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Fatigue stress analysis

William Nowak

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William J. Nowak

A Thesis Submitted in

Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree of

Mechanical Engineering

Approved by: Prof ---,."===7;=.,,.,.---

(Department Head)

Prof. ----.........,..,,,...,...- _

(External ExamfRer)

Prof. _

Prof. _



<l' May, 1978

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I would first like to thank the Rochester Institute of Technology, the

Department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty and Staff, and my
colleagues in the Wehle Research Laboratory. Without th~ir collective
support, encouragement and guidance to help keep me on track the last
several years, this thesis as well as the rest of my graduate studies
would never have been completed and my Masters Degree would not have
been possible.

I would next like to thank Rose and John Nowak, my Mom and Dad, who
were high school educated, hourly wage earners, and the children of
Ukrainian immigrants. My parents knew that to have opportunity in this
quickly changing world, a college degree was not an option for their
children but a necessity. I want to thank them for supporting me
financially as well as emotionally during my College life, and I
apologize in this written note for all the anxiety and heartache I
caused them during the past years. Their persistence paid off and I
can only hope that someday I have the honor of parenting children who
succeed in life the way I have up until now as a.result of their
foresight, kindness and hard work.

I would finally like to thank Dr. Neville F. Rieger, Gleason Professor,

thesis adviser, mentor and friend. Dr. Rieger first noticed me as a
struggling fifth year student in his Senior Design class. At that time,
my professional future was unclear and often I spent more time at
playing sports and socializing with my friends, then in the classroom
being attentive and focusing on what was between the pages of my
engineering textbooks. Dr. Rieger provided me with the means to
succeed in today's technical world by offering me a chance at pursuing
a graduate degree and creating me career opportunities as a result of
his mentorship and support. I will work every day in the future
silently thanking him for all he has done.

1. Introducti on 1
1.1 Nature of the Problem 1
1.2 Present Procedures 1
1.3 Overview of Analysis Method 4

2. Previous Literature 7
2.1 Introduction to Literature Survey 7
2.2 Early Turbine Blade Vibration Studies 7
2.3 Continuous System Analysis of Turbine Blade 9
2.4 Discrete System Analysis 18
2.5 Finite Element Analysis 23
2.6 Blade Group Analysis 30
2.7 Coupled Blade-Disk Analysis 36
2.8 Torsional Vibration Analysis 38
2.9 Fatigue Analysis 39
2.10 Summary: State of the Art 43

3. Finite Element Models Used for Steady State Analysis 47

3.1 Analysis Method for Centrifugal and Steady Stream 47
3.2 3D Single Blade Model - Model 1 48
3.3 3D Single Blade/Disk Root Model - Model 2 48
3.4 2D Single Blade/Disk Root Model - Model 3 49
3.5 Modified Blade and Corresponding Model Change 50

4. Finite Element Models Used for Dynamic Analysis 52

4.1 Analysis Method for Flow Excited Loading 52
4.2 Supere1ement and Critical Stress Elements 52
4.3 Blade Group Model 53
4.4 Natural Frequency and Forced Response Calculation 54
for Blade Group
4.5 Analysis Method for Generator Excited Loading 55
4.6 Turbine Generator Torsional Model 56
4.7 NatlJra1 Frequency Calculation for Turbine Generator 60
Torsional System
4.8 Transient Response Calculation for Turbine Generator 60
4.9 Model Changes for Modified Blade 61
5. Discussion of Steady State Results 62
5.1 Original Blade 62
5.2 Modified Blade 64
5.3 Verification of Steady State Results 65

6. Discussion of Dynamic Results 68

6.1 Original Single Blade Frequencies 68
6.2 Original Blade Group Frequencies and Mode Shapes 68
6.3 Mod,fied Blade Group Frequencies and Mode Shapes 69
6.4 Original Blade Group Forced Response Results 70
6.5 Modified Blade Group Forced Response Results 72
6.6 Turbine Generator Torsional Frequency Results- 73
Original Blade
6.7 Turbine Generator Torsional Frequency Results- 74
Modified Blade
6.8 Original Blade Group Transient Response Results 74
6.9 Modified Blade Group Transient Response Results 76
6.10 Verification of Dynamic Results 77

7. Fatigue Failure Analysis 80

7.1 Fatigue Analysis Procedures 80
7.2 Blade F~tigue Results 82
7.3 Assessment of Fatigue Hazard From Calculated 83
-Va 1ues

8. Conclusions 86

9. Recommendation 88

10. References 89

ll. Figures

12. Tables

1.1 Nature of the Problem

Turbine blades playa vital role in steam power plants and design against
failure of these components is necessary for reliable operation. The fail-
ure of such a component will, at a minimum cause a shutdown of a powerplant
from one to four weeks or longer, depending on the extent of the damage and
the procedure used to make the machine operational again. Each day of a
forced outage, a utility could lose hundreds of thousands of dollars in
electrical power.

A major cause of blade failure in lower temperature stages of a steam

turbine is fatigue. The combination of mean and alternating stresses, in
a turbine blade cover, tenon, vane, tie-wire, blade root and disk root,
cause a crack to initiate at some material flaw, and to'~ropogate until failure
occurs. Since all turbine blades experience some level of mean and alter-
nating stress, the precise calculation of both values are essential to
predicting the reliability of the blading components. Presen~ blade design
procedures have not incorporated methmis to accurately determi neb1ade stress
distributions. This is part of the reason turbine blades continue to fail.

1.2 Present Procedures

Conventional structural design of steam turbine blading involves the calcu-

lation of static stresses at high stress concentration areas throughout the
blade group under combined centrifugal and steam bending loading. The natural
frequencies of the blade group over the operating speed of the machine are
then calculated and the results are plotted on a Campbell diagram [6J.

The blade group design is then modified if coincidence between any integer
multiple of rotational speed and any of the first natural frequencies of the
blade group occurs. The principle involved is that non-resonant blades have
low dynamic stresses and therefore cannot fail by fatigue. This may not be
true if the mean stresses are high. The case may arise where a relatively
low dynamic stress may cause a blade to' fail by fatigue.

Present design-analysis procedures consider blade bending in two planes

and in torsion, usually about the centroid of the vane section. The root
section is considered to be rigidly built into the disk at the upper most
point of fixety and suitable root stiffness values, based on test data,
are used to account for blade/disk root flexibility. Practical blade group
tuning is frequently less precise than desired due to co~ponent tolerances
and assembly procedures. Consistent tuning to avoid resonance is difficult
to achieve for these reasons. To overcome this the blade designer has a
frequency band within which operational blade natural frequencies must remain
so as not-to cause high dynamic stress and possible failure. The problem
is dynamic stresses are not actually calculated, low though they might
be. If the mean stress is high enough, it could cause a fatigue failure even
though the blade was designed to be "resonance free. II

For cases where blade resonance is a stron~ possibility, as in marine turbines,

beam dynami c stress procedures for blade gropus have been developed. Dynam·j c
stresses calculated by this method may be evaluated against some fatigue
criterion. This method has been used in the design of high-pressure and inter-
mediate-pressure blading of large turbines. Until recently, the associated
input technology for nonsteady blade excitation, blade group damping, and
material fatigue properties has been very limited. With good excitation and
material properties, the dynamic stress method is the best procedure in
current use, but it still cannot directly account for structural tolerance
effects, three dimensional stress conditions, etc., except through the use of
design factors.

The shortcomings of present calculation procedures for high-output blading

may be summarized as follows:

1. Most computer programs are based on beam theory. Where the beam
theory assumptions are not met, e.g., non-slender bars, plain sections
do not remain plane in distortion, etc., the resulting stress
distributions can be seriously in error.
2. Stress concentration factors are used to estimate maximum stress
values. Maximum stress may vary significantly from predicted beam
stress values, due to 3D load distributions, and due to the effect
of assembly tolerances.
3. Dynamic stresses are usually not calculated. The blades are
tuned to avoid resonances.

4. No account is taken of excitation magnitude in tuned blade calculations.

Blade excitation spectra may contain both integer and non-integer har-
monics. Integer tuning only is practiced.
5. Test results show that blade group frequency scatter is commonly
between two percent and five percent. tuning is therefore
6. Present calculation methods for natural frequencies are accurate
to within approximately one percent, first mode; three percent,
second mode; five percent, third mode; and between five and fifteen
percent for higher modes. Where precise group tuning is required
(to within 10 Hz) blade development depends heavily on wheel box data.
7. Accurate transient stress calculations (from machine torsional
effects and partial admisson effects) are not possible because of
the lack of excitation data and a suitable calculation procedure to
apply this data to for transient results.
8. Present fatigue stress design procedures are elementary, primarily
due to lack of material test data. Multiple loading effects, actual
stress concentration effects, size effect, and-cycles to failure are
often inadequately represented. The problem of corrosion fatigue
is not yet fully understood and good design data is lacking.

