 and 12 MHz. Launch angles can be changed by altering
the antenna’s height above ground, but for most tactical applications
one-quarter wavelength above ground is sufficient. NVIS communica-
tions are particularly useful because they can be transmitted from mov-
ing vehicles. Used correctly, NVIS provides reliable, continuous
communications beyond the range of HF ground wave and VHF and
UHF line of sight. Multipath interference occurs when both the sky wave
and the ground wave signals from the transmitter arrive at different
times at the receiver. See figure 2-3. More detailed information on HF
propagation and antennas may be found in MCRP 6-22D, Antenna
Handbook.
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO
The primary MAGTF VHF radio is the single-channel ground and air-
borne radio system (SINCGARS). SINCGARS is a family of light-
weight combat radios that serves as the primary means of
communications for command and control and fire support on the battle-
field. SINCGARS is the standard VHF-FM tactical radio for the Marine
Corps, replacing the AN/PRC-77 and the AN/VRC-12 family. The sys-
tem provides high security against threat electronic warfare (EW) by
using frequency hopping with integrated COMSEC. It is capable of
voice and data transmission (up to 16 kbps under optimum conditions
and over limited distances) over the VHF-FM frequency range of 30 to
87.975 MHz. See MCRP 6-22A, Talk II SINCGARS Multiservice Com-
munications Procedures for the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne
Radio System, for more details.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
2-7
There are seven different SINCGARS configurations available, depend-
ing on the requirements of the user. These configurations include the
manpack AN/PRC-119 (see figure 2-4 on page 2-8), typically used in
infantry operations, and vehicle-mounted variants. The radio provides
voice communications ranges of up to 8 km for the manpack and 35 km
for vehicular configurations. SINCGARS is capable of remote operation
by using the analog AN/GRA-39B radio remote control, the digital
HYX-57 wire-line ADAPTER, or the digital C-11561 (C)/U remote con-
trol unit (RCU).
The SINCGARS radio has undergone a systems improvement program
(SIP). This radio is referred to as the SINCGARS SIP. The primary
improvements relate to the data transmission capabilities of the system.
A forward error correction appliqué was implemented in the receiver
and/or transmitter, and a new packet data mode was created to better
support packet networks. In addition, an improved channel access proto-
col was added, which optimizes data throughput performance while min-
imizing impact on voice communications on the same SINCGARS
channel.
Figure 2-3. Multipath Interference.
GROUND WAVE
S
K
Y

W
A
V
E

IO
NOSPHER
E
2-8
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
THE SINCGARS SIP radio is also available in a downsized version—
the result of an advanced systems improvement program (ASIP). This
radio is referred to as the SINCGARS ASIP. This radio will retain all the
functionality of the full-size SIP radio but is half the size. It weighs 7.6
pounds (including the battery). The radio is interchangeable with previ-
ous SINCGARS versions, including the capability to be mounted in
older vehicular adapter assemblies. A new feature of the SINCGARS
ASIP provides a retransmission capability while operating in the packet
data mode and will also employ a new, fast-channel access protocol for
improved operations in shared voice or data nets.
The AN/ARC-210 multipurpose radio supports single-channel air-to-air,
air-to-ground, and ground-to-air communications in tactical Navy and
Marine Corps fixed- and rotary wing aircraft. It can transmit and receive
VHF-FM, VHF-AM, and UHF signals. It is compatible with SINC-
GARS, HAVE QUICK, and HAVE QUICK II frequency hopping UHF
radios, and it can accept 25 preset, single-channel frequencies. The AN/
ARC-210 requires a TSEC/KY-58 encryption device to encrypt trans-
missions and decrypt received signals.
Figure 2-4. AN/PRC-119 SINCGARS Radio.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
2-9
Hand-Held Very High Frequency Radios
Radio operators may have the opportunity to use various commercial
off-the-shelf (COTS) VHF radios in the Fleet Marine Force (FMF). All
of these radios have been open-purchased by the user units and are not
part of the official Marine Corps table of equipment. Therefore, they
have not been assigned a table of authorization material control number
(TAMCN).
These hand-held radios are typically small, lightweight, battery-powered
equipment which provides clear (and in some cases secure) voice com-
munications on up to 100 different channels. Some models come with
headsets and microphones. Hand-held radios are mostly used at the
infantry-squad level or in maritime prepositioning force (MPF) offloads.
Very High Frequency Radio Employment Considerations
Operator maintenance of the radio equipment, antennas, cable assem-
blies, and equipment grounding as well as proper planning and selection
are essential to reliable communications. Frequency separation, radio
antenna separation, remote rekeying when using COMSEC, and power
output are significant employment factors. SINCGARS may be limited
to the single-channel mode when operating with some Navy ships. When
SINCGARS is employed in the frequency hopping mode, the following
operating factors need to be taken into account: hopset (i.e., frequency
segment allocation), net sych time and mission date, antenna placement
(cosite interference is more of a concern than in the single-channel oper-
ating mode), and power setting. SINCGARS radios configured for dif-
ferent hopsets that dial into the same numbered net will not be able to
communicate. MCRP 6-22A provides detailed information on the
employment of SINCGARS.
VHF SCR is the primary communications system for combat and com-
bat support units while on the move. The predominant mode of operation
is secure voice. However, use of VHF radio for data communications
will increase with the fielding of tactical information systems at the bat-
talion level and below. Small, hand-held VHF radios are used at the
small-unit level in the MAGTF. These radios are often commercial items
2-10
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
that lack compatibility with SINCGARS and do not have integrated
COMSEC. Their use should be governed accordingly.
Very High Frequency Radio Environmental Limitations
The primary limiting factors when using VHF radios are range and fre-
quency availability. VHF radios can provide reliable communications
for ranges of up to 10 miles, depending on the equipment operating con-
straints and the operating environment. Unit location must be considered
when employing radios that operate in the VHF spectrum. Most circuits
are limited to radio line of sight, known as four-thirds earth curvature.
VHF radio signals essentially follow the curvature of the earth to a dis-
tance that is approximately one-third greater than the distance to the
horizon. Foliage interferes with VHF signals and may reduce normal
operating ranges to significantly less than 10 miles.
Very High Frequency Propagation
Radios in the SINCGARS family are the principal VHF transceivers
used by the Marine Corps. The mode of communications used in this
range is frequently referred to as frequency modulation. VHF will
extend slightly beyond line of sight due to diffraction or bending of the
signal by the atmosphere (see fig. 2-5). At frequencies in the 30-MHz
range, VHF will often act like HF ground wave. The range of reliable
communications is generally no more than 15 to 20 kilometers (9.3 to
12.4 mi) under normal field conditions for manpack equipment. Vehicle-
mounted equipment may communicate farther because of higher trans-
mitter power and better antennas.
Figure 2-5. VHF Diffraction.
RECEIVING
ANTENNA
D
IF
F
R
A
C
T
IO
N

A
N
G
L
E
D
IFFR
A
CTE
D
W
AV
E
EARTH
TRANSMITTING
ANTENNA
Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
2-11
VHF LOS can also be plagued by multipath interference when the direct
ray and a reflected ray traveling over a slightly longer path combine at
the receiver antenna so that they periodically cancel or reinforce each
other (see fig. 2-6). The signal fades in and out over a period of time as a
result. Fading is not as great a problem with immobile equipment
because corrective action can be taken, but fading can cause significant
problems when one or more of the units are mobile.
ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY RADIO
Military UHF radio equipment operates in the 116 to 150 MHz upper-
VHF frequency range and the 225 to 400 MHz military UHF radio spec-
trum. MAGTF UHF radio sets such as the AN/PRC-113 (see figure 2-7
on page 2-12) are capable of data communications at 16 kbps under opti-
mal conditions. MAGTF ground and airborne UHF radios incorporate
the HAVE QUICK Electronic Counter-Counter Measures capability and
operate in single-channel and frequency hopping modes. The HAVE
QUICK UHF radio is capable of remote operation by using the AN/
GRA-39B or HYX-57.
Ultrahigh Frequency Radio Employment Considerations
UHF radios are used for forward air control (FAC) ground-to-air com-
munication. Line of sight between radios is critical for reliable commu-
nications. Significant range differences are encountered between UHF
radios employed for ground-to-air and ground-to-ground communica-
tions. Greater range is achieved when employed from ground-to-air
because of the increased line of sight. When UHF radios are employed in
RECEIVING
ANTENNA
DIRECT WAVE
W
A
V
E
R
E
F
L
E
C
T
E
D
EARTH
TRANSMITTING
ANTENNA
Figure 2-6. VHF LOS.
2-12
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
the frequency hopping mode, the following operating factors must be
understood for proper operation: hopset, time of day, antenna placement,
and power setting.
Ultrahigh Frequency Radio Environmental Limitations
The primary limiting factor when using UHF radios is range (i.e., critical
line of sight). Critical line of sight can be described as “what you see is
what you get.” As long as the radio’s antenna has optical line of sight to
another radio’s antenna, the two will be able to transmit and receive. For
this reason, UHF radios are used primarily in air-to-ground communica-
tions.
Figure 2-7. AN/PRC-113. UHF Radio.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
2-13
Ultrahigh Frequency-Tactical Satellite
The AN/PSC-5 is a portable, battery-operated, half-duplex UHF trans-
ceiver. It is employed for long-range communications. It weighs approx-
imately 14 pounds including antenna and batteries. The AN/PSC-5
provides two-way voice and data communications by satellite. It oper-
ates on the UHF frequency band of 225- to 400-MHz range. It provides
2,400 to 16,000-bits per second (bps) data rate, depending on mode set-
ting. Only one operator is required to operate it. The United States
Marine Corps UHF tactical SATCOM system supports and augments
the high precedence command and control and common-user, single-
channel requirements of a Marine air-ground task force and its major
subordinate headquarters.
The space segments used by the AN/PSC-5 are the Fleet Satellite Com-
munications, leased satellite communications, and UHF follow-on satel-
lites. All the satellites are located in geosynchronous orbits and permit
interconnections among mobile, ground terminals. The one-way distance
to servicing satellites is approximately 25,000 miles, resulting in a
round-trip propagation delay of approximately one-quarter of a second.
The shape of the satellite footprints is roughly circular but elongated
from north to south. This is caused by the angle at which the signal hits
the Earth’s surface and by the curvature of the Earth’s surface.
Multiple-access schemes can operate either with fixed-channel assign-
ments to the various users or with channels being assigned in varying
fashion according to demand. The latter is called demand assigned mul-
tiple access (DAMA). With demand assignment, the user makes a chan-
nel request, and a channel is allocated after a brief time lag. The DAMA
scheme of operation is employed on UHF-tactical satellite (TACSAT) to
share available channels more efficiently. The radio systems are compat-
ible with the KY-57 (wideband mode only), the KY-99 and ANDVT
(narrowband mode only), and the KG-84C (wideband or narrowband)
COMSEC equipment. This radio equipment is also capable of remote
operations by using the AN/GRA-39B (narrowband mode) or HYX-57
(wide-band mode).
2-14
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
TACSAT Radio Employment Considerations. Because of TACSAT’s lim-
ited availability, the MAGTF employs TACSAT primarily to support
critical, long-range communications requirements (e.g., communications
support for deep reconnaissance operations or connectivity to the tactical
echelon of a MEU[SOC] when deployed ashore). The AN/PSC-5 is the
primary DAMA-capable, TACSAT radio available to the MAGTF (see
fig. 2-8). TACSAT limitations include the competition for available fre-
quency resources and channel time on the satellite. If only narrow band
channels are available, channel-data rates are limited to 2,400 bps. Chan-
nel congestion, noise, and network saturation will affect the information
flow on satellite channels and will require a significant reduction in the
data transmission rates to sustain data communications. Transmit power
selection can be critical. Increasing the transmit power can decrease net
effectiveness. Larger directional antennas provide increased signal gain,
which increases the transmitted signal power. Antennas for these sys-
tems are lightweight and fragile and, therefore, require constant mainte-
nance and inspection for proper operation. Satellites are shared
resources. Exact frequency, bandwidth, and power of every carrier trans-
mitted through the satellite is strictly controlled by a higher authority.
TACSAT Radio Environmental Limitations. The primary environmental
limitations on TACSAT radios are signal propagation delay, location on
the Earth, terrain masking, and weather effects. Timing between DTE
can be a critical factor in SATCOM because the satellite, acting
as a relay between radios, is about 25,000 miles away. There is
Figure 2-8. AN/PSC-5 UHF TACSAT Radio.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
2-15
approximately a one-fourth second propagation delay between sending
and receiving stations. This delay can interfere with systems that auto-
matically retransmit if an acknowledgment is not received after a very
short time-out period. As unit location changes, the “look angle” (i.e.,
angle above the horizon) to the satellite can affect net reliability. The
orbit of a satellite allows it to cover a certain footprint on the earth. Sat-
ellites in equatorial orbit can cover large portions of the Earth, both north
and south of the equator, but as the user moves closer to the Earth’s
poles, the TACSAT terminal may exceed the satellite footprint. This will
cause intermittent or lost communications. Terrain can also have this
effect by interfering with the satellite and TACSAT terminal line of
sight. Thunderstorms, heavy snowstorms, and hail also affect satellite
transmissions by damaging antennas and changing the electromagnetic
environment.
Ultrahigh Frequency Propagation
UHF frequency propagation is used for ground-to-air, air-to-air, satellite,
and tactical multi-channel communications. Communications are limited
to LOS but may extend for more than 500 kilometers as long as the air-
craft is high enough to be within LOS (see fig. 2-9). It is even possible
for UHF communications ranges to a satellite to be more than 35,000
kilometers.
DATA COMMUNICATIONS
SCR can also transmit and receive data by using terminal devices such
as the digital message system (DMS)—previously called and more com-
monly known as the digital communications terminal (DCT)—and the
tactical communications interface module (TCIM). The DCT, data
Figure 2-9. UHF LOS.
D
IR
E
C
T
W
A
V
E
(L
O
S
)
EARTH
TRANSMITTING
ANTENNA
2-16
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
automated communications terminal (DACT), and the TCIM are critical
in enabling data communications at the tactical level over SCRs.
Digital Message System-AN/PSC-2
The DMS-AN/PSC-2 is a hand-held communications device that can be
operated with either a standard military radio or telephone field wire
equipment. The DMS is used to compose, edit, display, transmit, and
receive information. By menu selection, formatted text, free text, and
digitized map messages are transmitted over tactical communications
equipment. DMS is being used directly for air support, fire support
coordination, reconnaissance, medical evacuation, and other functions.
DMS uses a burst transmission capability which reduces the vulnerabil-
ity to enemy radio direction finding and jamming.
Data Automated Communications Terminal
The DACT is a small, tactical computer and communications terminal
which gives users the capability to receive, process, and transmit various
messages, to include text and symbology, used by tactical data systems.
The DACT will effectively replace the DCT when it achieves full opera-
tional capability in FY 03, and it will provide much greater functionality
below battalion levels. This will include an embedded global positioning
system (GPS) receiver, the ability to share a common picture of the bat-
tlespace, automated data exchange, and MAGTF command, control,
communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) network connectiv-
ity. The DACT will be transportable by foot-mobile Marines and
mounted in tactical or armored vehicles.
Tactical Communications Interface Module
The TCIM provides the communications link between the tactical com-
puters of the communications and information systems within the
MAGTF and the local and wide area networks, switched backbone
(SBB), and radio nets. There are two versions of the TCIM card: an
internal personal computer asynchronous transfer card to mount directly
in the computer, and an external version with the card mounted in a por-
table chassis. TCIM software was developed for open-systems architec-
tures. Small computer systems interfaces (SCSI) provide interoperability
between the TCIM and other Marine Corps computers.
Chapter 3
Equipment Siting and Grounding
Techniques
Two factors play an important role in equipment siting: optimum com-
munications and camouflage. It is often difficult to find communications
sites which are hidden from enemy view, fire, and direction finding and
afford good communications connectivity. The ideal location for a radio
antenna is as far away from cover as possible, such as a bare mountain
top or in the middle of a large field. However, this goes against the com-
mander’s tactical requirement for troops and equipment to be camou-
flaged and concealed as much as possible. Therefore, planning the
location of equipment must be detailed to achieve the best results. See
Appendix A for a review on topographical maps and grid coordinates.
HIGH FREQUENCY
In the presence of hills (without large trees), the following guidelines for
ground wave links should be used:
l Locate HF antennas just below the top of the hill in the direction of
desired communications. Often the signal will be greater below than
on the top. This will also minimize interference and/or jamming from
the opposite direction.
l Move the antenna back from the hill if a hill is between the operator
and the distant station with which the operator wishes to communi-
cate. The signal strength can vary widely in the region immediately
behind a hill. If it is necessary to set up behind a hill, then it may also
be necessary to set up a variety of antennas located at different dis-
tances from the hilltop to see which one offers the best performance.
Long-distance, HF sky wave signals of more than several hundred kilo-
meters are often best transmitted and received at angles just above the
horizon level. Obstacles on the horizon will cause the signal to travel a
3-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
higher path angle and may reduce the circuit reliability as a result (see
fig. 3-1). Wire fences between the operator and the horizon will also
lessen the chances of getting through (see fig. 3-2).
An HF ground wave signal will follow the terrain much better than
higher frequency signals. It will be weakened by trees (more so when
A
C
T
U
A
L

P
A
T
H
REQUIRED PATH
Figure 3-1. Low HF Horizon Angles.
Figure 3-2. Effect of Wire Fences and Power Lines.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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3-3
they have leaves) and rugged terrain, but the signal may still get through
(see fig. 3-3).
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY AND ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY
Obstacles such as trees, buildings, and hills between a transmitter and
receiver will weaken the signal or stop it. Aircraft flying along the path
will also interfere with reception (see fig. 3-4). A clear signal path
IN
T
E
N
D
E
D
P
A
T
H
SIGNAL PATH
Figure 3-3. HF Ground Wave Path.
Figure 3-4. Aircraft Along Signal Path.
3-4
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MCRP 3-40.3B
between the transmitter and the intended receiver, especially for LOS
communications, is preferred. The antenna must be positioned as high as
possible to overcome obstacles, especially if communication is in the
direction of trees or buildings (see fig. 3-5). Keep equipment as far back
as possible from obstacles in the direction of the signal path to prevent
interference or damage to equipment.
In some situations, solid obstacles may actually improve a link by pro-
viding a sharper surface to diffract over or reflect from (see fig. 3-6).
INTENDED DIRECTION
BETTER
GOOD
BAD
Figure 3-5. Antenna Obstacles.
Figure 3-6. Diffraction Over Building.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
3-5
Under certain conditions, spherical water towers and walls of buildings
(facing the proper direction) may enable communication around interfer-
ing terrain or vegetative obstacles (see fig. 3-7).
Transmitting over water allows VHF to go farther, but fading may occur.
If communicating over water is unavoidable, and fading occurs, the sig-
nal may be improved by raising or lowering the antenna. The antenna
may also be positioned so a hill or rise is between it and the water but not
high enough to block the LOS to the other antenna (see fig. 3-8).
Figure 3-7. Reflection off Spherical Water Tower.
Figure 3-8. Multipath Fading and Terrain Shielding.
TERRAIN SHIELDING
DIRECT PATH
R
E
F
L
E
C
T
E
D

PATH
DIRECT PATH
R
E
F
L
E
C
T
E
D

P
A
T
H
3-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Nothing is more compromising to a unit’s location than an antenna farm
stretched along a ridge line (see fig. 3-9). The enemy will realize that a
major command post is nearby. The advantage of placing an antenna on
a ridge line is the ability to talk in many directions without land being in
the way. If communication is needed in only one direction—away from
the enemy—put some terrain shielding between the antenna farm and
the enemy (see figures 3-10 and 3-11). This way, the enemy won’t be
able to intercept communications or jam circuits as easily. However, it’s
not always necessary to talk from hilltop to hilltop. Talking from hillside
to hillside or along the valley floor may be a better option in some
instances. The enemy will certainly have a harder time locating a unit
this way.
Figure 3-9. Ridge Line Antenna Farm.
Figure 3-10. Low Antenna Profile.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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3-7
The body can act as an antenna and affect the quality of the radio signal,
particularly backpack and hand-held VHF sets with short antennas. The
effect of the body on signal strength depends on frequency, antenna
length, and the position of the antenna or set relative to the operator’s
body (see fig. 3-12 on page 3-8).
Backpack Sets (AN/PRC-119)
Maximum radiation (i.e., best performance) is to the front when the set is
on the operator’s back with a 3-foot whip antenna. The operator should
then try facing in the direction of distant communications. This effect is
most noticeable at frequencies greater than 50 MHz.
When the set is on the ground, and the operator is very close to the set,
maximum radiation will probably occur through the operator’s body. If
the operator is a couple of feet away, the operator may act as a reflector
and either improve or interfere with the signal.
Hand-Held Sets (AN/PRC-68)
The antenna of the hand-held AN/PRC-68 is much smaller than the AN/
PRC-119’s, and the operator’s body affects directional characteristics to
INTENDED
PATH

ENEMY
Figure 3-11. Terrain Shielding.
3-8
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
a greater extent, particularly when the antenna is lowered. This radio
will normally be in the front jacket pocket, and best performance is then
over the back. The higher frequencies are strongly affected when the
antenna is lowered. Holding the radio in hand a few inches away from
the body will modify the radiation pattern and can substantially lower
performance to the sides at the higher frequencies. The directional char-
acteristics of the antenna-body combination can be used to some advan-
tage in reducing interference arriving from directions other than that of
the signal. Trial and error is necessary to make this judgment.
VHF Siting
Position the antenna to reflect the directive pattern away from the wall or
fence in the intended direction of communication when using VHF
antennas near a metal-walled building or high, metal fence. For frequen-
cies between 30 and 50 MHz, the antenna should be placed approxi-
mately 2 meters (6.5 feet) away; between 50 and 88 MHz, no more than
1 meter (3.2 feet) away. Communications may be reduced if antennas are
placed more than 2 meters from the radio. The distance may be varied a
Figure 3-12. Direction of Best Communications.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
3-9
foot or so in each direction, while receiving, to find the position where
the signal is the strongest when setting up the equipment. If frequencies
are changed later, the optimum position will have to be redetermined at
that time by the same method.
UHF Siting
At UHF and (to a much lesser degree) VHF frequencies, if an operator
cannot see a person, then they probably cannot communicate—espe-
cially in heavy vegetation. Often, the signal has to travel up to the tops of
the trees and move along the treetops and down to the receiver (see fig.
3-13). This will weaken it considerably. In vegetation, the antenna
should be positioned away from trees that are in the direction of the sig-
nal and erected as high as possible. Changing the location of the antenna
is also an option. Both horizontal and vertical orientations may be used
with the AS-4225 Parabolic Grid Antenna with UHF multi-channel
(MUX) radio equipment. Horizontal polarization is usually better for
passing through the trees, but if the signal is skimming over the tops of
the trees (probably unnoticeable) or over water, then the polarization
should be vertical (see fig. 3-14 on page 3-10).
Figure 3-13. VHF Vegetative Propagation.
3-10
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
GROUNDING TECHNIQUES
Poor grounding is probably the most important cause of a weak HF sig-
nal. Communication distances can easily be cut in half by improper
grounding of the antenna. More importantly, the hazards involved with
improper grounding coupled with high transmitter powers are bad burns,
electrical shocks, or even death (see fig. 3-15).
Grounding prevents electrical shock to operator and improves signal
strength, particularly in HF.
HORIZONTAL VERTICAL
Figure 3-14. AS-4225 with AB-1356 Antenna Polarization.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
3-11
Ground Stake
The ground stake provided with the antenna should be driven deeply into
the soil, making certain all connections are tight and clean. Soil moisture
and salinity around the ground stake are very important for good ground-
ing. If a dry or a damp location is available, choose the damp spot. If
everything is bone dry, a couple of gallons of water poured around the
stake may help. Adding a pound or two of salt from the mess tent to the
soil around the stake before soaking it may help even more.
If a regulation ground stake is not available, there are many field-expedi-
ent means for grounding. The primary concern is to provide an electrical
path from the equipment case, using braided copper or heavy gauge
wire, to a buried metallic object that is in good contact with the ground.
All cable connections and grounds should be free of grease, paint, or
rust. Cables should be as short as possible.
Some useful grounds are—
l Metal fence posts.
l Steel reinforcing rods.
Figure 3-15. Shock Hazards of Ungrounded Equipment.
3-12
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
l Metal pipes.
l Metal plumbing (must not be connected to flammable liquid or gas).
l Metal building frames.
Ground Radials
A ground radial system (i.e., counterpoise) is necessary to reduce the
amount of power lost in the earth (see fig. 3-16). This is particularly
important for HF whips, inverted As, and other vertical antennas. The
radial system design is usually a compromise between performance,
portability, and time to install the system. Ground radials help to estab-
lish a known reference point of electrical ground. Without them, electri-
cal ground may be some distance beneath the Earth’s surface. Known
electrical ground is important not only for formation of the wavefront off
the antenna, but it also affects launch angles from antennas.
Radials are attached metal-to-metal to a central point (a metal plate is
often convenient). The radio frequency (RF) ground is attached to the
central plate (Figure 3-17).
Wire diameter is not critical; select a diameter small enough to be light-
weight and transportable, but large enough to prevent breakage. The
largest number of radials to transport should be consistent with weight
and bulkiness limitations. It is not necessary to make them greater than
one-quarter wavelength at the lowest operating frequency.
LENGTH OF RADIAL = b
GROUND PLATE TO WHICH
RADIALS ARE ATTACHED
(OTHER THAN A CIRCULAR
DESIGN IS OK)
b
Figure 3-16. Radials.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
3-13
One-quarter wavelength = 74.9 meters
frequency (MHz)
Suggested dimensions:

If the site is semipermanent (i.e., several days or more), the number of
radials should be increased to 100, and their length doubled.
Make radial systems for each antenna prior to an operation. Short stakes
at the ends may be used to hold them in position when deploying.
Ground all radios, where possible.
5 meters (15-foot whip): N (number of radials) = at least 30
(one every 12°)
b (length of radial) = 7 meters
(23 feet)
10 meters (32-foot whip): N = at least 30
b = 14 meters (46 feet)
WHIP ANTENNA
GROUND RADIALS
RF GROUND
STAKE
(METAL OR WOOD)
Figure 3-17. Equipment Configuration.
(reverse blank)
Chapter 4
Antennas
This chapter will discuss high frequency and very high frequency anten-
nas. Antenna designs that work for HF sometimes work for VHF and
vice versa. The main difference is size; HF antennas are considerably
larger than VHF antennas. Ultrahigh frequency antennas are generally
limited to whips. When determining the best antenna to employ with a
circuit, consult MCRP 6-22D for more detailed information on antenna
propagation characteristics, as well as construction considerations and
procedures.
HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS
Vertical Whip
A vertical whip antenna (i.e., whip) will most likely be used with an HF
radio. The whip is particularly good for ground wave communications in
many directions at one time, at distances of 20 to 30 kilometers. Unfor-
tunately, while it is radiating in all directions at the same time, it is also
picking up interference from all directions. It is useless if using sky wave
over a distance of 100 kilometers, because of the high radiation angles
required. (NOTE: Launch angles off vertically polarized whip antennas
are maximum below 45°.) A vertical whip’s performance by sky wave,
however, improves with increased path distances.
A vehicle-mounted whip, tied down fairly close to the vehicle, may be
efficiently employed in short- and intermediate-distance HF sky wave
communications. A whip, tied back only a little, may be useful in long-
distance HF sky wave applications.
Sloping Wire
If an HF circuit is only a single point-to-point ground link or a ground
wave net with all other terminals being located in the same direction, a
4-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
sloping wire may be used, if available. The radiating length of the AT-
984 “Fishreel” antenna (a 45-foot long, wire antenna which can be used
with the AN/PRC-104) can be varied by either connecting or disconnect-
ing the alligator clips. (Antenna length is measured from the radio equip-
ment.) See Table 4-1 to determine how long an antenna should be cut to
form an assigned frequency.