Present detuning and stress procedures are considered to be inadequate

design techniques for future blading, for the above reasons. The design of
improved blading will require procedures which account for dynamic stresses
and material properties in a more practical and accurate manner. This calls
for improvements in the following areas.
1. Blade excitation data.
2. Material fatigue.
3. Stress calculation procedures.

The following proposed method for fatigue analysis of turbomachinery blading

will improve upon the above item 3. The procedure includes the effect of
blade exciting forces, blade group damping values. and incorporates a
.comprehensive material fatigue criterion based on relavant test data.
Three-dimensional stress distributions, occurring throughout the blade group

structure, are calculated for both steady loading and for dynamic loading.
The method is a stress-oriented approach. No blade de-tuning to avoid re-
sonance is necessary for the calculations. This approach represents a
more fundamental and comprehensive problem evaluation 'procedure since it
relates to the basic mechanism of blade failure-~-fatigue.

1.3 Overview of Proposed Analysis Method

Figure 37 shows the steps involved in a complete fatigue stress analysis

of a turbine blade group subject to centrifugal and steady steam bending
forces, in addition to non-steady stage flow and generator excitations.
Figure 38 shows a typical low pressure stage turbine blade which· has ex-
perienced fatigue failures in the upper notch region of the blade root
fastener. Figure 39 shows the development of a three-dimensional finite
element model consisting of the cover portion, the vane, the platform, the
blade root fastener and a portion of the disk root fastener. The model is
separated at the underside.of the platform so just to consider the cover,
vane and platform. Suitable boundary conditons are applied to this model
which is loaded by centrifugal and steady steam bending forces, yielding
steady stress values throughout the cover, tenon and vane regions.

Reaction forces from constrained nodes at the underside of the platform are
applied back to the three-dimensional model of the blade/disk root to obtain
steady stress distribution throughout the fastener region. Figure 43
shows a two-dimensional model of the blade/disk root region developed with a
much finer grid in notch fillet regions of the fastener to ensure proper
stress concentration representation. Reaction forces obtained from the
three-dimensional blade calculation are this time applied to a two-dimensional
slice of the fastener and a plain strain analysis is performed utilizing
non-linear gap elements to provide a friction interface between blade root
contact surfaces.

It would be most desirable to do the steady stress analysis in one step

and to use a fastener grid as fine as the two-dimensional grid in three
dimensions. However, due to economics and computer core size limitations,
the preceding method is used to provide good stress results with minimum
expenditures on an average size computer.
Undamped natural frequencies of the blade group are calculated as the
next step, to identify resonant frequencies, and hence to reduce the
number of dynamic stress calculations. A single blade and root model
used in the preceding calculation was prepared as a substructure with
suitable boundary conditions. This is then developed into a blade group
using automatic mesh generation for the remaining blades, Figure 44.
The number of natural frequencies is chosen in advance to minimize
calculation costs, and this is determined by the number of dynamic de-
grees of freedom (d.d.f.) prescribed for the model (Guyan reduction).
Sufficient d.drf. are needed to provide accurate mode and frequency data
in the regions of concern. Arbitrarily, (number d.d.f. needed) = 2 x
(highest mode number).

The blade group model developed for the natural frequency calculation is
also suitable for the forced response calculation when. excitation data and
damping data are supplied. The forced response calculation is performed
only at critical resonant frequencies identified in the natural frequency
calculations. Excitation values of suitable magnitude, direction (tangential,
axial) and phase distribution throughout the blade group are specified for
this calculation using typical water table test excitation data for this
blade and stage geometry. Nominal dynamic stresses in the upper notch re-
gion of the blade root are obtained and appropriate stress concentration
factors were applied. These values are plotted on a Goodman fatigue diagram
fora.typtcal turbine blade group under centrifugal and steady steam force,
and non-steady flow excitation.

Another source of dynamic stresses in turbine blade groups is due to.

electrical distunbances'in the generator of a turbine-generator system. Due
to terminal short circuits a system torsional transient is developed by an
electrical unbalance in the generator. If this transient coincides with
a coupled blade group/shaft system natural frequency a second mode of fatigue
failure can be encountered. Analysis of this type of fatigue problem is
slightly different from the preceding flow excitation fatigue analysis.

Figure 45 shows a typical turbine generator system with a single high

pressure and two low pressure turbines, coupled with a generator and
exciter. Th~s system was broken down into a finite element grid composed
of beam elements, mass and inertia elements and torsional spring elements

as represented in figure 46 through 49. From this model of the turbine

generator system an undamped natural frequency calculation is performed
from which the system torsional frequencies are calculated along with their
corresponding mode shapes. These are used to gain insight into the possibility
of blade failure.

To this model a typical terminal short circuit inbalance is applied to the

generator for a given amount of time and then removed. This will cause a
machine transient to build and then die out in the presence of damping.
Relative blade tip deflections from the model in figure 47 are then applied
to the blade group model developed in the preceding analysis (flow excited)
to determine the transient stress levels developed under this type of excita-
tion. These alternating stress values are then plotted on the Goodman
fatigue diagram, along with the steady stress values developed in the preceding
analysis, to complete the calculation sequence for a lo~pressure turbine
blade group under centrifugal and steady steam force, and torsional transient

The multi-purpose finite element code, ANSYS [144J, was used i'n most of the
calculations. It is a state-of-the-art finite element program with complete
static and dynamic, and linear and non-linear capabilities (see ref. 144).

The work described in this thesis is as follows:

1. Comprehensive review of other analysis procedures for turbine blades.

2. Presentation of a new procedure for fatigue analysis of turbine blades.

3. Demonstration of the procedure for a typical turbine blade configuration.

4. Application of present fatigue evaluation procedures to determine the

fatigue life of the turbine blade designs.

2.1 Introduction to Literature Survey

Since the 1920's, problems associated with turbine blading have been
studied by many analytical and test methods. Though many important advances
have been made, turbines continue to break down, very often due to blade
fatigue failure. As shown in recent surveys of the literature by Rao [lJ,
[2J and Rawtani [3J, fatigue problems are usually confined to natural
frequency calculations, and to the avoidance of per revolution harmonics of
turbine running speeds. Other work by Sohre [4J gives a review of the causes
and effects of turbine blade failure. Failure mechanisms are cited as
excessive steady and alternating stress, and environmental effects as
corrosion. A simple method is given to evaluate the stress level and to
compare it to allowable values of stress for a given material. Trumpler and
Owens [5J did work reviewing other failure problems, and applying statistical
analysis to blading load history.

The following sections include a review of most of the significant papers

in the field of turbomachinery blading. These papers establish a basis to
guide the blade analysis procedure described in this report so a successful
solution may be obtained for the fatigue analysis of turbine blades.

2.2 Early Turbine Blade Vibration Studies

In 1924, the need for analytical and experimental methods in turbine

blade design became evident in work published by Campbell [6J. In
previous work, Campbell [7J correlated axial disk vibration with operation
at critical speeds. After altering designs to avoid critical speeds
which had caused axial disk vibrations, some machines experiences further
blade failure in the tangential mode. Guidelines were developed to design
away from tangential resonance including the formulation of Campbell
diagram, which plotted blade natural frequencies on lines of per revolution
harmonics over the machine speed range. This type of diagram is shown
in figure 1 and is still in use today as a primary design criterion for
turbine blade vibration.

Early design practice and procedures were discussed by Allen [8]

for high, intermediate and low pressure turbomachinery blading. The
effort was qualitative in discussing material selection, manufacturing
procedures, likely causes of failure, damping'.,steady and non-steady
steam loading, centrifugal loading and stresses associated with these
applied loads, vibratory stresses and other practices and procedures.
Kroon [9] applied difference calculus to find the effect of lashing
wires and centrifugal force on steady stress levels and bending deflec-
tions in turbine blade groups. An important finding was root bending
moment increased, under steady steam (lateral) loading, as lashing wire
stiffness decreased. Other work by Kroon [10] dealt with turbine blade
vibration resulting from partial arc admission. An optical system for
viewing blade vibration in a rotating turbine disk was given and is
shown in figure 2 and the importance of damping i~turbine blade con-
structions was emphasized. However, only damping of blade material
(elastic hysteresis) was considered which partially contributes to over-
all blade construction damping. Nolan [11] emphasized that steam damping
was relatively small compared with material damping, -but damping asso-
ciated with friction contact surfaces (e.g., blade/disk root interfaces,
sliding tie wires, tenon/shroud assemblies, etc.) contributed signifi-
cantly to decreased vibratory amplitudes. Also discussed by Nolan [11]
were sources of blade excitation (e.g., variation in steam pressure,
lack of uniformity in nozzle or blades, partial-arc admission), tuning
of blade structures by use of a Campbell diagram [6] to avoid operation
at resonant frequencies, the necessity for dynamic blade testing as a
check on design frequencies, and fatigue testing of a comb~ned tensile
and alternating load to determine tolerable levels of centrifugal, steady
steam bending, and vibrating stress levels. The possibility of corrosion
fatigue was cited when applying factor of safety to blade design and
correct fillet proportionings was emphasized to avoid fatigue cracks in
an otherwise safe blade design.

In 1948,Smith [)..2] published work dealing with groups of identical turbine

blades rigidly fixed at the root and connected to one another by a
shroud at the tip. It was assumed that bending flexure of blades and

shroud was allowed but extension was not, and that vibration was
uncoupled and in the direction of the plane formed by the blading
(pure tangential motion). The equations of motion were developed
for n blades but the closed form solution was not included in this
version of the paper. Results were presented for a 6- and a 20-blade
group by plotting the frequency ratio vs the rigidity ratio as shown
in figure 3. This identifies the 1st and 2nd tangential bending
mode. It is evident from these results that blade vibration is much
more complex than single blade studies are capable of representing.
later work will elaborate on blade group calculations.

2.3 Continuous System Analysis of Turbine Blade Vibration

Formulated in Timoshenko and Young [13] is the differential equation

of transverse vibratory motion of continuous beams and is given below:

(2. 1 )

where E is the modulus of elasticity

I is the cross-sectional moment of inertia
y is the weight per unit volume
A is the cross-sectional area
g is the acceleration due to gravity

Assuming harmonic motion, a solution is obtained by applying displace-

ment, moment and shear conditions to the ends of the cantilever and the
following frequency equation results.

cosAl coshAl + 1 =0 (2.2)

where Al are the eigenvalues causing the equation to equal zero. Fre-
quencies, wn ' of the simple cantilever are given in cycles per unit time

as shown by the equation below.


No particular reference is made to turbine blades, however, the general

case of cantilever is developed with and without the effect of axial
loads (which imply centrifugal stiffening effect), and coupled bending-
torsion deflections (which is seen in taper-twisted turbine blades).
From these general cases for cantilever, extensive work associated with
turbine blade vibration has been completed using various configurations
of beams and plates, and a number of different solution methods have
been used.

Significant work was done by Barton [14J in 1950 when he applied the
Ritz method to obtain approximate solutions for frequ~ncie~ and mode
shapes of uniform andsk-.ew cantilever plates having 1/2,1,2 and
5 length/width ratios and 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° skew angles (e.g. in
plane skew, not taper-twisted) as shown in figure 4 The energy
method, which assumes a series of functions representing the deflec-
tion of the plates, gave results within 3.1% agreement of test results
for the first 2 modes of all the length/width ratios at 0° skew. The
accuracy consistently dropped off as skew angle increased. The calcu-
lated values of the first and second modes at 45° disagreed with test
results by 10.3% and 18.5%, respectively. The problem of out-of-plane
skew (twist) and its effect on natural frequency of turbine blades was
addressed by Geiger [15J. A graphical and analytical procedure was given
to approximate the increase of the fundamental frequency due to blade
twi st.

In 1951 Mendelson and Gendler [16J used station functions to calculate

coupled bending-torsion vibrations of cantilever beams. Instead of

using a discrete mass procedure to divide the continuous system into

a finite number of degrees of freedom, a concept was introduced to
assume the inertias and deflections are continuous between stations
along the beam. Coupled bending-torsion vibrations in the first mode
were 0.9% lower than the exact values when one statton was used and
0.3% lower when two stations were used. The second mode gave results
that were over 100% lower for one station but reduces to 1.8% lower
than the exact value for two stations.

Lo and Renbarger [17J developed the equation of motion for the vibra-
tion of the rotating cantilever beam in 1952. Results compared within
0.1% with a discrete system calculation made by Sutherland [74J. The
paper emphasized that the direction of vibration with respect to the
plan of rotation effects the natural frequency of the beam. Vibration
perpendicular to the plane of rotation produces higher natural fre-
quencies for a given cantilever than vibrations in the plane of rotation.
Referring to figure 5, the following equation was derived.


where S is the prescribed setting angle

D is the rotational speed
w is the natural frequency of pure axial bending vibration
w is the natural frequency of the out-of-plane blade

Extensions to rotating beam vibrations were made by Lo [18J to account

for the effect of Coriolis acceleration when the vibration direction
was not perpendicular to the plane of rotation. Other work concerning
secondary inertia terms in rotating cantilevers was completed by
Bogdanoff [19J where he considered coupled and uncoupled torsional-bend-
ing frequencies. Schilhansl [20J developed the equations of motion of
a rotating cantilever and solved for the fundamental frequency by apply-
ing the method of successive approximations of a function satisfying

cantilever boundary conditions. Agreement within 2.2% and 0.1%

was obtained compared to the exact solution for first and second
approximations, respectively. He also varified Lo and Renbarger[17J
results for angle between vibration direction and p]ane of rotation,
and its effect on natural frequency.

Work with uncoupled vibrations of rotating beams was done by DiPrima

and Handelman [21J where the differential equations were developed for
vibration in the plane of rotation and variational principles were
developed to solve the differential equations. It was stated that
this method showed good agreement with Rosard . [78J, and Mendelson
and Gendler[16J but no comparison was shown. An extension of the pre-
ceding paper to coupled torsional-longitudinal and the effects of
pretwist were examined in DiPrima [22J. It was noted that the fre-
quency of modes with primarily longitudinal motion were not signifi-
cantly effected by pretwist. Other work done by Gere [23J, and Gere
and Lin [24J developed the equations of motion for torsional and
coupled torsional-bending vibrationsof thin-walled open cross-section
beams with different cross-sections and end cnnditions. Zickel [25J,
[26J developed the general theory of pretwisted columns and beams, and
studied the static thin-walled sections with respect to bending and
buckling loads. More work was completed by Troesch, Adliker and
Ziegler [27J where the equations of motion were developed for an infin-
itely thin cross·section and the solution of the 8th order frequency
determinant was obtained. Integrals relating the vibration of uniform
and tapered cantilevers were developed by Martin [28J and used by
Martin [29J to evaluate the effect of twist on turbine blade vibrations.
Conway, Becker and Dubil [30J derived the differential equation of
motion, containing Bessel functions, for the transverse vibration of
beams with different taper. Clamped-free, clamped-simply supported, and
clamped-clamped boundary conditions were used and eigenvalues were
cited with no experimental correlation. Nordgren [31J performed an
exact solution using shallow shell theory for the vibration of pre-
twisted rectangular plates which showed good correlation with Reissner
and Washizu [32J and DiPrima [22J.

From 1954 through 1956 a series of related papers were published

by Bishop [33J, [34J and Bishop and Johnson [35J dealing with the
derivation and application of the receptance method for the trans-
verse and torsional vibrations of beams. A receptance is defined
as the coefficient which relates traction (the independent variable)
to displacement (the dependent variable). A vibratory system is
broken into subsystems at convenient locations (e.g., pin supports,
moment constraints, etc.) which share a common or 1I1inking coordi-

nate as shown in the two mass torsional system in figure 6.

From compatibility and equilibrium conditions at the linking coordi-
nates, the frequency equations are developed in receptance form.
Insertion of the prederived receptance for given beam configurations
readily give the frequency equation for the given system in standard
form. Extensions of the receptance method were made by Johnson and
Bishop [36J where the dynamic behavior of a large mass (turbine disk)
with numerous small spring-mass systems having identical frequencies
(blades) were considered.

Due to increased gas turbine usage in the years from 1957 to present,
comprehensive effort on analytical calculation and experimental veri-
fications of turbine blade natural frequencies were mady by W. Carnegie,
J. S. Rao, and others. However, most of these efforts were for single
blade analysis, which may be true for most gas turbine blading but not
for steam turbine blading.