The far end of the antenna should be connected to a rope with a weight,
such as a stone or brick or other nonconducting material tied to the end.
The weighted end should be thrown over a tree so that the antenna forms
a 30° to 45° angle to the ground. Angles higher than 45° should be used
for ground wave, and lower angles for sky wave. The high end should be
opposite the direction of the intended receiver (see fig. 4-1).
Table 4-1. Sloping Wire Antenna Lengths.
Frequency Length
MHz (Feet) (Meters)
5 45 13.7
9 25 7.6
12 15 4.6
DESIRED
DIRECTION
45
45 DEGREE SLOPING WIRE
Figure 4-1. 45° Sloping Wire Antenna.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
4-3
AS-2259 Near-Vertical Incidence
Another HF antenna is the AS-2259 (see fig. 4-2). Although not suitable
for frequencies under 3.5 MHz, this antenna can be used for both ground
wave and sky wave. The AS-2259 will often enable an operator to com-
municate in a skip zone when a whip antenna will not. In addition, it can
sometimes be used effectively to communicate by sky wave over a hill
or mountain obstacle that would otherwise block a ground wave signal.
More detailed information regarding HF NVIS antennas can be found in
MCRP 6-22D.
Horizontal Half -Wave Dipole (Doublet)
The horizontal half-wave dipole (also known as the doublet) is fre-
quently used for short to medium HF sky wave paths (up to about 1,500
kilometers). It is usually installed at one-quarter wavelength of the oper-
ating frequency above ground (see fig. 4-3 on page 4-4). The major
drawback of this antenna is the unusually long length required (up to 71
Figure 4-2. AS-2259.
4-4
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
meters [233 feet] at 2 MHz). NOTE: A 2 percent or greater error in
length means less efficiency and a loss of radiated power.
Inverted L
Inverted L antennas are useful for NVIS propagation (see fig. 4-4).
Because of their construction, they also yield better ground wave radia-
tion than whip antennas. Inverted L antennas can be effectively
employed with a wider range of frequencies than can horizontal half-
wave dipole antennas.
Antenna Enhancements
Several pieces of equipment which improve the capabilities of standard
Marine Corps communications equipment are available from commer-
cial sources. These items are not stocked in the Marine Corps supply
system. They must be purchased directly from commercial sources.
Figure 4-3. Doublet Antenna.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
4-5
They include—
l Tilt whip adapter (TWA)—used with the vertical whip antennas
issued with AN/MRC-138 radio. These antennas can be tilted to
obtain the correct angles for NVIS communications. The TWA made
for the AN/MRC-138 is one piece and has a simple design. When fit-
ted with a TWA and only the top four sections of the AT-1011
antenna, the AN/MRC-138 can be operated on the move.
l Whip loading coil (WLC)—used with the WTA for the AN/MRC-
138. This device makes the antenna more efficient at lower frequen-
cies.
l Whip to wire adapter (WWA)—screws into the top one-inch-diame-
ter section of the AT-1011, thus allowing the operator to use the one-
inch-diameter section of the AT-1011 as the mast for field-expedient
antennas.
INSULATORS
ANTENNA WIRE
RADIO
GROUND
LEAD WIRE
Figure 4-4. Inverted L.
4-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
l Whip-base adapter (WBA)—allows the whip antennas for Army HF
radios to be used with Marine Corps HF radios. The whip antennas
for Army HF radios are of a different size than the whip antennas for
Marine Corps HF radios.
For further information about commercial equipment which can improve
the capabilities of Marine Corps radios, contact the G-6/S-6 sections of
higher headquarters.
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS
OE-254
This antenna is used with VHF-FM radios to increase the operating
range beyond that of a normal whip. The two elements hanging down
from the antenna form a ground-plane similar to the ground radials dis-
cussed in chapter 3. The effect is to act as an artificial ground and greatly
increase the signal range. The antenna radiates in all directions at the
same time. The OE-254’s elements allow it to tune to frequencies
between 30 and 88 MHz without manually adjusting either the ground-
plane or radiating elements’ length. Figure 4-5 illustrates the OE-254
antenna.
Vertical Whip
VHF whip antennas are usually limited in range from 15 to 20 miles. A
whip antenna is omnidirectional; therefore, it has the potential to pro-
duce a great deal of radio-wave interference with the radios in the area. It
is important when using a whip antenna or any antenna to keep maxi-
mum distance between antennas. Use of hills and other terrain features
to block off unwanted signals will improve desired signal strength.
When using whip antennas with backpack or hand-held equipment, body
position may increase the transmitted and received signal. This is
because the human body acts as an antenna. If experiencing communica-
tion problems, the operator should try facing in different directions to
improve the reception of the signal.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
4-7
ANTENNA LENGTH
The length of an antenna must be considered in two ways. It has both a
physical and an electrical length, and the two are never the same. The
reduced velocity of the wave on the antenna and a capacitive effect
(known as end effect) make the antenna seem longer electrically than it
is physically. The contributing factors are the ratio of the diameter of the
antenna to its length and the capacitive effect of terminal equipment
(e.g., insulators, clamps, etc.) used to support the antenna.
To calculate the physical length of an antenna, use a correction of 0.95
for frequencies between 3.0 and 50.0 MHz. The following figures are for
a half-wave antenna.
Figure 4-5. OE-254 Antenna.
MAST SECTION
TAPE
STRAIN CLAMP
GUY ASSEMBLY
CABLE ASSY, RF
CONNECTOR
ADAPTER
ANTENNA
ASSY
GUY
PLATE
41’-9”
33’-8”
25’ MAX
MAST ASSEMBLY
GUY
PLATE
4-8
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
Length (meters) = 150 x 0.95/Frequency in MHz
= 142.5/Frequency in MHz
Length (feet) = 492 x 0.95/Frequency in MHz
= 468/Frequency in MHz
The length of a long-wire antenna (one wavelength or longer) for har-
monic operation is calculated by using the following formula:
Length (meters) = 150(N-0.05)/Frequency in MHz
Length (feet) = 492(N-0.05)/Frequency in MHz
N = number of half-wave lengths in the total length of the antenna.
For example, if the number of half-wavelengths is 3 and the frequency in
MHz is 7, then:
Length (meters) = 150(N-0.05)/Frequency in MHz
= 150(3-.05)/7
= 150 x 2.95/7
= 442.50/7
= 63.2 meters
Chapter 5
Interference
Radio frequency interference is always present in a military environ-
ment. It may come from a single source or a combination of many
sources including natural or manmade frequency interference, poor
equipment condition, improper equipment usage, frequency interfer-
ence, use of unauthorized frequencies, and frequency reuse.
NATURAL INTERFERENCE
Natural radio noise has two principal sources: thunderstorms (atmo-
spheric noise) and stars (galactic noise). It is especially noticeable at
night when the lower frequencies propagate farther than in the daytime.
The only way to reduce this type of interference is to use a directional
antenna to prevent receiving the interference from all directions. How-
ever, this will not eliminate the noise coming from the direction of the
received signal. Use of a higher frequency will also help, although if a
sky wave circuit is used, care must be exercised not to pick the highest
frequency at which the signal will be refracted to Earth by the iono-
sphere (i.e., the critical frequency).
MANMADE INTERFERENCE
Most manmade interference comes from electrical sources such as
power generators, alarm systems, power lines, auto ignition, fluorescent
lighting, faulty electrical relay contacts, and electrified railroads. Man-
made interference also includes enemy jammers (see chapter 7). The key
to combating this form of interference is to isolate communications
equipment from manmade interference. The interference from known
sources such as generators can be greatly reduced if an antenna is posi-
tioned so that an obstacle (e.g., a hill) is between it and the source. This
must be done so that the same obstacle will not block the intended radio
path. If the interference is not coming from the same direction as the
intended signal, then a directional antenna should be used.
5-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
POOR EQUIPMENT CONDITION AND IMPROPER USAGE
The condition of radio equipment and how it is being used may result in
interference. There are several steps that should be taken to lessen this
possibility. These include making certain that shielded cables are used
where required, ensuring connectors are properly connected to cables,
and making sure that antennas within a group are as far apart as possible.
All antenna leads (transmission lines), power lines, and telephone lines
should be as short as possible when they are on the ground and should
not cross. If lines do cross, they must cross at 90° angles to each other,
and they must be separated from each other by standoffs. Lines threaded
through the trees near an antenna serve as pipelines for interference to
and from antennas. Finally, ensure that all radio equipment is grounded.
FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE AND INTERMODULATION
Frequency interference is one of the easiest communications problems to
prevent, but it must be done by the CIS officer, CIS chief, and frequency
manager during the development of the CIS plan. This type of interfer-
ence is caused primarily by two radio transmitters using the same fre-
quency, but it can also happen when different frequencies are used. Most
of these problems can be eliminated by good frequency planning. How-
ever, if frequency interference does occur the following steps can be
taken to improve communications:
l Identify the source of the interference. If it is a VHF or HF ground
wave transmission, it will probably be within the immediate area and
will only occur when the offending transmitter is keyed. The other
operator is probably transmitting on a different frequency and has no
way of knowing that he is interfering with anyone else’s ability to
transmit.
l Get the interfering operator to lower their transmitter power as long
as it does not degrade their circuit.
l Put as much distance as possible between the affected unit’s equip-
ment. This may involve using a hill or other object to block the signal.
l Change to a directional antenna.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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5-3
l Remember that the receiver of interference may also cause someone
else interference and, whenever possible, should lower his power and
use a directional antenna.
l Report interference to the CIS officer or CIS chief.
USE OF UNAUTHORIZED FREQUENCIES
There is one final source of frequency interference: the use of unautho-
rized frequencies. This practice is illegal and has the potential to disrupt
a carefully engineered frequency plan, introduce interference to other
frequencies and circuits, and prevent other units from fulfilling their
mission. Radio operators should never use unauthorized frequencies.
FREQUENCY REUSE
There are not enough radio frequencies available for all radio operators
to have their own channel. When HF propagation conditions are favor-
able, Marines may discover that their radio frequency is being used by
foreign or United States military personnel in other countries. VHF FM
frequencies often have to be reused within the same operation by more
than one unit. The exercise frequency manager will try to make certain
that users of the same frequency are as far away as possible from each
other, but some units (United States Marine Corps and Army, in particu-
lar) will join at some stage in the operation. When this occurs, the first
common, higher headquarters should be informed to settle the problem.
(reverse blank)
Chapter 6
Radio Operations Under
Unusual Conditions
OPERATIONS IN DESERT AREAS
Capabilities and Limitations
SCR is usually the primary means of communications in the desert. It
can be employed effectively in desert climate and terrain to provide the
highly mobile means of communications demanded by widely dispersed
forces. However, desert terrain provides poor electrical ground, and
counterpoises are needed to improve operation.
Techniques for Operations
For the best operation in the desert, radio antennas should be located on
the highest terrain available. Transmitters using whip antennas in the
desert will lose one-fifth to one-third of their normal range because of
the poor electrical grounding characteristics of desert terrain. For this
reason, it is important to use complete antenna systems such as horizon-
tal dipoles and vertical antennas with adequate counterpoises.
Equipment Considerations
Some SCRs automatically switch on their second blower fan if their
internal temperature rises too high. Normally, this happens only in tem-
perate climates when the radios are transmitting. This may disturb
Marines unaccustomed to radio operation in the desert environment.
Operation of the second fan, however, is quite normal. RF power ampli-
fiers used in AM and SSB sets are liable to overheat severely and burn
out. They should be turned on only when necessary (signal reception is
not affected). Since the RF power amplifiers take approximately 90 sec-
onds to reach the operating mode, the standing operating procedure
(SOP) of units using the equipment should allow for delays in replying.
6-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Dust affects communications equipment such as SSB/AM RF power
amplifiers. Dust covers should be used whenever possible. Some
receiver-transmitter units have ventilating ports and channels that can
get clogged with dust. These must be checked regularly and kept clean to
prevent overheating.
Batteries. Wet cell batteries do not hold their charge efficiently in intense
heat. Electrolyte evaporates rapidly and should be checked weekly
(more often, if warranted). Add distilled water as needed. Extra contain-
ers of distilled water should be carried in the vehicle. Maintenance of
vehicle batteries, beyond adding water, must be done only by authorized
motor-transport personnel according to applicable Marine Corps Orders
and SOPs. Dry battery supplies must be increased, since hot weather
causes batteries to fail more rapidly.
Electrical Insulation. Wind-blown sand and grit will damage electrical
wire insulation over a period of time. All cables that are likely to be
damaged should be protected with tape before insulation becomes worn.
Sand will also find its way into parts of items such as “spaghetti cord”
plugs, either preventing electrical contact or making it impossible to join
the plugs. Carry a brush, such as an old toothbrush, and use it to clean
such items before they are joined.
Condensation. In deserts with relatively high dew levels and high
humidity, overnight condensation can occur wherever surfaces (such as
metals exposed to air) are cooler than the air temperature. This conden-
sation can affect electrical plugs, jacks, and connectors. All connectors
likely to be affected by condensation should be taped to prevent moisture
from contaminating the contacts. Plugs should be dried before inserting
them into equipment jacks. Excessive moisture or dew should be dried
from antenna connectors to prevent arcing.
Static Electricity. Static electricity is prevalent in the desert. It is caused
by many factors, e.g., wind-blown dust particles. Extremely low humid-
ity contributes to static discharges between charged particles. Poor
grounding conditions exacerbate the problem. Be sure to tape all sharp
edges (tips) of antennas to cut down on wind-caused static discharges
and the accompanying noise. If you are operating from a fixed position,
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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6-3
ensure that equipment is properly grounded. Since static-caused noise
diminishes with an increase in frequency, use the highest frequencies
that are available and authorized.
Maintenance Improvement
In desert areas, the maintenance of SCRs becomes more difficult
because of the large amounts of sand, dust, or dirt that enter the equip-
ment. Radios equipped with servomechanisms are particularly affected.
To reduce maintenance downtime, keep the radios in dustproof contain-
ers as much as possible. It is also important to keep air vent filters clean
to allow cool air to circulate to prevent overheating. Preventive mainte-
nance checks should be made frequently. Also, keep a close check on
lubricated parts of the equipment. If dust and dirt mix with the lubri-
cants, moving parts may be damaged.
OPERATIONS IN JUNGLE AREAS
Capabilities and Limitations
SCR communications in jungle areas must be carefully planned because
the dense jungle growth significantly reduces the range of radio trans-
mission. However, since SCR can be deployed in many configurations,
especially manpacked, it is a valuable communications asset. Mobility is
also an advantage of SCR. The capabilities and limitations of SCR must
be carefully considered when used by forces in a jungle environment.
Climate and density of jungle growth limits SCR communications in
jungle areas. The hot and humid climate increases the maintenance prob-
lems of keeping equipment operable. Thick jungle growth acts as a verti-
cally polarized absorbing screen for RF energy that reduces transmission
range. Therefore, increased emphasis on maintenance and antenna siting
is necessary when operating in jungle areas.
Techniques for Operations
The main problem in establishing SCR communications in jungle areas
is the siting of the antenna.
6-4
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
Apply the following techniques to improve communications in the
jungle:
l Antennas should be located in clearings on the edge farthest from the
distant station and as high as possible.
l Antenna cables and connectors should be kept off the ground to
lessen the effects of moisture, fungus, and insects. This also applies to
all power and telephone cables.
l Complete antenna systems, such as ground planes and dipoles, are
more effective than fractional wavelength whip antennas.
l Vegetation must be cleared from antenna sites. If an antenna touches
any foliage, especially wet foliage, the signal will be grounded.
l Vegetation, particularly when wet, acts like a vertically polarized
screen and absorbs much of a vertically polarized signal. Horizontally
polarized antennas are preferred to vertically polarized antennas.
Maintenance Improvement
Because of moisture and fungus, the maintenance of SCR in tropical cli-
mates is more difficult than in temperate climates. The high relative
humidity causes condensation to form on the equipment and encourages
the growth of fungus. Operators and maintenance personnel should
check the appropriate TMs for any special maintenance requirements.
Some techniques for improving maintenance in jungle areas are—
l Keep the equipment as dry as possible and in lighted areas to retard
fungus growth.
l Keep all air vents clear of obstructions so air can circulate to cool and
dry the equipment.
l Keep connectors, cables, and bare metal parts as free of fungus
growth as possible. Use moisture fungusproofing paint (MFP) to pro-
tect equipment after repairs are made or when equipment is damaged
or scratched.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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6-5
High Frequency Expedient Antennas
Dismounted patrols and units of company size and below can greatly
improve their ability to communicate in the jungle by using expedient
antennas. While moving, they are generally restricted to using the short
and long antennas which come with the radios. However, when they are
not moving, these expedient antennas will allow them to broadcast far-
ther and receive more clearly.
Note: An antenna that is not “tuned” or “cut” to the operating fre-
quency is not as effective as the whips that are supplied with the radio.
Circuits inside the radio “load” the whips properly so that they are
“tuned” to give maximum output. Whips are not as effective as a tuned
doublet or tuned ground-plane, but the doublet or ground-plane must be
tuned to the operating frequency.
OPERATIONS IN A COLD WEATHER ENVIRONMENT
Capabilities and Limitations
SCR equipment has certain capabilities and limitations that must be
carefully considered when operating in extremely cold areas. However,
in spite of significant limitations, SCR is the normal means of communi-
cations in such areas.
One of the most important capabilities of SCR in cold weather areas is
its versatility. Vehicular-mounted radios can be moved relatively easily
to almost any point where it is possible to install a command headquar-
ters. Smaller, manpacked radios can be carried to any point accessible by
foot or aircraft.
A limitation on radio communications that radio operators must expect
in extremely cold areas is interference by ionospheric disturbances.
These disturbances, known as ionospheric storms, have a definite
degrading effect on sky wave propagation. Moreover, either the storms
or the auroral (e.g., Northern Lights) activity can cause complete failure
of radio communications. Some frequencies may be blocked out com-
pletely by static for extended periods of time during storm activity.
6-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Fading, caused by changes in the density and height of the ionosphere,
can also occur and may last from minutes to weeks. The occurrence of
these disturbances is difficult to predict. When they occur, the use of
alternate frequencies and a greater reliance on FM or other means of
communications are required.
Techniques for Operations
Whenever possible, SCR for tactical operations in cold weather areas
should be installed in vehicles to reduce the problem of transportation
and shelter for operators. This will also help solve some of the grounding
and antenna installation problems caused by the climate.
Because of permafrost and deep snow, it is difficult to establish good
electrical grounding in extremely cold areas. The conductivity of frozen
ground is often too low to provide good ground wave propagation. To
improve ground wave operation, use a counterpoise to offset the degrad-
ing effects of poor electrical ground conductivity. Remember to install a
counterpoise high enough above the ground so that it will not be covered
by snow.
In general, antenna installation in arcticlike areas presents no serious dif-
ficulties. However, installing some antennas may take longer because of
adverse working conditions. A few tips for installing antennas in
extremely cold areas are—
l Mast sections and antenna cables must be handled carefully since
they become brittle in very low temperatures.
l Antenna cables should be constructed overhead to prevent damage
from heavy snow and frost, whenever possible. Nylon rope guys, if
available, should be used in preference to cotton or hemp because
nylon ropes do not readily absorb moisture and are less likely to
freeze and break.
l Antennas should have extra guy wires, supports, and anchor stakes to
withstand heavy ice and wind loading.
Some Marine Corps radios that are adjusted to a particular frequency in
a relatively warm place may drift off frequency when exposed to
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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6-7
extreme cold. Low battery voltage can also cause frequency drift. When
possible, allow a radio to warm up several minutes before placing it into
operation. Since extreme cold tends to lower output voltage of a dry bat-
tery, try warming the battery with body heat before operating the radio
set. This minimizes frequency drift. Flakes or pellets of highly electri-
cally charged snow are sometimes experienced in northern regions.
When these particles strike the antenna, the resulting electrical discharge
causes a high-pitched static roar that can blanket all frequencies. To
overcome this static, antenna elements can be covered with polystyrene
tape and shellac.
Maintenance Improvement
The maintenance of SCR equipment in extreme cold presents many dif-
ficulties. Radios must be protected from blowing snow, since snow will
freeze to dials and knobs and blow into the wiring to cause shorts and
grounds. Cords and cables must be handled carefully since they may lose
their flexibility in extreme cold. All radio equipment and power units
must be properly winterized. Check the appropriate technical manual
(TM) for winterization procedures. A few tips for maintenance in arctic
areas are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Power Units. As the temperature goes down, it becomes increasingly dif-
ficult to operate and maintain generators. They should be protected as
much as possible from the weather.
Batteries. The effect of cold weather on wet and dry cell batteries
depends upon the type and kind of battery, the load on the battery, the
particular use of the battery, and the degree of exposure to cold tempera-
tures.
Shock Damage. Damage may occur to vehicular SCR by the jolting of
the vehicle. Most synthetic rubber shock mounts become stiff and brittle
in extreme cold and fail to cushion equipment. Check the shock mounts
frequently and change them, as required.
Winterization. Check the TMs for the SCR and power source to see if
there are special precautions for operation in extremely cold climates.
6-8
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MCRP 3-40.3B
For example, normal lubricants may solidify and permit damage or mal-
functions. They must be replaced with the recommended arctic lubri-
cants.
Microphones. Moisture from your breath may freeze on the perforated
cover plate of your microphone. Use standard microphone covers to pre-
vent this. If standard covers are not available, improvise a suitable cover
from rubber or cellophane membranes or from rayon or nylon cloth.
Breathing and Sweating. A SCR generates heat when it is operated.
When it is turned off, the air inside cools and contracts and draws cold
air into the set from the outside. This is called breathing. When a radio
breathes, and the still-hot parts come in contact with subzero air, the
glass, plastic, and ceramic parts of the set may cool too rapidly and
break.
When cold equipment is brought suddenly into contact with warm air,
moisture will condense on the equipment parts. This is called sweating.
Before cold equipment is brought into a heated area, it should be
wrapped in a blanket or parka to ensure that it will warm gradually to
reduce sweating. Equipment must be thoroughly dry before it is taken
back out into the cold air or the moisture will freeze.
Vehicular-Mounted Radios. These radios present special problems during
winter operations because of their continuous exposure to the elements.
Proper starting procedures must be observed. The radio’s power switch
must be off prior to starting the vehicle; this is a particularly critical
requirement when vehicles are slave started. If the radio is cold soaked
from prolonged shutdown, frost may have collected inside the radio and
could cause circuit arcing. Hence, time should be allowed for the vehicle
heater to warm the radio sufficiently that any frost collected within the
radio has a chance to thaw. This may take up to an hour. Once the radio
has been turned on, it should warm up for approximately 15 minutes
before transmitting or changing frequencies. This allows components to
stabilize. If a vehicle is operated at a low idle with radios, heater, and
lights on, the batteries may run down. Before increasing engine revolu-
tions per minute to charge the batteries, radios should be turned off to
avoid an excessive power surge. A light coat of silicon compound on
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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6-9
antenna mast connections helps to keep them from freezing together and
becoming hard to dismantle.
OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS
Capabilities and Limitations
Operation of SCRs in mountainous areas has many of the same problems
as in northern or cold weather areas. Also, the mountainous terrain
makes the selection of transmission sites a critical task. In addition, the
terrain restrictions encountered frequently make radio relay stations nec-
essary for good communications.
Maintenance Improvement
Because of terrain obstacles, SCR transmissions will frequently have to
be by line of sight. Also, the ground in mountainous areas is often a poor
electrical conductor. Thus, a complete antenna system, such as a dipole
or ground-plane antenna with a counterpoise, should be used. The main-
tenance procedures required in mountainous areas are very often the
same as maintenance in northern or cold weather areas. The varied or
seasonal temperature and climatic conditions in mountainous areas make
flexible maintenance planning a necessity.
OPERATIONS IN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS
Urbanized Terrain
SCR communications in urbanized terrain poses special problems. Some
problems are similar to those encountered in mountainous areas. There
are problems of obstacles blocking transmission paths. There is the prob-
lem of poor electrical conductivity because of pavement surfaces. There
is also the problem of commercial power-line interference. VHF radios
are not as effective in urbanized terrain as they are in some other areas.
The power output and operating frequencies of these VHF radios require
a line of sight between antennas. Line of sight at street level is not
always possible in built-up areas.
6-10
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MCRP 3-40.3B
HF radios do not require or rely on line of sight as much as VHF radios
because operating frequencies are lower, and power output is greater.
The problem is that HF radios are not organic to small units. To over-
come this, the VHF signals must be retransmitted.
Retransmission stations in aerial platforms can provide the most effec-
tive means if they are available. Organic retransmission is more likely to
be used. The antenna should be hidden or blended in with surroundings.
This will help prevent the enemy from using it as a landmark to “home
in” his artillery bombardment. Antennas can be concealed by water tow-
ers, existing civilian antennas, or steeples.
The following steps should also be taken within urbanized terrain:
l Park radio-equipped vehicles inside buildings for cover and conceal-
ment.
l Dismount radio equipment and install it inside buildings (in base-
ment, if available).
l Place generators against buildings or under sheds to decrease noise
and provide concealment (adequate ventilation must be provided to
prevent heat buildup and subsequent failure of generator).
Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Environment
One of the realities of fighting on the modern battlefield is the presence
of nuclear weapons. The explosion of a nuclear weapon causes a tremen-
dous blast, followed by intense heat and strong radiation. The ionization
of the atmosphere by a nuclear explosion will have degrading effects on
communications because of static and the disruption of the ionosphere.
Another effect of a nuclear explosion that is an even greater danger to
radio communications is the electromagnetic pulse (EMP). EMP is a
strong pulse of electromagnetic radiation, many times stronger than the
static pulse generated by lightning. This pulse can enter the radio
through the antenna system, power connections, and signal input con-
nections. In the equipment, the pulse can break down circuit components
such as transistors, diodes, and integrated circuits. It can melt capacitors,
inductors, and transformers. EMP can destroy a radio.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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6-11
Defensive measures against EMP call for proper maintenance, particu-
larly the shielding of equipment. When the equipment is not in use, all
antennas and cables should be removed to decrease the effect of EMP on
the equipment. Effective grounding is necessary to reduce effect of EMP.
EMP is a danger to SCR equipment, but contamination is a danger to
Marines. Contamination from any portion of the nuclear, biological, and
chemical (NBC) environment has adverse effects on both equipment and
personnel.
(reverse blank)
Chapter 7
Electronic Warfare
Electronic warfare (EW) is the military action involving the use of elec-
tromagnetic energy (i.e., radio frequency waves) to attack personnel,
facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or
destroying enemy combat capability. EW includes electronic attack
(EA), electronic protection (EP), and electronic warfare support (ES).
EA includes actions taken to prevent or reduce the enemy’s effective use
of the electromagnetic spectrum and employment of weapons that use
electromagnetic or directed energy. EP represents actions taken to pro-
tect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or
enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize, or
destroy friendly combat capability. ES involves actions taken by, or
under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, inter-
cept, identify, and locate sources of intentional or unintentional radiated
electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition.
Each radio operator must be aware of what the enemy will try to do. The
enemy is well equipped to conduct EW, and the different techniques the
enemy uses have specific purposes in the enemy’s EW effort.
ELECTRONIC ATTACK TECHNIQUES
Enemy forces employ a large number of radio direction finder (RDF)
sets and communications intelligence (COMINT) analysts to exploit
friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum. The enemy’s goal is to
locate and destroy as many command and control, fire support, and intel-
ligence sites as possible during the first critical phase of the battle. When
the enemy locates sites that the enemy cannot or does not want to
destroy, these sites become prime targets for imitative electronic decep-
tion (IED) or jamming. Imitative electronic deception is the enemy’s use
of a compatible radio and a language expert to enter a friendly radio net.
The enemy IED experts are very good at their jobs. If they are permitted
to enter into a net, they will create much confusion for friendly forces.
7-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Jamming is an effective way to disrupt control of the battle. All it takes
is a transmitter, tuned to your frequency, with the same type of modula-
tion and with enough power output to override the signal at your
receiver.
There are many types of jamming signals that may be used against a
radio operator. Some are very difficult to detect and some are impossible
to detect. For this reason, an operator must always be alert to the proba-
bility of jamming and react accordingly when the radio has been silent
for an inordinate amount of time. The radio operator should also be able
to quickly identify the various types of jamming signals. These
include—
l Random noise.
l Random pulse.
l Stepped tones.
l Wobbler.
l Random keyed modulated continuous wave.
l Tone.
l Rotary.
l Pulse.
l Spark.
l Recorded Sounds.
l Gulls.
l Sweep-through.
Capture Effect and Jamming Techniques
An inherent characteristic in FM communications is that a given station
transmitting a signal will capture those receivers on the same frequency
and in range for the receiver to detect the signal. This is the basis for net-
ted communications for VHF FM radios. This FM capture effect is unde-
sirable when receivers in a net are “captured” by a transmitter not in that
net. This could be friendly interference or enemy interference. Friendly
interference is usually unintentional whereas enemy interference is usu-
ally intentional.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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7-3
Obvious Jamming
Radio operators are mostly aware of obvious interference (e.g., jam-
ming) by an enemy, such as stepped tones (e.g., bagpipes), random-
keyed Morse Code, pulses, and recorded sounds. The purpose of this
type of jamming is to block out reception of friendly transmitted signals
and to cause a nuisance to the receiving operator. An operator can usu-
ally detect when the enemy is using this type of jamming.
Subtle Jamming
This type of jamming is not obvious at all. With subtle jamming, no
sound is heard from the receiver. The radio does not receive incoming
friendly signals, yet everything seems normal to the operator.
Operator Actions
Radio operators must be able to determine whether or not their radios are
being jammed. This is not always easy. Threat jammers may employ
obvious or subtle jamming techniques. These techniques may consist of
powerful unmodulated or noise-modulated carrier signals transmitted to
the operator’s receiver. Unmodulated jamming signals are characterized
by a lack of noise. Noise-modulated jamming signals are characterized
by obvious interference noises. If radio operators suspect that their
radios are the targets of threat jamming, the following procedures will
help them to make this determination.
Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference Report
If the radio operator suspects jamming or enemy intrusion on the net,
then the radio operator should report it immediately to higher headquar-
ters. Such information is vital for the protection and defense of radio
communications.
Field meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference (MIJI) reports
serve two purposes. First, initial MIJI reports facilitate battlefield evalu-
ations of the enemy’s actions or intentions and provide data for tactical
countermeasures, as appropriate. Second, complete and accurate follow-
up reports ensure MIJI incidents are documented and evaluated on a
7-4
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MCRP 3-40.3B
national level, thus providing data for a continuing study of foreign elec-
tronic warfare capabilities and activities.
MIJI reports may be transmitted over nonsecure electronic means when
secure communications are not available; however, the textual content of
the MIJI report will be secured by an off-line (i.e., manual) system.
Reports will be prepared in the format outlined in the following para-
graphs. Brevity numbers pertinent to specific line item information are
provided for some items. These brevity numbers must be encoded in the
numeral cipher or authentication system prior to transmission. The two
types of field MIJI reports are—
l MIJI 1—an abbreviated initial report containing only those items of
information necessary to inform headquarters of the incident and
enable them to initiate evaluatory or retaliatory actions as appropri-
ate.
l MIJI 2—consists of 40 lines and is completed by higher headquarters.
The MIJI 1 Report. This report is forwarded through the chain of com-
mand to the combat operations center by the operator who is experienc-
ing the MIJI incident. A separate report is submitted for each MIJI
incident. The MIJI report includes—
l Item 1—type report. When being transmitted over nonsecure commu-
nications means, the numerals 022 are encrypted as Item 1 of the
MIJI 1 report. When being transmitted over secure communications
means, the term MIJI 1 is used as Item 1 of the MIJI 1 report.
l Item 2—type MIJI incident. When being transmitted over nonsecure
communications means, the appropriate numeral preceding one of the
items below is encrypted as Item 2 of the MIJI 1 report. When being
transmitted over secure communications means, the appropriate term
below is used as Item 2 of the MIJI 1 report.
1 Meaconing
2 Intrusion
3 Jamming
4 Interference
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7-5
l Item 3—type of equipment affected. When being transmitted over
nonsecure communications means, the appropriate numeral preced-
ing one of the terms below is encrypted as Item 3 of the MIJI 1 report.
When being transmitted over secure communications means, the
appropriate term below is used as Item 3 of the MIJI 1 report.
1 Radio
2 Radar
3 Navigational aid
4 Satellite
5 Electro-optics
l Item 4—Frequency or channel affected. When being transmitted over
nonsecure communications means, the frequency or channel affected
by the MIJI incident is encrypted as Item 4 of the MIJI 1 report.
When being transmitted over secure communications means, the fre-
quency or channel affected by the MIJI incident is Item 4 of the MIJI
1 report.
l Item 5—victim designation and call sign of affected station operator.
The complete call sign of the affected station operator is Item 5 of the
MIJI 1 report over both secure and nonsecure communications
means.
l Item 6—coordinates of the affected station. When being transmitted
over nonsecure communications means, the complete grid coordi-
nates of the affected station are encrypted as Item 6 of the MIJI 1
report. When being transmitted over secure communications means,
the complete grid coordinates of the affected station are Item 6 of the
MIJI 1 report.
The MIJI 2 Report. This is a complete report containing all details of the
MIJI incident. Due to the number of items which require encryption
when the report is transmitted over a nonsecure circuit, it is recom-
mended that the report be delivered by messenger whenever possible.
The higher headquarters’ operations officer, intelligence officer, or the
electronic warfare officer is responsible for ensuring that a complete
message report of the incident is submitted to the Joint Command and
Control Warfare Center (JC2WC) within 24 hours of the incident.
7-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
ELECTRONIC PROTECTION TECHNIQUES
Communications security (COMSEC) is an integral part of electronic
protection. COMSEC is the protection resulting from all measures
designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might
be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications or to
mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such
possession and study. COMSEC includes transmission, cryptographic,
emission, and physical security.
The goal of COMSEC is to protect friendly communications from
enemy exploitation while ensuring unimpeded use of the electromag-
netic spectrum. The organization must be able to employ communica-
tions equipment effectively in the face of enemy efforts.
COMSEC requirements must be integrated into communications sys-
tems planning and must focus on providing secure communications
without impairing reliability or responsiveness. Modern communica-
tions equipment includes features such as an integrated encryption capa-
bility and frequency hopping capability, which contribute to
communications protection. However, the security of our communica-
tions depends on the proper operation of communications equipment and
adherence to proper procedures.
Transmission security
Transmission security (TRANSEC) is that component of COMSEC that
results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from inter-
ception and exploitation by means other than cryptoanalysis. A message
transmitted in the clear is the enemy’s greatest source of information.
After the enemy has intercepted your radio transmission, the enemy’s
language specialists will extract all possible intelligence from it. The
enemy hopes to learn essential elements of friendly information (EEFI).
Critical information that must be protected can be remembered by the
key words SELDOM UP.
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7-7
Each letter indicates a class of information as follows:
l Strength—number of personnel, size of unit.
l Equipment—type, quantity, condition.
l Logistics—procedure for resupply, depots.
l Disposition—were, what positions, map coordinates.
l Organization—how, what, chain of command, forces structure.
l Movement and morale—where, how, when and good or bad.
l Units—type, designation.
l Personalities—who, where.
Using TRANSEC is absolutely essential for the radio operator. When the
radio must be used, keep transmission time to an absolute minimum (20
seconds absolute maximum: 15 seconds maximum preferred); preplan
your messages to avoid compromising any essential element of informa-
tion. If you must send EEFI items, use brevity lists, if possible, and also
encrypt the message. These measures decrease your transmission, help
prevent RDF, and deny the enemy valuable information. Included under
transmission security are the authentication procedures that must be fol-
lowed to protect against the enemy’s IED. Every radio operator must be
aware of the dangers of and guard against IED.
Strict radio discipline and adherence to authorized procedures are key to
ensuring TRANSEC over SCR networks. SINCGARS radios should be
operated in a frequency hopping mode to provide maximum protection
against enemy EW capabilities. Other TRANSEC measures include—
l Well-trained operators thoroughly familiar with proper communica-
tions procedures and equipment operation. (This includes all Marines
who may operate SCR, not just CIS personnel.)
l Avoidance of unauthorized transmission and testing and maximum
use of data networks to minimize transmission time and opportunity
for enemy direction finding.
l Use of transmitter, antenna, and power combinations that produce
minimum wave propagation and emission intensity consistent with
reliable communications.
7-8
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MCRP 3-40.3B
l Strict adherence to authorized frequencies.
l Use of authentication systems to protect against imitative deception
on nonsecure nets.
l Use of changing call signs and frequencies on nonsecure nets.
l Prompt response to and reporting of enemy jamming. (Operators
should continue to operate on assigned frequencies in a secure mode,
unless otherwise directed by a competent authority, and should
attempt to work through the interference.)
l Strict adherence to all emission control (EMCON) restrictions and
observance of radio silence.
l Use of communications means that do not radiate in the electromag-
netic spectrum such as messengers, visual and sound signaling, and
local wire loops.
l Use of terrain masking to shield transmission systems from enemy
EW systems.
l Remoting of transmitters and avoiding the clustering of antennas.
Cryptosecurity
Cryptosecurity deals with codes, key lists, and communications security
devices. This is the third line of defense for the radio operator. If the
radio operator uses a security device on the radio, the enemy will not get
anything for the language specialists to work on. However, do not get a
false sense of security. The need for emission control and transmission
security still exists—probably more so—because, if the enemy can’t get
information, the enemy might attempt to destroy or jam your station.
Also, it is very important for all radio operators to use only authorized
codes and to realize that using homemade codes is dangerous. Home-
made codes offer no protection at all. Their use is not authorized and is a
serious violation of security.
This also includes trying to “talk around” a classified or sensitive piece
of information. The enemy intelligence personnel are not fools, and try-
ing something like “talking around” critical information does more harm
than good. If critical information must be transmitted, it should be
encrypted or sent by secure means. In a situation when it is not possible
to send by a secure means or to encrypt a message that must be sent, the
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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7-9
possibility of what friendly forces will lose against what the enemy
could gain must be weighed. Other factors, such as how fast the enemy
could react to the information and what delaying the message for
encryption could mean, must also be considered.
Emission Security
Emission security (TEMPEST) is the component of COMSEC
that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons
information of value that might be derived from interception and analy-
sis of compromising emanations from cryptosecurity equipment and
telecommunications systems. The operation of communications and
information systems may result in unintentional electromagnetic emis-
sions. Although tactical equipment is designed to reduce the possibility
of such emissions, COTS equipment is not. Unintentional emissions are
extremely susceptible to interception and analysis and may disclose clas-
sified information. Commanders must follow applicable regulations pro-
viding guidance on control and suppression of such emissions.
Physical Security
Physical security is the COMSEC component that results from all physi-
cal measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material, and
documents from access or observation by unauthorized persons. The
access to classified cryptographic information must be tightly controlled.
When a commander or designated representative has determined that an
individual has a need to know and is eligible for access, then access to
classified cryptographic information will be formally authorized. The
authorization process must include an introduction to the unique nature
of cryptographic information, its unusual sensitivity, the special security
regulations governing its handling and protection, and the penalties pre-
scribed for its disclosure. Reportable violations include—
l Loss of material.
l Unauthorized viewing.
l Capture of individuals having access to COMSEC information.
7-10
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MCRP 3-40.3B
Currently fielded COMSEC equipment is unclassified for external view-
ing when appropriate covers are in place and no keying material is visi-
ble. Consequently, the exposure of such equipment to casual viewing by
uncleared personnel, whether by accident or as the result of operational
necessity, does not constitute a reportable violation.
EP techniques are divided into two categories: preventive and remedial.
Preventive EP are those procedures that can be used to avoid enemy EA
attempts. Remedial EP apply to jamming only; there are no remedial
measures once a unit has been intercepted, detected, or deceived.
ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT TECHNIQUES
Interception
The enemy is focused on intercepting your radio signal. To do this, all
the enemy needs is a radio receiver that operates in the same mode and
on the same frequency you are using to transmit. The mere fact that you
are operating gives the enemy valuable information. It tells the enemy
that you are in the area. By the number of stations operating on the same
frequency, the enemy can estimate the size of the unit. If your net is
operating in the clear, the enemy’s language specialists can understand
exactly what is said for even more information. When analyzing the traf-
fic pattern, the enemy can figure out which station is the net control sta-
tion (NCS) and identify the headquarters. Usually, in U.S. forces, the
NCS is the radio used by the operations officer or section of the highest
headquarters operating in the net. By further traffic analysis, the enemy
can determine changes in the level of activity that could mean a move-
ment or upcoming operation.
Radio Direction Finding
Interception is only one of the many dangers that the radio operator will
face. After knowing friendly forces are in the area, the enemy will try to
locate their position by using radio direction finding (RDF). A radio
direction finder consists of a radio receiver, a directional antenna, and
other specialized equipment. With RDF equipment, the approximate azi-
muth (i.e., bearing) to a transmitting radio can be determined. One
Radio Operator’s Handbook
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7-11
azimuth gives a general indication of direction. The intersection of two
azimuths by different RDF stations is called a cut and gives a general
indication of distance. The intersection of three or more azimuths is
called a fix and gives a general location. The ideal fix is the exact inter-
section of three or more bearings. However, exact intersection is seldom
achieved.
Terrain, weather, variations in radio wave propagation characteristics,
the inherent RDF equipment, and operator inaccuracies, prevent an ideal
fix. The fix that is obtained is called an actual fix. Although the actual
fix may not be usable for immediate targeting purposes, it is more than
enough for intelligence analysts to develop targeting data. Airborne
direction finding is more accurate than ground-based direction finding
but normally requires further analysis for targeting.
RDF ability to intercept electronics equipment emissions and determine
a bearing depends on the power output of the targeting transmitter and its
antenna radiation patterns. Experience indicates RDF accuracy of 500-
meter (547-yard [yd]) circular error of probability (CEP) is considered a
very good RDF fix. Normally, 50 percent of the CEPs are approximately
1,500 meters (1,640 yds) when the direction finder is located within 20
to 25 kilometers (12.4 to 15.5 mi) of the forward line of own troops
(FLOT). Many threat forces will fire on a 1,500-meter (1,640-yd) CEP if
they have sufficient massed artillery, and further analysis of terrain and
radio intercept can reduce the target area or identify an important target.
(reverse blank)
Appendix A
Map Coordinates
Field coordinates are often expressed in universal transverse mercator
grid coordinates and usually consist of 6-digit numbers. The typical map
used by the radio operator is a 1 to 50,000 scale topographic map that
has grid lines drawn on it, which are 1,000 meters (1 kilometer or klick)
apart. (See fig. A-1.)
To locate grid coordinate 632018, locate vertical line 63 (632018) in the
figure and draw a vertical line 2/10 of the way (632018) between lines
63 and 64. Likewise, find horizontal line 01 (632018) and draw a
LONE PINE
OLD MINE
M
I
N
E

R
O
A
D
MAIN ROAD
L
O
N
E

P
I
N
E

F
O
R
K
61
02
01
00
99
62
63 64
65
(1:50,000)
Figure A-1. Topographic Map.
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A-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
horizontal line 8/10 of the way (632018) between it and line 02. The two
drawn lines intersect at Lone Pine.
Similarly, the intersection of the Lone Pine Fork with the Main Road in
the figure would be represented as 638004, and the Old Mine would be
618012.
Although the use of the 6-digit number is generally sufficient for field
use, a more exact coordinate will identify the 100,000 meter square and
the grid zone designation to avoid confusion between different areas
with identical grid line numbers.
A more detailed explanation of the complete coordinate may be found
centered at the bottom of a 1 to 50,000 scale topographic map. The
order in which the grids are read can be remembered by using the
expression read-right-up.
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Appendix B
Time Zones
The world is divided into 24 time zones, each one bearing a unique pho-
netic letter name (ROMEO, UNIFORM, etc.) or time zone number that
must be applied to local time to arrive at the world standard time which
is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This standard time is referred to
in the Marine Corps as ZULU time. (See fig. B-1.) The time zones are
roughly 15° apart in longitude.
ZULU TIME = LOCAL TIME - TIME ZONE NUMBER.
LOCAL TIME = ZULU TIME + TIME ZONE NUMBER.
Z A N B O C P D Q E R F S G T H U I V K W L X M Y
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 12
Figure B-1. Standard Time Zones of the World.
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B-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
If a Marine is in the UNIFORM time zone, (also referred to as the PLUS
8 zone), 8 hours must be added to the local time to get ZULU time. (See
table B-1.) On the other hand, in the ROMEO or PLUS 5 time zone,
1300 ZULU would equate to 0800 local. During the summer, however, if
a Marine is located in an area where daylight savings time is observed,
one hour must be subtracted from the time zone number; i.e., the PLUS 8
zone becomes the PLUS 7 zone for local time purposes.
AUTODIN communications (i.e., worldwide) ZULU time should be
used in all messages. Within the operational area, however, local time is
usually used. To avoid confusion, the time zone should always be stated
e.g., 1100 LOCAL or 1900 ZULU.
Table B-1. CONUS Time Zones.
Civilian
Time Zone
Military
Time Zone
ZULU
Local
Time
ZULU
Time
EDT QUEBEC +4 0800 Q 1200 Z
EST CDT ROMEO +5 0700 R 1200 Z
CST MDT SIERRA +6 0600 S 1200 Z
MST PDT TANGO +7 0500 T 1200 Z
PST UNIFORM +8 0400 U 1200 Z
Appb.fm Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:58 AM
Appendix C
Prowords
Word or
Phrase
Meaning
ALL AFTER I refer to the portion of the message that follows.
ALL BEFORE I refer to the portion of the message that precedes.
BREAK I hereby indicate the separation of the text from
other portions of the message. Or: I have com-
pleted the text of the message, signature follows,
etc. (When break-in is permitted, receiving opera-
tor may interrupt the transmitting operator to
request retransmission of a portion of a message.
This proword is the interruption sign.)
CORRECTION An error has been made in this transmission (or
message indicated). The correct version
is_______. That which follows is a corrected ver-
sion in answer to your request for verification.
DISREGARD
THIS TRANS-
MISSION
This transmission is in error. Disregard it. (This
proword shall not be used to cancel any message
that has been completely transmitted and for
which receipt or acknowledgment has been
received.)
DO NOT
ANSWER
Stations called are not to answer this call receipt
for this message, or otherwise to transmit in con-
nection with this transmission. When this pro-
word is employed, the transmission shall be
ended with the proword OUT.
C-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
EXECUTE Carry out the purpose of the message or signal to
which this applies. To be used only with the exec-
utive method.
EXECUTE TO
FOLOW
Action on the message or signal which follows is
to be carried out upon receipt of the proword
EXECUTE. To be used only with the execu-
tive method.
EXEMPT The addressee designations immediately follow-
ing are exempted from the collective net call.
FIGURES Numerals or numbers follow.
FLASH Precedence FLASH.
FROM The originator of this message is indicated by the
address designation immediately following.
IMMEDIATE Precedence IMMEDIATE.
INFO The addressee designations immediately follow-
ing are addressed for information.
I READ BACK The following is my response to your instructions
to read back.
I SAY AGAIN I am repeating transmission (or portion) indi-
cated.
I SPELL I shall spell the next word phonetically.
I VERIFY The following message (or portion) has been ver-
ified at your request and is repeated. To be used
only as a reply to verify.
MESSAGE
FOLLOWS
A message which requires recording is about to
follow. (Transmitted immediately after the call.)
Word or
Phrase
Meaning
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
C-3
NUMBER Station serial number.
OUT This is the end of my transmission to you. No
response is necessary.
OVER This is the end of my transmission to you and a
response is necessary. Go ahead and transmit.
PRIORITY Precedence PRIORITY.
READ BACK Repeat this entire transmission back to me exactly
as received.
RELAY TO Transmit this message to all addressees or to the
address designations immediately following.
ROGER I have received your last transmission satisfacto-
rily.
ROUTINE Precedence ROUTINE.
SAY AGAIN Repeat all of your last transmission. Followed by
identification data means: “Say again (portion
indicated).” (“Repeat” is not used because it is the
signal for naval gunfire and artillery to fire.)
SIGNALS
FOLLOW
The groups which follow are taken from signal
book. (This proword need not be used on nets pri-
marily employed for conveying signals. It is
intended for use when tactical signals are passed
on nontactical nets.)
SILENCE,
SILENCE,
SILENCE
Cease transmission immediately. (Silence will be
maintained until instructed to resume. When an
authentication system is in force, transmissions
imposing silence are to be authenticated.)
Word or
Phrase
Meaning
C-4
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
SILENCE
LIFTED
Resume normal transmissions. (Silence can be
lifted only by the station imposing it or by higher
authority. When an authentication system is in
force, transmissions lifting silence are to be
authenticated.)
SPEAK
SLOWER
Your transmission is too fast. Reduce speed of
transmission.
THAT IS
CORRECT
You are correct, or what you have transmitted is
correct.
THIS IS This transmission is from the station whose desig-
nation immediately follows.
TIME That which immediately follows is the time or
date-time group of the message.
TO The addressees whose designations immediately
follow are to take action on this message.
UNKNOWN
STATION
The identity of the station with whom I am
attempting to establish
communications is unknown.
VERIFY Verify entire message (or portion indicated) with
the originator and send correct version. To be
used only at the discretion of or by the addressee
to which the questioned message was directed.
WAIT I must pause for a few seconds.
WAIT OUT I must pause longer than a few seconds.
Word or
Phrase
Meaning
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
C-5
WILCO I have received your message, understand it, and
will comply. (To be used only by the addressee.
Since the meaning of ROGER is included in that
of WILCO, the two prowords are never used
together.)
WORD AFTER I refer to the word that follows.
WORD BEFORE I refer to the word that precedes.
WORDS TWICE Communication is difficult. Transmit(ting) each
phrase (or each code group) twice. This proword
may be used as an order, request, or as informa-
tion.
WRONG Your last transmission was incorrect. The correct
version is.
Word or
Phrase
Meaning
(reverse blank)
Appendix D
Phonetic Alphabet
Letter Word Pronunciation
A ALFA AL FAH
B BRAVO BRAH VOH
C CHARLIE CHAR LEE
D DELTA DELL TAH
E ECHO ECK OH
F FOXTROT FOKS TROT
G GOLF GOLF
H HOTEL HOH TELL
I INDIA IN DEE AH
J JULIETT JEW LEE ETT
K KILO KEY LOH
L LIMA LEE MAH
M MIKE MIKE
N NOVEMBER NOVEMBER
O OSCAR OSS CAH
P PAPA PAH PAH
Q QUEBEC KEH BECK
R ROMEO ROW ME OH
S SIERRA SEE AIR RAH
T TANGO TANG GO
APPD.FM Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:46 AM
D-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
U UNIFORM YOU NEE FORM
V VICTOR VIK TAH
W WHISKEY WISS KEY
X XRAY ECKS RAY
Y YANKEE YANG KEY
Z ZULU ZOO LOO
Letter Word Pronunciation
APPD.FM Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:46 AM
Appendix E
Phonetic Numerals
Number Pronunciation
1 WUN
2 TOO
3 TREE
4 FOW-er
5 FIFE
6 SIX
7 SEV-en
8 AIT
9 NIN-er
0 ZERO
(reverse blank)
Appendix F
Prosigns
Prosign Meaning
AA......................................................................................................... All after.
AB ...................................................................................................... All before.
AR .....................................................End of transmission. No receipt required.
AS...................................................................... I must pause for a few seconds.
AS AR ..................I must pause longer than a few seconds. Will call you back.
B ..................................................................................................More to follow.
BT.............................................................................................................. Break.
C ..............................................................................................................Correct.
DE............................................................................................................. This is.
EEEEEEEE ................................................................................................ Error.
EEEEEEEE AR.......................................This message is in error. Disregard it.
F....................................................................................................Do not answer.
FM.............................................................................................................. From.
G...................................................... Repeat this entire transmission back to me.
GR ...................................................................................................Group count.
GRNC................................. The groups in this message have not been counted.
HM HM HM..................................................... Emergency silence sign-silence.
Appf.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:47 AM
F-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
IMI ........................................................................................................... Repeat.
INFO.................................The address designations immediately following are
addressed for information only.
INT..................................................................................................Interrogative.
IX......................Action on the message or signal which follows is to be carried
out upon receipt of execute.
J....................................................................... Verify with originator and repeat.
K.................................This is the end of my transmission to you and a response
is necessary.
NR......................................................................... Numerals or numbers follow.
O...................................................................................... Immediate precedence.
P ........................................................................................... Priority precedence.
R...........................................................................................Routine precedence.
T............................................................................................................. Relay to.
TO............................................................................................ Action addressee.
WA..................................................................................................... Word after.
WB.................................................................................................. Word before.
XMT........................................................................................................ Exempt.
Y.................................................................... Emergency command precedence.
Z...............................................................................................Flash precedence.
Appf.fm Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:47 AM
Appendix G
Instructions for Preparing
Field Messages
1. Place the protector insert under the message blanks to limit the num-
ber of copies produced. Retain one copy in the book as a file copy.
Classify cover in accordance with contents (see fig. G-1).
2. Use BLOCK CAPITAL letters for all entries except the signature.
Use necessary punctuation.
3. To assign precedence and classification use table on the next page.
4. If a classified message is to be transmitted, secure voice or in the
clear, check appropriate block.
5. Show organization originating message in FM (from) block.
6. Show organization(s) for whom the message is intended in the TO
block.
7. Block labeled date-time group is for communication personnel only.
8. Draft the message in brief but clear terms.
9. Message drafters are responsible for all message drafting functions
to include the use of brevity codes.
Appg.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:58 AM
G-2
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
PRECEDENCE TABLE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION TABLE
Z - FLASH TOPSEC - TOP SECRET
O- SECRET - SECRET IMMEDIATE
P - PRIORITY CONF - CONFIDENTIAL
R - ROUTINE UNCLAS - UNCLASSIFIED
PROTECTOR INSERT
Place this under the last copy of each message written.
SAMPLE MESSAGE
PREC.
TO:
BT
BT
TOD TOR
SEND
SECURE
VOICE
SEND
CLEAR
RELEASING OFFICER’S SIGNATURE
CLASS
INFO.
DTG FM:
X
Figure G-1. Sample Message.
Appg.fm Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:58 AM
Appendix H
Radio Log
(
Radio Circuit Log (Marine Corps)
Circuit Bn TAC Station Call A2C Other stations
Net ID/Frequency
556
Net Control Station X4L J4Z
M2P
Operator PFC Jones, A Net Call Sign S5F
Supervisor Sgt. Smith, J Page 01 of 10 Date 6 OCT 99
Time Call Transmission End
0800Z Assumed watch
0801 B6D DE A2C
A2C DE B30
A2C DE D5F
K
K
K
OVER
0804 B3D C3E
D5F DE A2C AR
OUT
0808 A2C DE B3D
B3D DE A2C
A2C DE B3D
K
K
P 23140OZ SEP 99 C Files
OVER
0810 B3D DE A2C AR OUT
0812 B6D DE A2C Abbreviated Calls Authorized AR OUT
0815 C4E DE D5F K OVER
DE E K
DE F MSG 0 231414Z SEP 99
FM D5F3
TO C4E3
BT
Classified (Use Actual Classification)
Report to CAR Dealer at 1000 Today for
Liaison
BT
K
(reverse blank)
Appendix I
Metric System Conversion Table
The basic unit of the metric system is the meter (m). The meter is 39.37
inches long. This is 3.37 inches longer than the English yard. Units that
are multiples or fractional parts of the meter are designated by prefixes
to the word “meter.”
1 millimeter (mm) = 0.001 meter or 1/1000 meter
1 centimeter (cm)= 0.01 meter or 1/100 meter
1 decimeter (dm) = 0.1 meter of 1/10 meter
1 decameter (dkm) = 10 meters
1 hectometer (hm) = 100 meters
1 kilometer (km) = 1000 meters
The Metric Measurement in Most Common Use
10 millimeters = 1 centimeter
10 centimeters = 1 decimeter
10 decimeters = 1 meter
1000 meters = 1 kilometer
To Convert
Length Multiply by
Inches to centimeters 2.54
Feet to meters 0.3048
Yards to meters 0.9144
Miles to kilometers 1.609
Millimeters to inches 0.03937
Centimeters to inches 0.3937
Decimeters to inches 3.937
Decimeters to feet 0.328
Meters to inches 39.37
I-2
________________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
Meters to feet 3.28
Meters to yards 1.0936
Decameters to feet 32.8
Hectometers to feet 328.1
Kilometers to feet 3281
Kilometers to yards 1093.6
Kilometers to miles 0.62
Examples:
To change 90 kilometers to miles: 90 x .62 = 55.8 miles
To change 90 kilometers to feet: 90 x 3281 = 295,290 feet
To change 50 yards to meters: 50 x 0.9144 = 45.72 meters
Appendix J
Authentication
Authentication systems are provided to prevent unauthorized enemy sta-
tions from entering friendly radio nets to disrupt or confuse operations.
The only authentication systems authorized are those approved for use
by the National Security Agency. If a special or emergency requirement
arises, notify the CIS officer (G-6/S-6).
INSTRUCTIONS
There are two methods of authentication that are authorized for use:
challenge and reply authentication and transmission authentication. The
operational distinction is that challenge and reply requires two-way
communications, whereas transmission authentication does not.
Challenge and Reply Authentication
Challenge and reply authentication will be used whenever possible. The
called party will always make the first challenge. Besides validating the
authenticity of the calling station, this practice prevents an enemy opera-
tor from entering a net to obtain correct authentication responses for use
in another net. The party making the call may counterchallenge the
called party using a different challenge.
Note: In challenge and reply authentication, only the station respond-
ing is verified. Do not accept a challenge as an authentication.
When a caller desires authentication, he must invite a challenge by stat-
ing that he is prepared to authenticate.
Another challenge should be made if an incorrect reply is received, if a
standby is requested, or if an unusual delay occurs between challenge
and reply.
J-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
Users will occasionally misauthenticate because of such problems as
having the wrong system, misreading the table, etc. The challenging sta-
tion should attempt to pinpoint the difficulty and then rechallenge.
Never give the challenge and reply in the same transmission (self
authentication).
Transmission Authentication
Transmission authentication is used to validate the authenticity of the
message when it is impossible or impractical to use challenge and reply
authentication (see table J-1).
For Instructional Purposes Only
Table J-1. Sample AKAC-874 Transmission Authentication.
18 19 20 21 22 23
0 SD IU PY UT JG LJ
2 FG KG AG RG YR HF
4 VF DY KU JM RW FS
6 HD ML DT SC DA SA
8 RD NB MG GR LJ QW
10 BJ FR SR EF MB TP
12 JH SP PO QS VX KU
14 TY OL RM OL FS DR
16 DR IJ AO MJ HD RT
18 JH TL KY BG UY NY
20 SD WM SR DE GC TR
22 MJ AP GH FD JG OU
24 BN PC FI KI RW TM
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
J-3
WHEN TO AUTHENTICATE
Transmission should be authenticated—
l When any station suspects imitative deception on any circuit; e.g.,
when contacting a station following one or more unsuccessful
attempts to contact that station.
l When any station is challenged or requested to authenticate. This is
not to be interpreted as requiring stations to break an imposed silence
for the sole purpose of authenticating.
l When directing radio silence, listening silence, or requiring a station
to break an imposed silence.
l When transmitting contact and amplifying reports in plain language.
l When transmitting operating instructions that affect the military situ-
ation; e.g., closing down a station or watch, changing frequency other
than normal scheduled changes, directing establishment of a special
communication guard, requesting artillery fire support, directing relo-
cation of units, etc.
l When transmitting a plain language cancellation.
l When making initial radio contact or resuming contact after pro-
longed interruptions.
l When transmitting to a station that is under radio listening silence.
l When authorized to transmit a classified message in the clear.
l When forced, because of no response by the called station to send a
message in the blind (transmission authentication).
Note: Authentication is not required when making initial contact after
a scheduled call sign and frequency change since only bona fide sta-
tions will know their assigned call sign and frequency for the time
period in use.
For detailed authentication instructions refer to the automated communi-
cations-electronics operations instructions.
(reverse blank)
Appendix K
International Morse Code
Dots and dashes are used in various distinctive combinations to repre-
sent the letters of the alphabet, the numerals from 0 to 9, and the pros-
igns (see fig K-1). The dots and dashes of the Morse Code are produced
by keying a transmitter and causing it to transmit short and long signals.
The dash is 3 times the length of the dot. The dots and dashes used for a
letter are spaced from each other by a period of time equal in length to
one dot. Letters are spaced from each other by a period of time equal to
three dots. Words are spaced by a period of time equal to seven dots.
a. Letters
b. Figures
A J S
E N W
F O X
G P Y
H Q Z
I R
B K T
C L U
D M V
1 5 9
2 6 0
3 7
4 8
Figure K-1. Morse Code.
(reverse blank)
Appk.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:58 AM
Appendix L
Frequency Prediction Means
Radio signals propagate from a transmitter to a receiver in different ways
depending on the selected frequency of the radio. The two available
resources for Marines to predict the best frequency to propagate over a
given path are to use the Joint Spectrum Center (JSC) or the Marine
Corps’ system planning, engineering, and evaluation device (SPEED).
See figure L-1 on page L-2.
JSC is a Department of Defense agency that is responsible for supplying
the electromagnetic analysis to the uniformed services. Located in
Annapolis, Maryland, JSC can perform a variety of propagation predic-
tions on all ranges of frequencies. Once a quarter, JSC publishes a list of
HF frequency predictions for selected paths that the Marine Corps has
requested. A compilation of frequency predictions are held in the G-6
offices of the major subordinate commands within the Marine Corps.
The second method is SPEED. SPEED is computer software that allows
communications system planners to do rapid analysis of radio signal
propagation. The SPEED comes with electronic maps of the Earth which
allow true line of sight data for the planners, as well as HF propagation
prediction. SPEED is available down to the battalion level.
Appl.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:57 AM
L-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
RADIOS, RADARS,
SENSORS
PLRS
SINCGARS
RADIO
PATH PROFILING
SPEED SUPPORTS...
AREA COVERAGE
AND REFERENCE
UNIT PLACEMENT
FREQUENCY
HOPSET
GENERATION
TRI-TAC
SWITCHING AND
MULITICHANNEL
PROGRAMMING
Figure L-1. SPEED.
Appl.fm Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:57 AM
Appendix M
Position and Navigation Systems
Global positioning system (GPS) and position location reporting system
(PLRS) are new systems that radio operators may be required to operate.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
Global positioning system is a space-based navigation system designed
to provide 24-hour continuous worldwide, all-weather precise position,
and time measurement. The GPS consists of a space segment (satellite),
control segment (monitors stations on Earth), and user segment (GPS
receivers). The system operates by satellites sending out two signals on
nonchanging frequencies. The GPS receiver receives the signals trans-
mitted by the satellites and computes the users position. GPS (by being
an all-weather, jam-resistant, continuous system) gives users highly
accurate navigation; worldwide, three-dimensional position or location
velocity; and time information. As a passive, receive-only system, GPS
can be employed at the individual level in such nondescript terrain as
jungles, mountain ranges, or deserts. (See fig. M-1 on page M-2.)
POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM
PLRS is a system of UHF radios, signal and message processors, and
user input and output devices configured as master stations and basic
units that provide the user of the system with position navigation infor-
mation and limited digital communications. PLRS works by the individ-
ual units in the network time sharing a single frequency band. As the
master station records the arrival time of the signal bursts from each user
unit at given locations, the range between sender and receiver can be
computed. If units are beyond line of sight for the master station, then
PLRS will automatically enable any user unit to serve as an automatic
relay. The full PLRS performance can be provided over a 47- by 47-
kilometer operating area. This operating area can be extended to a 300-
by 300-kilometer area through the use of airborne relays provided by
PLRS-equipped aircraft.
Appm.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:57 AM
M-2
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
ENHANCED POSITION REPORTING SYSTEM
Enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS) shares many
characteristics with PLRS, but provides a significant increase in data
communications capability over PLRS. Various data rates supporting a
variety of broadcast and point-to-point modes are currently available.
EPLRS will provide a dedicated data communications capability
between regiment and battalion tactical data networks (TDNs) within the
ground combat element, when fielded in FY-00. This network will also
be extended to lower echelons throughout the MAGTF. EPLRS can also
serve as a source for automated friendly position location information
and navigation information in a hybrid community with PLRS, though
data throughput is reduced.
WHEN THE GPS IS COMPLETELY
INSTALLED, AT LEAST FOUR SATELLITES
WILL ALWAYS BE IN VIEW WORLDWIDE
AND WILL CONTINUOUSLY TRANSMIT
THEIR POSITION AND TIME OF
TRANSMISSION.
GPS RECEIVER
MEASURES TRANSIT TIME
OF EACH SIGNAL AND
COMPUTES USER POSITION
AND DESIRED NAVIGATION
DATA.
Figure M-1. Global Positioning System.
Appm.fm Page 2 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:57 AM
Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
M-3
REG
REG
REG
Bn
Bn
Co Co
Co
AN/MRC-142
LOS MUX
EPLRS
SI NCGARS SI P
Plt
Plt
Plt
DIV
Bn
Figure M-2. EPLRS Concept of Employment.
(reverse blank)
Appm.fm Page 3 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:57 AM
Appendix N
Size of Dipole and Inverted L
Antennas
ACCORDING TO WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENTS
Size of dipole and inverted L antennas according to wavelength
measurements (in feet and inches).

Table N-1. Size of Antennas
Frequency 1/2 Wavelength
1/4
Wavelength
1/8
Wavelength
2 1/2
Wavelength
(MHz)
2.00 225 ft 6 in 112 ft 9 in 56 ft 4 1/2 in 1,127 ft 6 in
2.50 180 ft 4 3/4 in 90 ft 2 1/3 in 45 ft 1 in 901 ft 11 3/4 in
3.00 150 ft 4 in 75 ft 2 in 37 ft 7 in 751 ft 8 in
3.50 128 ft 10 1/4 in 64 ft 5 in 32 ft 2 in 644 ft 3 3/8 in
4.00 112 ft 9 in 56 ft 4 1/2 in 28 ft 21/2 in 563 ft 9 in
4.50 100 ft 2 2/3 in 50 ft 11/3 in 25 ft 2/3 in 501 ft 1 1/3 in
5.00 90 ft 2 1/3 in 45 ft 1 in 22 ft 6 2/3 in 450 ft 11 3/4 in
5.50 82 ft 41 ft 20 ft 6 in 410 ft
6.00 75 ft 2 in 37 ft 7 in 18 ft 9 1/2 in 375 ft 10 in
6.50 69 ft 4 2/3 in 34 ft 8 1/3 in 17 ft 4 in 346 ft 11 in
7.00 64 ft 5 in 32 ft 2 1/2 in 16 ft 1 1/4 in 322 ft 1 3/4 in
7.50 60 ft 1 2/3 in 30 ft 1 in 15 ft 1/3 in 300 ft 8 in
8.00 56 ft 4 1/2 in 28 ft 2 1/4 in 14 ft 1 in 281 ft 10 1/2 in
8.50 53 ft 3/4 in 26 ft 6 1/8 in 13 ft 3 1/8 in 265 ft 3 1/2 in
9.00 50 ft 1 1/3 in 25 ft 2/3 in 12 ft 1/3 in 250 ft 6 2/3 in
9.50 47 ft 5 2/3 in 23 ft 8 3/4 in 11 ft 10 1/3 in 237 ft 4 3/8 in
.
N-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
10.00 45 ft 1 in 22 ft 6 2/3 in 11 ft 1/4 in 225 ft 6 in
10.50 42 ft 11 2/3 in 21 ft 5 3/4 in 10 ft 8 3/4 in 214 ft 9 1/8 in
11.00 41 ft 20 ft 6 in 10 ft 3 in 205 ft
11.50 39 ft 2 2/3 in 19 ft 7 1/2 in 9 ft 9 2/3 in 196 ft 1 in
12.00 37 ft 7 in 18 ft 9 1/2 in 9 ft 4 3/4 in 187 ft 11 in
12.50 36 ft 1 in 18 ft 1/2 in 9 ft 1/4 in 180 ft 4 3/4 in
13.00 34 ft 8 1/3 in 17 ft 4 in 8 ft 8 in 173 ft 5 1/2 in
13.50 33 ft 5 in 16 ft 8 1/2 in 8 ft 4 1/4 in 167 ft 3/8 in
14.00 32 ft 2 1/2 in 16 ft 1 1/4 in 8 ft 2/3 in 161 ft 3/4 in
14.50 31 ft 1 1/4 in 15 ft 6 2/3 in 7 ft 9 1/3 in 155 ft 6 1/4 in
15.00 30 ft 1 in 15 ft 1/3 in 7 ft 6 1/4 in 150 ft 4 in
15.50 29 ft 1 1/8 in 14 ft 6 1/2 in 7 ft 3 1/4 in 145 ft 5 7/8 in
16.00 28 ft 2 1/4 in 14 ft 1 1/8 in 7 ft 1/2 in 140 ft 11 1/4 in
16.50 27 ft 4 in 13 ft 8 in 6 ft 10 in 136 ft 8 in
17.00 26 ft 6 1/3 in 13 ft 3 1/8 in 6 ft 7 1/2 in 132 ft 7 3/4 in
17.50 25 ft 9 1/4 in 12 ft 10 2/3 in 6 ft 5 1/3 in 128 ft 10 1/4 in
18.00 25 ft 2/3 in 12 ft 6 1/3 in 6 ft 3 1/8 in 125 ft 3 1/2 in
18.50 24 ft 4 1/2 in 12 ft 2 1/4 in 6 ft 1 1/8 in 121 ft 10 3/4 in
19.00 23 ft 8 3/4 in 11 ft 10 3/8 in 5 ft 11 1/4 in 118 ft 8 1/8 in
19.50 23 ft 1 1/2 in 11 ft 6 3/4 in 5 ft 9 3/8 in 115 ft 7 2/3 in
20.00 22 ft 6 1/2 in 11 ft 3 1/4 in 5 ft 7 2/8 in 112 ft 9 in
20.50 22 ft 11 ft 5 ft 6 in 110 ft
21.00 21 ft 5 3/4 in 10 ft 8 1/8 in 5 ft 4 3/8 in 107 ft 4 1/2 in
21.50 20 ft 11 3/4 in 10 ft 5 1/8 in 5 ft 3 in 104 ft 10 2/3 in
22.00 20 ft 6 in 10 ft 3 in 5 ft 1 1/2 in 102 ft 6 in
22.50 20 ft 1/2 in 10 ft 1/4 in 5 ft 1/8 in 100 ft 2 2/3 in
Table N-1. Size of Antennas
Frequency 1/2 Wavelength
1/4
Wavelength
1/8
Wavelength
2 1/2
Wavelength
(MHz)
(continued).
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
N-3
23.00 19 ft 7 1/3 in 5 ft 9 2/3 in 4 ft 10 1/8 in 98 ft 1/2 in
23.50 19 ft 2 1/4 in 9 ft 7 1/8 in 4 ft 9 in 95 ft 11 1/2 in
24.00 18 ft 9 1/2 in 9 ft 4 3/4 in 4 ft 8 3/8in 93 ft 11 1/2 in
24.50 18 ft 5 in 9 ft 2 3/8 in 4 ft 7 1/4 in 92 ft 1/2 in
25.00 18 ft 1/2 in 9 ft 1/4 in 4 ft 6 1/8 in 90 ft 2 3/8 in
25.50 17 ft 8 1/4 in 8 ft 10 1/8 in 4 ft 5 in 88 ft 5 1/8 in
26.00 17 ft 4 1/8 in 8 ft 8 in 4 ft 4 in 85 ft 8 1/8 in
26.50 17 ft 1/4 in 8 ft 6 1/8 in 4 ft 3 in 85 ft 1 1/8 in
27.00 16 ft 8 3/8 in 8 ft 4 1/4 in 4 ft 2 1/8 in 83 ft 6 in
27.50 16 ft 4 3/4 in 8 ft 2 3/8 in 4 ft 1 1/8 in 81 ft 11 1/8 in
28.00 16 ft 1 1/4 in 8 ft 2/3 in 4 ft 1/3 in 80 ft 6 3/8 in
28.50 15 ft 9 1/8 in 7 ft 11 in 3 ft 11 1/2 in 79 ft 1 1/2 in
29.00 15 ft 6 2/3 in 7 ft 9 1/3 in 3 ft 10 2/3 in 77 ft 9 1/8 in
29.50 15 ft 3 1/2 in 7 ft 7 3/4 in 3 ft 10 in 76 ft 5 1/4 in
30.00 15 ft 3/8 in 7 ft 6 1/8 in 3 ft 9 in 75 ft 2 in
Table N-1. Size of Antennas
Frequency 1/2 Wavelength
1/4
Wavelength
1/8
Wavelength
2 1/2
Wavelength
(MHz)
(continued).
(reverse blank)
Appendix O
Field Repair and Expedients
Section I. Antenna Repair
Antennas are sometimes broken or damaged, causing either a communi-
cations failure or poor communications. If a spare is available, replace
the damaged antenna. When there is no spare, you may have to construct
an emergency antenna. The following paragraphs are suggestions on
repairing antennas and antenna supports and on constructing and adjust-
ing emergency antennas.
REPAIR TECHNIQUES
Whip Antennas
When a whip antenna is broken into two sections, the portion of the
antenna that is broken off can be connected to the portion attached to the
base by joining the sections as shown in figure O-1 on page O-2. Use the
method illustrated in figure O-1A, when both parts of the broken whip
are available and usable. Use the method shown in figure O-1B when the
portion of the whip that was broken off is lost, or when the whip is badly
damaged. To restore the antenna to its original length, add a piece of
wire that is nearly the same length as the missing part of the whip. Then,
lash the pole support securely to both sections of the antenna. Clean the
two antenna sections thoroughly to ensure good contact before connect-
ing them to the pole support. If possible, solder the connections.
Wire Antennas
Emergency repair of a wire antenna may involve the repair or replace-
ment of the wire used as the antenna or transmission line; or, the repair
or replacement of the assembly used to support the antenna.
Appo.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
O-2
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MCRP 3-40.3B
When one or more wires of an antenna are broken, the antenna can be
repaired by reconnecting the broken wires. To do this, lower the antenna
to the ground, clean the ends of the wires, and twist the wires together.
Whenever possible, solder the connection.
If the antenna is damaged beyond repair, construct a new one. Make sure
that the lengths of the wires of the substitute antenna are the same length
as the original.
Antenna supports may also require repair or replacement. A substitute
item may be used in place of a damaged support and, if properly insu-
lated, can be of any material of adequate strength. If the radiating ele-
ment is not properly insulated, field antennas may be shorted to ground
and rendered ineffective. Many commonly found items can be used as
field expedient insulators. The best of these items are plastic or glass, to
include plastic spoons, buttons, bottle necks, and plastic bags. Less
effective than plastic or glass but better than no insulators at all are wood
and rope, or both, in that order. The radiating element—the actual
antenna wire—should touch only the antenna terminal and be physically
POLE OR
BRANCH
CABLE OR
TAPE
LASHING
CABLE OR
TAPE
LASHING
BREAK
A B
REPLACEMENT
FIELD WIRE
POLE OR
BRANCH
(LENGTH OF
BROKEN
ANTENNA)
Figure O-1. Emergency Repair of Broken Whip.
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Radio Operator’s Handbook
_____________________________
O-3
separated from all other objects, other than the supporting insulator. Fig-
ure O-2 shows various emergency insulators.
Guys
Lines used to stabilize the supports for an antenna are called guys. These
lines are usually made of wire, manila rope, or nylon rope. If a rope
breaks, it may be repaired by tying the two broken ends together. If the
rope is too short after the tie is made, it can be lengthened by adding
another piece of dry wood or cloth. If a guy wire breaks, it can be
PLASTIC SPOON
NYLON ROPE
BUTTON
PLASTIC BAG
BOTTLE NECK
WOOD(DRY)
RUBBER OR CLOTH STRIP(DRY)
NYLON ROPE
BEST
GOOD
FAIR
Figure O-2. Improvised Insulators.
Appo.fm Page 3 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
O-4
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
replaced with another piece of wire. Figure O-3 shows a method of
repairing a guy line with a spoon.
Masts
Some antennas are supported by masts. If a mast breaks, it can be
replaced with one of same length. If long poles are not available as
replacements, short poles may be overlapped and lashed together with
rope or wire to provide a pole of the required length. Figure O-3 shows a
method of making an emergency repair to masts.
Figure O-3. Repaired Guy Lines and Masts.
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_____________________________
O-5
TIPS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND ADJUSTMENT
Constructing the Antenna
The best kinds of wire for antennas are copper and aluminum. In an
emergency, however, use any type that is available.
The length of most antennas is critical. The emergency antenna should
be the same length as the antenna it replaces.
Antennas supported by trees can usually survive heavy wind storms if
the trunk of a tree or a strong branch is used as a support. To keep the
antenna taut and to prevent it from breaking or stretching as the trees
sway, attach a spring or old inner tube to one end of the antenna. Another
technique is to pass a rope through a pulley or eyehook, attach the rope
to the end of the antenna, and load the rope with a heavy weight to keep
the antenna tightly drawn.
Guys used to hold antenna supports are made of rope or wire. To ensure
that the guys made of wire will not affect the operation of the antenna,
cut the wire into several short lengths and connect the pieces with insula-
tors.
Adjusting the Antenna
An improvised antenna may change the performance of a radio set. Use
the following methods to determine if the antenna is operating properly.
A distant station may be used to test the antenna. If the signal received
from this station is strong, the antenna is operating satisfactorily. If the
signal is weak, adjust the height and length of the antenna and the trans-
mission line to receive the strongest signal at a given setting on the vol-
ume control of the receiver. This is the best method of tuning an antenna
when transmission is dangerous or forbidden.
In some radio sets, the transmitter is used to adjust the antenna. First, set
the controls of the transmitter in the proper position for normal opera-
tion; then, tune the system by adjusting the antenna height, the antenna
Appo.fm Page 5 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
O-6
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MCRP 3-40.3B
length, and the transmission line length to obtain the best transmission
output.
Impedance-matching a load to its source is an important consideration in
transmissions’ systems. If the load and source are mismatched, part of
the power is reflected back along the transmission line towards the
source. This reflection not only prevents maximum power transfer, but
can also be responsible for erroneous measurements of other parameters,
or even cause circuit damage in high-power applications.
The power reflected from the load interferes with the incident (i.e., for-
ward) power, causing standing waves of voltages and current to exist
along the line. The ratio of standing-wave maxima to minima is directly
related to the impedance mismatch of the load; therefore the standing-
wave ratio (SWR) provides the means of determining impedance and
mismatch.