Static bending of twisted cantilever blades was studied by Carnegie [37J

for blades with 0° to 90° pretwist. Equations of bending deflection
were developed by variational calculus and experimental deflections were
in good agreement with this theory (1.0%) but were consistently high.
This was attributed to alterations to the blade fibers thus causing
difference in bending stiffness from what it would be if the blades
were cast or forged.

Using rather complex static bending displacement function from the

proceding paper, Carnegie [38J applied Rayleigh1s energy method to

obtain approximate solutions for the equations of motion governing

flat and twisted cantilever blades. For a straight cantilever with
a uniform crossection agreement within 0.3% of the exact solution
was achieved for first mode bending vibration, however, experimental
results show a 7.3% lower value with respect to theoretical results.
This was attribured to poor definition of modulus of elasticity and
density of the blade used in the test. This is a significant point
because it demonstrates the accuracy of the analytical method is
only as good as material property identification for the given
material. Even with good determination of material properties, Young's
modulus could vary ±2.0% for a given blade steel. This would cause
a possible frequency variance of ±1.4% as demonstrated in Rieger [129].
The first four torsional frequencies were calculated and show agree-
ment within, approximately, 2% of measured values for most pretwisted
angles from 0° to 90°. Uncoupled modes of vibrations were shown exper-
imentally from 0° to 90° pretwist, also. Uncoupled modes" result when
the center of flexure and the center of torsion do not coincide with
the centroid. Experimental determination of center of flexure and
center of torsion for turbine airfoil crossections is shown in Carnegie
[39] Bending-bending-torsional vibration of pretwisted cantilever
blading was approached by Carnegie [40] using Hamilton's principle. Express-
ions for strain and kinetic energy were derived, and frequency equations were
brought out, which were in close agreement with a previous paper by Carnegie
[38J in which Rayleigh's method was used.

Carnegie [41J used Rayleigh's method to derive a frequency equation

approximating the effect of centrifugal stiffening on the frequency of
a rotating cantilever. In a later paper by Carnegie, Sterling and
Fleming[42J rotating test apparatus was fabricated and experimental
values for straight blades of various sizes, rotational speeds, and
stagger and angles (angle of vibration with respect to the plane of

rotation) were tested to give consistently lower values than the

theoretical values. This is attributed to the influence of blade
root flexibility in the test facility as opposed to a rigid founda-
tion assumed in the theoretical development. An important aspect
of this work is for increasing modes, the effect of centrifugal
stiffening became less as shown in figure 7.

Extensions to work on rotating blades are developed in Carnegie [43J,

[44J where the effects of bending, torsion, shear deflection, rotary
inertia, and Coriolis acceleration are incorporated into the analysis,
and solution of the equations of motion are approached by a combina-
tion of variational methods and Hamilton1s principle. Rao and Carnegie
[45J approached the non-linear Coriolis effect in further work by
using the Ritz method to find a solution for the fundamental mode of
a straight, uniform, rotating cantilever blade vibrating in the plane
of rotation. Good correlation was obtained with analytical work by
Schilhansl [20J, and Carnegie, Sterling and Fleming [42J. A more
modern approach by Montoya [46J, used Runge-Kutta numerical
- . integra-
tion to solve the equations of motion for coupled bending-torsional
vibration of a rotating, twisted cantilever blade. A digital computer
calculated the frequencies of a 28 inch free-standing, twisted turbine
blade with a IIChristmas tree II type fastener at various rotational
speeds, using the Runge-Kutta method. Experimental data for actual
blades and disks showed good correlation with these results. As shown
in figure 8.
Using energy methods, Perkins [47J derived the frequency equation
for the free vibration of a cantilever supported by a spring-mass
system representing a test fixture for vibration testing as shown in
figure 9. The purpose of this work was to show the coupling which
may occur between blade frequency and test fixture frequency. The stJdy
concluded that for the fundamental mode the coupling is significant
for a given system, but becomes less noticeable for higher modes. Care
should be taken to avoid this coupling effect if this type of appara-
tus is used for vibration testing.

Rao [48J applied the Galerkin method to a cantilever beam with a

rectangular crossection and a uniform taper, and found the fundamental
bending frequency. Results show the Galerkin method to be consistently
high compared to the exact solution for cases of uniform width and
thickness taper, width taper and uniform thickness,-and taper of width
and thickness as opposed to Martin's method [28J which gave answers
consistently lower than exact values.

With the use of the digital computer, Carnegie and Thomas [49J used
the finite difference method to integrate the basic Bernoulli-Euler
equation for lateral vibration of tapered cantilever. This reduced
the solution to a set of n simultaneous equations, which eigenvalues
and eigenvectors were solved for by matrix iteration. Comparison of
the preceding method with exact results for a uniform beam showed
-0.4% error in the first mode and less than -0.1% error for modes 2
through five. The accuracy of this method can be easily shown in
figure 10 which compares the theoretical and test results, along
with results obtained by Rao [ 48J and by Martin [28J.

Dawson [50J used the Rayleigh-Ritz method to determine the first 5

modes of coupled bending-bending vibration of pretwisted cantilever
blades and stated that the extension to bending-bending-torsional vibra-
tion was straight forward. Correlation within ±2.0% for high aspect
ratio beams (16:1), ±0.4% for medium aspect ratio (8:1) and low aspect
ratio (4:1) beams as compared to results by the transformation method
in Carnegie, Dawson and Thomas [51J, and results by matrix displacement
method in Dokumaci, Thomas and Carnegie [87J. The mode shapes of pre-
twisted beams of rectangular crossection were calculated by Dawson and
Carnegie [52J using a com~nation of the transformation method and
finite difference calculation. This work was extended to straight
asymmetrical airfoil crossections by Carnegie and Dawson [53J. Carnegie
and Thomas [54J used pure finite difference calculation to evaluate the
equations of motion of tapered blades with pretwist having coupled
bending-bending vibratory motion. Frequencies and mode shapes were

evaluated for various cases of taper and pretwist and agreement with
numerical methods of matrix displacement methods and transformation
methods were excellent.

Petri cone and Sisto [55] used the Rayleigh-Ritz method and thin shell
theory to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors of low aspect ratio,
twisted compressor blades with a rigid contilever boundry conditon. A
computer program was written to aid in the computations and the results
for flat cantilever plates of rectangular and skewed geometry compared
favorable with Barton [14]. Better correlation was shown when compared
against finite element results by Draper [56] whose work also included
experimental data for comparison.

In 1970, Rao [57] published a review of his subsequeht work in a paper

showing the application of the Ritz and the Galerkin method to turbine
blade vibration. The paper described these methods as very powerful
analytical tools to calculate natural frequencies of turbi~e blades
considering taper and pretwist, rotation, shear and rotory inertia, and
asymmetrical cross sections. Using the Galerkin method, the effect of
taper on lateral vibrations of cantilever blades was examined by Rao
and Carnegie [58] showing good correlations with experimental results
from Carnegie, Dawson and Thomas [51]. The Galerkin method was also
used by Rao [59] to study the effect depth taper on torsional vibration
of cantilever blades. The results showed good correlation with test
resul ts by Rao [60] for the first mode. The effects of shear defl ec-
tionand rotary inertia on natural frequency were treated with the Ritz
method by Rao [61 J showing good corro1ation with_ experimental studies
by Rao [60J. Linear vibrations by the Ga1erkin method and non-linear
vibrations by the Ritz method were developed by Rao [62], and Rao and
Carnegie [45]. No experimental data was presented for corrolation. The
effect of pretwist and the effect of asymmetric cross sections, applying
the Ga1erkin method, were developed by Rao [63], and Rao and Carnegie
[64] and good correlation was achieved for the pretwist case when compared
to test resl'lts by Dawson and Carnegie [52] as shown in figure 11
Good agreement was also obtained for the effect of asymmetric cross sections
when compared to experimental results.

Recent work was completed by Gupta and Rao [65 J using Hamilton's
principle to study torsional vibrations of pretwisted cantilever
plates with aspect ratios varying from 1.0 to 8.0 and pretwist
angles from 0° to 90°. Results for 0° pretwist and aspect ratios
ranging from 1.0 to 4.0 compared favorably with Leissa [66 J for
the first torsional mode where agreement of less than 0.01% was
obtained. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used by Swaminadham [67 J
to study vibration characteristics of rotating, tapered and twisted
turbine blades. Experimental apparatus was used to aquire test
results for rotational speeds up to 10,000 rpm. Jumaily and Faulkner
[68J applied modified shell theory to investigate the vibration
characteristics of hollow, symmetrical turbine blades. Less than
2.0% difference was achieved with respect to experimental results
for the first 3 modes of one of the blades tested. - .

2.4 Discrete System Analysis.

In 1943, Myklestad [69J developed a tabular method, welT-suited for
modern computers, to calculate discrete or "lumped" mass beam systems.
His procedure for the vibration analysis of airplane wings was essen-
tially a Holzer method commonly used in torsional vibration analysis.
The problem is more complicated for transverse vibrations of beams
because moment as well as shear equilibrium must be considered where
in torsional vibrations only torque equilibrum need be maintained.
Specifically, the method considers several lumped masses as shown in
figure 12. The shear force, V, the moment, M, the slope, 8, and the
deflection y, are used to form the following relations based on dynamic
equilibrium and compatability.

Vi + 1 = V·+m·w
1 1
y.1 (2.5)
2 1.
Mi+ I = M1.+(V 1.+m 1.w y.)
1 1

= M.+V.+

1 I 1

= 8.+(V.+m.w
1 1 1
1 1
1 ml

= 8.V.+' a .+M.a
1 1 I Vl
1 ml

= y.+8.l 2y.)
Y1. + I 1 1 1
1 1 1
0 .
I-'v 1
+ M.o .

= Y·+8.l
1 1 1
.+V.+, S .+M·S
1 1 V1
1 ml

Where w is the circular frequency

1.1 is the length of the given section
avi is the slope of thr beam at station (i+l) relative to
the tangent at station i, use to unit force at i.
ami is the slope of the beam at station (i+l) relative to
the tangent at station i, due to unit moment at i.
Svi is the tangential deviation or vertical distance from
point on the beam at station (i+l) to the tangent at
station i, due to unit force at f.
Smi is the tangential deviation or vertical distance from
point on the beam at station (;+1) to the tangent at
station i, due to unit moment at i.

At the left end of the beam, V, and Mi = 0, and the unknowns are
8 I and y l '

Normalizing on one of the two and leaving the final as the unknown will
allow a calculation from i = 1, 2, 3 .... n for assumed values of w.
Through a series of substitutions the unknown quantitywill carry through
and is compared to zero. This established the error in the assumed value
of wand successive educated guesses can be made to cause the unknown
quantity to converge to zero. This final w will be a frequency of the
system. It is cited that at least twice as many masses be used as the
number of frequencies desired and at least 6 times the number of masses
are needed if accurate mode shapes are desired. Myklestad [70 ] extend-
ed his work to account for torsional vibration and coupled bending-
torsional vibration. A further extension by Myklestad [ 71 ] took into
account rotational effects perpendicular to the plane of rotation.

The Myklestad method is used today by many turbine vendors and

turbine blade analysts because of the method's adaptability to the
computer and the accuracy of the mehtod's results with respect to the
exact solution. However, many quantities needed in the calculation
i.e. root stiffness, shear effects, bending and torsional inertias are
sometimes not easily computed which may effect the accuracy with re-
spect to test results.

Using the preceding method,Jarrett and Warner [72 ] developed a procedure

to evaluate the frequency of a rotating, taper-twisted turbine blade from
an assumed point of fixety at the root as shown in figure 13. Comparing
theoretical and test frequency results show -2.76% error for the first
mode at a stationary condition and +5.54% error for the first mode at a
rotating condition. The variance in error for the two cases is attrib-
uted to root test conditions. The second and third modes of vibration
showed +7.57% and +4.77% error in frequency respectively, when compared
to rotating test results. The analysis was applied-to a·blade group
with 3 tie-wire, and a cDve~However, only a single blade was analyzed
with appropriate boundry conditions applied to the cover and tie-wire.
No group modes were calculated. The extension to group modes is given
in section 2.6. Bending-torsional vibration coupling was not considered
in the formulation but the extension to include this effect is given in
Mykl estad [69 J.

Targoff [73] presented a matrix manipulation procedure which when applied

to a Holzer or Myklestad formulation will allow frequency and modeshape
results without calculation of the influence coefficients (a and S).
Also included is the complete matrix for coupled bending-torsional vi-
bration of beams. This matrix manipulation procedure would be extremely
adaptable to the digital computer.

Sutherland [74] used the Myklestad method [69] for uncoupled vibrations
of rotating blades perpendicular to the plane of rotation and adapted
the lumped mass method for uncoupled vibrations in the plane of rota-
tion which should be the case of first importance since most first mode

vibrations are in the plane. Usually non-steady steam forcing is the

greatest in the tangential direction as shown in Rieger and Wicks [126J,
so a tangential mode or a mode in the plane of vibration is usually the
most dangerous. In comparison to Myk1estad's mehtod it was found that
vibrations in the plane of rotation are lower in frequency than vibrations
perpendicular to the plane of rotation.

In series 'of papers by Plunkett [75 J, [76 J ,[77J Matrix methods are, given
for static bending moments and deflection~ and free and forced vibrations
of twisted cantilever beams with particular reference to airplane pro-
pe110rs and turbine blades. This work being set up in matrix form shows
increased possibilities with digital computers which easily handle matrix
calculations. Plunkett's work is similar to~~he comprehensive studies of
continuous systems done by Carnegie which contained 'strong analy-
tical formulation and valid testing procedures, but are confined to
discrete systems. While not as comprehensive as all of Carnegie's
efforts, Plunkett [77 J used rectangular and triang~lar Gross-sections
of rectang,u1ar cantilever plates and experimentally obtained frequencies
for many length/width ratios by using the apparatus shown in figure
Comparing measured data, with work done by Barton [14J utilizing the
Ritz method, shows excellent graphical correlation (approximately :2.0%)
for length/width ratios ranging from 1/2 to 5. Reverting back to a
Rayleigh-Ritz procedure Plunkett determined that the method was accept-
able for uniform rectangular cantilever plates with no skew. However,
for in-plane distortion (skew), the method proved extremely inaccurate
as shown in Barton [14 J. Also, for triangular cross-sections theor-
etical results were poor and it was suggested that a method of finite
difference, as described in Me10sh [85 J, would be the best method of
attack on any plate problems other than uniform, which form a category
where most turbine blade geometries belong.

In 1953 Rosard [78 J obtained analytical results for twisted cantilever

beams with different width to thickness ratios. A Myklestad method was
used to obtain natural frequencies of a uniform rectangular cantilever
beam for different width/thickness ratio. These results were plotted,
along with experimental data, in figure 14. Good correlation can be
seen for straight beams, but correlation drops off for 40% pre-twist·

This discrepancy was attributed to simple testing procedures used.

However, the author stated that the purpose was not to strive for
extremely accurate results, but to show general trends. The paper
appears simple, but it sets the stage and demonstrates the need for
calculations and testing programs of this type.

Leckie and Lindberg [79] evaluated errors of four types of discrete

analysis. Shown in figure 15 are representations of the finite
difference, Myklestad, concentrated elasticity, and a combination
Myklestad-concentrated elasticity approaches, respectively, for
uncoupled, transverse vibration of beams. The development of these
methods are given and results of all the methods compared. In general,
the combined Myklestad-concentrated elasticity approach gave results
which were inversely proportional to the fourth power of the number of
stations or elements used. This means the other three mehtods require
many more elements to achieve similar accuracy.

Krupka and Baumanis [80], [81] used Carnegieis formulation of the

Lagrange equations of motion and Myklestad method to determine uncoupled
bending-bending and torsional vibrations of rotating, tapered turbine
blades. Rotary inertia and shear effects were included and a lumped
mass analysis with associated discrete difference equations were used.
The results showed a 3.8% and 8.1% deviation for the first and second
modes, respectively, when the shear deformation and rotary inertia ef-
fects were not included. This is an extremely important result because
these values are not easy to calculate for use in the analysis. Many
errors in frequency calculations could be attributed to accurately
determining the cross-sectional area effected by shear deformation,
especially in blade airfoil design. This is a definite pitfall for
the lumped mass method. Fu [82] recently used a lumped mass method
and the digital computer to calculate the coupled bending-bending-
torsional vibrations of a pretwist~~ rotatin9 Timoshenko beam. The
natural frequency results compared favorably with Dawson, Ghosh and
Carnegie [83] as shown in figure 16. A shrouded,blade was also
calculated by applying suitable boundry constrai1ts, T~is type of anal-
ysis is not acceptable because it emits group modes from natural

frequency results. Making the assumption that these modes are in-
significant could be a gross mistake.