WARNING
SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH CAN RESULT FROM CONTACT
WITH THE RADIATING ANTENNA OF A MEDIUM- OR HIGH-POW-
ER TRANSMITTER. TURN THE TRANSMITTER OFF WHILE MAK-

ING ADJUSTMENTS TO THE ANTENNA.
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_____________________________
O-7
Section II. Field Expedient Antennas
SINCGARS VHF radios provide the primary means of communications
for Marine Corps forces around the world. The SINCGARS radio oper-
ates in both single-channel and frequency hopping modes. It is important
for CIS personnel to remember that when using the SINCGARS radio in
the frequency hopping mode, field expedient VHF antennas should not
be used. CIS personnel should only use the whip antenna or the OE-254
antenna when operating in the frequency hopping mode.
HIGH FREQUENCY, FIELD EXPEDIENT
OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS
Vertical antennas are omnidirectional; i.e., they transmit and receive
equally well in all directions. Most manpack portable radios use a
vertical whip antenna. A vertical antenna can be improvised by using a
metal pipe or rod of the correct length, held erect by means of guys. The
lower end of the antenna should be insulated from the ground by placing
it on insulating material. A vertical antenna may also be a wire, sup-
ported by a tree or a wooden pole (see fig. O-4). For short, vertical
INSULATOR
GROUND
STAKE
GROUND
STAKE
ANTENNA
WIRE
ANTENNA
WIRE
WOODEN
POLE
INSULATOR
INSULATOR
Figure O-4. Field Substitutes for Support of Vertical
Wire Antennas.
Appo.fm Page 7 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
O-8
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
antennas, the pole may be used without guys (if properly supported at
the base). If the length of the vertical mast is not long enough to support
the wire upright, it may be necessary to modify the connection at the top
of the antenna.
End-Fed Half-Wave Antenna
An emergency, end-fed half-wave antenna can be constructed from
available materials such as field wire, rope, and wooden insulators. The
electrical length of this antenna is measured from the antenna terminal
on the radio set to the far end of the antenna (see fig. O-5). Construct the
antenna longer than necessary, then shorten it, as required, until best
results are obtained. The ground terminal of the radio set should be con-
nected to a good Earth ground for this antenna to function efficiently.
Center-Fed Doublet Antenna
The center-fed doublet is a half-wave antenna consisting of two, quarter-
wavelength sections on each side of the center. Construction of an
improvised doublet antenna for use with FM radios is shown in figure
O-6.
INSULATORS
GROUND
STAKE
ANTENNA
WIRE
WOODEN
MAST
Figure O-5. End-Fed Half-Wave Antenna.
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_____________________________
O-9
Doublet antennas are directional broadside to their length, which makes
the vertical doublet antenna essentially omnidirectional. This is because
the radiation pattern is doughnut shaped. The horizontal doublet antenna
is bidirectional.
The length of a half-wave antenna may be computed by using the for-
mula in Chapter 4. Cut the wires as closely as possible to the correct
length because the length of the antenna wires is important.
A transmission line is used for conducting electrical energy from one
point to another, and it is used to transfer the output of a transmitter to an
antenna. Although it is possible to connect an antenna directly to a trans-
mitter, the antenna generally is located some distance away. In a vehicu-
lar installation, for example, the antenna is mounted outside, and the
transmitter is inside the vehicle. A transmission line, therefore, is neces-
sary as a connecting link.
Center-fed half-wave FM antennas can be supported entirely by pieces
of wood. A horizontal antenna of this type is shown in figure O-7A; a
vertical antenna in figure O-7B on page O-10. These antennas can be
rotated to any position to obtain the best performance. If the antenna is
erected vertically, the transmission line should be brought out horizon-
tally from the antenna for a distance equal to at least one-half of the
antenna’s length before it is dropped down to the radio set.
WOODEN
MAST
QUARTER-
WAVE
QUARTER-
WAVE
GROUND STAKE
INSULATORS
Figure O-6. Half-Wave Doublet Antenna.
Appo.fm Page 9 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
O-10
_____________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
A similar arrangement for a short, center-fed half-wave antenna is
shown in figure O-8. The ends of this antenna are connected to a piece of
dry wood, such as a bamboo pole, and the bend in the pole holds the
antenna wire straight. Another pole, or bundle of poles, serves as the
mast.
Figure O-9 shows an improvised vertical half-wave antenna. This tech-
nique is used primarily with FM radios. It is effective in heavily wooded
VERTICALLY
POLARIZED
HORIZONTALLY
POLARIZED
INSULATORS
QUARTER-
WAVE
TRANSMISSION
LINE
A B
Figure O-7. Center-Fed Half-Wave Antenna.
BAMBOO POLES
LASHING
WIRE
1 TURN LOOP
1 TURN LOOP
QUARTER-
WAVE
QUARTER-
WAVE
Figure O-8. Bent Bamboo Antenna.
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Radio Operator’s Handbook
____________________________
O-11
areas to increase the range of portable radios. The top guy wire can be
connected to a limb or passed over the limb and connected to the tree
trunk or a stake.
HIGH FREQUENCY, FIELD EXPEDIENT DIRECTIONAL
ANTENNAS
The vertical half-rhombic antenna (fig. O-10 on page O-12) and the
long-wire antenna (fig. O-11 on page O-12) are two field expedient,
GROUND
STAKE
GROUND
STAKE
INSULATOR
INSULATOR
INSULATOR
INSULATOR
ANTENNA WIRE
ANTENNA
WIRE
Figure O-9. Improvised Vertical Half-Wave Antennas.
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O-12
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MCRP 3-40.3B
directional antennas. These antennas consist of a single wire, preferably
two or more wavelengths long, supported on poles at a height of 3 to 7
meters (10 to 20 feet) above the ground. The antennas will, however,
operate satisfactorily as low as 1 meter (approximately 3 feet) above the
ground. The far end of the wire is connected to ground through a nonin-
ductive resistor of 500 to 600 ohms. Use a resistor rated at least one-half
the wattage output of the transmitter to ensure the resistor is not burned
out by the output power of the transmitter. A reasonably good ground,
such as a number of ground rods or a counterpoise, should be used at
both ends of the antenna. The radiation pattern is directional. The anten-
nas are used primarily for either transmitting or receiving high frequency
signals.
Figure O-10. Vertical Half-Rhombic Antenna.
RESISTOR
RESISTOR
Figure O-11. Long-Wire Antenna.
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____________________________
O-13
The Vee antenna is another field expedient, directional antenna. It con-
sists of two wires forming a Vee with the open area of the Vee pointing
toward the desired direction of transmission or reception (see fig. O-12).
To make construction easier, the legs may slope downward from the
apex of the Vee (this is called a sloping Vee antenna [see fig. O-13 on
page O-14]).
The angle between the legs varies with the length of the legs in order to
achieve maximum performance.
When the antenna is used with more than one frequency or wavelength,
use an apex angle that is midway between the extreme angles deter-
mined by the chart.
To make the antenna radiate in only one direction, add noninductive ter-
minating resistors from the end of each leg (not at the apex) to ground.
Figure O-12. Vee Antenna.
INSULATORS
10’
10’
10’
Appo.fm Page 13 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
O-14
_____________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
The resistors should be approximately 500 ohms and have a power rat-
ing at least one-half that of the output power of the transmitter being
used. Without the resistors, the antenna radiates bidirectionally, both
front and back.
The antenna must be fed by a balanced transmission line.
Figure O-13. Sloping Vee Antennas.
INSULATORS
INSULATOR
RESISTORS
RESISTOR
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____________________________
O-15
Use table O-1 to determine the angle and the length of the legs.
Table O-1. Leg Length for Vee Antennas.
Antenna
Length
(Wavelength)
Optimum
Apex Angle
(Degrees)
1 90
2 70
3 58
4 50
6 40
8 35
10 33
(reverse blank)
Appo.fm Page 15 Friday, June 25, 1999 11:17 AM
Appendix P
Radio Operator’s Checklist
Before you operate any radio set, get the appropriate equipment techni-
cal manual (TM) and carefully study the operating instructions. Refer to
the panel diagrams, connections diagrams, and the paragraphs covering
the description of components during the preliminary starting procedure.
Make sure that the proper cables are connected to the proper panel con-
nectors, and that the controls are correctly set. Even the most experi-
enced operators should check their preliminary procedures against the
TM references from time to time to insure accuracy and avoid damaging
the equipment. Use the operational checklist and the equipment perfor-
mance checklist to determine what to do to remedy any problems
encountered during starting procedures and operation.
STEPS IN OPERATING RADIO SETS
Radio sets issued to a unit vary in type according to the communications
requirements of the unit. For example, some sets may be completely
contained in one assembly, while others may consist of separate compo-
nents that must be properly connected to assemble a complete radio set.
The following steps are generally required in operating a radio set.
Check the Set for Completeness
Make sure that all the necessary components and accessories are on hand
and ready for use. Refer to the equipment basic issue items list in the
TM. Never operate the transmitter without the antenna attached.
Inspect the Condition of the Knobs, Dials, Switches, and
Controls
Look for knobs, dials, switches, and controls that are loose on their
shafts, bind when being operated, won’t operate, or are damaged in any
other way. Make corrections where possible or report the faulty
P-2
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
condition to the CIS officer or CIS chief. Make sure that all knobs and
exterior parts are on the set. Immediately report any that are missing.
Check the Condition of Plugs, Receptacles, and Connectors
Do not attempt to connect the set for operation until you are sure that the
plugs and connectors are clean and in good condition, and the recepta-
cles to which they must be connected are also clean and in good condi-
tion.
Check the Connections Diagrams
The connections diagrams in the equipment TM show the type and num-
ber of cables required to interconnect the components of the radio set for
each type of operation. The radio set may be damaged if cables are con-
nected to the wrong receptacles.
If the connectors don’t match, it is possible to physically damage the
pins or sleeves of the connector.
If a cable is connected to a receptacle into which it fits but does not
belong, it may cause serious electrical damage to the equipment and, in
some cases, injury to the operator.
Make Sure of Dial, Switch, and Control Settings
Some radio sets can be seriously damaged if the switches, dials, and con-
trols are not set to the required initial settings before applying power or
making the initial timing adjustments. Before applying power, check the
equipment TM to be sure you performed all preliminary starting proce-
dures. Be sure radios installed in vehicles are turned off before starting
the vehicle’s engine to avoid damage to radio equipment.
Follow the Starting Procedure
The equipment TM covers, in detail, the proper procedure for starting
the radio set. If there is a specific sequence for starting the set, it is
described in the manual. Perform the operations in the proper sequence.
Radio Operator’s Handbook
______________________________
P-3
Apply Power
After the proper connections are made, and all switches are properly set,
power may be applied to the set.
Allow the Set to Warm Up
Radio sets usually require a warm-up period when first applying power
in order to stabilize the equipment. In some cases, it is possible to dam-
age a set by attempting to operate a set without allowing a warm-up
period. Most sets are protected against such damage, but it is foolish to
risk damage to a radio set by trying to put it on the air before it is ready.
Tune to the Desired Frequency (Channel)
Tune the transmitter to the frequency of the desired channel according to
the procedures in the equipment TM. Use the methods that are given in
the TM to check for correct tuning.
Check the Set for Normal Operation
While the set is in operation, check the indicators frequently to be sure
that the set is operating correctly. If anything unusual occurs during
operation, investigate it immediately. When necessary, turn off the
power to the set and refer to the operational checklist and the equipment
performance checklist in the equipment manual. If the corrections given
in the operational checklist and the equipment performance checklist
will not correct the trouble, report the condition to the unit electronics
maintenance shop. Make sure that the condition of the set and the action
taken are properly recorded on the maintenance records.
Use the Proper Procedure to Turn Off the Set
After operation (or if the set is being turned off because of improper
operation) make sure that the controls, switches, and dials are properly
set (this may not be required on some radios). Proceed to shut down the
components of the set in the sequence specified in the equipment man-
ual. Simple radios may require nothing more than turning the power
P-4
_______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
switch to its OFF position, but more complex sets may require elaborate
shutdown procedures.
Operating Hints
Use a handset or headset, rather than a loudspeaker, if the incoming sig-
nal is weak. Make sure that the microphone or handset is in good condi-
tion. Speak directly into the microphone; speak slowly and distinctly.
Make sure that the vehicle’s battery voltage (if radio set is vehicular-
mounted) is within the correct range. Keep the engine running to charge
the battery. Move the set or the vehicle, if necessary, to improve recep-
tion.
Lack of communications or poor communications may be caused by—
l Too great a distance between radio sets.
l Poor choice of location (siting) at one or both ends of the circuit.
l Terrain—hills or mountains.
l Noise and interference.
l Not enough transmitter power.
l Defective equipment.
l Improper adjustment of equipment.
l Ineffective antenna.
l Improper frequency assignment.
Poorly maintained equipment and improper operation can be just as
effective in preventing communications as excessive distance or moun-
tainous terrain. To avoid problems, observe the following precautions at
all times:
l Study the TMs for the equipment you are using. They provide com-
plete operating instructions and maintenance procedures.
l Keep your radio set clean and dry.
l Handle your radio set carefully.
Appendix Q
Glossary
Section I. Acronyms
AC................................................................................ alternating current
AF ....................................................................................audio frequency
AM......................................................................... amplitude modulation
ASAP .......................................................................... as soon as possible
ASIP......................................... advanced systems improvement program
bps......................................................................................bits per second
C4I ............................... command, control, communications, computers,
and intelligence
CDT ...................................................................... Central Daylight Time
CEOI. ......................... communications-electronics operating instruction
CEP................................................................circular error of probability
CIS .......................................... communications and information systems
cm..............................................................................................centimeter
COMINT..................................................... communications intelligence
COMSEC.......................................................... communications security
CONUS............................................................. continental United States
COTS ............................................... commercial off-the-shelf equipment
CST....................................................................... Central Standard Time
DACT...................................... data automated communications terminal
DAMA..................................................demand assigned multiple access
db ................................................................................................... decibel
DC........................................................................................ direct current
DCT .......................................................digital communications terminal
dm..............................................................................................decimeter
dkm........................................................................................... dekameter
DMS......................................................................digital message system
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Q-2
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
DTE.....................................................................data terminal equipment
DTG................................................................................. date-time group
EA................................................................................... electronic attack
EDT....................................................................... Eastern Daylight Time
EEFI ........................................essential elements of friendly information
EMCON.......................................................................... emission control
EMP ........................................................................electromagnetic pulse
EP..............................................................................electronic protection
EPLRS ................................ enhanced position location reporting system
ES.....................................................................electronic warfare support
EST ....................................................................... Eastern Standard Time
EW................................................................................electronic warfare
FAC......................................................................... forward air controller
FLOT ..............................................................forward line of own troops
FM.......................................................................... frequency modulation
FMF ............................................................................ Fleet Marine Force
FMFM............................................................ Fleet Marine Force manual
GHz.............................................................................................gigahertz
GPS.................................................................. global positioning system
HF ..................................................................................... high frequency
Hz.......................................................................................................hertz
hm............................................................................................hectometer
ID......................................................................................... identification
IED................................................... imitative electromagnetic deception
IR .................................................................................................. infrared
JC2WC................................Joint Command and Control Warfare Center
JSC.........................................................................Joint Spectrum Center
KHz............................................................................................. kilohertz
km.............................................................................................. kilometer
kbps...........................................................................kilobytes per second
kW................................................................................................ kilowatt
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_____________________________
Q-3
LOS........................................................................................ line of sight
LSB.................................................................................. lower side band
LUF..................................................................... lowest usable frequency
m...................................................................................................... meter
MAGTF ...................................................... Marine air-ground task force
MCRP ...............................................Marine Corps reference publication
MCWP .......................................... Marine Corps warfighting publication
MDT...................................................................Mountain Daylight Time
MEU(SOC) ........ Marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable)
MFP .......................................................... moisture fungusproofing paint
MHz .......................................................................................... megahertz
mi ...................................................................................................... miles
MIJI.................................... meaconing, intrusion, jamming, interference
mm............................................................................................ millimeter
MPF ...........................................................maritime prepositioning force
MST .................................................................. Mountain Standard Time
MUF............................................................. .maximum usable frequency
MUX.......................................................................................... multiplex
NBC......................................................nuclear, biological, and chemical
NCS...............................................................................net control station
NVIS...................................................... near vertical incidence skywave
ohm...................... a unit of electrical resistance (named for Georg Ohm)
OTH................................................................................ over the horizon
prosign ............................................................................... precedure sign
proword............................................................................ procedure word
PDT........................................................................ Pacific Daylight Time
PLRS................................................... position location reporting system
PST......................................................................... Pacific Standard Time
RCU............................................................................ remote control unit
RDF..........................................................................radio direction finder
RF..................................................................................... radio frequency
RFI ............................................................... radio frequency interference
SAA .............................................................satellite access authorization
SATCOM...........................................................satellite communications
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Q-4
______________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
SBB............................................................................. switched backbone
SCR........................................................................... single channel radio
SCSI ....................................................small computer systems interfaces
SHF......................................................................... super-high frequency
SID.......................................................... sudden ionospheric disturbance
SINCGARS................. single-channel ground and airborne radio system
SIP............................................................ systems improvement program
SOP............................................................. standing operating procedure
SPEED...................system planning, engineering, and evaluation device
SSB ..................................................................................single side band
SWR........................................................................... standing-wave ratio
TACSAT............................................................................tactical satellite
TAMCN ............................... table of authorized materiel control number
TCIM......................................tactical communications interface module
TDN......................................................................... tactical data network
TEMPEST................... an unclassified name referring to the means used
to ensure computer security
TM................................................................................. technical manual
TOD ........................................................................................ time of day
TRANSEC...............................................................transmission security
TWA................................................................................ tilt whip adaptor
UHF ........................................................................... ultrahigh frequency
USB.................................................................................. upper side band
UTC ............................................................. Coordinated Universal Time
UTM........................................................... universal transverse mercator
UV............................................................................................. ultraviolet
VHF .......................................................................... very high frequency
WBA............................................................................ whip-base adapter
WLC...............................................................................whip loading coil
WWA ........................................................................whip to wire adapter
yd ....................................................................................................... yard
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_____________________________
Q-5
Section II. Definitions
A
amplitude modulation (AM). Modulation in which the amplitude of the
carrier wave is varied above and below its normal value in accordance
with the intelligence of the signal being transmitted.
analog. A continuously variable signal which conveys information by
the change of the value or magnitude of the signal. The signal can
change in either amplitude, phase, frequency, or duration.
antenna gain. The effectiveness of a directional antenna as compared to
a standard nondirection antenna. It is usually expressed as the ratio in
decibels of standard antenna input power to directional antenna input
power that will produce the same field strength in the desired direction.
For a receiving antenna, the ratio of signal power values produced at the
receiver input terminals is used. The more directional an antenna is, the
higher is its gain.
authentication. A security measure designed to protect a communica-
tions system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmissions or simula-
tion by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or
originator.
B
baseband. In a carrier (or subcarrier) wire or radio transmission system,
the band of frequencies occupied by the signal before it modulates the
carrier (or subcarrier) frequency to form the transmitted or radio signal.
black. The black designation is applied to all wire lines and equipment
within a terminal or switching facility which handle encrypted traffic.
brevity code. A code which provides no security but which has as its
sole purpose the shortening of messages rather than the concealment of
their content.
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MCRP 3-40.3B
bulk encryption. An application of on-line cryptographic operations
where the encryption and decryption process is performed at designated
points of technical interface within a communications system; input-out-
put signals from various subscriber terminals thereby being crypto
graphically processed at these points. The operation is performed in
bulk; i.e., two or more channels processed simultaneously by one crypto
security device.
C
call sign. Any combination of characters or pronounceable words which
identifies a communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity,
or a unit; used primarily for establishing and maintaining communica-
tions.
carrier. (1) The radio wave produced by a transmitter when there is no
modulating signal, or any other wave, recurring series of pulses, or direct
current capable of being modulated. Also called carrier wave. (2) A
wave generated locally at a receiver that, when combined with the side-
bands of a suppressed carrier transmission and a suitable detector, pro-
duces the modulating wave.
communications security (COMSEC). The protection resulting from
all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of
value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecom-
munications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of
the results of such possession and study. Communications security
includes cryptosecurity, transmission security, emission security, and
physical security of communications security materials and information.
critical frequency. The highest frequency at which a given wave at any
given time will, if transmitted vertically, be refracted back to earth by a
layer of the ionosphere.
cryptography. The art or science which pertains to the various means
and methods for rendering plain text unintelligible, and reconverting
unintelligible texts into intelligible language; application of that science
by means other than cryptanalysis.
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_____________________________
Q-7
D
data. Representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized
manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by
humans or by automatic means. Any representations such as characters
or analog quantities to which meaning is or might be assigned.
date-time group (DTG). The date and time, expressed in digits and
zone suffix, the message was prepared for transmission. (Expressed as
six digits followed by the zone suffix; first pair of digits denotes the date,
second pair the hours, third pair the minutes.)
decibel (dB). A unit used to express the magnitude of a change in signal
or sound level. A change of three decibels is the change in power level of
a pure sine wave that is just barely detectable by the human ear. The dif-
ference in decibels between two signals is 10 times the common loga-
rithm of their ratio of powers or 20 times the common logarithm of their
ratio of voltages or currents. One decibel is one-tenth of a bel.
digital. A signal having discrete states, usually two, such as the presence
or absence of a voltage. The signal is given meaning by assigning
numerical values or other information to the various possible combina-
tions of the discrete states of the signal.
directed net. A net in which no station other than the net control station
can communicate with any other station, except for the transmission of
urgent messages, without first obtaining the permission of the net control
station.
E
electromagnetic radiation. Radiation made up of oscillating electric
and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light.
electronic warfare (EW). Any military action involving the use of elec-
tromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum
or to attack the enemy. The three major subdivisions within electronic
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MCRP 3-40.3B
warfare are: electronic attack, electronic protection, and electronic sup-
port measures.
F
free net. A net in which any station may communicate with any other
station in the same net without first obtaining permission from the net
control station to do so.
frequency. The number of complete cycles per unit of time for a peri-
odic quantity such as alternating current, sound waves, or vibrating
objects. Frequency is expressed in hertz, kilohertz, megahertz, and giga-
hertz.
frequency band. A continuous range of frequencies extending between
two limiting frequencies.
Frequency hopping. A method of jumping from frequency to frequency
in synchronization with one another in a random order at a rate of up to
100 times per second. Frequency hopping is the preferred method of
communication with SINCGARS radios.
frequency modulation (FM). Frequency modulation is the process of
varying the frequency (rather than the amplitude) of the carrier signal in
accordance with the variations of the modulating signals. The amplitude
or power of the FM carrier does not vary during modulation. A fre-
quency modulation system is practically immune to atmospheric and
man-made interference.
frequency spectrum designation. VLF (very low frequency): below 30
kHz (0.03 MHz). LF (low frequency): 30-300 kHz (0.03-0.3 MHz). MF
(medium frequency): 300-3000 kHz (0.3-3 MHz). HF (high frequency):
3-30 MHz. VHF (very high frequency): 30-300 MHz. UHF (ultra high
frequency): 300-3000 MHz. SHF (super high frequency): 3000-30,000
MHz (3-30 GHz). EHF (extremely high frequency): 30-300 GHz.
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_____________________________
Q-9
G
ground wave. A radio wave that is propagated over the earth and is ordi-
narily affected by the presence of the ground and the troposphere. The
ground wave includes all of the components of a radio wave over the
earth except ionospheric and tropospheric waves. The ground wave is
refracted because of variations in the dielectric constant of the tropo-
sphere, including the condition known as a surface duct.
guard. To maintain a continuous receiver watch with transmitter ready
for immediate use. A complete log is to be kept.
H
half-duplex—Refers to a mode of transmission in which communica-
tion between two terminals occurs in either direction, but in only one
direction at a time. This is the typical mode of operation for tactical sin-
gle-channel radios.
hertz (Hz). A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
I
imitative communication deception (ICD). The introduction of radia-
tion into enemy systems which imitate the enemy’s emissions.
in the clear. In plain text. When cryptographic devices are not used to
protect a transmitted signal.
ionosphere. A region in the earth’s outer atmosphere where ions and
electrons are present in quantities sufficient to affect the propagation of
HF radio waves. It begins about 30 miles above the earth and extends
above 250 miles, with the height depending on the season of year and the
time of day. The chief layers of the ionosphere and their approximate
heights are:
D layer—30 to 60 miles
E layer—60 to 90 miles
F layer—90 to 250 miles
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Q-10
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MCRP 3-40.3B
J
jamming (electromagnetic). The deliberate radiation, reradiation, or
reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or
reducing an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and
with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capabil-
ity.
L
line of sight (LOS). The straight unobstructed path between two points.
link. In communications, a general term used to indicate the existence of
communications facilities between two points.
log. A chronological record of station events.
N
needline. A requirement to establish communications between two units
or agencies.
net (communications). An organization of stations capable of direct
communications on a common channel or frequency.
net call sign. A call sign which represents all stations within a net.
net control station. A communications station designated to control
traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net. Also called NCS.
O
obstacle gain. The increase in signal strength obtained over a long radio
communications path where a mountain obstacle or range of hills is
located about halfway between transmitting and receiving antennas. This
obstacle gain offsets some of the path losses normally expected.
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Radio Operator’s Handbook
____________________________
Q-11
operating signals. Three letter groups used as necessary in connections
with operations or communications to convey orders, instructions,
requests, reports, and information to facilitate communications.
P
precedence. In communications, a designation assigned to a message by
the originator to indicate to communications personnel the relative order
of handling and to the addressee the order in which the message is to be
noted.
procedure sign (prosign). One or more letters or characters, or combi-
nation thereof, used to facilitate communications by conveying in a con-
densed standard form certain frequently used orders, instructions,
requests, and information related to communications.
procedure word (proword). A word or phrase limited to radio tele-
phone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying infor-
mation in a condensed standard form.
Propagation. A phenomenon by which any wave moves from one point
to another.
pulse code modulation (PCM). The form of modulation in which the
modulating signal is sampled, and the sample quantitized and coded so
that each element or information consists of different kinds and/or num-
bers of pulses and spaces.
pulse position modulation (PPM). A form of pulse modulation in
which intelligence is conveyed by varying the time interval by which
successive pulses are displayed from their normal times of occurrence.
push to talk operation. Voice communications on a circuit in one direc-
tion at a time in which operation of a switch is required prior to and dur-
ing transmission.
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_____________________________________________
MCRP 3-40.3B
R
radio frequency (RF). A frequency in which coherent electromagnetic
radiation of energy is useful for communications purposes. The useful
range is from approximately 10 kilohertz to 100,000 megahertz.
radio silence. A condition in which all or certain radio equipment capa-
ble of radiation is kept inoperative. (In combined or U.S. joint or intra
Service communications the frequency bands and/or types of equipment
affected will be specified.)
red. Designation applied to transmission lines, equipment, systems, and/
or areas passing unencrypted signals.
S
satellite communications. Use of communication satellites, passive
reflecting belts of dipoles or needles, or reflecting orbiting balloons to
extend the range of radio communications by returning signals to earth
from the orbiting objective, with or without amplification.
simplex. Refers to a mode of operation in which communication
between two terminals can take place in only one direction.
skip distance. The minimum separation at which radio waves over a
specified frequency can be transmitted at a specific time between two
points on the earth by reflection from the regular ionized layers of the
ionosphere.
skip zone. A region, in relation to a given transmitter, in which no signal
would be predicted, either due to direct repetition or due to reflected
waves.
sky wave. A radio wave that reaches the receiving location after refrac-
tion from the ionosphere.
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Q-13
T
tactical radio net. A functional radio net used by a commander for
immediate and direct control of the fire and maneuver or movement of
his subordinate units.
traffic. All transmitted and received messages.
transceiver. A radio transmitter and receiver combined in one unit and
having switching arrangements such as to permit use of one or more cir-
cuit components for both transmitting and receiving.
transducer. A device that transfers or changes one type of energy into
another form. An example is a loudspeaker, which changes electrical
energy into acoustic (mechanical) energy.
(reverse blank)
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Appendix R
References and Related
Publications
Joint Publication (Joint Pub)
1-02 Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and
Associated Terms
Marine Corps Doctrinal Publication (MCDP)
6 Command and Control
Marine Corps Warfighting Publications (MCWPs)
6-2 MAGTF Command and Control Operations (under
development)
6-22 Communications and Information Systems
Marine Corps Reference Publications (MCRPs)
6-22A TALK II-SINCGARS Multiservice Communications
Procedures for the Single-Channel Ground
and Airborne Radio System
6-22B Multiservice Procedures for Spectrum Management
in a Joint Environment
6-22D Antenna Handbook (under development)
Army Field Manuals (FMs)
11-32 Combat Net Radio Operations
24-11 Tactical Satellite Communications
24-18 Tactical Single-Channel Radio Communications
Techniques
24-19 Radio Operator’s Handbook
(reverse blank)
Appr.fm Page 1 Friday, June 25, 1999 10:52 AM

MCCDC (C 42) 10 Jul 2001

ERRATUM
to

MCRP 3-40.38

RADIO OPERATOR'S HANDBOOK

For administrative purposes, the publication short title 1. Change MCRP 6-22C" to read: has been reidentified. "MCRP 3-40.3B" of June 1999 wherever it appears in the Manual.

PCN 144 000067 80

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Headquarters United States Marine Corps Washington, D.C. 20380-1775 2 June 1999 FOREWORD Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 6-22, Communications and Information Systems, provides the doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures for the conduct of communications and information systems across the spectrum of Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) operations. Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 3-40.3B, Radio Operator’s Handbook, complements and expands upon this information by detailing doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures for operating single-channel high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF), and ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radios. The primary target audience for this publication is Marine Corps radio operators and other users of singlechannel radios. MCRP 3-40.3B describes—
l l l l l l l

Basic radio principles. Single-channel radio. Equipment sighting and grounding techniques. Antennas. Interference. Radio operations under unusual conditions. Electronic warfare.

MCRP 3-40.3B provides the requisite information needed by Marine radio

operators to understand, plan, and execute successful single-channel radio operations in support of the MAGTF.

Radio Operator’s Handbook. E. RHODES Lieutenant General. U. dated 26 September 1991. Marine Corps Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command DISTRIBUTION: 144 000067 00 . Reviewed and approved this date.MCWP 3-40. BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS J.3B supersedes FMFM 3-35.S.

Radio Principles Section I. Modulation and Single Side Band Transmission Modulation Single Side Band Transmission Chapter 2.Radio Operator’s Handbook Table of Contents Page Chapter 1. Theory and Propagation Basic Components of Radio Equipment Radio Waves Radio Wave Propagation Section II. Equipment Siting and Grounding Techniques High Frequency Very High Frequency and Ultrahigh Frequency Grounding Techniques Data Communications Chapter 4. Single-Channel Radio Single-Channel Radio Communications Equipment High Frequency Radio Very High Frequency Radio Ultrahigh Frequency Radio Data Communications Chapter 3. Antennas High Frequency Antennas Very High Frequency Antennas Antenna Length 4-1 4-6 4-7 3-1 3-3 3-10 2-15 2-1 2-2 2-6 2-11 2-15 1-14 1-16 1-2 1-3 1-6 .

Electronic Warfare Electronic Attack Techniques Electronic Protection Techniques Electronic Warfare Support Techniques Appendices A Map Coordinates B Time Zones C Prowords D Phonetic Alphabet E Phonetic Numerals F Prosigns G Instructions for Preparing Field Messages H Radio Log I Metric System Conversion Table J Authentication K International Morse Code L Frequency Prediction Means M Position and Navigation Systems N Size of Dipole and Inverted L Antennas O Field Repair and Expedients P Radio Operator’s Checklist Q Glossary R References and Related Publications A-1 B-1 C-1 D-1 E-1 F-1 G-1 H-1 I-1 J-1 K-1 L-1 M-1 N-1 O-1 P-1 Q-1 R-1 7-1 7-6 7-10 6-1 6-3 6-5 6-9 6-9 5-1 5-1 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-3 . Interference Natural Interference Manmade Interference Poor Equipment Condition and Improper Usage Frequency Interference and Intermodulation Use of Unauthorized Frequencies Frequency Reuse Chapter 6.3B Chapter 5. Radio Operations Under Unusual Conditions Operations in Desert Areas Operations in Jungle Areas Operations in a Cold Weather Environment Operations in Mountainous Areas Operations in Special Environments Chapter 7.___________________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.

or exchange information. The fundamental requirement is to provide the Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) commander with a reliable. and rapid dissemination of decisions. Communications and informations systems support the commander and every staff section in every phase of operations planning and execution. Single-channel radio (SCR) is one of the most important components of MAGTF CIS. secure. . Communications and information systems automate routine functions. fast. process.Chapter 1 Radio Principles Communications and information systems (CIS) are any systems whose primary functions are to collect. and flexible communications network. operate. These systems facilitate information flow throughout the MAGTF and provide shared situational awareness. judgment. These systems and the personnel who install. The success of the MAGTF in the modern battlespace depends on the effective employment of communications and information systems. and intuition. informed decisionmaking. thereby freeing commanders and staffs to focus on those aspects of command and control that require experience. and maintain them play a key role in the command and control of the MAGTF.

PROPAGATION PATH TRANSMITTING ANTENNA TRANSMISSION LINES RECEIVING ANTENNA POWER SUPPLY TRANSMITTER RECEIVER Figure 1-1.1-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. transmission lines.3B Section I. and receiver (see figure 1-1). . The power supply (i.. The transmitter generates a radio signal. battery or generator) supplies power for the operating voltage of the radio. receiving antenna. power supply. transmitting antenna.e. The transmission line delivers the signal from the transmitter to the antenna. Theory and Propagation BASIC COMPONENTS OF RADIO EQUIPMENT The radio equipment for communication between two stations and the path the signal follows through the air is called a radio link. Radio Link. propagation path. A radio link consists of seven components: the transmitter.

The length of the wave is always measured in meters.000 kilometers (km) or 186. approximately 300. Proper propagation path. It can also be the length of one complete cycle of the waveform. The best possible signal is that signal which will provide the greatest signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving antenna. To transmit the best possible signal. These electromagnetic waves travel through space at the speed of light. When transmitting. It is also the distance traveled during one complete cycle. select or determine the— l l l Optimum frequency.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 1-3 The transmitting antenna sends the radio signal into space toward the receiving antenna.000 miles (mi) per second. The receiving antenna intercepts or receives the signal and sends it through a transmission line to the receiver. The receiver processes the radio signal so the human ear can hear it. RADIO WAVES Propagation Velocity (Speed) Radio waves travel near the surface of the Earth and radiate skyward at various angles to the Earth’s surface. . Best antenna for that frequency based on the available space of the transmitting site. The path in space that the radio signal follows as it goes to the receiving antenna is the propagation path. Wavelength Wavelength is the distance between the crest of one wave and the crest of the next wave (see figure 1-2 on page 1-4). the radio operator aims to provide the strongest possible signal at the site of the receiving station.

and 1 MHz is equal to a million cycles per second. it is generally measured and stated in thousands of hertz (kilohertz [KHz]) or in millions of hertz (megahertz [MHz]). The shorter the cycle. Therefore. to find the frequency when the wavelength is known. Frequency is measured and stated in units called hertz (Hz). the velocity of a radio wave is considered to be constant. the longer the wavelength and the lower the frequency.000 cycles per second. One KHz is equal to 1. the shorter the wavelength and the higher the frequency. divide the velocity by the wavelength. One cycle per second is stated as 1 hertz.3B ONE CYCLE WAVELENGTH STRENGTH 0 PEAK PEAK TIME OR DISTANCE Figure 1-2. The longer the cycle. Radio Frequency The frequency of a radio wave is the number of complete cycles that occur in one second. Sometimes frequencies are expressed in billions of hertz (gigahertz [GHz]).1-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. One GHz is equal to a billion cycles per second. = Wavelength (meters) = 300 million (meters per second) Frequency (hertz) Frequency (hertz) . regardless of the frequency or the amplitude of the transmitted wave. Because the frequency of a radio wave is very high. divide the velocity by the frequency. For practical purposes. 300 million (meters per second) Wavelength (meters) To find the wavelength when the frequency is known. Radio Waves.

The radio frequency spectrum is part of the electromagnetic spectrum.5 or less kW .COSMICRAY RAY VHF HF VHF UHF UHF Within the radio frequency spectrum (see figure 1-3).Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 1-5 RADIO VISIBLE IR UV X-RAY GAMMA.5-5 kW . radio frequencies are divided into groups or bands of frequencies. Band Ground Wave Range 0-50 miles 0-30 miles 0-50 miles Sky Wave Range 100-8000 miles 50-150 miles N/A Power Required . Most tactical radio sets operate within a 2. Electromagnetic Spectrum. Frequency Range Characteristics. Each frequency band has certain characteristics. . The ranges will change according to the condition of the propagation medium and the transmitter output power. The ranges and power requirements shown in table 1-1 are for normal operating conditions (proper siting and antenna orientation and correct operating procedures).to 400-MHz range within the frequency spectrum.5 or less kW HF Hz 3M Hz 3G Hz 0M 30 z MH 30 Figure 1-3. Table 1-1.

Principle Paths of Radio Waves. bent downward) back to the Earth.. and upper very high frequency (VHF) transmissions are by ground waves. Ground Wave Propagation Radio communications which use ground wave propagation do not use or depend on waves that are refracted from the ionosphere (i. ultrahigh frequency (UHF).3B IONOSPHERE SKY WAVES GROUND WAVES Figure 1-4.e.. Single-channel radio sets can use ground wave or sky wave propagation for communications. bending) of the .. RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION There are two principal paths by which radio waves travel from a transmitter to the receiver (See figure 1-4): ground wave—which travels directly from the transmitter to the receiver and sky wave—which travels up to the ionosphere and is refracted (i.1-6 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.e. high frequency (HF) transmission is principally by sky waves.e. Ground wave propagation is affected by the electrical characteristics of the Earth and by the amount of diffraction (i. sky waves). Long-distance. Short-distance.

The surface wave. . The following paragraphs describe the components of a ground wave. is that part of the ground wave which is affected by the conductivity and dielectric constant of the Earth. Surface Wave. which follows the curvature of the Earth. Ground Reflected Wave. the shape and conductivity of Earth along the transmission path. This distance can be extended by increasing the height of the transmitting antenna. and the local weather. The strength of the ground wave at the receiver depends on the power output and frequency of the transmitter. This part of the wave is limited to the line of sight (LOS) distance between the transmitting and receiving antennas. The direct wave is that part of the radio wave which travels directly from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna. Direct Wave. plus the small distance added by atmospheric refraction and diffraction of the wave around the curvature of the Earth. waves along the curvature of the Earth.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 1-7 DIRECT WAVE GROUND REFLECTED WAVE SURFACE WAVE Figure 1-5. the receiving antenna. Cancellation of the radio signal can occur when the ground reflected component and the direct wave component arrive at the receiving antenna at the same time and are 180° out of phase with each other. The ground reflected wave is that portion of the radio wave which reaches the receiving antenna after being reflected from the surface of the earth. Ground Wave Propagation. See figure 1-5. or both.

these layers are labeled D. Layers of the Ionosphere. In order of increasing heights and decreasing molecular densities. . The ionosphere has four layers (see fig. E. 1-6). Sky Wave Propagation Radio communications that use sky wave propagation depend on the ionosphere to provide the signal path between the transmitting and receiving antennas.3B F1 & F2 COMBINE AT NIGHT F2 F1 SUN E D DAYLIGHT POSITIONS F2 F1 E D F2 250-500 km (250-420 km at night) F1 200-250 km E 90-130 km D 75-90 km Figure 1-6. During the day. and F2. when the rays of the Ionospheric Structure. F1.1-8 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.