2.5 Finite Element Analysis

From the literature in section 2.3, many methods for solving the
equations of motion for continous systems have been developed. For
rectangular cross section and uniform length cantilever beams, energy
methods show excellent corrolation with exact solutions, with both
methods being easy to derive and solve. However, turbine blades aren't
typically uniform, but are skewed, tapered and twisted. Exact solutions
become impossible and energy methods break down for blade frequency cal-
culations. Discussed in section 2.4 are discrete system analysis of
taper, twisted beams, which is a move to sub~divid~a structure into
regions were the equations of motion for a single region resemble one
degree of freedom systems. From compatibility and equilibrium, these
regions interlink and an approximate solution is found. Many pre-cal-
culated quantities are needed to use discrete system analysis (i.e.
second moments of area, moments of inertia,etc.). The finite element
method is well suited to defining non-uniform configurations of turbine
blading. It is well adapted to the digital computer because of its
matrix formulation and simple to use once element stiffness, mass, and
damping matricies are formulated. The theoretical development is rigor-
ous and may be found in most of the following papers and in Zienkiewicz
[ 84 J.

In 1961, Melosh [85] developed an element stiffness matrix for a simple

plate and showed assembly of element stiffness matricies into an overall
plate structural stiffness matrix. Dawe [86 ] developed the stiffness
and inertia matrix for a 12 x 12 quadralateral plate with two displace-
ment and one rotational degree of freedom at each node, and then formed
the 12 x 12 non-dimensional dynamic stiffness matrix. / From the element-
al stiffness and mass matricies, natural frequencies ~rom a uniform
cantilever plate with a 9 element grid pattern (3 x 3) were comDared to
exact and experimental work done by Barton [ 14J.~or the first five modes,

energy methods gave 1.4%,2.8%,4.3%, 1.1%, and 4.8% error, respectively,

when compared to the test results. The finite element method gave 1.2%,
2.5%, 5.5%, -1.1%, and 3.5% error, respectively. Good correlation is
shown, however the power of the method is not represented because only
a uniform cantilever plate was modeled.

Dokumaci, Thomas and Carnegie [87], formed 8 x 8 mass and stiffness matrices
for a twisted beam and formed the structural dynamic stiffness matrix for
a twisted cantilever beam having 2 displacement and 2 rotational degrees
of freedom per node in the transverse plane of vibration. Results ex-
trapolated from 3 and 4 element cantilever models give less than 0.1%
difference, for the first 4 frequencies of 30°, 60° and 90° pretwist,
when compared with finite difference results by Carnegie, Dawson and
Thomas [51 ], and with analytical work by Anliker and Troesch [88].
This method was extended to taper, twisted blades by Thomas, Dokumaci and
Carnegie [89] which resulted in less than 1.0% difference for the first
5 frequencies at 30°,60° and 90° pretwist, with finite difference results
by Carnegie, Dawson, and Thomas [51 ].

Rawtani and Dokainish [90] studied the deflections of a prewtisted

cantilever plate, ,Jsing a triangular shell element with 9 x 9 bending stiff-
ness matrix and 6 x 6 in plane stiffness matrix. An 18 x 18 stiffness
matrix was formed by combining each local coordinate stiffness matrix
into a single global coordinate stiffness matrix using transformation
matrix techniques. Deflection of 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4, 5 x 5, and 6 x 6
element grids of a 6 in. x 6 in. x .125 in. cantilever plate were examin-
ed and pretwist of 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° were included to study conver-
gence based on gridwork size and pretwist. Comparison of deflection
results of a 10 x 10 gridwork to Chetty and Tottenhan [91 ], who used
Bongard1s shallow shell equations, was 3.6%. An extension was made by
Rawtani and Dokainish [92] to look at coupled vibrations pretwisted
cantilever plates. Pretwist of 0°, 40°, and 80° are calculated with
3 x 3, 4 x 4 and 5 x 5 meshes used. A 5 x 5 mesh model of a square
cantilever plate and agreement of less then 2.0% for the first 5 modes
was obtained when compared to Barton [14]. A comparison to experimental
results by Carnegie [381 for 7 different pretwists ranQing from 0° to
90? was also completed for the first 3 bending mode~ Correlation was

within 5.0%. The effect of pretwist and low aspect ratio was also

Dokainish and Rawtani [93] extended their triangular plate element form-
ulation to calculate natural frequencies of rotating, flat cantilever
pJates~ Centrifugal stiffening effect was accomplished in a two pass op-
eration by first calculating the in plane stress distribution under
rotational force and using these stresses to increase the bending stiff-
ness of the plate elements in a manner similar to stability analysis of
plates. Comparison of 4 x 4 and 5 x 5 mesh patterns gave maximum varia-
tion of less than 1.6% for the first five modes at setting angles of
0° (vibrations perpendicular to plane of rotation) and 45°. Southwell
coefficient, So' Sr and So' were calculated and tabulated for the first
3 bending modes and the first 2 torsional modes with aspect ratios of
1, 2 and 3. These coefficients can be used in the following formula to
calculate natural frequencies of rotating flat plates as a check on the
finite element results.


= w2 + (S + S + S )~2
Q 0 r 0

Where w is the frequency at the given setting angle

wo is the frequency at 0° setting angle
~ is the rotational speed

Rawtani and Dokainish [94] developed 18 x 18 triangle shell element

with 3 displacement and 2 in-plane rotational degrees of freedom. The
same method was employed, as in the preceeding paper, to analyze rota-
tional frequencies of low aspect ratio, twisted turbomachinery blades.
The effect of disk radius, pretwist and speed of rotation were analyzed
for different setting angles. Also discussed in this paper and in
Dokainish and Rawtani [95 ] is the "pseudo-static deformation" caused
by centrifugal force and free vibration. The 18 x 18 triangle shell
element was used by Rawtani [96] to show the effect of camber on the
natural frequency of low aspect ratio turbine blades. Results for
2 x 2, 3 x 3, and 5 x 5 grid patterns, root camber from 0° to 90°, and

aspect ratios of 1,2 and 3, were given. Experimental results of a

30° camber blade compared within 6.58% for the first four modes with
3.93% and 2.79% agreement for the first 2 modes.

Rawtani [97 J introduced variable thickness to the 18 x 18 triangle

shell and calculated natural frequencies of wide chord compressor
blades. A 7 x 3 variable thickness grid pattern with four angles of
pretwist from 0° to 34.2° were modeled. Agreement within 5.0% for
the first 2 modes of all angles of pretwist was achieved with Plunkett
[77 J. An actual wide chord compressor blade was modeled by 5 x 5
mesh and natural frequencies for the 1st two modes agreed with experi-
mental data by 3.35% and 2.72% respectively. Dokainish and Gossain
[98 J used the constant thickness shell and calculated natural fre-
quencies at different rotational speeds for an automobile fan blade.
No experimental data was offered.

Very comprehensive vibration studies with cantilever plates were

completed by Anderson, Irons and Zienkiewicz [99J where a triangular
plate element, developed in Zienkiewicz and Cheung [lOOJ, was used to
form 4,16 and 64 element cantilevers. For the first three modes of
vibration, the 4 element model gave results within 4.0% of test results
by Plunkett [77 J and similar agreement with test and energy method
results by Barton [14 J. The 64 element model gave results with 2.0%
of test results by Plunket [77 J for the first 12 modes. Results for
a 8 element skewed cantilever showed excellent corrolation when plotted
against test results by Barton [14 J as seen in figure 17. Variable
thickness was adopted the plate element and a 3 x 8 variable thickness
cantilever was modeled which gave results that agreed within 5.0% of
test results by Plunkett[77J. A favorable comparison of variable
thickness plate vibration analysis was made with a finite difference
calculation by Raju [lOlJ and a swept back cantilever, resembling an
aircraft wing, was analyzed giving natural frequencies and mode shapes.
Finally, a frequency comparison of four similar models, which were
altered only by a Guyan reduction technique [102J, which lumps mass at
specific nodes of the grid work, was completed to show agreement of less
than 5.0% between a 90 mass degree of freedom model and a 6 mass degree
of freedom model for the first three modes. An important conclusion

was the accuracy of finite element method is independent of skew angle

which shows the power of the finite element method in its ability to
analyze non-uniform structures.

Ahmad, Anderson and Zienkiewicz [103J used a thick shell isoparametric

solid element to model a single taper, twisted turbine blade. The
natural frequencies, using the thick shell element, were compared to
the thin shell analysis and to test results. The thin shell finite
element model gave +23.6%, +46.2% and -3.5% discrepancy with test
results for the tangential, axial and torsional modes, respectively.
The thick shell model gave results which agreed by +0.2% +27.6% and
-6.9% with the test results. In general the thick shell model agreed
more closely with test results because shear effects are taken into
account in the thick shell element formulation where thin shell form-
ulation cannot. The first four mode shapes and tabli of frequencies
for the thick shell model are shown in figure 18. Bossak and Zienkiewicz
[104J added centrifugal stiffening to the thick shell isoparametric
solid and achieved good correlation with Carnegie, Sterling., and Fleming
[42 J and Dokainish and Rawtani [93 J as shown in figure 19 . and 20.