The main effect of the D layer is to attenuate high frequency waves when the transmission path is in sunlit regions. Factors Affecting the Ionosphere.e. 27-day—caused by the rotation of the Sun on its axis.400 km [1. The following are layers of the ionosphere: l l l D—exists only during daylight hours and has little effect in bending the paths of high frequency radio waves. There are two main classes of variations: regular. even though its degree of ionization varies appreciably from day to day. The F2 layer is the most useful of all layers for long-range radio communications. The movements of the Earth around the Sun and changes in the Sun’s activity contribute to ionospheric variations. At night. E—used during the day for high frequency radio transmission over intermediate distances (less than 2.. which is predictable. the intensity of the E layer decreases. 11-year—caused by the sunspot activity cycle going from maximum to minimum. F—exists at heights up to 380 kilometers (240 mi) above the Earth and is ionized all the time.500 mi]). their height above the Earth. and one layer (i. and the D and E layers fade out. back to maximum levels of intensity. all four layers may be present. At night.500 mi]). and their relative intensity of ionization varies constantly. It has two well-defined layers (F1 and F2) during the day. At night.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 1-9 Sun are directed toward that portion of the atmosphere. Regular Variations of the Ionosphere. the F1 and F2 layers seem to merge into a single F layer. and irregular. Seasonal—caused by the north and south progression of the Sun. F) during the night. the F layer remains at a height of about 260 kilometers (170 mi) and is useful for long-range radio communications (over 2. . and it becomes useless for radio transmission. which occurs from abnormal behavior of the Sun.400 km [1. The regular variations are— l l l l Daily—caused by the rotation of the Earth. The actual number of layers.

A sudden ionospheric disturbance coincides with a bright solar eruption and causes abnormal ionization of the D layer. It can also cause unexpected propagation of signals hundreds of miles beyond the normal range. Sunspots. The more sunspots. receivers seem to go dead. Ionospheric storms. This effect causes total absorption of all frequencies above approximately 1 MHz. Thus. does not reflect frequencies above approximately 500 KHz. the greater the ionization. the greater the ionization density required to reflect radio waves back to Earth. Some irregular variations are— Irregular Variations of the Ionosphere. Sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID). During these storms. the E layer often blocks out the reflections back from the higher layers. During periods of low sunspot activity. The higher the frequency.” These storms may last from several hours to days and usually extend over the entire Earth. irregular variations that must be considered.5 MHz shows low intensity and is subject to a type of rapid blasting and fading called “flutter fading. The range of long-distance radio transmission is determined primarily by the ionization density of each layer. They have a degrading effect (at times blocking communications) which cannot be controlled or compensated for at present. When SID occurs. It can occur without warning during daylight hours and last from a few minutes to several hours.3B The current status of the four regular variations must be anticipated when planning a communications system. When it is excessively ionized.1-10 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Sunspots generate bursts of radiation that cause high levels of ionization.e. at any given time and for each . however. l l l Sporadic E. The D layer. The upper (i. E and F) layers reflect the higher frequencies because they are the most highly ionized. sky wave reception above approximately 1. At the peak of the sunspot cycle. This effect can occur at any time.. frequencies above 20 MHz tend to be unusable because the E and F layers are too weakly ionized to reflect signals back to earth. Frequency Characteristics in the Ionosphere. it is not unusual to have worldwide propagation on frequencies above 30 MHz. There are also unpredictable. which is the least ionized.

Radio waves at frequencies above the critical frequency will be reflected back to Earth if transmitted at angles of incidence smaller than a certain angle. This limit is called the critical frequency. the operating frequency. Radio waves directed vertically at frequencies higher than the critical frequency pass through the ionized layer out into space. The skip distance is dependent on the angle of incidence. and the height and density of the ionosphere. However. low angles of incidence make long-distance communications possible. in relation to the operating frequency. All radio waves directed vertically into the ionosphere at frequencies lower than the critical frequency are reflected back to Earth. At the critical angle and all angles larger than the critical angle the radio waves will pass through the ionosphere if the frequency is higher than the critical frequency. The remainder of its energy is reflected back into the ionosphere to be reflected back again. In most communications situations. the skip zone is not a desirable condition. This angle of incidence can be controlled to obtain the desired area of coverage. Lowering the antenna will increase the angle of transmission and provide broad and even signal patterns in a large area. This area is bounded by the outer edge of usable ground wave propagation and the point nearest the antenna at which the sky wave returns to Earth. The distance from the transmitting antenna to the place where the sky waves first return to Earth is called the skip distance. The use of near-vertical transmission paths is known as near-vertical incidence sky wave (NVIS).Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 1-11 ionized layer. the radio waves will be reflected back to Earth. affects the angle that transmitted radio waves strike and penetrate the ionosphere and then return to Earth. When a transmitted wave is reflected back to the surface of the Earth. called the angle of incidence. Radio waves used in communications are generally directed towards the ionosphere at some oblique angle. part of its energy is absorbed by the Earth. The antenna height. When the angle of transmission becomes smaller. Lowering the angle of incidence can produce a skip zone in which no usable signal can be received. called the critical angle. Transmission Paths. there is an upper frequency limit at which radio waves sent vertically upward are reflected back to Earth. This means . Raising the antenna will lower the angle of incidence.

It is the monthly median of the daily highest frequency that is predicted for sky wave transmission over a particular path at a particular hour of the day. . no sky wave transmission is possible. the absorption rate decreases for all frequencies. There is a maximum frequency at which a radio wave will return to Earth at a given distance when a given ionized layer and a transmitting antenna with a fixed angle of radiation is used. When the LUF is greater than the MUF. As the frequency of transmission over any sky wave path is decreased from high to low frequencies. The total absorption is less and communications are more satisfactory as higher frequencies are used up to the level of the MUF. The LUF also depends on the power output of the transmitter as well as the transmission distance. If the distance between the transmitter and the receiver is increased.3B of transmission—by alternately reflecting the radio wave between the ionosphere and the Earth—is called hops. a frequency will be reached at which the received signal just overrides the level of atmospheric and other radio noise interference. Maximum Usable and Lowest Usable Frequencies. Radio waves lose some of their energy through absorption by the D layer and the portion of the E layer of the ionosphere at certain transmission frequencies. and it enables radio waves to be received at great distances from the point of origin. This frequency is called the maximum usable frequency (MUF). The MUF is always higher than the critical frequency because the angle of incidence is less than 90°. At night. the maximum usable frequency will also increase.1-12 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. The absorption rate is greatest for frequencies ranging from approximately 500 KHz to 2 MHz during the day. This is called the lowest useful frequency (LUF) because frequencies lower than the LUF are too weak for useful communications.

the range of the ground wave decreases as frequency increases. the sky wave is receivable at distances up to 12.870 kilometers (8. there is no usable ground wave and only slight refraction of sky waves by the ionosphere at the lower frequencies. thus. Antennas that are highly directional can be used to concentrate the beam of radio frequency (RF) energy. and the sky waves are greatly influenced by ionospheric considerations. increasing the signal intensity. Communications are limited to a short distance beyond the horizon.3 MHz). In the ultrahigh frequency band (300 to 3. The ground wave signals are quite stable and show little seasonal variation.000 mi) long. In the high frequency band (3 to 30 MHz). Lack of static and fading in these bands makes line of sight reception very satisfactory. In the very high frequency band (30 to 300 MHz). to about 640 kilometers (400 mi) at the lowest frequencies of this band. and antenna power losses are at reasonable levels. The direct wave provides communications if the transmitting and receiving antennas are elevated high enough above the surface of the Earth. The frequency of the radio wave affects its propagation characteristics. great distances can be covered. .Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 1-13 Section II.0 MHz).03 to. For example. When radio frequency electrical energy is used. Sky wave reception is possible during the day or night at any of the lower frequencies in this band. the ground wave is very useful for communications over great distances. Although sound can be converted to audio frequency electrical energy. it is not practical to transmit it in this energy form through the Earth’s atmosphere by electromagnetic radiation. the direct wave must be used for all transmissions.3 to 3. efficient antennas for radio frequencies are of practical lengths. efficient transmission of a 20-hertz audio signal would require an antenna almost 8.000 kilometers (5.000 MHz). In the low frequency band (. In the medium frequency band (. Modulation and Single Side Band Transmission Radio communications equipment is used primarily to transmit voice and data. At night.000 mi). the range of the ground wave varies from about 24 kilometers (15 mi) at 3 MHz. This would not apply when radio frequency electrical energy is used to carry the intelligence.

Amplitude Modulation Amplitude modulation is the variation of the RF power output of a transmitter at an audio rate. and phase which can be modulated by changing its amplitude. In amplitude modulation. When the RF carrier is modulated by complex tones such as speech. one at 501 KHz (the sum of 500 KHz and 1 KHz) and the other at 499 KHz (the difference between 500 KHz and 1 KHz). These additional frequencies are equal to the sum of. the width of the channel (bandwidth) is equal to twice the highest . The space occupied by a carrier and its associated side bands in the radio frequency spectrum is called a channel. In other words. two new frequencies will be set up for each of the audio frequencies involved. If a complex audio signal is used instead of a single tone. each separate frequency component of the modulating signal produces its own upper and lower side band frequencies. the RF energy increases and decreases in power according to the audio frequencies superimposed on the carrier signal. assume a 500KHz carrier is modulated by a 1-KHz audio tone. frequency. or phase. The carrier is a wave of constant amplitude.3B MODULATION Both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) transmitters produce RF carriers. and the difference between the audio frequencies and the radio frequency used. The new frequencies resulting from superimposing an audio frequency (AF) signal on an RF signal are called side bands. the RF carrier “carries” intelligence by being modulated. additional RF signals are generated.1-14 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. The side band that contains the sum of the RF and AF signals is called the upper side band. For example. Two new frequencies are developed. frequency. Thus. The side band that contains the difference between the RF and AF signals is called the lower side band. When audio frequency signals are superimposed on the radio frequency carrier signal. Modulation is the process of superimposing intelligence (voice or coded signals) on the carrier.

the amount of deviation determines the loudness or volume of the signal. For example. The limiter eliminates the amplitude variations in the signal. it picks up natural and man-made electrical noises that cause amplitude variations in the signal.000 KHz (5 MHz) carrier is modulated by a band of frequencies ranging from 200 to 5. All of these undesirable amplitude variations are amplified as the signal passes through successive stages of the receiver until the signal reaches a part of the receiver called the limiter. a total of 10 KHz.000 cycles (. frequency-modulated signal is then processed by the discriminator circuit which changes the .005 KHz. the carrier signal will move up and down in frequency. then passes it on to the discriminator which is sensitive to variations in the frequency of the RF wave.995 KHz. the bandwidth is the difference between 5.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 1-15 modulating frequency.2 to 5 KHz). The frequency of the carrier signal when it is not modulated is called the center or rest frequency. if a 5. The resultant constant amplitude. The amplitude or power of the FM carrier does not vary during modulation. away from the center or rest frequency. The lower side band extends from 4. The amplitude of the modulating signal determines how far away from the center frequency the carrier will move. The FM signal leaving the transmitting antenna is constant in amplitude but varies in frequency according to the audio signal. As the signal travels to the receiving antenna. The limiter is unique to FM receivers as is the discriminator. When a modulating signal is applied to the carrier. Frequency Modulation Frequency modulation is the process of varying the frequency (rather than the amplitude) of the carrier signal in accordance with the variations of the modulating signals.000. how far the carrier moves is called the amount of deviation. the upper side band extends from 5.995 KHz. Thus.005 KHz and 4.2 to 5.8 KHz to 4.999. This movement of the carrier is called deviation. During reception of the FM signal.

1-16 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Each side band contains all the intelligence needed for communications. The side band that is lower in frequency than the carrier is called the lower side band (LSB). This allows more emitters to be used within a given frequency range.g. SINGLE SIDE BAND TRANSMISSION The intelligence of an AM signal is contained solely in the side bands. Operate over long ranges without loss of intelligibility because of selective fading. Most SSB equipment operates in the USB mode. Operate a large number of radio sets without heterodyne interference (e. loudspeaker. Although both side bands are generated within the modulation circuitry of the SSB radio set. This is the principle on which single side band (SSB) communications is based.. . Frequency modulation is generally used by radiotelephone transmitters operating in the VHF and higher frequency bands. Therefore. Increase effective output without increasing antenna voltage. Single side band transmission is used in applications when it is desired to— l l l l l Obtain greater reliability. Either side band can be used for communications as long as both the transmitter and the receiver are adjusted to the same side band. These voltage variations reproduce the original modulating signal in a headset. Limit size and weight of equipment. the carrier and one side band are removed before any signal is transmitted. one side band and the carrier signal can be eliminated. or teletypewriter. whistles and squeals) from radio frequency carriers. The transmission of only one side band leaves open that portion of the RF spectrum normally occupied by the other side band of an AM signal.3B frequency variations into corresponding voltage amplitude variations. The side band that is higher in frequency than the carrier is called the upper side band (USB).

Chapter 2

Single-Channel Radio
SINGLE-CHANNEL RADIO COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT Single-channel radio is the principal means of communications support for MAGTF maneuver units. SCR communications equipment is easy to operate. The networks are easily established, rapidly reconfigured, and, most importantly, easily maintained on the move. SCR provides secure voice communications and supports limited data information exchange. SCR in the VHF and UHF bands is normally limited to line of sight. In the HF band, SCR can support long-range communications. SCR satellite communications (SATCOM) provides mobility, flexibility, and ease of operation with unlimited range. Limitations of SCR include susceptibility to enemy electronic warfare (i.e., cosite, terrain, and atmospheric interference); the requirement for close coordination and detailed planning (i.e., a need for common timing, frequency, and equipment); and limited spectrum availability. The latter is particularly critical in the case of SATCOM. MAGTF SCR equipment is fielded in many configurations and includes hand-held, manpack, vehicle-mounted, bench-mounted, and sheltered radios. These radios operate in simplex and half-duplex modes. The most widely employed tactical radios provide integrated communications security (COMSEC) and jam resistance through frequency hopping. Tactical SCRs operate in the three military radio frequency bands shown in Table 2-1 on page 1-2.

2-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B

Table 2-1. SCR Equipment.
Frequency Band HF MAGTF SCR Equipment Used AN/PRC-104 AN/GRC-193 AN/MRC-138 AN/TSC-120 AN/VRC-12 family: AN/PRC-68 AN/PRC-77 SINCGARS family: AN/PRC-119 AN/VRC-88 (A, D) AN/VRC-89 (A, D) AN/VRC-90 (A, D) AN/VRC-91 (A, D) AN/VRC-92 (A, D) AN/GRC-213 AN/MRC-145 AN/PRC-113 AN/VRC-83 UHF AN/PRC-113 AN/VRC-83 AN/GRC-171 AN/PSC-3 AN/PSC-5 Operating Frequency Range 2-29.999 MHz Typical Application Radio line of sight and beyond/long range Radio line of sight and relay/retransmission

VHF

30-88 MHz

116-150 MHz

Critical line of sight (ground to air) Critical line of sight (ground to air) SATCOM footprint

225-400 MHz

HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO HF radio equipment is capable of both long- and short-range secure voice and data communications. Data communications capability is typically limited to rates of 2.4 kilobits per second (kbps). Data transmission requires modems specifically designed for operation in this band of the radio spectrum. The AN/PRC-104 is capable of remote operation by using the analog AN/GRA-39B radio remote control. See fig. 2-1.

Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 2-3

Figure 2-1. AN/PRC-104 HF Radio.

High frequency communications are capable of traveling around the world under the right conditions. This accounts for the large number of signals and noise in the receiver (e.g., thunderstorms). Conversely, the HF transmission may be intercepted and traced by the enemy who is many hundreds of miles away. VHF and UHF communications are normally limited to line of sight; therefore, their range is restricted. UHF transmissions may also be used in satellite communications, increasing ranges to thousands of miles. High Frequency Radio Employment Considerations. The primary advantage of using HF radio is its capability to provide long-range, over the horizon (OTH) communication. Successful data communications over the HF range depends on several factors: equipment siting, proper equipment grounding, types of antennas used, and other considerations such as tactical employment of radio equipment, path assessment and analysis, and frequency planning and assignment. When commercial data terminal equipment (DTE) is used, users employing HF radio equipment need to be aware of radio interference and potential shock hazards that can easily affect unprotected DTE. Whenever possible, HF radio equipment should be remoted from DTE.

Camp Pendleton). The bandwidth available in the HF spectrum limits the channel bandwidth. time of year.g. At times. The F layer splits into two separate layers around sunrise and recombines into one layer around sunset. Ground Wave. or dry desert soil (e. ..g. A ground wave circuit will generally be free of fading and may last for the entire 24-hour period without the need to change frequencies. High Frequency Propagation There are two modes of propagation in HF: ground wave and sky wave. The ability to reflect HF radio waves off the ionosphere to a distant location is in a constant state of flux because of activity in the ionosphere. mountainous terrain (e. solar storms can eliminate all HF communications. Sunrise and sunset can be the most difficult times for HF communications. The Sun’s radiation causes disturbances in the ionosphere. with most changes taking place in what is known as the F layer (see chapter 1 for more details).g. time of day. Camp Lejeune). These splits affect transmission distances as the area “skipped over” increases and decreases. Twenty-nine Palms). HF radio data communications capabilities are limited by the bandwidth that is imposed by legal constraints and the physics of the spectrum.. HF transmission paths must be constantly monitored to achieve a dependable HF link.. The range may be decreased by heavy vegetation (e.2-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Frequency allocation and management is concerned with frequency. See figure 2-2.3B High Frequency Radio Environmental Limitations The primary limiting factors when using HF radios are frequency allocation and management and bandwidth availability. The maximum ground wave range for most tactical HF communications is about 20 to 30 kilometers (12 to 22 miles) for manpack equipment and 80 to 100 kilometers for high-power vehicular and van equipment. Ground wave propagation involves the transmission of a signal along the surface of the ground. and location. which limits data throughput.

it is necessary to communicate by sky wave. The reflective nature of the ionosphere will change when sunlight hits it each day. lower frequencies are noisier and become absorbed by the ionosphere. Skip zones are formed when the nearest point at which a sky wave is received is beyond the furthest point at which a ground wave is received. Beyond this range. By using an antenna with a high . Skip Zone A skip zone is where no signals will be received from a particular transmitter for a particular frequency. at least two frequencies are usually required during a 24-hour period: a low. As a result. Frequencies are very important. On the other hand. Sky Wave. Sky wave propagation involves the bending of the signal by the ionosphere. night frequency and a higher. HF Propagation. day frequency. as those above a certain value will not bend back to earth but will punch through the ionosphere into outer space.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 2-5 I O N O S P H ER E Y SK YW AV E SKIP ZONE E AV W SK GROUND WAVE SKIP ZONE Figure 2-2.

2-6 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. This can cause the skip zone to disappear if the waves do not punch through. It is capable of voice and data transmission (up to 16 kbps under optimum conditions and over limited distances) over the VHF-FM frequency range of 30 to 87. Antenna Handbook. Used correctly. The limit of the effective range of NVIS communications is usually about 300 miles.e. replacing the AN/PRC-77 and the AN/VRC-12 family. for more details. See figure 2-3.3B radiation take-off angle (i. Multipath interference occurs when both the sky wave and the ground wave signals from the transmitter arrive at different times at the receiver. See MCRP 6-22A. SINCGARS is the standard VHF-FM tactical radio for the Marine Corps. NVIS provides reliable. NVIS communications are particularly useful because they can be transmitted from moving vehicles. More detailed information on HF propagation and antennas may be found in MCRP 6-22D. Launch angles can be changed by altering the antenna’s height above ground.. the angle measured from the Earth’s surface to horizon up to the direction of propagation towards the ionosphere). The system provides high security against threat electronic warfare (EW) by using frequency hopping with integrated COMSEC. VERY HIGH FREQUENCY RADIO The primary MAGTF VHF radio is the single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS). The use of high radiation take-off angles is called near-vertical incident sky wave (NVIS) communications. but for most tactical applications one-quarter wavelength above ground is sufficient.975 MHz. HF radio waves can be bounced off the ionosphere and come back to earth closer than they can with more commonly used antennas. SINCGARS is a family of lightweight combat radios that serves as the primary means of communications for command and control and fire support on the battlefield. Talk II SINCGARS Multiservice Communications Procedures for the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System. NVIS communications require a horizontally polarized antenna and are done over frequencies between 2 and 12 MHz. . continuous communications beyond the range of HF ground wave and VHF and UHF line of sight.

These configurations include the manpack AN/PRC-119 (see figure 2-4 on page 2-8). typically used in infantry operations. A forward error correction appliqué was implemented in the receiver and/or transmitter. The radio provides voice communications ranges of up to 8 km for the manpack and 35 km for vehicular configurations. or the digital C-11561 (C)/U remote control unit (RCU). Multipath Interference.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 2-7 IONOSPHERE SK Y W AV E GROUND WAVE Figure 2-3. and vehicle-mounted variants. In addition. This radio is referred to as the SINCGARS SIP. The primary improvements relate to the data transmission capabilities of the system. and a new packet data mode was created to better support packet networks. SINCGARS is capable of remote operation by using the analog AN/GRA-39B radio remote control. depending on the requirements of the user. the digital HYX-57 wire-line ADAPTER. There are seven different SINCGARS configurations available. The SINCGARS radio has undergone a systems improvement program (SIP). which optimizes data throughput performance while minimizing impact on voice communications on the same SINCGARS channel. an improved channel access protocol was added. .

. This radio is referred to as the SINCGARS ASIP.6 pounds (including the battery).and rotary wing aircraft. It can transmit and receive VHF-FM. The radio is interchangeable with previous SINCGARS versions. and it can accept 25 preset. and ground-to-air communications in tactical Navy and Marine Corps fixed. VHF-AM. and HAVE QUICK II frequency hopping UHF radios. air-to-ground. and UHF signals. The AN/ARC-210 multipurpose radio supports single-channel air-to-air. A new feature of the SINCGARS ASIP provides a retransmission capability while operating in the packet data mode and will also employ a new. including the capability to be mounted in older vehicular adapter assemblies. AN/PRC-119 SINCGARS Radio.2-8 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. The AN/ ARC-210 requires a TSEC/KY-58 encryption device to encrypt transmissions and decrypt received signals. This radio will retain all the functionality of the full-size SIP radio but is half the size. HAVE QUICK. It is compatible with SINCGARS. It weighs 7. fast-channel access protocol for improved operations in shared voice or data nets. single-channel frequencies. THE SINCGARS SIP radio is also available in a downsized version— the result of an advanced systems improvement program (ASIP).3B Figure 2-4.

and power setting. MCRP 6-22A provides detailed information on the employment of SINCGARS. However. radio antenna separation.e.. antenna placement (cosite interference is more of a concern than in the single-channel operating mode). antennas. and power output are significant employment factors. the following operating factors need to be taken into account: hopset (i. SINCGARS may be limited to the single-channel mode when operating with some Navy ships. The predominant mode of operation is secure voice. Therefore. use of VHF radio for data communications will increase with the fielding of tactical information systems at the battalion level and below. VHF SCR is the primary communications system for combat and combat support units while on the move. frequency segment allocation). These hand-held radios are typically small. remote rekeying when using COMSEC. they have not been assigned a table of authorization material control number (TAMCN). Very High Frequency Radio Employment Considerations Operator maintenance of the radio equipment. Some models come with headsets and microphones. net sych time and mission date. Small. battery-powered equipment which provides clear (and in some cases secure) voice communications on up to 100 different channels. hand-held VHF radios are used at the small-unit level in the MAGTF. Frequency separation. Hand-held radios are mostly used at the infantry-squad level or in maritime prepositioning force (MPF) offloads. cable assemblies. lightweight. These radios are often commercial items . When SINCGARS is employed in the frequency hopping mode. and equipment grounding as well as proper planning and selection are essential to reliable communications.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 2-9 Hand-Held Very High Frequency Radios Radio operators may have the opportunity to use various commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) VHF radios in the Fleet Marine Force (FMF). SINCGARS radios configured for different hopsets that dial into the same numbered net will not be able to communicate. All of these radios have been open-purchased by the user units and are not part of the official Marine Corps table of equipment.

2-5). Very High Frequency Propagation Radios in the SINCGARS family are the principal VHF transceivers used by the Marine Corps. Foliage interferes with VHF signals and may reduce normal operating ranges to significantly less than 10 miles.3B that lack compatibility with SINCGARS and do not have integrated COMSEC. TION RAC DIFF E ANGL DIFFR ACTED WAVE EARTH TRANSMITTING ANTENNA RECEIVING ANTENNA Figure 2-5. Most circuits are limited to radio line of sight. depending on the equipment operating constraints and the operating environment. Vehiclemounted equipment may communicate farther because of higher transmitter power and better antennas. VHF radio signals essentially follow the curvature of the earth to a distance that is approximately one-third greater than the distance to the horizon. At frequencies in the 30-MHz range. The mode of communications used in this range is frequently referred to as frequency modulation. VHF Diffraction.4 mi) under normal field conditions for manpack equipment. VHF will extend slightly beyond line of sight due to diffraction or bending of the signal by the atmosphere (see fig. Their use should be governed accordingly. VHF radios can provide reliable communications for ranges of up to 10 miles. Very High Frequency Radio Environmental Limitations The primary limiting factors when using VHF radios are range and frequency availability. The range of reliable communications is generally no more than 15 to 20 kilometers (9. . known as four-thirds earth curvature. Unit location must be considered when employing radios that operate in the VHF spectrum. VHF will often act like HF ground wave.3 to 12.2-10 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.

Ultrahigh Frequency Radio Employment Considerations UHF radios are used for forward air control (FAC) ground-to-air communication. 2-6). VHF LOS. The HAVE QUICK UHF radio is capable of remote operation by using the AN/ GRA-39B or HYX-57. but fading can cause significant problems when one or more of the units are mobile. MAGTF UHF radio sets such as the AN/PRC-113 (see figure 2-7 on page 2-12) are capable of data communications at 16 kbps under optimal conditions. TRANSMITTING ANTENNA DIRECT WAVE WAVE RECEIVING ANTENNA REFL ECTE D EARTH Figure 2-6. The signal fades in and out over a period of time as a result. When UHF radios are employed in . Greater range is achieved when employed from ground-to-air because of the increased line of sight. Fading is not as great a problem with immobile equipment because corrective action can be taken. Line of sight between radios is critical for reliable communications. Significant range differences are encountered between UHF radios employed for ground-to-air and ground-to-ground communications.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 2-11 VHF LOS can also be plagued by multipath interference when the direct ray and a reflected ray traveling over a slightly longer path combine at the receiver antenna so that they periodically cancel or reinforce each other (see fig. MAGTF ground and airborne UHF radios incorporate the HAVE QUICK Electronic Counter-Counter Measures capability and operate in single-channel and frequency hopping modes. ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY RADIO Military UHF radio equipment operates in the 116 to 150 MHz upperVHF frequency range and the 225 to 400 MHz military UHF radio spectrum.

UHF Radio.” As long as the radio’s antenna has optical line of sight to another radio’s antenna. the frequency hopping mode. the following operating factors must be understood for proper operation: hopset. critical line of sight). For this reason. the two will be able to transmit and receive. and power setting. . Ultrahigh Frequency Radio Environmental Limitations The primary limiting factor when using UHF radios is range (i. AN/PRC-113. Critical line of sight can be described as “what you see is what you get.e. UHF radios are used primarily in air-to-ground communications. time of day.3B Figure 2-7. antenna placement.2-12 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40..

000 miles. . and UHF follow-on satellites. It weighs approximately 14 pounds including antenna and batteries. singlechannel requirements of a Marine air-ground task force and its major subordinate headquarters. It is employed for long-range communications. The space segments used by the AN/PSC-5 are the Fleet Satellite Communications. resulting in a round-trip propagation delay of approximately one-quarter of a second.400 to 16. With demand assignment. It operates on the UHF frequency band of 225. This is caused by the angle at which the signal hits the Earth’s surface and by the curvature of the Earth’s surface. and a channel is allocated after a brief time lag.to 400-MHz range.000-bits per second (bps) data rate. the KY-99 and ANDVT (narrowband mode only). The DAMA scheme of operation is employed on UHF-tactical satellite (TACSAT) to share available channels more efficiently. All the satellites are located in geosynchronous orbits and permit interconnections among mobile. The AN/PSC-5 provides two-way voice and data communications by satellite. the user makes a channel request. leased satellite communications. The one-way distance to servicing satellites is approximately 25.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 2-13 Ultrahigh Frequency-Tactical Satellite The AN/PSC-5 is a portable. Multiple-access schemes can operate either with fixed-channel assignments to the various users or with channels being assigned in varying fashion according to demand. depending on mode setting. and the KG-84C (wideband or narrowband) COMSEC equipment. The United States Marine Corps UHF tactical SATCOM system supports and augments the high precedence command and control and common-user. The shape of the satellite footprints is roughly circular but elongated from north to south. half-duplex UHF transceiver. battery-operated. The radio systems are compatible with the KY-57 (wideband mode only). ground terminals. This radio equipment is also capable of remote operations by using the AN/GRA-39B (narrowband mode) or HYX-57 (wide-band mode). The latter is called demand assigned multiple access (DAMA). Only one operator is required to operate it. It provides 2.

. and weather effects.g. Increasing the transmit power can decrease net effectiveness. acting as a relay between radios. The AN/PSC-5 is the primary DAMA-capable. Exact frequency. Because of TACSAT’s lim- ited availability. is about 25. and network saturation will affect the information flow on satellite channels and will require a significant reduction in the data transmission rates to sustain data communications. bandwidth. terrain masking. Transmit power selection can be critical.000 miles away.2-14 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.400 bps. therefore. Satellites are shared resources. communications support for deep reconnaissance operations or connectivity to the tactical echelon of a MEU[SOC] when deployed ashore). TACSAT limitations include the competition for available frequency resources and channel time on the satellite. AN/PSC-5 UHF TACSAT Radio. . Antennas for these systems are lightweight and fragile and. TACSAT Radio Employment Considerations. Channel congestion. and power of every carrier transmitted through the satellite is strictly controlled by a higher authority. which increases the transmitted signal power. 2-8). Larger directional antennas provide increased signal gain. long-range communications requirements (e. Timing between DTE can be a critical factor in SATCOM because the satellite. The primary environmental limitations on TACSAT radios are signal propagation delay. require constant maintenance and inspection for proper operation. noise. the MAGTF employs TACSAT primarily to support critical. channel-data rates are limited to 2. TACSAT radio available to the MAGTF (see fig. If only narrow band channels are available. There is TACSAT Radio Environmental Limitations.3B Figure 2-8. location on the Earth.

but as the user moves closer to the Earth’s poles. air-to-air. the “look angle” (i. 2-9). Terrain can also have this effect by interfering with the satellite and TACSAT terminal line of sight. Ultrahigh Frequency Propagation UHF frequency propagation is used for ground-to-air. The DCT. both north and south of the equator. As unit location changes. angle above the horizon) to the satellite can affect net reliability. heavy snowstorms. This will cause intermittent or lost communications. DATA COMMUNICATIONS SCR can also transmit and receive data by using terminal devices such as the digital message system (DMS)—previously called and more commonly known as the digital communications terminal (DCT)—and the tactical communications interface module (TCIM).Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 2-15 approximately a one-fourth second propagation delay between sending and receiving stations.. Thunderstorms. and hail also affect satellite transmissions by damaging antennas and changing the electromagnetic environment. the TACSAT terminal may exceed the satellite footprint. and tactical multi-channel communications.e. satellite. Communications are limited to LOS but may extend for more than 500 kilometers as long as the aircraft is high enough to be within LOS (see fig.000 kilometers. Satellites in equatorial orbit can cover large portions of the Earth. It is even possible for UHF communications ranges to a satellite to be more than 35. UHF LOS. This delay can interfere with systems that automatically retransmit if an acknowledgment is not received after a very short time-out period. OS) AVE (L CT W DIRE EARTH TRANSMITTING ANTENNA Figure 2-9. The orbit of a satellite allows it to cover a certain footprint on the earth. data .

The DACT will be transportable by foot-mobile Marines and mounted in tactical or armored vehicles. process. switched backbone (SBB).2-16 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. and an external version with the card mounted in a portable chassis. transmit.3B automated communications terminal (DACT). free text. reconnaissance. and radio nets. . By menu selection. and MAGTF command. and it will provide much greater functionality below battalion levels. fire support coordination. Small computer systems interfaces (SCSI) provide interoperability between the TCIM and other Marine Corps computers. display. control. Data Automated Communications Terminal The DACT is a small. and other functions. There are two versions of the TCIM card: an internal personal computer asynchronous transfer card to mount directly in the computer. and digitized map messages are transmitted over tactical communications equipment. medical evacuation. DMS is being used directly for air support. computers. This will include an embedded global positioning system (GPS) receiver. the ability to share a common picture of the battlespace. tactical computer and communications terminal which gives users the capability to receive. formatted text. The DACT will effectively replace the DCT when it achieves full operational capability in FY 03. edit. Tactical Communications Interface Module The TCIM provides the communications link between the tactical computers of the communications and information systems within the MAGTF and the local and wide area networks. to include text and symbology. communications. TCIM software was developed for open-systems architectures. automated data exchange. DMS uses a burst transmission capability which reduces the vulnerability to enemy radio direction finding and jamming. used by tactical data systems. and intelligence (C4I) network connectivity. and the TCIM are critical in enabling data communications at the tactical level over SCRs. and receive information. The DMS is used to compose. Digital Message System-AN/PSC-2 The DMS-AN/PSC-2 is a hand-held communications device that can be operated with either a standard military radio or telephone field wire equipment. and transmit various messages.

HIGH FREQUENCY In the presence of hills (without large trees). This will also minimize interference and/or jamming from the opposite direction. and direction finding and afford good communications connectivity. Long-distance. The signal strength can vary widely in the region immediately behind a hill. Move the antenna back from the hill if a hill is between the operator and the distant station with which the operator wishes to communicate. then it may also be necessary to set up a variety of antennas located at different distances from the hilltop to see which one offers the best performance. However. Often the signal will be greater below than on the top.Chapter 3 Equipment Siting and Grounding Techniques Two factors play an important role in equipment siting: optimum communications and camouflage. HF sky wave signals of more than several hundred kilometers are often best transmitted and received at angles just above the horizon level. fire. Obstacles on the horizon will cause the signal to travel a . the following guidelines for ground wave links should be used: l l Locate HF antennas just below the top of the hill in the direction of desired communications. If it is necessary to set up behind a hill. See Appendix A for a review on topographical maps and grid coordinates. The ideal location for a radio antenna is as far away from cover as possible. such as a bare mountain top or in the middle of a large field. planning the location of equipment must be detailed to achieve the best results. this goes against the commander’s tactical requirement for troops and equipment to be camouflaged and concealed as much as possible. Therefore. It is often difficult to find communications sites which are hidden from enemy view.

Effect of Wire Fences and Power Lines. higher path angle and may reduce the circuit reliability as a result (see fig. .3-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Wire fences between the operator and the horizon will also lessen the chances of getting through (see fig. It will be weakened by trees (more so when Figure 3-2. An HF ground wave signal will follow the terrain much better than higher frequency signals.3B H AT LP A TU AC REQUIRED PATH Figure 3-1. 3-2). Low HF Horizon Angles. 3-1).

Aircraft Along Signal Path.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 3-3 SIGNAL PATH Figure 3-3. VERY HIGH FREQUENCY AND ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY Obstacles such as trees. Aircraft flying along the path will also interfere with reception (see fig. but the signal may still get through (see fig. 3-3). HF Ground Wave Path. and hills between a transmitter and receiver will weaken the signal or stop it. buildings. . 3-4). they have leaves) and rugged terrain. A clear signal path DE IN T E N D PAT H Figure 3-4.

The antenna must be positioned as high as possible to overcome obstacles.3B INTENDED DIRECTION BETTER GOOD BAD Figure 3-5. 3-5). Figure 3-6. especially for LOS communications. . solid obstacles may actually improve a link by providing a sharper surface to diffract over or reflect from (see fig. especially if communication is in the direction of trees or buildings (see fig. between the transmitter and the intended receiver. In some situations.3-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Keep equipment as far back as possible from obstacles in the direction of the signal path to prevent interference or damage to equipment. 3-6). Antenna Obstacles. Diffraction Over Building. is preferred.

If communicating over water is unavoidable. the signal may be improved by raising or lowering the antenna. but fading may occur. Multipath Fading and Terrain Shielding. Under certain conditions. DIRECT PATH RE FLE CT ED TH PA DIRECT PATH RE FL EC TE D PAT H TERRAIN SHIELDING Figure 3-8. 3-7). Reflection off Spherical Water Tower. . The antenna may also be positioned so a hill or rise is between it and the water but not high enough to block the LOS to the other antenna (see fig. and fading occurs. 3-8).Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 3-5 Figure 3-7. Transmitting over water allows VHF to go farther. spherical water towers and walls of buildings (facing the proper direction) may enable communication around interfering terrain or vegetative obstacles (see fig.

3B Figure 3-9. . Figure 3-10. it’s not always necessary to talk from hilltop to hilltop. 3-9). the enemy won’t be able to intercept communications or jam circuits as easily. The enemy will certainly have a harder time locating a unit this way. The advantage of placing an antenna on a ridge line is the ability to talk in many directions without land being in the way.3-6 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. If communication is needed in only one direction—away from the enemy—put some terrain shielding between the antenna farm and the enemy (see figures 3-10 and 3-11). Ridge Line Antenna Farm. Talking from hillside to hillside or along the valley floor may be a better option in some instances. Nothing is more compromising to a unit’s location than an antenna farm stretched along a ridge line (see fig. This way. However. Low Antenna Profile. The enemy will realize that a major command post is nearby.

If the operator is a couple of feet away. 3-12 on page 3-8). and the operator’s body affects directional characteristics to . antenna length. Hand-Held Sets (AN/PRC-68) The antenna of the hand-held AN/PRC-68 is much smaller than the AN/ PRC-119’s. maximum radiation will probably occur through the operator’s body. This effect is most noticeable at frequencies greater than 50 MHz.. particularly backpack and hand-held VHF sets with short antennas.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 3-7 INTENDED PATH ENEMY Figure 3-11. Terrain Shielding. best performance) is to the front when the set is on the operator’s back with a 3-foot whip antenna. The operator should then try facing in the direction of distant communications.e. and the operator is very close to the set. and the position of the antenna or set relative to the operator’s body (see fig. The body can act as an antenna and affect the quality of the radio signal. When the set is on the ground. The effect of the body on signal strength depends on frequency. the operator may act as a reflector and either improve or interfere with the signal. Backpack Sets (AN/PRC-119) Maximum radiation (i.

The directional characteristics of the antenna-body combination can be used to some advantage in reducing interference arriving from directions other than that of the signal. between 50 and 88 MHz. and best performance is then over the back. metal fence.2 feet) away. For frequencies between 30 and 50 MHz.5 feet) away. This radio will normally be in the front jacket pocket.3-8 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. particularly when the antenna is lowered. Trial and error is necessary to make this judgment. a greater extent. Direction of Best Communications.3B Figure 3-12. Holding the radio in hand a few inches away from the body will modify the radiation pattern and can substantially lower performance to the sides at the higher frequencies. the antenna should be placed approximately 2 meters (6. Communications may be reduced if antennas are placed more than 2 meters from the radio. The higher frequencies are strongly affected when the antenna is lowered. no more than 1 meter (3. VHF Siting Position the antenna to reflect the directive pattern away from the wall or fence in the intended direction of communication when using VHF antennas near a metal-walled building or high. The distance may be varied a .

Changing the location of the antenna is also an option. 3-13). VHF Vegetative Propagation. if an operator cannot see a person. the optimum position will have to be redetermined at that time by the same method. If frequencies are changed later. Both horizontal and vertical orientations may be used with the AS-4225 Parabolic Grid Antenna with UHF multi-channel (MUX) radio equipment. UHF Siting At UHF and (to a much lesser degree) VHF frequencies. the antenna should be positioned away from trees that are in the direction of the signal and erected as high as possible. then they probably cannot communicate—especially in heavy vegetation. . Horizontal polarization is usually better for passing through the trees. In vegetation.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 3-9 foot or so in each direction. Figure 3-13. the signal has to travel up to the tops of the trees and move along the treetops and down to the receiver (see fig. while receiving. This will weaken it considerably. then the polarization should be vertical (see fig. to find the position where the signal is the strongest when setting up the equipment. Often. 3-14 on page 3-10). but if the signal is skimming over the tops of the trees (probably unnoticeable) or over water.

or even death (see fig. More importantly. particularly in HF. .3B HORIZONTAL VERTICAL Figure 3-14. electrical shocks. AS-4225 with AB-1356 Antenna Polarization. Communication distances can easily be cut in half by improper grounding of the antenna. the hazards involved with improper grounding coupled with high transmitter powers are bad burns. Grounding prevents electrical shock to operator and improves signal strength. GROUNDING TECHNIQUES Poor grounding is probably the most important cause of a weak HF signal. 3-15).3-10 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.

making certain all connections are tight and clean. Shock Hazards of Ungrounded Equipment. If a dry or a damp location is available.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 3-11 Figure 3-15. Ground Stake The ground stake provided with the antenna should be driven deeply into the soil. The primary concern is to provide an electrical path from the equipment case. . Steel reinforcing rods. All cable connections and grounds should be free of grease. there are many field-expedient means for grounding. If a regulation ground stake is not available. choose the damp spot. Some useful grounds are— l l Metal fence posts. If everything is bone dry. or rust. Soil moisture and salinity around the ground stake are very important for good grounding. using braided copper or heavy gauge wire. paint. Adding a pound or two of salt from the mess tent to the soil around the stake before soaking it may help even more. to a buried metallic object that is in good contact with the ground. Cables should be as short as possible. a couple of gallons of water poured around the stake may help.

This is particularly important for HF whips. The radial system design is usually a compromise between performance. . Radials. The radio frequency (RF) ground is attached to the central plate (Figure 3-17). counterpoise) is necessary to reduce the amount of power lost in the earth (see fig. select a diameter small enough to be lightweight and transportable. Known electrical ground is important not only for formation of the wavefront off the antenna. l l l Ground Radials A ground radial system (i. Metal building frames. and time to install the system.3-12 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Ground radials help to establish a known reference point of electrical ground. Without them. b LENGTH OF RADIAL = b GROUND PLATE TO WHICH RADIALS ARE ATTACHED (OTHER THAN A CIRCULAR DESIGN IS OK) Figure 3-16.. Radials are attached metal-to-metal to a central point (a metal plate is often convenient). The largest number of radials to transport should be consistent with weight and bulkiness limitations. electrical ground may be some distance beneath the Earth’s surface. and other vertical antennas. portability. inverted As. 3-16). It is not necessary to make them greater than one-quarter wavelength at the lowest operating frequency. but large enough to prevent breakage. but it also affects launch angles from antennas. Wire diameter is not critical.3B Metal pipes. Metal plumbing (must not be connected to flammable liquid or gas).e.

One-quarter wavelength = 74. the number of radials should be increased to 100.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 3-13 RF GROUND STAKE (METAL OR WOOD) WHIP ANTENNA GROUND RADIALS Figure 3-17. Equipment Configuration. Make radial systems for each antenna prior to an operation. Short stakes at the ends may be used to hold them in position when deploying.e.9 meters frequency (MHz) Suggested dimensions: 5 meters (15-foot whip): N (number of radials) = at least 30 (one every 12°) b (length of radial) = 7 meters (23 feet) 10 meters (32-foot whip): N = at least 30 b = 14 meters (46 feet) If the site is semipermanent (i. (reverse blank) . where possible.. Ground all radios. several days or more). and their length doubled.

improves with increased path distances. The main difference is size. tied back only a little. tied down fairly close to the vehicle.and intermediate-distance HF sky wave communications. A vehicle-mounted whip. however. The whip is particularly good for ground wave communications in many directions at one time.e. whip) will most likely be used with an HF radio. Unfortunately.) A vertical whip’s performance by sky wave. as well as construction considerations and procedures. while it is radiating in all directions at the same time. it is also picking up interference from all directions. HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS Vertical Whip A vertical whip antenna (i. When determining the best antenna to employ with a circuit. HF antennas are considerably larger than VHF antennas. Ultrahigh frequency antennas are generally limited to whips. because of the high radiation angles required. Antenna designs that work for HF sometimes work for VHF and vice versa. may be efficiently employed in short. (NOTE: Launch angles off vertically polarized whip antennas are maximum below 45°. at distances of 20 to 30 kilometers. Sloping Wire If an HF circuit is only a single point-to-point ground link or a ground wave net with all other terminals being located in the same direction. may be useful in longdistance HF sky wave applications.Chapter 4 Antennas This chapter will discuss high frequency and very high frequency antennas. A whip.. It is useless if using sky wave over a distance of 100 kilometers. consult MCRP 6-22D for more detailed information on antenna propagation characteristics. a .

and lower angles for sky wave.) See Table 4-1 to determine how long an antenna should be cut to form an assigned frequency. (Antenna length is measured from the radio equipment.6 The far end of the antenna should be connected to a rope with a weight. Sloping Wire Antenna Lengths. Frequency MHz 5 9 12 Length (Feet) 45 25 15 (Meters) 13. 45° Sloping Wire Antenna. wire antenna which can be used with the AN/PRC-104) can be varied by either connecting or disconnecting the alligator clips. DESIRED DIRECTION 45 45 DEGREE SLOPING WIRE Figure 4-1. Table 4-1. 4-1).4-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. The high end should be opposite the direction of the intended receiver (see fig. . The weighted end should be thrown over a tree so that the antenna forms a 30° to 45° angle to the ground.7 7.3B sloping wire may be used. if available.6 4. The radiating length of the AT984 “Fishreel” antenna (a 45-foot long. such as a stone or brick or other nonconducting material tied to the end. Angles higher than 45° should be used for ground wave.

Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 4-3 Figure 4-2. AS-2259 Near-Vertical Incidence Another HF antenna is the AS-2259 (see fig. In addition. this antenna can be used for both ground wave and sky wave. More detailed information regarding HF NVIS antennas can be found in MCRP 6-22D. Although not suitable for frequencies under 3. it can sometimes be used effectively to communicate by sky wave over a hill or mountain obstacle that would otherwise block a ground wave signal. The AS-2259 will often enable an operator to communicate in a skip zone when a whip antenna will not. The major drawback of this antenna is the unusually long length required (up to 71 . 4-2).5 MHz. AS-2259.500 kilometers). 4-3 on page 4-4). It is usually installed at one-quarter wavelength of the operating frequency above ground (see fig. Horizontal Half -Wave Dipole (Doublet) The horizontal half-wave dipole (also known as the doublet) is frequently used for short to medium HF sky wave paths (up to about 1.

These items are not stocked in the Marine Corps supply system. meters [233 feet] at 2 MHz).3B Figure 4-3. Because of their construction. Inverted L Inverted L antennas are useful for NVIS propagation (see fig. Doublet Antenna.4-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. . NOTE: A 2 percent or greater error in length means less efficiency and a loss of radiated power. they also yield better ground wave radiation than whip antennas. Inverted L antennas can be effectively employed with a wider range of frequencies than can horizontal halfwave dipole antennas. Antenna Enhancements Several pieces of equipment which improve the capabilities of standard Marine Corps communications equipment are available from commercial sources. 4-4). They must be purchased directly from commercial sources.

the AN/MRC-138 can be operated on the move. Whip to wire adapter (WWA)—screws into the top one-inch-diameter section of the AT-1011.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 4-5 INSULATORS ANTENNA WIRE LEAD WIRE RADIO GROUND Figure 4-4. Inverted L. This device makes the antenna more efficient at lower frequencies. The TWA made for the AN/MRC-138 is one piece and has a simple design. These antennas can be tilted to obtain the correct angles for NVIS communications. . They include— l l l Tilt whip adapter (TWA)—used with the vertical whip antennas issued with AN/MRC-138 radio. thus allowing the operator to use the oneinch-diameter section of the AT-1011 as the mast for field-expedient antennas. Whip loading coil (WLC)—used with the WTA for the AN/MRC138. When fitted with a TWA and only the top four sections of the AT-1011 antenna.

therefore. Vertical Whip VHF whip antennas are usually limited in range from 15 to 20 miles. The effect is to act as an artificial ground and greatly increase the signal range.4-6 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. it has the potential to produce a great deal of radio-wave interference with the radios in the area. the operator should try facing in different directions to improve the reception of the signal. The two elements hanging down from the antenna form a ground-plane similar to the ground radials discussed in chapter 3. . VERY HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS OE-254 This antenna is used with VHF-FM radios to increase the operating range beyond that of a normal whip. Use of hills and other terrain features to block off unwanted signals will improve desired signal strength.3B Whip-base adapter (WBA)—allows the whip antennas for Army HF radios to be used with Marine Corps HF radios. If experiencing communication problems. The OE-254’s elements allow it to tune to frequencies between 30 and 88 MHz without manually adjusting either the groundplane or radiating elements’ length. A whip antenna is omnidirectional. It is important when using a whip antenna or any antenna to keep maximum distance between antennas. When using whip antennas with backpack or hand-held equipment. contact the G-6/S-6 sections of higher headquarters. The antenna radiates in all directions at the same time. body position may increase the transmitted and received signal. The whip antennas for Army HF radios are of a different size than the whip antennas for Marine Corps HF radios. This is because the human body acts as an antenna. Figure 4-5 illustrates the OE-254 antenna. l For further information about commercial equipment which can improve the capabilities of Marine Corps radios.

0 MHz. RF CONNECTOR ADAPTER 25’ MAX Figure 4-5. use a correction of 0.g.. The following figures are for a half-wave antenna. and the two are never the same. To calculate the physical length of an antenna. It has both a physical and an electrical length. The contributing factors are the ratio of the diameter of the antenna to its length and the capacitive effect of terminal equipment (e. The reduced velocity of the wave on the antenna and a capacitive effect (known as end effect) make the antenna seem longer electrically than it is physically. .) used to support the antenna.0 and 50. etc.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 4-7 ANTENNA ASSY GUY PLATE MAST SECTION TAPE STRAIN CLAMP 41’-9” 33’-8” GUY ASSEMBLY MAST ASSEMBLY GUY PLATE CABLE ASSY.95 for frequencies between 3. ANTENNA LENGTH The length of an antenna must be considered in two ways. OE-254 Antenna. insulators. clamps.

95/Frequency in MHz = 468/Frequency in MHz The length of a long-wire antenna (one wavelength or longer) for harmonic operation is calculated by using the following formula: Length (meters) Length (feet) = 150(N-0. if the number of half-wavelengths is 3 and the frequency in MHz is 7. For example.05)/Frequency in MHz = 150(3-.95/Frequency in MHz = 142.3B Length (meters) Length (feet) = 150 x 0.05)/7 = 150 x 2.2 meters .05)/Frequency in MHz = 492(N-0. then: Length (meters) = 150(N-0.95/7 = 442.05)/Frequency in MHz N = number of half-wave lengths in the total length of the antenna.4-8 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.50/7 = 63.5/Frequency in MHz = 492 x 0.

Use of a higher frequency will also help. The only way to reduce this type of interference is to use a directional antenna to prevent receiving the interference from all directions. MANMADE INTERFERENCE Most manmade interference comes from electrical sources such as power generators. and electrified railroads. although if a sky wave circuit is used. If the interference is not coming from the same direction as the intended signal. faulty electrical relay contacts. This must be done so that the same obstacle will not block the intended radio path. poor equipment condition. the critical frequency). care must be exercised not to pick the highest frequency at which the signal will be refracted to Earth by the ionosphere (i. The interference from known sources such as generators can be greatly reduced if an antenna is positioned so that an obstacle (e. It may come from a single source or a combination of many sources including natural or manmade frequency interference.. auto ignition. and frequency reuse. frequency interference. a hill) is between it and the source. power lines. The key to combating this form of interference is to isolate communications equipment from manmade interference. Manmade interference also includes enemy jammers (see chapter 7). this will not eliminate the noise coming from the direction of the received signal. alarm systems.. fluorescent lighting. improper equipment usage. However.g. use of unauthorized frequencies. then a directional antenna should be used. .Chapter 5 Interference Radio frequency interference is always present in a military environment.e. It is especially noticeable at night when the lower frequencies propagate farther than in the daytime. NATURAL INTERFERENCE Natural radio noise has two principal sources: thunderstorms (atmospheric noise) and stars (galactic noise).

5-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Put as much distance as possible between the affected unit’s equipment. it will probably be within the immediate area and will only occur when the offending transmitter is keyed. and frequency manager during the development of the CIS plan. There are several steps that should be taken to lessen this possibility. power lines. If lines do cross. ensure that all radio equipment is grounded. Get the interfering operator to lower their transmitter power as long as it does not degrade their circuit. These include making certain that shielded cables are used where required. ensuring connectors are properly connected to cables. but it must be done by the CIS officer. and they must be separated from each other by standoffs. However. If it is a VHF or HF ground wave transmission. FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE AND INTERMODULATION Frequency interference is one of the easiest communications problems to prevent. CIS chief. if frequency interference does occur the following steps can be taken to improve communications: l l l l Identify the source of the interference. This may involve using a hill or other object to block the signal. Finally. The other operator is probably transmitting on a different frequency and has no way of knowing that he is interfering with anyone else’s ability to transmit. Change to a directional antenna. .3B POOR EQUIPMENT CONDITION AND IMPROPER USAGE The condition of radio equipment and how it is being used may result in interference. they must cross at 90° angles to each other. All antenna leads (transmission lines). and telephone lines should be as short as possible when they are on the ground and should not cross. Lines threaded through the trees near an antenna serve as pipelines for interference to and from antennas. Most of these problems can be eliminated by good frequency planning. but it can also happen when different frequencies are used. and making sure that antennas within a group are as far apart as possible. This type of interference is caused primarily by two radio transmitters using the same frequency.

in particular) will join at some stage in the operation. but some units (United States Marine Corps and Army. When HF propagation conditions are favorable. Report interference to the CIS officer or CIS chief. higher headquarters should be informed to settle the problem. FREQUENCY REUSE There are not enough radio frequencies available for all radio operators to have their own channel. When this occurs. l l (reverse blank) . and prevent other units from fulfilling their mission. the first common. whenever possible. introduce interference to other frequencies and circuits. should lower his power and use a directional antenna. This practice is illegal and has the potential to disrupt a carefully engineered frequency plan. USE OF UNAUTHORIZED FREQUENCIES There is one final source of frequency interference: the use of unauthorized frequencies. Marines may discover that their radio frequency is being used by foreign or United States military personnel in other countries. Radio operators should never use unauthorized frequencies. The exercise frequency manager will try to make certain that users of the same frequency are as far away as possible from each other. VHF FM frequencies often have to be reused within the same operation by more than one unit.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 5-3 Remember that the receiver of interference may also cause someone else interference and.

Techniques for Operations For the best operation in the desert. . radio antennas should be located on the highest terrain available. and counterpoises are needed to improve operation. is quite normal. Transmitters using whip antennas in the desert will lose one-fifth to one-third of their normal range because of the poor electrical grounding characteristics of desert terrain. Normally. Equipment Considerations Some SCRs automatically switch on their second blower fan if their internal temperature rises too high. However. RF power amplifiers used in AM and SSB sets are liable to overheat severely and burn out. desert terrain provides poor electrical ground. the standing operating procedure (SOP) of units using the equipment should allow for delays in replying. They should be turned on only when necessary (signal reception is not affected). This may disturb Marines unaccustomed to radio operation in the desert environment. It can be employed effectively in desert climate and terrain to provide the highly mobile means of communications demanded by widely dispersed forces. Operation of the second fan.Chapter 6 Radio Operations Under Unusual Conditions OPERATIONS IN DESERT AREAS Capabilities and Limitations SCR is usually the primary means of communications in the desert. this happens only in temperate climates when the radios are transmitting. it is important to use complete antenna systems such as horizontal dipoles and vertical antennas with adequate counterpoises. Since the RF power amplifiers take approximately 90 seconds to reach the operating mode. For this reason. however.

If you are operating from a fixed position. Wind-blown sand and grit will damage electrical wire insulation over a period of time. e. Condensation. Extra containers of distilled water should be carried in the vehicle. and use it to clean such items before they are joined. In deserts with relatively high dew levels and high humidity. such as an old toothbrush. Poor grounding conditions exacerbate the problem. wind-blown dust particles.3B Dust affects communications equipment such as SSB/AM RF power amplifiers. Some receiver-transmitter units have ventilating ports and channels that can get clogged with dust.6-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. jacks. Be sure to tape all sharp edges (tips) of antennas to cut down on wind-caused static discharges and the accompanying noise. Excessive moisture or dew should be dried from antenna connectors to prevent arcing. Plugs should be dried before inserting them into equipment jacks. This condensation can affect electrical plugs. Maintenance of vehicle batteries. either preventing electrical contact or making it impossible to join the plugs. All cables that are likely to be damaged should be protected with tape before insulation becomes worn. Batteries. Carry a brush. if warranted). Add distilled water as needed.g. All connectors likely to be affected by condensation should be taped to prevent moisture from contaminating the contacts.. Electrolyte evaporates rapidly and should be checked weekly (more often. must be done only by authorized motor-transport personnel according to applicable Marine Corps Orders and SOPs. . It is caused by many factors. Static electricity is prevalent in the desert. beyond adding water. Extremely low humidity contributes to static discharges between charged particles. Wet cell batteries do not hold their charge efficiently in intense heat. Sand will also find its way into parts of items such as “spaghetti cord” plugs. and connectors. Dust covers should be used whenever possible. Static Electricity. These must be checked regularly and kept clean to prevent overheating. since hot weather causes batteries to fail more rapidly. Dry battery supplies must be increased. Electrical Insulation. overnight condensation can occur wherever surfaces (such as metals exposed to air) are cooler than the air temperature.

However. or dirt that enter the equipment. If dust and dirt mix with the lubricants. Climate and density of jungle growth limits SCR communications in jungle areas. Techniques for Operations The main problem in establishing SCR communications in jungle areas is the siting of the antenna. Therefore. the maintenance of SCRs becomes more difficult because of the large amounts of sand. To reduce maintenance downtime. Also. especially manpacked. Mobility is also an advantage of SCR.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 6-3 ensure that equipment is properly grounded. Maintenance Improvement In desert areas. since SCR can be deployed in many configurations. Since static-caused noise diminishes with an increase in frequency. moving parts may be damaged. keep the radios in dustproof containers as much as possible. Preventive maintenance checks should be made frequently. use the highest frequencies that are available and authorized. increased emphasis on maintenance and antenna siting is necessary when operating in jungle areas. It is also important to keep air vent filters clean to allow cool air to circulate to prevent overheating. OPERATIONS IN JUNGLE AREAS Capabilities and Limitations SCR communications in jungle areas must be carefully planned because the dense jungle growth significantly reduces the range of radio transmission. keep a close check on lubricated parts of the equipment. dust. it is a valuable communications asset. Radios equipped with servomechanisms are particularly affected. The capabilities and limitations of SCR must be carefully considered when used by forces in a jungle environment. The hot and humid climate increases the maintenance problems of keeping equipment operable. . Thick jungle growth acts as a vertically polarized absorbing screen for RF energy that reduces transmission range.

. Maintenance Improvement Because of moisture and fungus. fungus. Operators and maintenance personnel should check the appropriate TMs for any special maintenance requirements. If an antenna touches any foliage. and insects. The high relative humidity causes condensation to form on the equipment and encourages the growth of fungus.3B Apply the following techniques to improve communications in the jungle: l l l l l Antennas should be located in clearings on the edge farthest from the distant station and as high as possible. Horizontally polarized antennas are preferred to vertically polarized antennas.6-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Vegetation must be cleared from antenna sites. cables. Antenna cables and connectors should be kept off the ground to lessen the effects of moisture. Keep all air vents clear of obstructions so air can circulate to cool and dry the equipment. the maintenance of SCR in tropical climates is more difficult than in temperate climates. the signal will be grounded. especially wet foliage. particularly when wet. Some techniques for improving maintenance in jungle areas are— l l l Keep the equipment as dry as possible and in lighted areas to retard fungus growth. acts like a vertically polarized screen and absorbs much of a vertically polarized signal. Keep connectors. Vegetation. and bare metal parts as free of fungus growth as possible. are more effective than fractional wavelength whip antennas. This also applies to all power and telephone cables. such as ground planes and dipoles. Complete antenna systems. Use moisture fungusproofing paint (MFP) to protect equipment after repairs are made or when equipment is damaged or scratched.

Note: An antenna that is not “tuned” or “cut” to the operating frequency is not as effective as the whips that are supplied with the radio. Northern Lights) activity can cause complete failure of radio communications. While moving. in spite of significant limitations.g. SCR is the normal means of communications in such areas. Some frequencies may be blocked out completely by static for extended periods of time during storm activity. these expedient antennas will allow them to broadcast farther and receive more clearly.. when they are not moving. OPERATIONS IN A COLD WEATHER ENVIRONMENT Capabilities and Limitations SCR equipment has certain capabilities and limitations that must be carefully considered when operating in extremely cold areas. A limitation on radio communications that radio operators must expect in extremely cold areas is interference by ionospheric disturbances. they are generally restricted to using the short and long antennas which come with the radios. Circuits inside the radio “load” the whips properly so that they are “tuned” to give maximum output. Smaller.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 6-5 High Frequency Expedient Antennas Dismounted patrols and units of company size and below can greatly improve their ability to communicate in the jungle by using expedient antennas. manpacked radios can be carried to any point accessible by foot or aircraft. However. Vehicular-mounted radios can be moved relatively easily to almost any point where it is possible to install a command headquarters. However. One of the most important capabilities of SCR in cold weather areas is its versatility. either the storms or the auroral (e. have a definite degrading effect on sky wave propagation. These disturbances. but the doublet or ground-plane must be tuned to the operating frequency. . Whips are not as effective as a tuned doublet or tuned ground-plane. known as ionospheric storms. Moreover.

use a counterpoise to offset the degrading effects of poor electrical ground conductivity. When they occur. supports.6-6 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. if available. This will also help solve some of the grounding and antenna installation problems caused by the climate. caused by changes in the density and height of the ionosphere. can also occur and may last from minutes to weeks. installing some antennas may take longer because of adverse working conditions. The conductivity of frozen ground is often too low to provide good ground wave propagation. the use of alternate frequencies and a greater reliance on FM or other means of communications are required. In general. A few tips for installing antennas in extremely cold areas are— l l l Mast sections and antenna cables must be handled carefully since they become brittle in very low temperatures. it is difficult to establish good electrical grounding in extremely cold areas. antenna installation in arcticlike areas presents no serious difficulties. SCR for tactical operations in cold weather areas should be installed in vehicles to reduce the problem of transportation and shelter for operators. Remember to install a counterpoise high enough above the ground so that it will not be covered by snow. Because of permafrost and deep snow. However.3B Fading. should be used in preference to cotton or hemp because nylon ropes do not readily absorb moisture and are less likely to freeze and break. Antennas should have extra guy wires. Antenna cables should be constructed overhead to prevent damage from heavy snow and frost. The occurrence of these disturbances is difficult to predict. whenever possible. To improve ground wave operation. Some Marine Corps radios that are adjusted to a particular frequency in a relatively warm place may drift off frequency when exposed to . and anchor stakes to withstand heavy ice and wind loading. Nylon rope guys. Techniques for Operations Whenever possible.

To overcome this static. Low battery voltage can also cause frequency drift. This minimizes frequency drift. the particular use of the battery. Radios must be protected from blowing snow. and the degree of exposure to cold temperatures. Power Units. They should be protected as much as possible from the weather. . All radio equipment and power units must be properly winterized. allow a radio to warm up several minutes before placing it into operation. As the temperature goes down. Check the appropriate technical manual (TM) for winterization procedures. as required. Check the shock mounts frequently and change them. Shock Damage. Cords and cables must be handled carefully since they may lose their flexibility in extreme cold. The effect of cold weather on wet and dry cell batteries depends upon the type and kind of battery. Batteries. Damage may occur to vehicular SCR by the jolting of the vehicle. When possible. antenna elements can be covered with polystyrene tape and shellac. Maintenance Improvement The maintenance of SCR equipment in extreme cold presents many difficulties. the load on the battery.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 6-7 extreme cold. A few tips for maintenance in arctic areas are discussed in the following paragraphs. Check the TMs for the SCR and power source to see if there are special precautions for operation in extremely cold climates. the resulting electrical discharge causes a high-pitched static roar that can blanket all frequencies. When these particles strike the antenna. try warming the battery with body heat before operating the radio set. Most synthetic rubber shock mounts become stiff and brittle in extreme cold and fail to cushion equipment. it becomes increasingly dif- ficult to operate and maintain generators. since snow will freeze to dials and knobs and blow into the wiring to cause shorts and grounds. Winterization. Since extreme cold tends to lower output voltage of a dry battery. Flakes or pellets of highly electrically charged snow are sometimes experienced in northern regions.

and the still-hot parts come in contact with subzero air. A light coat of silicon compound on . Use standard microphone covers to prevent this. it should warm up for approximately 15 minutes before transmitting or changing frequencies. Before increasing engine revolutions per minute to charge the batteries. When cold equipment is brought suddenly into contact with warm air. A SCR generates heat when it is operated. This is called sweating. If standard covers are not available. Before cold equipment is brought into a heated area. improvise a suitable cover from rubber or cellophane membranes or from rayon or nylon cloth. plastic. When a radio breathes. heater. If the radio is cold soaked from prolonged shutdown. the air inside cools and contracts and draws cold air into the set from the outside. This is called breathing. radios should be turned off to avoid an excessive power surge. and lights on. Proper starting procedures must be observed. Equipment must be thoroughly dry before it is taken back out into the cold air or the moisture will freeze. this is a particularly critical requirement when vehicles are slave started. This may take up to an hour. Moisture from your breath may freeze on the perforated cover plate of your microphone. Microphones. moisture will condense on the equipment parts. the batteries may run down. time should be allowed for the vehicle heater to warm the radio sufficiently that any frost collected within the radio has a chance to thaw. The radio’s power switch must be off prior to starting the vehicle. Once the radio has been turned on. These radios present special problems during winter operations because of their continuous exposure to the elements. Breathing and Sweating. frost may have collected inside the radio and could cause circuit arcing. Hence. the glass.6-8 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. it should be wrapped in a blanket or parka to ensure that it will warm gradually to reduce sweating. and ceramic parts of the set may cool too rapidly and break. When it is turned off. They must be replaced with the recommended arctic lubricants. Vehicular-Mounted Radios.3B For example. This allows components to stabilize. If a vehicle is operated at a low idle with radios. normal lubricants may solidify and permit damage or malfunctions.

There are problems of obstacles blocking transmission paths. the mountainous terrain makes the selection of transmission sites a critical task. Some problems are similar to those encountered in mountainous areas. the ground in mountainous areas is often a poor electrical conductor. VHF radios are not as effective in urbanized terrain as they are in some other areas. There is the problem of poor electrical conductivity because of pavement surfaces. such as a dipole or ground-plane antenna with a counterpoise. Also. The maintenance procedures required in mountainous areas are very often the same as maintenance in northern or cold weather areas. Maintenance Improvement Because of terrain obstacles. should be used. OPERATIONS IN SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS Urbanized Terrain SCR communications in urbanized terrain poses special problems. The power output and operating frequencies of these VHF radios require a line of sight between antennas. . Thus. OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS Capabilities and Limitations Operation of SCRs in mountainous areas has many of the same problems as in northern or cold weather areas. a complete antenna system.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 6-9 antenna mast connections helps to keep them from freezing together and becoming hard to dismantle. The varied or seasonal temperature and climatic conditions in mountainous areas make flexible maintenance planning a necessity. the terrain restrictions encountered frequently make radio relay stations necessary for good communications. There is also the problem of commercial power-line interference. In addition. Also. SCR transmissions will frequently have to be by line of sight. Line of sight at street level is not always possible in built-up areas.

The explosion of a nuclear weapon causes a tremendous blast. and Chemical Environment One of the realities of fighting on the modern battlefield is the presence of nuclear weapons. Place generators against buildings or under sheds to decrease noise and provide concealment (adequate ventilation must be provided to prevent heat buildup and subsequent failure of generator). and power output is greater. many times stronger than the static pulse generated by lightning. It can melt capacitors. To overcome this. The ionization of the atmosphere by a nuclear explosion will have degrading effects on communications because of static and the disruption of the ionosphere. Organic retransmission is more likely to be used. Dismount radio equipment and install it inside buildings (in basement. Biological. or steeples. diodes. the pulse can break down circuit components such as transistors.3B HF radios do not require or rely on line of sight as much as VHF radios because operating frequencies are lower. Retransmission stations in aerial platforms can provide the most effective means if they are available. This pulse can enter the radio through the antenna system. Nuclear. and integrated circuits. inductors. The problem is that HF radios are not organic to small units. Antennas can be concealed by water towers. Another effect of a nuclear explosion that is an even greater danger to radio communications is the electromagnetic pulse (EMP). followed by intense heat and strong radiation. The following steps should also be taken within urbanized terrain: l l l Park radio-equipped vehicles inside buildings for cover and concealment. if available). power connections. This will help prevent the enemy from using it as a landmark to “home in” his artillery bombardment. EMP is a strong pulse of electromagnetic radiation.6-10 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. the VHF signals must be retransmitted. and signal input connections. existing civilian antennas. In the equipment. and transformers. EMP can destroy a radio. The antenna should be hidden or blended in with surroundings. .

biological. When the equipment is not in use. (reverse blank) . and chemical (NBC) environment has adverse effects on both equipment and personnel. but contamination is a danger to Marines. particularly the shielding of equipment. Contamination from any portion of the nuclear. Effective grounding is necessary to reduce effect of EMP. all antennas and cables should be removed to decrease the effect of EMP on the equipment.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 6-11 Defensive measures against EMP call for proper maintenance. EMP is a danger to SCR equipment.

electronic protection (EP). and locate sources of intentional or unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition. When the enemy locates sites that the enemy cannot or does not want to destroy. and electronic warfare support (ES). neutralizing.. Each radio operator must be aware of what the enemy will try to do. The enemy is well equipped to conduct EW. ES involves actions taken by. or under direct control of.Chapter 7 Electronic Warfare Electronic warfare (EW) is the military action involving the use of electromagnetic energy (i. The enemy’s goal is to locate and destroy as many command and control. facilities. these sites become prime targets for imitative electronic deception (IED) or jamming. radio frequency waves) to attack personnel. The enemy IED experts are very good at their jobs. If they are permitted to enter into a net. and the different techniques the enemy uses have specific purposes in the enemy’s EW effort. EP represents actions taken to protect personnel. neutralize. ELECTRONIC ATTACK TECHNIQUES Enemy forces employ a large number of radio direction finder (RDF) sets and communications intelligence (COMINT) analysts to exploit friendly use of the electromagnetic spectrum.e. they will create much confusion for friendly forces. identify. EW includes electronic attack (EA). . or destroying enemy combat capability. and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade. and intelligence sites as possible during the first critical phase of the battle. fire support. intercept. or equipment with the intent of degrading. facilities. Imitative electronic deception is the enemy’s use of a compatible radio and a language expert to enter a friendly radio net. or destroy friendly combat capability. EA includes actions taken to prevent or reduce the enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum and employment of weapons that use electromagnetic or directed energy. an operational commander to search for.

3B Jamming is an effective way to disrupt control of the battle. Recorded Sounds. This FM capture effect is undesirable when receivers in a net are “captured” by a transmitter not in that net. tuned to your frequency. Wobbler. Random keyed modulated continuous wave. Pulse. Random pulse. This could be friendly interference or enemy interference. . These include— l l l l l l l l l l l l Random noise. Capture Effect and Jamming Techniques An inherent characteristic in FM communications is that a given station transmitting a signal will capture those receivers on the same frequency and in range for the receiver to detect the signal. with the same type of modulation and with enough power output to override the signal at your receiver. This is the basis for netted communications for VHF FM radios. Spark. The radio operator should also be able to quickly identify the various types of jamming signals. Friendly interference is usually unintentional whereas enemy interference is usually intentional. Sweep-through.7-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Stepped tones. There are many types of jamming signals that may be used against a radio operator. All it takes is a transmitter. Rotary. an operator must always be alert to the probability of jamming and react accordingly when the radio has been silent for an inordinate amount of time. For this reason. Gulls. Tone. Some are very difficult to detect and some are impossible to detect.

bagpipes). no sound is heard from the receiver. If radio operators suspect that their radios are the targets of threat jamming. An operator can usually detect when the enemy is using this type of jamming. then the radio operator should report it immediately to higher headquarters. and interference (MIJI) reports serve two purposes. Jamming. The purpose of this type of jamming is to block out reception of friendly transmitted signals and to cause a nuisance to the receiving operator. The radio does not receive incoming friendly signals. These techniques may consist of powerful unmodulated or noise-modulated carrier signals transmitted to the operator’s receiver.g. This is not always easy..Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 7-3 Obvious Jamming Radio operators are mostly aware of obvious interference (e. Second.g. Operator Actions Radio operators must be able to determine whether or not their radios are being jammed. jamming. randomkeyed Morse Code. initial MIJI reports facilitate battlefield evaluations of the enemy’s actions or intentions and provide data for tactical countermeasures. jamming) by an enemy.. First. Subtle Jamming This type of jamming is not obvious at all. With subtle jamming. Noise-modulated jamming signals are characterized by obvious interference noises. and Interference Report If the radio operator suspects jamming or enemy intrusion on the net. Such information is vital for the protection and defense of radio communications. yet everything seems normal to the operator. and recorded sounds. Intrusion. pulses. complete and accurate followup reports ensure MIJI incidents are documented and evaluated on a . the following procedures will help them to make this determination. as appropriate. Field meaconing. Meaconing. Threat jammers may employ obvious or subtle jamming techniques. Unmodulated jamming signals are characterized by a lack of noise. such as stepped tones (e. intrusion.