Olson and Lindberg [105J developed a four node cylindrical shell ele-
ment with 7 degrees of freedom per node for analysis of curved fan
baldes. A 4 x 4 grid of these gave results for the first 12 modes
that agreed within 10.0% of experimental results and the calculated
mode shapes agreed extremely well with experimental nodal patterns.
Lindberg, Olson and Sarazin [106J developed a high powered triangular
shell element with a 36 x 36 stiffness matrix and performed extensive
studies on uniform and tapered thickness fan blades, spherical dish
antenna, and a clamped cylindrical shell panel. Excellent correlations
with test results was achieved and all data was well-documented.
Chernuka, Cowper, Lindberg and Olson [107J studied curved boundries with
high precision triangular plate bending element. Error from straight
line approximation of curved boundries was evaluated and the triangular
ele~nt was modified to make one edge curved. Substantial improvement
was seen in the analysis of circular and elliptical models. Rieger [108]
developed a 40 degree of freedom element with parabolic thickness taper
and calculated natural frequencies of a curved fan blade.

Comparison of frequencies with Olson and Lindburg OO~ experimental

results of their 28 x 28 rectangular element was made. With excep-
tion of the 4th mode, the first 6 modes were within 5.5% of experi-
menta 1 results.

Other work specifically associated with turbine blades was done by

Hofmeister and Evensen [10~ in 1971. Modified eight and twelve
node solid, elements with 3 degrees of freedom per node were used in
modeling a thin flat cantilever plate, a thin hemispherical cap, a
cylindrical cantilever plate, and a turbine blade. Turbine blade
natural frequencies for a 14 element, 12 nodes per element, model
showed better than 10.0% correlation for the first 6 modes compared
to experimental results by Aprahamian, Overoye, Evensen and Hofmeister
OlDJ. Root fixity was blamed on the analytical frequencies being higher
for the first 5 modes, because no root stiffness was modeled in and only
a rigid foundation was assumed.

A parabolic shell element was used by Thomas and Mota Soares DllJ to
calculate natural frequencies of a twisted blade. For setting angles
(angle of base with respect of plane of rotation) of 0°, 30°, 60° and
90°, agreement of 2.6% was achieved for the first mode in comparison to
Dokainish and Rawtani [93J. Also examined were the effects of disk
radius, angle of pretwist, angular velocity and thickness of the rotat-
ing blade.

Henry and Lalanne Ol~ studied vibrations of rotating compressor blades

using a plane, triangular, variable thickness shell element with 6 degrees
of freedom per node. The 160 element model of the compressor blade was
used with frequency results of 0, 5,000 and 10,000 rpm. Correlation of
the natural frequencies at 0 rpm with test frequencies was within 10.0%
for the first 10 modes. A simple design criteria was given that was based
on natural frequencies. This type of criteria is all but adequate.
Trompette and Lalanne Ol~ used nine 24 node, 3 degree of freedom per
node, isoparametric thick shell elements to model a turbine blade for
natural frequency and mode shape analysis. The first 3 modes at 0 rpm

agreed with test results by 0.2%, 6.5% and 2.0% respectively. Temp-
erature effects on Young1s modulus was taken into account and root
flexibility was estimated and modeled in as springs. Extensions of
this work by Lalanne, Henry and Trompette 814 J used triangular shell
elements to analysis steady stress at given operating speeds of a
radial inflow turbine blade. The stress results are not dynamic but
steady centrifugal stresses and therefore fatigue possibility cannot
be evaluated, however, this is some of the first published work offering
any type of stress results. Natural frequencies using the 24 node
thick shell element are evaluated giving less than 11.0% correlation
with test frequencies for the first 3 modes of a 4 element model.
Also, centrifugal stresses and natural frequencies of a gas turbine
blade were calculated using triangular shell elements and 24 node brick
elements, respectively, showing similar correlation as the preceding

The finite element code NASTRAN [115J was used by MacBain

- . [116J to
study natural frequencies and modeshapes of varying twist and increased
centrifugal loading of cantilever plates. A. quadrilateral plate element
called CQUAD2 was used to develop an 11 x 24 element mesh which gave
-1.2, -2.1,1.0 and -2.4 percent error with respect to Barton [14 J who
used the Rayleigh-Ritz energy method. The first 10 natural frequencies
were calculated for 0°, 12°, 17°, 23.5°, 30° and 38° pre-twist angles
giving results that agreed within 10.0% of experimental work done by the
author. Normalized modeshapes for the first 10 modes were plotted and
showed excellent correlation with modeshapes obtained by holographic
interferometry as shown in figure 21. An important finding showed for
increasing centrifugal loading, the nodal lines of the flexural modes of
vibration shift toward the base of the plate.

Barten, Scheurenbrand and Scheer [117J used flat triangular elements

with 5 degrees of freedom per node (no in plane rotational degree of
freedom) to obtain natural frequencies, and static and dynamic stress
distribution of rocket engine turbopump inducer blades. Poor correlation
was obtained for a simple cantilever plate frequency calculation when

compared to exact values in Barton [14 J. This was attributed to

poor element aspect ratio in modeling. No attempt was documented
to change aspect ratio of the elements and recalculate natural
frequencies. A 127-element inducer blade compared extremely well
to experimental values obtained where the first 5 modes showed
3.5%, 1.3%,2.1%,4.0% and 7.4% correlation, respectively. Experi-
mental and analytical hudrodynamic stress results are shown in figure
22. The correlation was obtained along the lead edge of the inducer
as shown in figure 23. However, these are centrifugal and steady
pressure loads obtained from experimental procedures. Dynamic stress
levels are only normalized values because none of the exciting forces
were known. This would not be sufficient enough of an analysis to
predict fatique failure, but up to date, it is the closest to a complete
fatique analysis found in rotating turbomachinery blading.

Recent vibratory work by Allen and Erickson [118J using NASTRAN to

analyze a free standing gas turbine blade was completed ~howing good
correlation with rotating test natural frequencies. Deflections and
stresses due to centrifugal force, andtle first four modeshapes and
relative vibratory stress patterns were calculated. Again, no non-

steady ,:!xcitation was appl ied and therefore -clle relative stress 1evel s
are an inadequate parameter for fatigue evaluation. Mak and'Botman
Dl~ used a flat triangular element developed by Clough, et al [120J,
[121J, [122J which has linear thickness distribution, a cubic displace-
ment for out-of-plane bending and a linear displacement functions for
membrane stretching, to model the impeller of a centrifugal compressor
in a high speed gas turbine. The method of substructures was used to
model sectors ·of the impellors to account for modal coupling through
the backplate of the rotor. Component grid patterns, and calculated
natural frequencies and mode shapes are given in figure

2.6 Blade Group Analysis

The majority of published work done since Campbell [ 6 J deals with

analytical and experimental procedures for single blade calculation.

While many "free standing" bladed turbines exist, mostly in gas turbine
design, almost all blading in steam turbines are tied together with a
cover or shroud, and/or lashing wires. This type of mechanical coup-
ling has to be considered to develop accurate analytical relationships
for dynamic analysis of turbine blades.

In 1956, Prohl [123J used a lumped mass procedure similar to Myklestad

[69J to develop a method to calculate packets of blades joined together
by a shroud or cover at the tip. Jarret and Warner [72 J did the first
analytical formulation of the method, however group modes were not in-
corporated because only tie-wire and shroud boundry conditions were
applied to the model of a single blade. In this analysis axial, torsion-
al and tangentiaJ vibration are considered for a group of blades equally
spaced, with the principle axes of the moment of in~~tias of all the
cross sections assumed to be perpendicular and parallel to the plane
of the disk, and the center of twist of the blade cross section assumed
to coincide with the center of gravity. Shear deformatio~ and rotary
inertia is disregarded and the blades are assumed to be inextensible.
The distributed weight and torsional inertia .of each blade are represent-
ed by a series of concentrated weights and torsional inertias at intervals
along the blade as shown in figure 24 and the shroud weight is assumed
concentrated at the blade tip station "r". Blade and shroud flexural
relationshops are given in the paper and a modified Holzer method for
trial frequencies is used until the frequency determinant goes to zero,
thus giving a system natural frequency.