When being transmitted over nonsecure communications means. thus providing data for a continuing study of foreign electronic warfare capabilities and activities. A separate report is submitted for each MIJI incident. Reports will be prepared in the format outlined in the following paragraphs. MIJI 2—consists of 40 lines and is completed by higher headquarters. The two types of field MIJI reports are— l l MIJI 1—an abbreviated initial report containing only those items of information necessary to inform headquarters of the incident and enable them to initiate evaluatory or retaliatory actions as appropriate.e. the term MIJI 1 is used as Item 1 of the MIJI 1 report. however.3B national level. The MIJI 1 Report. the appropriate term below is used as Item 2 of the MIJI 1 report. the numerals 022 are encrypted as Item 1 of the MIJI 1 report. the textual content of the MIJI report will be secured by an off-line (i. 1 Meaconing 2 Intrusion 3 Jamming 4 Interference . This report is forwarded through the chain of command to the combat operations center by the operator who is experiencing the MIJI incident. These brevity numbers must be encoded in the numeral cipher or authentication system prior to transmission. manual) system. Brevity numbers pertinent to specific line item information are provided for some items. The MIJI report includes— l l Item 1—type report. Item 2—type MIJI incident. MIJI reports may be transmitted over nonsecure electronic means when secure communications are not available.7-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. the appropriate numeral preceding one of the items below is encrypted as Item 2 of the MIJI 1 report.. When being transmitted over nonsecure communications means. When being transmitted over secure communications means. When being transmitted over secure communications means.

the appropriate term below is used as Item 3 of the MIJI 1 report.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 7-5 Item 3—type of equipment affected. When being transmitted over secure communications means. it is recommended that the report be delivered by messenger whenever possible. the complete grid coordinates of the affected station are encrypted as Item 6 of the MIJI 1 report. . the appropriate numeral preceding one of the terms below is encrypted as Item 3 of the MIJI 1 report. Item 5—victim designation and call sign of affected station operator. the frequency or channel affected by the MIJI incident is Item 4 of the MIJI 1 report. intelligence officer. l l l l This is a complete report containing all details of the MIJI incident. or the electronic warfare officer is responsible for ensuring that a complete message report of the incident is submitted to the Joint Command and Control Warfare Center (JC2WC) within 24 hours of the incident. 1 Radio 2 Radar 3 Navigational aid 4 Satellite 5 Electro-optics Item 4—Frequency or channel affected. the frequency or channel affected by the MIJI incident is encrypted as Item 4 of the MIJI 1 report. When being transmitted over nonsecure communications means. The complete call sign of the affected station operator is Item 5 of the MIJI 1 report over both secure and nonsecure communications means. When being transmitted over secure communications means. When being transmitted over nonsecure communications means. The MIJI 2 Report. When being transmitted over secure communications means. the complete grid coordinates of the affected station are Item 6 of the MIJI 1 report. Item 6—coordinates of the affected station. Due to the number of items which require encryption when the report is transmitted over a nonsecure circuit. The higher headquarters’ operations officer. When being transmitted over nonsecure communications means.

The organization must be able to employ communications equipment effectively in the face of enemy efforts. COMSEC includes transmission. . the enemy’s language specialists will extract all possible intelligence from it. Modern communications equipment includes features such as an integrated encryption capability and frequency hopping capability. COMSEC is the protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. cryptographic. After the enemy has intercepted your radio transmission.7-6 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. The enemy hopes to learn essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). the security of our communications depends on the proper operation of communications equipment and adherence to proper procedures. However. emission. Critical information that must be protected can be remembered by the key words SELDOM UP.3B ELECTRONIC PROTECTION TECHNIQUES Communications security (COMSEC) is an integral part of electronic protection. A message transmitted in the clear is the enemy’s greatest source of information. which contribute to communications protection. The goal of COMSEC is to protect friendly communications from enemy exploitation while ensuring unimpeded use of the electromagnetic spectrum. and physical security. Transmission security Transmission security (TRANSEC) is that component of COMSEC that results from all measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by means other than cryptoanalysis. COMSEC requirements must be integrated into communications systems planning and must focus on providing secure communications without impairing reliability or responsiveness.

keep transmission time to an absolute minimum (20 seconds absolute maximum: 15 seconds maximum preferred). antenna. Logistics—procedure for resupply. . Using TRANSEC is absolutely essential for the radio operator. Disposition—were. if possible. size of unit. Other TRANSEC measures include— l l l Well-trained operators thoroughly familiar with proper communications procedures and equipment operation. preplan your messages to avoid compromising any essential element of information. Movement and morale—where. depots. When the radio must be used. Every radio operator must be aware of the dangers of and guard against IED. Equipment—type. map coordinates. where. what positions. and power combinations that produce minimum wave propagation and emission intensity consistent with reliable communications. designation. quantity. Units—type. help prevent RDF. use brevity lists. Personalities—who. and also encrypt the message. forces structure.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 7-7 Each letter indicates a class of information as follows: l l l l l l l l Strength—number of personnel. what. SINCGARS radios should be operated in a frequency hopping mode to provide maximum protection against enemy EW capabilities. If you must send EEFI items. chain of command. These measures decrease your transmission. and deny the enemy valuable information. when and good or bad. how. (This includes all Marines who may operate SCR. Organization—how. Use of transmitter. Included under transmission security are the authentication procedures that must be followed to protect against the enemy’s IED. not just CIS personnel. Strict radio discipline and adherence to authorized procedures are key to ensuring TRANSEC over SCR networks.) Avoidance of unauthorized transmission and testing and maximum use of data networks to minimize transmission time and opportunity for enemy direction finding. condition.

if the enemy can’t get information. Homemade codes offer no protection at all. If the radio operator uses a security device on the radio. and local wire loops. key lists. (Operators should continue to operate on assigned frequencies in a secure mode. This also includes trying to “talk around” a classified or sensitive piece of information. In a situation when it is not possible to send by a secure means or to encrypt a message that must be sent. Remoting of transmitters and avoiding the clustering of antennas. the enemy might attempt to destroy or jam your station. Also. Use of communications means that do not radiate in the electromagnetic spectrum such as messengers.3B Strict adherence to authorized frequencies. the enemy will not get anything for the language specialists to work on. Use of changing call signs and frequencies on nonsecure nets. unless otherwise directed by a competent authority. it is very important for all radio operators to use only authorized codes and to realize that using homemade codes is dangerous. This is the third line of defense for the radio operator. and should attempt to work through the interference. it should be encrypted or sent by secure means. and communications security devices. Use of authentication systems to protect against imitative deception on nonsecure nets. l l l l l l l l Cryptosecurity Cryptosecurity deals with codes. The enemy intelligence personnel are not fools. the . The need for emission control and transmission security still exists—probably more so—because. Prompt response to and reporting of enemy jamming. do not get a false sense of security. Use of terrain masking to shield transmission systems from enemy EW systems. visual and sound signaling. and trying something like “talking around” critical information does more harm than good. Their use is not authorized and is a serious violation of security. However. If critical information must be transmitted.7-8 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.) Strict adherence to all emission control (EMCON) restrictions and observance of radio silence.

Commanders must follow applicable regulations providing guidance on control and suppression of such emissions. then access to classified cryptographic information will be formally authorized. its unusual sensitivity. the special security regulations governing its handling and protection. COTS equipment is not. When a commander or designated representative has determined that an individual has a need to know and is eligible for access. Emission Security Emission security (TEMPEST) is the component of COMSEC that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from interception and analysis of compromising emanations from cryptosecurity equipment and telecommunications systems. . Physical Security Physical security is the COMSEC component that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment. The operation of communications and information systems may result in unintentional electromagnetic emissions. Capture of individuals having access to COMSEC information. Although tactical equipment is designed to reduce the possibility of such emissions. Other factors. such as how fast the enemy could react to the information and what delaying the message for encryption could mean. and documents from access or observation by unauthorized persons.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ 7-9 possibility of what friendly forces will lose against what the enemy could gain must be weighed. material. Unauthorized viewing. and the penalties prescribed for its disclosure. The access to classified cryptographic information must be tightly controlled. Reportable violations include— l l l Loss of material. The authorization process must include an introduction to the unique nature of cryptographic information. must also be considered. Unintentional emissions are extremely susceptible to interception and analysis and may disclose classified information.

To do this. does not constitute a reportable violation.e. in U.7-10 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. all the enemy needs is a radio receiver that operates in the same mode and on the same frequency you are using to transmit. and other specialized equipment. A radio direction finder consists of a radio receiver. By the number of stations operating on the same frequency. It tells the enemy that you are in the area. the enemy can estimate the size of the unit. Consequently. the exposure of such equipment to casual viewing by uncleared personnel. When analyzing the traffic pattern. Preventive EP are those procedures that can be used to avoid enemy EA attempts. Remedial EP apply to jamming only. the approximate azimuth (i. After knowing friendly forces are in the area. The mere fact that you are operating gives the enemy valuable information. Radio Direction Finding Interception is only one of the many dangers that the radio operator will face. One . ELECTRONIC WARFARE SUPPORT TECHNIQUES Interception The enemy is focused on intercepting your radio signal. whether by accident or as the result of operational necessity. forces. or deceived..3B Currently fielded COMSEC equipment is unclassified for external viewing when appropriate covers are in place and no keying material is visible.S. detected. the enemy will try to locate their position by using radio direction finding (RDF). a directional antenna. By further traffic analysis. With RDF equipment. there are no remedial measures once a unit has been intercepted. bearing) to a transmitting radio can be determined. Usually. the NCS is the radio used by the operations officer or section of the highest headquarters operating in the net. the enemy’s language specialists can understand exactly what is said for even more information. the enemy can determine changes in the level of activity that could mean a movement or upcoming operation. EP techniques are divided into two categories: preventive and remedial. the enemy can figure out which station is the net control station (NCS) and identify the headquarters. If your net is operating in the clear.

exact intersection is seldom achieved. the inherent RDF equipment. prevent an ideal fix. weather. RDF ability to intercept electronics equipment emissions and determine a bearing depends on the power output of the targeting transmitter and its antenna radiation patterns. The intersection of two azimuths by different RDF stations is called a cut and gives a general indication of distance.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ 7-11 azimuth gives a general indication of direction.5 mi) of the forward line of own troops (FLOT). Experience indicates RDF accuracy of 500meter (547-yard [yd]) circular error of probability (CEP) is considered a very good RDF fix. (reverse blank) . Many threat forces will fire on a 1.500-meter (1.640 yds) when the direction finder is located within 20 to 25 kilometers (12. Although the actual fix may not be usable for immediate targeting purposes.640-yd) CEP if they have sufficient massed artillery. variations in radio wave propagation characteristics. The ideal fix is the exact intersection of three or more bearings. Terrain.500 meters (1. 50 percent of the CEPs are approximately 1. and further analysis of terrain and radio intercept can reduce the target area or identify an important target. However. Normally.4 to 15. The fix that is obtained is called an actual fix. The intersection of three or more azimuths is called a fix and gives a general location. Airborne direction finding is more accurate than ground-based direction finding but normally requires further analysis for targeting. and operator inaccuracies. it is more than enough for intelligence analysts to develop targeting data.

find horizontal line 01 (632018) and draw a LO N E P IN E F O R K .Appendix A Map Coordinates Field coordinates are often expressed in universal transverse mercator grid coordinates and usually consist of 6-digit numbers.000 meters (1 kilometer or klick) apart. To locate grid coordinate 632018.000) Figure A-1. which are 1.) 02 LO N E P IN E 61 O LD M IN E 01 63 64 62 65 M IN E R O A D M A IN R O A D 00 99 (1:50. The typical map used by the radio operator is a 1 to 50. A-1. Likewise. Topographic Map. locate vertical line 63 (632018) in the figure and draw a vertical line 2/10 of the way (632018) between lines 63 and 64. (See fig.000 scale topographic map that has grid lines drawn on it.

A more detailed explanation of the complete coordinate may be found centered at the bottom of a 1 to 50. and the Old Mine would be 618012. a more exact coordinate will identify the 100. Similarly. . The two drawn lines intersect at Lone Pine. the intersection of the Lone Pine Fork with the Main Road in the figure would be represented as 638004. Although the use of the 6-digit number is generally sufficient for field use.000 meter square and the grid zone designation to avoid confusion between different areas with identical grid line numbers.3B horizontal line 8/10 of the way (632018) between it and line 02.000 scale topographic map. The order in which the grids are read can be remembered by using the expression read-right-up.A-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.

Appendix B

Time Zones
The world is divided into 24 time zones, each one bearing a unique phonetic letter name (ROMEO, UNIFORM, etc.) or time zone number that must be applied to local time to arrive at the world standard time which is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This standard time is referred to in the Marine Corps as ZULU time. (See fig. B-1.) The time zones are roughly 15° apart in longitude.
Y X W V U T S R Q P O N Z A B C D E F G H I K L M

1 2 -11 -1 0 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2

-1

0 1

2

3

4 5

6

7 8 9 1 0 11

Figure B-1. Standard Time Zones of the World.

ZULU TIME

= LOCAL TIME - TIME ZONE NUMBER.

LOCAL TIME = ZULU TIME + TIME ZONE NUMBER.

B-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B If a Marine is in the UNIFORM time zone, (also referred to as the PLUS 8 zone), 8 hours must be added to the local time to get ZULU time. (See table B-1.) On the other hand, in the ROMEO or PLUS 5 time zone, 1300 ZULU would equate to 0800 local. During the summer, however, if a Marine is located in an area where daylight savings time is observed, one hour must be subtracted from the time zone number; i.e., the PLUS 8 zone becomes the PLUS 7 zone for local time purposes.
Table B-1. CONUS Time Zones.
Civilian Time Zone EDT EST CDT CST MDT MST PDT PST Military Time Zone QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO UNIFORM ZULU +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 Local Time 0800 Q 0700 R 0600 S 0500 T 0400 U ZULU Time 1200 Z 1200 Z 1200 Z 1200 Z 1200 Z

AUTODIN communications (i.e., worldwide) ZULU time should be used in all messages. Within the operational area, however, local time is usually used. To avoid confusion, the time zone should always be stated e.g., 1100 LOCAL or 1900 ZULU.

Appendix C

Prowords
Word or Phrase
ALL AFTER ALL BEFORE BREAK

Meaning
I refer to the portion of the message that follows. I refer to the portion of the message that precedes. I hereby indicate the separation of the text from other portions of the message. Or: I have completed the text of the message, signature follows, etc. (When break-in is permitted, receiving operator may interrupt the transmitting operator to request retransmission of a portion of a message. This proword is the interruption sign.) An error has been made in this transmission (or message indicated). The correct version is_______. That which follows is a corrected version in answer to your request for verification. This transmission is in error. Disregard it. (This proword shall not be used to cancel any message that has been completely transmitted and for which receipt or acknowledgment has been received.) Stations called are not to answer this call receipt for this message, or otherwise to transmit in connection with this transmission. When this proword is employed, the transmission shall be ended with the proword OUT.

CORRECTION

DISREGARD THIS TRANSMISSION

DO NOT ANSWER

To be used only as a reply to verify. The following is my response to your instructions to read back.) EXECUTE TO FOLOW EXEMPT FIGURES FLASH FROM IMMEDIATE INFO I READ BACK I SAY AGAIN I SPELL I VERIFY MESSAGE FOLLOWS . To be used only with the executive method. The addressee designations immediately following are exempted from the collective net call.3B Word or Phrase EXECUTE Meaning Carry out the purpose of the message or signal to which this applies.C-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. I shall spell the next word phonetically. The following message (or portion) has been verified at your request and is repeated. Precedence FLASH. Precedence IMMEDIATE. Action on the message or signal which follows is to be carried out upon receipt of the proword EXECUTE. To be used only with the executive method. The addressee designations immediately following are addressed for information. Numerals or numbers follow. (Transmitted immediately after the call. I am repeating transmission (or portion) indicated. The originator of this message is indicated by the address designation immediately following. A message which requires recording is about to follow.

) The groups which follow are taken from signal book.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ C-3 Word or Phrase NUMBER OUT OVER PRIORITY READ BACK RELAY TO ROGER ROUTINE SAY AGAIN Meaning Station serial number. SILENCE .) SIGNALS FOLLOW SILENCE. (This proword need not be used on nets primarily employed for conveying signals. No response is necessary. When an authentication system is in force. This is the end of my transmission to you. transmissions imposing silence are to be authenticated. This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is necessary. Precedence PRIORITY. Transmit this message to all addressees or to the address designations immediately following. Followed by identification data means: “Say again (portion indicated). Precedence ROUTINE. (Silence will be maintained until instructed to resume. SILENCE. Repeat all of your last transmission.” (“Repeat” is not used because it is the signal for naval gunfire and artillery to fire.) Cease transmission immediately. Repeat this entire transmission back to me exactly as received. It is intended for use when tactical signals are passed on nontactical nets. I have received your last transmission satisfactorily. Go ahead and transmit.

SPEAK SLOWER THAT IS CORRECT THIS IS TIME TO UNKNOWN STATION VERIFY WAIT WAIT OUT . To be used only at the discretion of or by the addressee to which the questioned message was directed. This transmission is from the station whose designation immediately follows. (Silence can be lifted only by the station imposing it or by higher authority. When an authentication system is in force. Verify entire message (or portion indicated) with the originator and send correct version.C-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B Word or Phrase SILENCE LIFTED Meaning Resume normal transmissions. That which immediately follows is the time or date-time group of the message.) Your transmission is too fast. The identity of the station with whom I am attempting to establish communications is unknown. transmissions lifting silence are to be authenticated. or what you have transmitted is correct. The addressees whose designations immediately follow are to take action on this message. Reduce speed of transmission. I must pause longer than a few seconds. I must pause for a few seconds. You are correct.

This proword may be used as an order.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ C-5 Word or Phrase WILCO Meaning I have received your message. or as information. understand it. WRONG (reverse blank) . The correct version is. the two prowords are never used together. WORD AFTER WORD BEFORE I refer to the word that precedes. Transmit(ting) each phrase (or each code group) twice.) I refer to the word that follows. and will comply. WORDS TWICE Communication is difficult. Since the meaning of ROGER is included in that of WILCO. request. Your last transmission was incorrect. (To be used only by the addressee.

Appendix D Phonetic Alphabet Letter A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T Word ALFA BRAVO CHARLIE DELTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIETT KILO LIMA MIKE NOVEMBER OSCAR PAPA QUEBEC ROMEO SIERRA TANGO Pronunciation AL FAH BRAH VOH CHAR LEE DELL TAH ECK OH FOKS TROT GOLF HOH TELL IN DEE AH JEW LEE ETT KEY LOH LEE MAH MIKE NOVEMBER OSS CAH PAH PAH KEH BECK ROW ME OH SEE AIR RAH TANG GO .

D-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B Letter U V W X Y Z Word UNIFORM VICTOR WHISKEY XRAY YANKEE ZULU Pronunciation YOU NEE FORM VIK TAH WISS KEY ECKS RAY YANG KEY ZOO LOO .

Appendix E Phonetic Numerals Number Pronunciation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 WUN TOO TREE FOW-er FIFE SIX SEV-en AIT NIN-er ZERO (reverse blank) .

. AS ....... All after. EEEEEEEE AR ................................................................ This is. No receipt required.............................................................................. AR ....................... B ................................................................ FM .......................................................... DE................................ GR ...Correct.............End of transmission............................................ EEEEEEEE ........................................................................ HM HM HM........................ I must pause for a few seconds..................................................................................................................................Do not answer.More to follow.................................................. From...................... GRNC .................... Error........................... All before... Repeat this entire transmission back to me..................... Will call you back............................................................. F................. C ..............................................................I must pause longer than a few seconds....................................................................................... AB ..............................................Appendix F Prosigns Prosign Meaning AA .......................................... Emergency silence sign-silence........ Disregard it........................... BT .............................................................................Group count...................................................................................................... The groups in this message have not been counted.... G .........This message is in error..................... AS AR ............... Break.............. .............................

................................................................................................................... J.............................. NR...................................................F-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.......................................................................................................................................................................... XMT....... Word after..................................................................... Emergency command precedence..... WB ........................................................................ TO .................................Action on the message or signal which follows is to be carried out upon receipt of execute..... WA ............................................................ INFO .. Action addressee......Interrogative................................ Numerals or numbers follow.............Verify with originator and repeat................................ Word before.. Y.................................................... INT. ........................ Exempt................................................................................... Priority precedence........Routine precedence.Flash precedence....................................3B IMI ..................................... K......... P ...............................................................The address designations immediately following are addressed for information only... Z ................................................... T ............. Immediate precedence.................. Relay to..............................This is the end of my transmission to you and a response is necessary............... R................... Repeat............................................................................................. IX ...................................................................................... O.............................................

To assign precedence and classification use table on the next page. 2. . Draft the message in brief but clear terms. check appropriate block. Classify cover in accordance with contents (see fig. 7. 4. Use BLOCK CAPITAL letters for all entries except the signature. Place the protector insert under the message blanks to limit the number of copies produced. secure voice or in the clear. Message drafters are responsible for all message drafting functions to include the use of brevity codes. 9. 5. 8. Retain one copy in the book as a file copy. Show organization(s) for whom the message is intended in the TO block. G-1). If a classified message is to be transmitted. Use necessary punctuation. Show organization originating message in FM (from) block. 6. Block labeled date-time group is for communication personnel only. 3.Appendix G Instructions for Preparing Field Messages 1.

C LASS BT X TO R SEN D SEC U R E VO IC E SEN D C LEAR R ELEASIN G O FFIC ER ’S SIG N ATU R E TO D Figure G-1. TO : BT D TG FM : IN FO .3B PRECEDENC E TABLE ZOPRFLASH IM M ED IATE PR IO R ITY R O U TIN E SECURITY CLASSIFICATIO N TABLE TO PS EC SEC R ET CONF U N C LA S TO P SEC R ET SEC R ET C O N FID EN TIAL U N C LA S S IFIE D PR O TEC TO R IN SERT Place this under the last copy of each m essage w ritten. . SAM PLE M ESSAG E PR EC .G-2 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Sample Message.

Appendix H Radio Log Radio Circuit Log (Marine Corps) Circuit Bn TAC Net ID/Frequency 556 Operator PFC Jones. A Supervisor Sgt. J ( Station Call A2C Net Control Station X4L Net Call Sign S5F Page 01 of 10 Other stations J4Z M2P Date 6 OCT 99 Time 0800Z 0801 Call Assumed watch B6D DE A2C A2C DE B30 A2C DE D5F B3D C3E D5F DE A2C A2C DE B3D B3D DE A2C A2C DE B3D B3D DE A2C B6D DE A2C C4E DE D5F DE E DE F K K K AR Transmission End OVER 0804 0808 OUT K K P 23140OZ SEP 99 C Files AR Abbreviated Calls Authorized AR K K MSG 0 231414Z SEP 99 FM D5F3 TO C4E3 BT Classified (Use Actual Classification) Report to CAR Dealer at 1000 Today for Liaison BT OVER 0810 0812 0815 OUT OUT OVER K (reverse blank) . Smith.

37 .937 0.9144 1.” 1 1 1 1 1 1 millimeter (mm) = 0. This is 3.3937 3.Appendix I Metric System Conversion Table The basic unit of the metric system is the meter (m).37 inches long. Units that are multiples or fractional parts of the meter are designated by prefixes to the word “meter.3048 0.328 39.001 meter or 1/1000 meter centimeter (cm)= 0. The meter is 39.01 meter or 1/100 meter decimeter (dm) = 0.609 0.54 0.1 meter of 1/10 meter decameter (dkm) = 10 meters hectometer (hm) = 100 meters kilometer (km) = 1000 meters The Metric Measurement in Most Common Use 10 10 10 1000 To Convert Length Multiply by millimeters = 1 centimeter centimeters = 1 decimeter decimeters = 1 meter meters = 1 kilometer Inches to centimeters Feet to meters Yards to meters Miles to kilometers Millimeters to inches Centimeters to inches Decimeters to inches Decimeters to feet Meters to inches 2.37 inches longer than the English yard.03937 0.

1 3281 1093.72 meters 3.290 feet To change 50 yards to meters: 50 x 0.62 .3B Meters to feet Meters to yards Decameters to feet Hectometers to feet Kilometers to feet Kilometers to yards Kilometers to miles Examples: To change 90 kilometers to miles: 90 x .62 = 55.6 0.0936 32.28 1.8 miles To change 90 kilometers to feet: 90 x 3281 = 295.9144 = 45.8 328.I-2 ________________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.

If a special or emergency requirement arises. or if an unusual delay occurs between challenge and reply. Besides validating the authenticity of the calling station. whereas transmission authentication does not. he must invite a challenge by stating that he is prepared to authenticate. When a caller desires authentication. The only authentication systems authorized are those approved for use by the National Security Agency. Note: In challenge and reply authentication. if a standby is requested. Challenge and Reply Authentication Challenge and reply authentication will be used whenever possible. . INSTRUCTIONS There are two methods of authentication that are authorized for use: challenge and reply authentication and transmission authentication.Appendix J Authentication Authentication systems are provided to prevent unauthorized enemy stations from entering friendly radio nets to disrupt or confuse operations. The called party will always make the first challenge. only the station responding is verified. The party making the call may counterchallenge the called party using a different challenge. notify the CIS officer (G-6/S-6). this practice prevents an enemy operator from entering a net to obtain correct authentication responses for use in another net. Do not accept a challenge as an authentication. Another challenge should be made if an incorrect reply is received. The operational distinction is that challenge and reply requires two-way communications.

misreading the table. etc.3B Users will occasionally misauthenticate because of such problems as having the wrong system.J-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Sample AKAC-874 Transmission Authentication. Never give the challenge and reply in the same transmission (self authentication). 18 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 SD FG VF HD RD BJ JH TY DR JH SD MJ BN 19 IU KG DY ML NB FR SP OL IJ TL WM AP PC 20 PY AG KU DT MG SR PO RM AO KY SR GH FI 21 UT RG JM SC GR EF QS OL MJ BG DE FD KI 22 JG YR RW DA LJ MB VX FS HD UY GC JG RW 23 LJ HF FS SA QW TP KU DR RT NY TR OU TM . Transmission Authentication Transmission authentication is used to validate the authenticity of the message when it is impossible or impractical to use challenge and reply authentication (see table J-1). For Instructional Purposes Only Table J-1. The challenging station should attempt to pinpoint the difficulty and then rechallenge.

When transmitting to a station that is under radio listening silence.. When transmitting operating instructions that affect the military situation. or requiring a station to break an imposed silence. For detailed authentication instructions refer to the automated communications-electronics operations instructions. directing establishment of a special communication guard.g.. listening silence. directing relocation of units. changing frequency other than normal scheduled changes. e. closing down a station or watch. when contacting a station following one or more unsuccessful attempts to contact that station. When making initial radio contact or resuming contact after prolonged interruptions. because of no response by the called station to send a message in the blind (transmission authentication). e. When directing radio silence.g. etc. When transmitting contact and amplifying reports in plain language.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ J-3 WHEN TO AUTHENTICATE Transmission should be authenticated— l l l l l l l l l l When any station suspects imitative deception on any circuit. requesting artillery fire support. When authorized to transmit a classified message in the clear. When forced. When transmitting a plain language cancellation. This is not to be interpreted as requiring stations to break an imposed silence for the sole purpose of authenticating. (reverse blank) . Note: Authentication is not required when making initial contact after a scheduled call sign and frequency change since only bona fide stations will know their assigned call sign and frequency for the time period in use. When any station is challenged or requested to authenticate.

The dots and dashes used for a letter are spaced from each other by a period of time equal in length to one dot. Figures 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Figure K-1. the numerals from 0 to 9. Letters are spaced from each other by a period of time equal to three dots. a. Morse Code. The dash is 3 times the length of the dot.Appendix K International Morse Code Dots and dashes are used in various distinctive combinations to represent the letters of the alphabet. Letters A B C D E F G H I b. (reverse blank) . Words are spaced by a period of time equal to seven dots. The dots and dashes of the Morse Code are produced by keying a transmitter and causing it to transmit short and long signals. and the prosigns (see fig K-1).

as well as HF propagation prediction. SPEED is computer software that allows communications system planners to do rapid analysis of radio signal propagation. A compilation of frequency predictions are held in the G-6 offices of the major subordinate commands within the Marine Corps. The two available resources for Marines to predict the best frequency to propagate over a given path are to use the Joint Spectrum Center (JSC) or the Marine Corps’ system planning.Appendix L Frequency Prediction Means Radio signals propagate from a transmitter to a receiver in different ways depending on the selected frequency of the radio. The second method is SPEED. The SPEED comes with electronic maps of the Earth which allow true line of sight data for the planners. See figure L-1 on page L-2. SPEED is available down to the battalion level. Once a quarter. Maryland. JSC can perform a variety of propagation predictions on all ranges of frequencies. JSC is a Department of Defense agency that is responsible for supplying the electromagnetic analysis to the uniformed services. and evaluation device (SPEED). Located in Annapolis. engineering. . JSC publishes a list of HF frequency predictions for selected paths that the Marine Corps has requested.

R AD AR S.. SPEED. R AD IO S. SEN SO R S PLR S R AD IO PATH PR O FILIN G SIN C G AR S AR EA C O VER AG E AN D R EFER EN C E U N IT PLAC EM EN T FR EQ U EN C Y H O PSET G EN ER ATIO N TR I-TAC SW ITC H IN G AN D M U LITIC H AN N EL PR O G R AM M IN G Figure L-1. .L-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40..3B SPE ED SU PPO R TS.

The GPS consists of a space segment (satellite). continuous system) gives users highly accurate navigation. As a passive. GPS (by being an all-weather. M-1 on page M-2. or deserts. all-weather precise position. then PLRS will automatically enable any user unit to serve as an automatic relay. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM Global positioning system is a space-based navigation system designed to provide 24-hour continuous worldwide. three-dimensional position or location velocity. GPS can be employed at the individual level in such nondescript terrain as jungles.by 47kilometer operating area. jam-resistant. signal and message processors. As the master station records the arrival time of the signal bursts from each user unit at given locations. mountain ranges. (See fig. and user input and output devices configured as master stations and basic units that provide the user of the system with position navigation information and limited digital communications. and user segment (GPS receivers).Appendix M Position and Navigation Systems Global positioning system (GPS) and position location reporting system (PLRS) are new systems that radio operators may be required to operate. PLRS works by the individual units in the network time sharing a single frequency band. This operating area can be extended to a 300by 300-kilometer area through the use of airborne relays provided by PLRS-equipped aircraft. If units are beyond line of sight for the master station. and time information. worldwide. and time measurement. . The GPS receiver receives the signals transmitted by the satellites and computes the users position. control segment (monitors stations on Earth).) POSITION LOCATION REPORTING SYSTEM PLRS is a system of UHF radios. The system operates by satellites sending out two signals on nonchanging frequencies. receive-only system. The full PLRS performance can be provided over a 47. the range between sender and receiver can be computed.

ENHANCED POSITION REPORTING SYSTEM Enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS) shares many characteristics with PLRS. . though data throughput is reduced. but provides a significant increase in data communications capability over PLRS. G PS R EC EIVER M EASU R ES TR AN SIT TIM E O F EAC H SIG N AL AN D C O M PU TES U SER PO SITIO N AN D D ESIR ED N AVIG ATIO N D ATA . when fielded in FY-00. Various data rates supporting a variety of broadcast and point-to-point modes are currently available. Figure M-1.3B W H EN TH E G PS IS C O M PLETELY IN STALLE D .M-2 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. EPLRS will provide a dedicated data communications capability between regiment and battalion tactical data networks (TDNs) within the ground combat element. This network will also be extended to lower echelons throughout the MAGTF. AT LEAST FO U R SATELLITE S W ILL ALWAYS BE IN VIEW W O R LD W ID E AN D W ILL C O N TIN U O U SLY TR AN SM IT TH EIR PO SITIO N AN D TIM E O F TR AN SM ISSIO N . Global Positioning System. EPLRS can also serve as a source for automated friendly position location information and navigation information in a hybrid community with PLRS.

EPLRS Concept of Employment.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ M-3 D IV R EG R EG R EG Bn Co Bn Bn Co Co Plt Plt Plt A N /M R C -1 4 2 LOS M UX EPLRS S IN C G A R S S IP Figure M-2. (reverse blank) .

00 4.50 225 ft 6 in 180 ft 4 3/4 in 150 ft 4 in 128 ft 10 1/4 in 112 ft 9 in 100 ft 2 2/3 in 90 ft 2 1/3 in 82 ft 75 ft 2 in 69 ft 4 2/3 in 64 ft 5 in 60 ft 1 2/3 in 56 ft 4 1/2 in 53 ft 3/4 in 50 ft 1 1/3 in 47 ft 5 2/3 in 112 ft 9 in 90 ft 2 1/3 in 75 ft 2 in 64 ft 5 in 56 ft 4 1/2 in 50 ft 11/3 in 45 ft 1 in 41 ft 37 ft 7 in 34 ft 8 1/3 in 32 ft 2 1/2 in 30 ft 1 in 28 ft 2 1/4 in 26 ft 6 1/8 in 25 ft 2/3 in 23 ft 8 3/4 in 56 ft 4 1/2 in 45 ft 1 in 37 ft 7 in 32 ft 2 in 28 ft 21/2 in 25 ft 2/3 in 22 ft 6 2/3 in 20 ft 6 in 18 ft 9 1/2 in 17 ft 4 in 16 ft 1 1/4 in 15 ft 1/3 in 14 ft 1 in 1.50 4.50 7.50 6.50 3.00 8.00 6.50 5.00 3.50 8.127 ft 6 in 901 ft 11 3/4 in 751 ft 8 in 644 ft 3 3/8 in 563 ft 9 in 501 ft 1 1/3 in 450 ft 11 3/4 in 410 ft 375 ft 10 in 346 ft 11 in 322 ft 1 3/4 in 300 ft 8 in 281 ft 10 1/2 in 13 ft 3 1/8 in 265 ft 3 1/2 in 12 ft 1/3 in 250 ft 6 2/3 in 11 ft 10 1/3 in 237 ft 4 3/8 in .50 9.00 2. 1/4 Wavelength 1/8 Wavelength 2 1/2 Wavelength (MHz) Frequency 1/2 Wavelength 2.00 9.00 5. Size of Antennas .Appendix N Size of Dipole and Inverted L Antennas ACCORDING TO WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENTS Size of dipole and inverted L antennas according to wavelength measurements (in feet and inches).00 7. Table N-1.

N-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.00 14.00 21.50 19.00 19.50 12.00 18.50 16.00 15.00 13.00 11.50 11.50 21.50 18.50 13.50 45 ft 1 in 42 ft 11 2/3 in 41 ft 39 ft 2 2/3 in 37 ft 7 in 36 ft 1 in 34 ft 8 1/3 in 33 ft 5 in 32 ft 2 1/2 in 31 ft 1 1/4 in 30 ft 1 in 29 ft 1 1/8 in 28 ft 2 1/4 in 27 ft 4 in 26 ft 6 1/3 in 25 ft 9 1/4 in 25 ft 2/3 in 24 ft 4 1/2 in 23 ft 8 3/4 in 23 ft 1 1/2 in 22 ft 6 1/2 in 22 ft 21 ft 5 3/4 in 20 ft 11 3/4 in 20 ft 6 in 20 ft 1/2 in 22 ft 6 2/3 in 21 ft 5 3/4 in 20 ft 6 in 19 ft 7 1/2 in 18 ft 9 1/2 in 18 ft 1/2 in 17 ft 4 in 16 ft 8 1/2 in 16 ft 1 1/4 in 15 ft 6 2/3 in 15 ft 1/3 in 14 ft 6 1/2 in 14 ft 1 1/8 in 13 ft 8 in 13 ft 3 1/8 in 12 ft 10 2/3 in 12 ft 6 1/3 in 12 ft 2 1/4 in 11 ft 10 3/8 in 11 ft 6 3/4 in 11 ft 3 1/4 in 11 ft 10 ft 8 1/8 in 10 ft 5 1/8 in 10 ft 3 in 10 ft 1/4 in 11 ft 1/4 in 10 ft 8 3/4 in 10 ft 3 in 9 ft 9 2/3 in 9 ft 4 3/4 in 9 ft 1/4 in 8 ft 8 in 8 ft 4 1/4 in 8 ft 2/3 in 7 ft 9 1/3 in 7 ft 6 1/4 in 7 ft 3 1/4 in 7 ft 1/2 in 6 ft 10 in 6 ft 7 1/2 in 6 ft 5 1/3 in 6 ft 3 1/8 in 6 ft 1 1/8 in 5 ft 11 1/4 in 5 ft 9 3/8 in 5 ft 7 2/8 in 5 ft 6 in 5 ft 4 3/8 in 5 ft 3 in 5 ft 1 1/2 in 5 ft 1/8 in 225 ft 6 in 214 ft 9 1/8 in 205 ft 196 ft 1 in 187 ft 11 in 180 ft 4 3/4 in 173 ft 5 1/2 in 167 ft 3/8 in 161 ft 3/4 in 155 ft 6 1/4 in 150 ft 4 in 145 ft 5 7/8 in 140 ft 11 1/4 in 136 ft 8 in 132 ft 7 3/4 in 128 ft 10 1/4 in 125 ft 3 1/2 in 121 ft 10 3/4 in 118 ft 8 1/8 in 115 ft 7 2/3 in 112 ft 9 in 110 ft 107 ft 4 1/2 in 104 ft 10 2/3 in 102 ft 6 in 100 ft 2 2/3 in . Size of Antennas (continued).00 12.00 17.00 22.50 15.50 20.00 20.00 16.3B Table N-1.50 17.00 10.50 14.50 22. 1/4 Wavelength 1/8 Wavelength 2 1/2 Wavelength (MHz) Frequency 1/2 Wavelength 10.

50 25.00 19 ft 7 1/3 in 19 ft 2 1/4 in 18 ft 9 1/2 in 18 ft 5 in 18 ft 1/2 in 17 ft 8 1/4 in 17 ft 4 1/8 in 17 ft 1/4 in 16 ft 8 3/8 in 16 ft 4 3/4 in 16 ft 1 1/4 in 15 ft 9 1/8 in 15 ft 6 2/3 in 15 ft 3 1/2 in 15 ft 3/8 in 5 ft 9 2/3 in 9 ft 7 1/8 in 9 ft 4 3/4 in 9 ft 2 3/8 in 9 ft 1/4 in 8 ft 10 1/8 in 8 ft 8 in 8 ft 6 1/8 in 8 ft 4 1/4 in 8 ft 2 3/8 in 8 ft 2/3 in 7 ft 11 in 7 ft 9 1/3 in 7 ft 7 3/4 in 7 ft 6 1/8 in 4 ft 10 1/8 in 4 ft 9 in 4 ft 8 3/8in 4 ft 7 1/4 in 4 ft 6 1/8 in 4 ft 5 in 4 ft 4 in 4 ft 3 in 4 ft 2 1/8 in 4 ft 1 1/8 in 4 ft 1/3 in 3 ft 11 1/2 in 3 ft 10 2/3 in 3 ft 10 in 3 ft 9 in 98 ft 1/2 in 95 ft 11 1/2 in 93 ft 11 1/2 in 92 ft 1/2 in 90 ft 2 3/8 in 88 ft 5 1/8 in 85 ft 8 1/8 in 85 ft 1 1/8 in 83 ft 6 in 81 ft 11 1/8 in 80 ft 6 3/8 in 79 ft 1 1/2 in 77 ft 9 1/8 in 76 ft 5 1/4 in 75 ft 2 in (reverse blank) .50 27.50 26.50 28.00 29. Size of Antennas (continued).00 24.00 26.00 25.00 28.50 29.00 27.50 30.00 23.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ N-3 Table N-1.50 24. 1/4 Wavelength 1/8 Wavelength 2 1/2 Wavelength (MHz) Frequency 1/2 Wavelength 23.

Antenna Repair Antennas are sometimes broken or damaged. To restore the antenna to its original length. If possible. causing either a communications failure or poor communications. or when the whip is badly damaged. Clean the two antenna sections thoroughly to ensure good contact before connecting them to the pole support. When there is no spare. Wire Antennas Emergency repair of a wire antenna may involve the repair or replacement of the wire used as the antenna or transmission line. or. the repair or replacement of the assembly used to support the antenna. . Then. replace the damaged antenna.Appendix O Field Repair and Expedients Section I. when both parts of the broken whip are available and usable. REPAIR TECHNIQUES Whip Antennas When a whip antenna is broken into two sections. Use the method illustrated in figure O-1A. you may have to construct an emergency antenna. Use the method shown in figure O-1B when the portion of the whip that was broken off is lost. If a spare is available. The following paragraphs are suggestions on repairing antennas and antenna supports and on constructing and adjusting emergency antennas. add a piece of wire that is nearly the same length as the missing part of the whip. the portion of the antenna that is broken off can be connected to the portion attached to the base by joining the sections as shown in figure O-1 on page O-2. solder the connections. lash the pole support securely to both sections of the antenna.

or both. A substitute item may be used in place of a damaged support and. construct a new one. can be of any material of adequate strength. Less effective than plastic or glass but better than no insulators at all are wood and rope. solder the connection. the antenna can be repaired by reconnecting the broken wires.3B A PO LE O R BR AN C H C ABLE O R TAPE LASH IN G B C ABLE O R TAPE LASH IN G BR EAK PO LE O R BR AN C H (LEN G TH O F BR O KEN AN TEN N A) R EPLAC EM EN T FIELD W IR E Figure O-1.O-2 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. When one or more wires of an antenna are broken. The best of these items are plastic or glass. Whenever possible. clean the ends of the wires. bottle necks. if properly insulated. The radiating element—the actual antenna wire—should touch only the antenna terminal and be physically . Antenna supports may also require repair or replacement. and plastic bags. to include plastic spoons. lower the antenna to the ground. If the antenna is damaged beyond repair. To do this. Emergency Repair of Broken Whip. Make sure that the lengths of the wires of the substitute antenna are the same length as the original. and twist the wires together. If the radiating element is not properly insulated. field antennas may be shorted to ground and rendered ineffective. in that order. Many commonly found items can be used as field expedient insulators. buttons.

Improvised Insulators. manila rope. These lines are usually made of wire. or nylon rope. it can be lengthened by adding another piece of dry wood or cloth. it can be .Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ O-3 B EST PLASTIC BAG BO TTLE N EC K BU TTO N PLASTIC SPO O N GOOD W O O D (D R Y) FA IR N YLO N R O PE R U BBER O R C LO TH STR IP(D RY) N YLO N R O PE Figure O-2. If a rope breaks. it may be repaired by tying the two broken ends together. Guys Lines used to stabilize the supports for an antenna are called guys. If the rope is too short after the tie is made. other than the supporting insulator. If a guy wire breaks. separated from all other objects. Figure O-2 shows various emergency insulators.

O-4 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B replaced with another piece of wire. Figure O-3 shows a method of repairing a guy line with a spoon.

Figure O-3. Repaired Guy Lines and Masts.

Masts Some antennas are supported by masts. If a mast breaks, it can be replaced with one of same length. If long poles are not available as replacements, short poles may be overlapped and lashed together with rope or wire to provide a pole of the required length. Figure O-3 shows a method of making an emergency repair to masts.

Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ O-5 TIPS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND ADJUSTMENT Constructing the Antenna The best kinds of wire for antennas are copper and aluminum. In an emergency, however, use any type that is available. The length of most antennas is critical. The emergency antenna should be the same length as the antenna it replaces. Antennas supported by trees can usually survive heavy wind storms if the trunk of a tree or a strong branch is used as a support. To keep the antenna taut and to prevent it from breaking or stretching as the trees sway, attach a spring or old inner tube to one end of the antenna. Another technique is to pass a rope through a pulley or eyehook, attach the rope to the end of the antenna, and load the rope with a heavy weight to keep the antenna tightly drawn. Guys used to hold antenna supports are made of rope or wire. To ensure that the guys made of wire will not affect the operation of the antenna, cut the wire into several short lengths and connect the pieces with insulators. Adjusting the Antenna An improvised antenna may change the performance of a radio set. Use the following methods to determine if the antenna is operating properly. A distant station may be used to test the antenna. If the signal received from this station is strong, the antenna is operating satisfactorily. If the signal is weak, adjust the height and length of the antenna and the transmission line to receive the strongest signal at a given setting on the volume control of the receiver. This is the best method of tuning an antenna when transmission is dangerous or forbidden. In some radio sets, the transmitter is used to adjust the antenna. First, set the controls of the transmitter in the proper position for normal operation; then, tune the system by adjusting the antenna height, the antenna

O-6 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B length, and the transmission line length to obtain the best transmission output. Impedance-matching a load to its source is an important consideration in transmissions’ systems. If the load and source are mismatched, part of the power is reflected back along the transmission line towards the source. This reflection not only prevents maximum power transfer, but can also be responsible for erroneous measurements of other parameters, or even cause circuit damage in high-power applications. The power reflected from the load interferes with the incident (i.e., forward) power, causing standing waves of voltages and current to exist along the line. The ratio of standing-wave maxima to minima is directly related to the impedance mismatch of the load; therefore the standingwave ratio (SWR) provides the means of determining impedance and mismatch.
WARNING SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH CAN RESULT FROM CONTACT WITH THE RADIATING ANTENNA OF A MEDIUM- OR HIGH-POWER TRANSMITTER. TURN THE TRANSMITTER OFF WHILE MAKING ADJUSTMENTS TO THE ANTENNA.

A vertical antenna can be improvised by using a metal pipe or rod of the correct length.e. A vertical antenna may also be a wire. . O-4). Field Substitutes for Support of Vertical Wire Antennas. Most manpack portable radios use a vertical whip antenna. HIGH FREQUENCY. The SINCGARS radio operates in both single-channel and frequency hopping modes. they transmit and receive equally well in all directions. field expedient VHF antennas should not be used.. i. held erect by means of guys. Field Expedient Antennas SINCGARS VHF radios provide the primary means of communications for Marine Corps forces around the world. CIS personnel should only use the whip antenna or the OE-254 antenna when operating in the frequency hopping mode. It is important for CIS personnel to remember that when using the SINCGARS radio in the frequency hopping mode.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ O-7 Section II. The lower end of the antenna should be insulated from the ground by placing it on insulating material. For short. FIELD EXPEDIENT OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS Vertical antennas are omnidirectional. supported by a tree or a wooden pole (see fig. vertical IN S U L ATO R IN S U L ATO R W O OD EN P O LE A N TE N N A W IR E IN S U L ATO R GROU ND S TA K E A N TE N N A W IR E GROU ND S TA K E Figure O-4.

If the length of the vertical mast is not long enough to support the wire upright. the pole may be used without guys (if properly supported at the base). End-Fed Half-Wave Antenna An emergency. O-5). then shorten it. Construct the antenna longer than necessary.3B antennas.O-8 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. End-Fed Half-Wave Antenna. end-fed half-wave antenna can be constructed from available materials such as field wire. Center-Fed Doublet Antenna The center-fed doublet is a half-wave antenna consisting of two. quarterwavelength sections on each side of the center. The ground terminal of the radio set should be connected to a good Earth ground for this antenna to function efficiently. . IN SU LATO R S W O O D EN M AST AN TEN N A W IR E GROUND STAKE Figure O-5. and wooden insulators. as required. rope. it may be necessary to modify the connection at the top of the antenna. The electrical length of this antenna is measured from the antenna terminal on the radio set to the far end of the antenna (see fig. Construction of an improvised doublet antenna for use with FM radios is shown in figure O-6. until best results are obtained.

therefore. Doublet antennas are directional broadside to their length. If the antenna is erected vertically. for example. A transmission line. the transmission line should be brought out horizontally from the antenna for a distance equal to at least one-half of the antenna’s length before it is dropped down to the radio set.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ O-9 IN SU LATO R S W O O D EN M AST Q U AR TER WAVE Q U AR TER WAVE G R O U N D STAKE Figure O-6. which makes the vertical doublet antenna essentially omnidirectional. These antennas can be rotated to any position to obtain the best performance. The length of a half-wave antenna may be computed by using the formula in Chapter 4. Cut the wires as closely as possible to the correct length because the length of the antenna wires is important. the antenna is mounted outside. is necessary as a connecting link. This is because the radiation pattern is doughnut shaped. In a vehicular installation. . Although it is possible to connect an antenna directly to a transmitter. a vertical antenna in figure O-7B on page O-10. Half-Wave Doublet Antenna. The horizontal doublet antenna is bidirectional. A transmission line is used for conducting electrical energy from one point to another. and it is used to transfer the output of a transmitter to an antenna. and the transmitter is inside the vehicle. A horizontal antenna of this type is shown in figure O-7A. the antenna generally is located some distance away. Center-fed half-wave FM antennas can be supported entirely by pieces of wood.

. This technique is used primarily with FM radios. The ends of this antenna are connected to a piece of dry wood. such as a bamboo pole. serves as the mast. Figure O-9 shows an improvised vertical half-wave antenna. Bent Bamboo Antenna. center-fed half-wave antenna is shown in figure O-8. or bundle of poles.O-10 _____________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. It is effective in heavily wooded 1 TU R N LO O P BAM BO O PO LES Q U AR TER WAVE Q U AR TER WAVE LASH IN G W IR E 1 TU R N LO O P Figure O-8.3B IN SU LATO R S Q U AR TER WAVE TR AN SM ISSIO N LIN E A H O R IZO N TALLY PO LAR IZED B VERTIC ALLY PO LAR IZED Figure O-7. Another pole. and the bend in the pole holds the antenna wire straight. A similar arrangement for a short. Center-Fed Half-Wave Antenna.

FIELD EXPEDIENT DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS The vertical half-rhombic antenna (fig. Improvised Vertical Half-Wave Antennas. O-11 on page O-12) are two field expedient. The top guy wire can be connected to a limb or passed over the limb and connected to the tree trunk or a stake.Radio Operator’s Handbook ____________________________ O-11 IN S ULATO R AN TE NN A W IR E G RO U ND STA KE IN S ULATO R IN S ULATO R AN TE NN A W IR E IN S ULATO R G RO U ND STA KE Figure O-9. . O-10 on page O-12) and the long-wire antenna (fig. areas to increase the range of portable radios. HIGH FREQUENCY.

Long-Wire Antenna. directional antennas. such as a number of ground rods or a counterpoise. preferably two or more wavelengths long. The far end of the wire is connected to ground through a noninductive resistor of 500 to 600 ohms. R ESISTO R Figure O-11. Use a resistor rated at least one-half the wattage output of the transmitter to ensure the resistor is not burned out by the output power of the transmitter. Vertical Half-Rhombic Antenna. These antennas consist of a single wire. supported on poles at a height of 3 to 7 meters (10 to 20 feet) above the ground.O-12 _____________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. The antennas will.3B R ESISTO R Figure O-10. should be used at both ends of the antenna. however. A reasonably good ground. . The radiation pattern is directional. operate satisfactorily as low as 1 meter (approximately 3 feet) above the ground. The antennas are used primarily for either transmitting or receiving high frequency signals.

add noninductive terminating resistors from the end of each leg (not at the apex) to ground. O-13 on page O-14]). To make construction easier. IN SU LATO R S 10’ 10’ 10’ Figure O-12. To make the antenna radiate in only one direction. .Radio Operator’s Handbook ____________________________ O-13 The Vee antenna is another field expedient. the legs may slope downward from the apex of the Vee (this is called a sloping Vee antenna [see fig. O-12). Vee Antenna. It consists of two wires forming a Vee with the open area of the Vee pointing toward the desired direction of transmission or reception (see fig. directional antenna. The angle between the legs varies with the length of the legs in order to achieve maximum performance. When the antenna is used with more than one frequency or wavelength. use an apex angle that is midway between the extreme angles determined by the chart.

The antenna must be fed by a balanced transmission line. the antenna radiates bidirectionally. both front and back. The resistors should be approximately 500 ohms and have a power rating at least one-half that of the output power of the transmitter being used. Without the resistors. Sloping Vee Antennas.O-14 _____________________________________________ MCRP 3-40.3B R ESISTO R S IN SU LATO R S R ESISTO R IN SU LATO R Figure O-13. .

Antenna Length (Wavelength) 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 Optimum Apex Angle (Degrees) 90 70 58 50 40 35 33 (reverse blank) . Leg Length for Vee Antennas.Radio Operator’s Handbook ____________________________ O-15 Use table O-1 to determine the angle and the length of the legs. Table O-1.

Appendix P Radio Operator’s Checklist Before you operate any radio set. Use the operational checklist and the equipment performance checklist to determine what to do to remedy any problems encountered during starting procedures and operation. Check the Set for Completeness Make sure that all the necessary components and accessories are on hand and ready for use. For example. Switches. and controls that are loose on their shafts. bind when being operated. Make corrections where possible or report the faulty . get the appropriate equipment technical manual (TM) and carefully study the operating instructions. dials. The following steps are generally required in operating a radio set. Never operate the transmitter without the antenna attached. Make sure that the proper cables are connected to the proper panel connectors. won’t operate. or are damaged in any other way. and Controls Look for knobs. STEPS IN OPERATING RADIO SETS Radio sets issued to a unit vary in type according to the communications requirements of the unit. Inspect the Condition of the Knobs. Refer to the panel diagrams. connections diagrams. some sets may be completely contained in one assembly. switches. and the paragraphs covering the description of components during the preliminary starting procedure. Refer to the equipment basic issue items list in the TM. and that the controls are correctly set. Even the most experienced operators should check their preliminary procedures against the TM references from time to time to insure accuracy and avoid damaging the equipment. Dials. while others may consist of separate components that must be properly connected to assemble a complete radio set.

Make Sure of Dial. dials. Make sure that all knobs and exterior parts are on the set.3B condition to the CIS officer or CIS chief. it is described in the manual. and Control Settings Some radio sets can be seriously damaged if the switches. Check the Connections Diagrams The connections diagrams in the equipment TM show the type and number of cables required to interconnect the components of the radio set for each type of operation. The radio set may be damaged if cables are connected to the wrong receptacles. If there is a specific sequence for starting the set. in some cases. Switch. Receptacles. If the connectors don’t match. Follow the Starting Procedure The equipment TM covers. Check the Condition of Plugs. Immediately report any that are missing. and controls are not set to the required initial settings before applying power or making the initial timing adjustments. the proper procedure for starting the radio set. Be sure radios installed in vehicles are turned off before starting the vehicle’s engine to avoid damage to radio equipment. in detail. it may cause serious electrical damage to the equipment and. and Connectors Do not attempt to connect the set for operation until you are sure that the plugs and connectors are clean and in good condition. Before applying power. check the equipment TM to be sure you performed all preliminary starting procedures. Perform the operations in the proper sequence. . and the receptacles to which they must be connected are also clean and in good condition.P-2 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. it is possible to physically damage the pins or sleeves of the connector. injury to the operator. If a cable is connected to a receptacle into which it fits but does not belong.

Check the Set for Normal Operation While the set is in operation. Proceed to shut down the components of the set in the sequence specified in the equipment manual. Allow the Set to Warm Up Radio sets usually require a warm-up period when first applying power in order to stabilize the equipment. Most sets are protected against such damage. switches. Simple radios may require nothing more than turning the power . Make sure that the condition of the set and the action taken are properly recorded on the maintenance records. Use the Proper Procedure to Turn Off the Set After operation (or if the set is being turned off because of improper operation) make sure that the controls. If anything unusual occurs during operation. but it is foolish to risk damage to a radio set by trying to put it on the air before it is ready. report the condition to the unit electronics maintenance shop. check the indicators frequently to be sure that the set is operating correctly. Tune to the Desired Frequency (Channel) Tune the transmitter to the frequency of the desired channel according to the procedures in the equipment TM.Radio Operator’s Handbook ______________________________ P-3 Apply Power After the proper connections are made. investigate it immediately. Use the methods that are given in the TM to check for correct tuning. turn off the power to the set and refer to the operational checklist and the equipment performance checklist in the equipment manual. When necessary. In some cases. it is possible to damage a set by attempting to operate a set without allowing a warm-up period. power may be applied to the set. If the corrections given in the operational checklist and the equipment performance checklist will not correct the trouble. and all switches are properly set. and dials are properly set (this may not be required on some radios).

Poor choice of location (siting) at one or both ends of the circuit. speak slowly and distinctly. To avoid problems. Lack of communications or poor communications may be caused by— l l l l l l l l l Too great a distance between radio sets. Speak directly into the microphone. Make sure that the vehicle’s battery voltage (if radio set is vehicularmounted) is within the correct range. . rather than a loudspeaker.3B switch to its OFF position. observe the following precautions at all times: l l l Study the TMs for the equipment you are using.P-4 _______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. Terrain—hills or mountains. Operating Hints Use a handset or headset. Handle your radio set carefully. Make sure that the microphone or handset is in good condition. Improper frequency assignment. to improve reception. Noise and interference. Improper adjustment of equipment. Poorly maintained equipment and improper operation can be just as effective in preventing communications as excessive distance or mountainous terrain. Keep the engine running to charge the battery. Defective equipment. if necessary. Not enough transmitter power. Ineffective antenna. if the incoming signal is weak. but more complex sets may require elaborate shutdown procedures. Keep your radio set clean and dry. They provide complete operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Move the set or the vehicle.

................... alternating current AF .......... dekameter DMS.......................... communications intelligence COMSEC .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Acronyms AC ........................................circular error of probability CIS ....demand assigned multiple access db .....................................................digital message system ........ computers.................................................................. communications-electronics operating instruction CEP ............................................................................ Central Standard Time DACT.. decibel DC ...........................................Appendix Q Glossary Section I...................... control................................................... Central Daylight Time CEOI......................................................................communications and information systems cm..... direct current DCT .................................. communications.decimeter dkm .................................................. advanced systems improvement program bps ..........................audio frequency AM ... as soon as possible ASIP....... continental United States COTS .................................... communications security CONUS ..... amplitude modulation ASAP ..............................digital communications terminal dm ...................bits per second C4I ............... command...............................................................................................................................................................centimeter COMINT....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... data automated communications terminal DAMA .............................................................commercial off-the-shelf equipment CST ............................................. and intelligence CDT ......................................

....................................... Fleet Marine Force FMFM ....................... frequency modulation FMF ..............................................................................................................................................essential elements of friendly information EMCON .... forward air controller FLOT .................................................................... infrared JC2WC................................................................................................................................................................................................ enhanced position location reporting system ES.................................... imitative electromagnetic deception IR ..................... date-time group EA ..electronic protection EPLRS ...................................................................................... kilowatt ................................................Q-2 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40..................................................3B DTE............................hectometer ID ........ kilometer kbps .................................. electronic attack EDT......... Eastern Standard Time EW ...........gigahertz GPS ...................................electromagnetic pulse EP..............................................................data terminal equipment DTG ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Joint Command and Control Warfare Center JSC ................ identification IED..............................kilobytes per second kW......................................................................................................................................................................electronic warfare support EST .................................................. Eastern Daylight Time EEFI .................................................................... kilohertz km ..................................................... emission control EMP ..................................................................................................................................................... global positioning system HF ..................................................................hertz hm .............................................................................................. high frequency Hz.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................forward line of own troops FM...................................................................electronic warfare FAC . Fleet Marine Force manual GHz ....................................................................Joint Spectrum Center KHz ................

.........................................................net control station NVIS ............maritime prepositioning force MST .................................... biological............................... Pacific Daylight Time PLRS .....................................................................................Marine Corps reference publication MCWP ............................................................................ lower side band LUF ................................................................................................................. megahertz mi ............................................................................................................. Mountain Standard Time MUF.................................................................................................................................... meaconing........................................nuclear.......................................................... Marine air-ground task force MCRP ............... remote control unit RDF.......................................................................................................... ........... Marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable) MFP ........................ near vertical incidence skywave ohm ........................................................................................... procedure word PDT ........................................................................... jamming... miles MIJI..............satellite communications .............Mountain Daylight Time MEU(SOC) ..................................................................... radio frequency interference SAA ................................ lowest usable frequency m .................................... millimeter MPF ..................... over the horizon prosign ..................................................................... radio frequency RFI ........................................................................................................................ Pacific Standard Time RCU ..............radio direction finder RF................................................................................................................................................................................... a unit of electrical resistance (named for Georg Ohm) OTH . interference mm ................................... position location reporting system PST.................................................................................................... meter MAGTF ........................................... multiplex NBC .............. intrusion.............................satellite access authorization SATCOM ................................ moisture fungusproofing paint MHz .......................................... precedure sign proword ................................................. line of sight LSB ...maximum usable frequency MUX .........................................................................................................................Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ Q-3 LOS .................................... and chemical NCS............................................................................................................................Marine Corps warfighting publication MDT........

............................................................................................................................ super-high frequency SID .............................. single-channel ground and airborne radio system SIP....................tactical satellite TAMCN ...................................... standing operating procedure SPEED ..............standing-wave ratio TACSAT.................................................................................. universal transverse mercator UV................................................... engineering........................................ an unclassified name referring to the means used to ensure computer security TM ....... Coordinated Universal Time UTM...........Q-4 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40............................................................................................................. ultraviolet VHF ........ time of day TRANSEC ................................................ and evaluation device SSB ............................. switched backbone SCR .....whip loading coil WWA ............................................................................................................................................................................................................small computer systems interfaces SHF ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... systems improvement program SOP .... table of authorized materiel control number TCIM ........................................................................................... whip-base adapter WLC................single side band SWR..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................transmission security TWA........................................................................................................................................ technical manual TOD ...............................................whip to wire adapter yd ......................3B SBB ..........system planning.................................................................................................................... tilt whip adaptor UHF .. upper side band UTC ........ ultrahigh frequency USB............. tactical data network TEMPEST............................................................................................ very high frequency WBA ... yard .............................................. sudden ionospheric disturbance SINCGARS..................... single channel radio SCSI ...tactical communications interface module TDN ...........................................................

A continuously variable signal which conveys information by the change of the value or magnitude of the signal. For a receiving antenna. brevity code. The more directional an antenna is. authentication. the band of frequencies occupied by the signal before it modulates the carrier (or subcarrier) frequency to form the transmitted or radio signal. or originator. black. Modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied above and below its normal value in accordance with the intelligence of the signal being transmitted.Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ Q-5 Section II. A code which provides no security but which has as its sole purpose the shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their content. message. antenna gain. phase. or duration. Definitions A amplitude modulation (AM). . The effectiveness of a directional antenna as compared to a standard nondirection antenna. The black designation is applied to all wire lines and equipment within a terminal or switching facility which handle encrypted traffic. the higher is its gain. the ratio of signal power values produced at the receiver input terminals is used. In a carrier (or subcarrier) wire or radio transmission system. The signal can change in either amplitude. analog. B baseband. frequency. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmissions or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission. It is usually expressed as the ratio in decibels of standard antenna input power to directional antenna input power that will produce the same field strength in the desired direction.

input-output signals from various subscriber terminals thereby being crypto graphically processed at these points. an activity. used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications. or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value which might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications. C call sign. application of that science by means other than cryptanalysis. an authority. An application of on-line cryptographic operations where the encryption and decryption process is performed at designated points of technical interface within a communications system. when combined with the sidebands of a suppressed carrier transmission and a suitable detector. The highest frequency at which a given wave at any given time will. two or more channels processed simultaneously by one crypto security device. a command. if transmitted vertically. recurring series of pulses. be refracted back to earth by a layer of the ionosphere. or any other wave. or direct current capable of being modulated. cryptography..Q-6 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. transmission security. and reconverting unintelligible texts into intelligible language. communications security (COMSEC). (1) The radio wave produced by a transmitter when there is no modulating signal.e. critical frequency. . i. or a unit. emission security. Communications security includes cryptosecurity. and physical security of communications security materials and information. The operation is performed in bulk. produces the modulating wave. Any combination of characters or pronounceable words which identifies a communication facility. (2) A wave generated locally at a receiver that. carrier.3B bulk encryption. The art or science which pertains to the various means and methods for rendering plain text unintelligible. Also called carrier wave.

E electromagnetic radiation. (Expressed as six digits followed by the zone suffix. except for the transmission of urgent messages. A change of three decibels is the change in power level of a pure sine wave that is just barely detectable by the human ear. third pair the minutes. concepts. date-time group (DTG). such as the presence or absence of a voltage. usually two. directed net. or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication. A unit used to express the magnitude of a change in signal or sound level. The difference in decibels between two signals is 10 times the common logarithm of their ratio of powers or 20 times the common logarithm of their ratio of voltages or currents. second pair the hours. The three major subdivisions within electronic . the message was prepared for transmission. One decibel is one-tenth of a bel. expressed in digits and zone suffix. Any military action involving the use of electromagnetic and directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum or to attack the enemy. first pair of digits denotes the date. The date and time. without first obtaining the permission of the net control station. A net in which no station other than the net control station can communicate with any other station. Any representations such as characters or analog quantities to which meaning is or might be assigned.) decibel (dB).Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ Q-7 D data. digital. interpretation. A signal having discrete states. electronic warfare (EW). The signal is given meaning by assigning numerical values or other information to the various possible combinations of the discrete states of the signal. Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light. Representation of facts. or processing by humans or by automatic means.

3 MHz). MF (medium frequency): 300-3000 kHz (0.3-3 MHz). The number of complete cycles per unit of time for a periodic quantity such as alternating current. The amplitude or power of the FM carrier does not vary during modulation. megahertz. kilohertz. electronic protection. VLF (very low frequency): below 30 kHz (0.Q-8 ______________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. frequency.03-0. frequency spectrum designation. LF (low frequency): 30-300 kHz (0. Frequency hopping. A method of jumping from frequency to frequency in synchronization with one another in a random order at a rate of up to 100 times per second. A net in which any station may communicate with any other station in the same net without first obtaining permission from the net control station to do so. frequency band. frequency modulation (FM).000 MHz (3-30 GHz). A frequency modulation system is practically immune to atmospheric and man-made interference. sound waves. EHF (extremely high frequency): 30-300 GHz. SHF (super high frequency): 3000-30. HF (high frequency): 3-30 MHz. . VHF (very high frequency): 30-300 MHz. F free net. Frequency is expressed in hertz. A continuous range of frequencies extending between two limiting frequencies.3B warfare are: electronic attack. or vibrating objects. UHF (ultra high frequency): 300-3000 MHz.03 MHz). Frequency hopping is the preferred method of communication with SINCGARS radios. and electronic support measures. and gigahertz. Frequency modulation is the process of varying the frequency (rather than the amplitude) of the carrier signal in accordance with the variations of the modulating signals.

guard. H half-duplex—Refers to a mode of transmission in which communication between two terminals occurs in either direction. in the clear. The ground wave is refracted because of variations in the dielectric constant of the troposphere. It begins about 30 miles above the earth and extends above 250 miles. but in only one direction at a time. A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second. In plain text. I imitative communication deception (ICD).Radio Operator’s Handbook _____________________________ Q-9 G ground wave. The introduction of radiation into enemy systems which imitate the enemy’s emissions. hertz (Hz). A radio wave that is propagated over the earth and is ordinarily affected by the presence of the ground and the troposphere. This is the typical mode of operation for tactical single-channel radios. with the height depending on the season of year and the time of day. The chief layers of the ionosphere and their approximate heights are: D layer—30 to 60 miles E layer—60 to 90 miles F layer—90 to 250 miles . When cryptographic devices are not used to protect a transmitted signal. including the condition known as a surface duct. The ground wave includes all of the components of a radio wave over the earth except ionospheric and tropospheric waves. A complete log is to be kept. ionosphere. To maintain a continuous receiver watch with transmitter ready for immediate use. A region in the earth’s outer atmosphere where ions and electrons are present in quantities sufficient to affect the propagation of HF radio waves.

The straight unobstructed path between two points. a general term used to indicate the existence of communications facilities between two points. L line of sight (LOS). The deliberate radiation. A chronological record of station events. In communications. log. net control station.3B J jamming (electromagnetic). reradiation. This obstacle gain offsets some of the path losses normally expected. A communications station designated to control traffic and enforce circuit discipline within a given net. Also called NCS. A requirement to establish communications between two units or agencies. or reflection of electromagnetic energy for the purpose of preventing or reducing an enemy’s effective use of the electromagnetic spectrum. net (communications). and with the intent of degrading or neutralizing the enemy’s combat capability. . net call sign. The increase in signal strength obtained over a long radio communications path where a mountain obstacle or range of hills is located about halfway between transmitting and receiving antennas.Q-10 _____________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. O obstacle gain. link. A call sign which represents all stations within a net. N needline. An organization of stations capable of direct communications on a common channel or frequency.

A phenomenon by which any wave moves from one point to another. The form of modulation in which the modulating signal is sampled. reports. push to talk operation. and information related to communications. and the sample quantitized and coded so that each element or information consists of different kinds and/or numbers of pulses and spaces. P precedence. A form of pulse modulation in which intelligence is conveyed by varying the time interval by which successive pulses are displayed from their normal times of occurrence. procedure sign (prosign). or combination thereof. . Propagation. procedure word (proword). requests. One or more letters or characters. Three letter groups used as necessary in connections with operations or communications to convey orders. and information to facilitate communications. used to facilitate communications by conveying in a condensed standard form certain frequently used orders. pulse code modulation (PCM).Radio Operator’s Handbook ____________________________ Q-11 operating signals. instructions. pulse position modulation (PPM). A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed standard form. a designation assigned to a message by the originator to indicate to communications personnel the relative order of handling and to the addressee the order in which the message is to be noted. requests. instructions. In communications. Voice communications on a circuit in one direction at a time in which operation of a switch is required prior to and during transmission.

and/ or areas passing unencrypted signals. simplex. The useful range is from approximately 10 kilohertz to 100. A region.3B R radio frequency (RF). radio silence.000 megahertz. A radio wave that reaches the receiving location after refraction from the ionosphere. . S satellite communications. Use of communication satellites. joint or intra Service communications the frequency bands and/or types of equipment affected will be specified. passive reflecting belts of dipoles or needles.) red. skip distance. equipment. with or without amplification. Refers to a mode of operation in which communication between two terminals can take place in only one direction. sky wave. in relation to a given transmitter. either due to direct repetition or due to reflected waves. skip zone. (In combined or U. A frequency in which coherent electromagnetic radiation of energy is useful for communications purposes.Q-12 _____________________________________________ MCRP 3-40. in which no signal would be predicted. Designation applied to transmission lines. The minimum separation at which radio waves over a specified frequency can be transmitted at a specific time between two points on the earth by reflection from the regular ionized layers of the ionosphere.S. systems. A condition in which all or certain radio equipment capable of radiation is kept inoperative. or reflecting orbiting balloons to extend the range of radio communications by returning signals to earth from the orbiting objective.

traffic.Radio Operator’s Handbook ____________________________ Q-13 T tactical radio net. (reverse blank) . transducer. All transmitted and received messages. A device that transfers or changes one type of energy into another form. An example is a loudspeaker. which changes electrical energy into acoustic (mechanical) energy. A functional radio net used by a commander for immediate and direct control of the fire and maneuver or movement of his subordinate units. transceiver. A radio transmitter and receiver combined in one unit and having switching arrangements such as to permit use of one or more circuit components for both transmitting and receiving.

Appendix R References and Related Publications Joint Publication (Joint Pub) 1-02 Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms Marine Corps Doctrinal Publication (MCDP) 6 Command and Control Marine Corps Warfighting Publications (MCWPs) 6-2 6-22 MAGTF Command and Control Operations (under development) Communications and Information Systems Marine Corps Reference Publications (MCRPs) 6-22A TALK II-SINCGARS Multiservice Communications Procedures for the Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System Multiservice Procedures for Spectrum Management in a Joint Environment Antenna Handbook (under development) 6-22B 6-22D Army Field Manuals (FMs) 11-32 24-11 24-18 24-19 Combat Net Radio Operations Tactical Satellite Communications Tactical Single-Channel Radio Communications Techniques Radio Operator’s Handbook (reverse blank) .

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