Resonant stresses are calculated by the following formula


Where 0
is the dynamic stress at the blade root due to forced
K is the resonant-response factor
8 is the logarithmeic decrement of damping
K o·
'IT is the amplification factor
S is the fractional value of the stimulas

Os is the steady stress at the blade root due to the

steady steam force
$ Os is the exc iti ng stress

A sample natural frequency and resonant stress calculation is performed

in Weaver and Prohl [124J and figure 25 is generated giving resonant
response factor, K, versus the harmonic order (per rev) excitation, n,
times the number of nozzles in 360°, k, divided by the number of blades
in 360°, m. The ratio, ~k, is a very useful number from a design stand-
point because it could be used to minimize K. However, the fractional
value of the stimulus, $, is not an easy number to produce because little
is known about excitation.

Rieger and Wicks [125J, [126J developed a device called a "water table",
which operates in accordance with the hydraulic analogy, to experimentally
obtain non-steady excitation values for flow through steam turbine stages.
Taking the relationship for dynamic stress in Weaver and Prohl [124J, and
rearranging values gives t.he following expression


Where Wt is the fractional value of the stimulus by the water


In later work, Rao [127J programmed Prohlls method using Fortran IV

computer language and solved test cases for tangential axial and torsion-
al vibration but no experimental correlation was shown. Problems with
Prohl IS method are only uncoupled vibrations can be considered which vir-
tually eliminates low pressure stages because of bending-bending coupling
due to taper and twist. Also, only stationary frequencies are calculated,
however the extension to rotational effects could be incorporated.

To account for coupled bending-bending vibration of blade packets and

torsional coupling induced by tie wires, Deak and Baird [128J developed
a procedure to calculate natural frequencies of rotating taper twisted
turbine blade groups. Assuming that the center of flexure coincides
with the center of gravity, two differential equations of motion for
bending and one for torsion are developed. Difference relationships
are applied and solution, station by station, are completed by computer.
Lacing or tie-wires are treated as massless beams and the mass is lumped
at corresponding blade locations. A solution is obtained by satisfying
internal boundry conditions, due to the tie-wire, during finite difference
calculation. A solution routine similar to Weaver and Prahl [124] is used
to cause the frequency determinant to go to zero which yield the natural
frequency of the group. Figure 26 shows the relative mode-shapes of a
four blade group with two-tie wires. A Campbell diagram [61, for comparison
of test and calculated natural frequency results from 0 rpm to 3600 rpm for
the 4 blade group, is given in figure 27

Rieger [129], Rieger and McCallion [130], [131] and McCallion and Rieger
[132] developed the dynamic matrix method for the vibration analysis of
portal frame structures. Moment and shear equations, at the ends of a
continuous prismatic bar shown in figure 28 ,derived in terms of end
displacements and moments and are given below.
. i
~__ [OA F l _ OB FlO F6 _. F7 ]·· I
ED..3 - A;; A F 3 +UA;; UB F 3 cos w4 (2.12)

SB [OA Flo OB F l F7 F6 ]
Eli3 = --X- F
+-X- F3+uA F3 -Un F3 coswt (2. 13)

JI A [OA F s OB Fa Fl Flo] (2.14)

El'A2 = -T F:;-T F3 +uA ;; +un F

JIB [OA Fa OB Fs FlO Fl] , (2.15)

EIA2 = -" f; + T ;; + UA "F; + Un f; co::; wt

Where S is the end shear force

M is the end moment
u is the end displacement
e is the end rotation
E is the moduler of elasticity
I is the second moment of area
AL are the eigenvalues
F:- are the receptance functions given in Bishop [34].

By satisfying compatibility and equilibrum conditions at junctions, as

in the receptance method, the frequency equation is developed for portal
frame structures. Examples are cited in each paper giving the frequency
equation and mode shapes.

Tuncel, Bueckner and Koplik [133] used the method of Diakoptics along with
perturbation techniques to solve a system of simultaneous equations, which
were developed from a Myklestad lumped parameter approach, that represent
a blade group structure. The method, which performs a series of matrix
addition and multiplication decompositions, takes advantage of weak coupling
between the blade, and the tie wires and/or cover. In general, results for
groups containing longer, more flexible blades were in better agreement with
test results and with Prohl1s method then were short, more rigidly coupled
blades. Fleeting and Coats [134] performed a comprehensive analysis of the
turbi ne bl ade fa i 1ure on the ","Queen El i zabeth II" 1uxury ocean 1 i ner. A
full description of the failed 9th and lOth stages of the high pressure rotor
was given. Operation at resonant frequency causing high vibratory stress
combined with centrifugal and steady steam stress, were cited as conditions
for fatigue failure in these stages. Also, a high stress concentration at
the trail edge of the airfoil and the platform, was the initial crack region
and one of the changes in the modified blade design. Provenzale and Skok
[135] developed a computer program to predict natural frequencies of turbine
blade packets. The paper is vague in describing a new and useful technique
for turbine blade analysis. A critical review of this paper by Sohre [136]
shows its weaknesses because many points made are controversial.

Salama and Petyt [137] used beam finite elements, consisting of linear and
cubic displacement functions for longitudinal and transverse vibration,
respectively, to study free vibration in the tangential direction only, for
a 6 blade group. Cases of harmonic excitation and partial admission are con-
sidered, and the influence of stiffness and mass ratios, number of blades in
a packet, size and position of tie-wire, speed of rotation, and other effects
are also studied. No root stiffness was considered, no experimental results
were given and no source of harmonic excitation values are stated. Another
problem is that beam finite element analysis is based on thin beam theory
which many turbine blades cannot hold to. Also j cross-sectional areas and torsion
inertias, and shear areas are hard to calculate for nonuniform geometries.

The end results may suffer from these inaccuracies solid or thick shell
finite element formulation offer much better accuracy because the entire
geometry of the blade structure is considered. In other work, Rao [138J
used Hamilton's principle to solve the equations of motion for tangential
vibration of blade groups. The closed form solution gave the first 5
natural frequencies that varied less than 0.25% from an analysis using
Prohl's method. No root stiffness is mentioned and no test results are

Eight node isoparametric brick (solid) finite elements were used by

Sagendorph [139J to model a tie-wire fan blade. Calculations were made
for a free and a locked up shroud condition. Comparison of the free shroud
condition with experiment~l data gave agreement within 10.0% for the first
ten modes. Holographic techniques were used to obtain mode shapes which
compared favorably with the finite element results. The locked up condition
is not a true blade group configuration. but only a boundry condition in-
put on a single blade. Similar workiwas done by Hall an~ Armstrong[J40J for
interlockin9 shrouds using the finite difference method. Srinivason, Lionberger
and Brown [141J used component mode technique with the finite element method
for a single blade isolated at the root but influenced by adjoining blades
at the interlocking shroud. However, only a shroud flexibility or bound-
ary constraint is applied to the shroud and not the shroud of the adjoin-
ing blade. This would not allow for the dynamic interaction of adjoining
blades referred to as blade group modes. Damping from the rubbing on the
interlocking shroud is considered at the shroud constant. Results of the
component mode method were compared to the NASTRAN cycle symmetry cal-
culations, but no experimental results were given.

Rieger and Nowak [142J presented a paper on the analysis of fatigue

stresses in steam turbine blade groups using the finite element method
and Rieger [143J published work on finite element analysis of turbo-
machinery problem which featured an elaborate review of related work in
this area. Steady stress levels, natural frequences and mode shapes, and
dynamic stress levels were obtained for given blade groups. This data was

then applied to a Goodman diagram for fatigue evaluation. Non-steady

excitation levels were obtained by Rieger and Wicks [126J from water
table results. Several finite element models were shown of blades,
blade root and blade groups, and a schematic of three-dimensional
loading on blade roots was given and is shown in figure 29. Coupled
natural frequencies for a 6 blade group were calculated at a rpm and
perfect corrolation was obtained for the first natural frequency when
compared to t~st results. Torsional transients resulting from generator
excitation were also considered and these motions were applied to grou~
model for the calculation of transient stress levels in blade roots,
which is another source of alternating stress effecting fatigue. This
work is the first in the open literature giving a full fatigue analysis
procedure of turbine blade group. Experimental verification for fre-
quency results is obtained, however, no verification is available for
fatigue stress analysis. This would require an elaborate test program
on fatigue of turbine blades.

2.7 Coupled Blade-Disk Vibrations

Because of computer time and core size limitations, the proposed

analysis proecdure assumes there is no interaction between the blades
via the disk. The isolation of each individual disk segment causes
a substantial decrease of wavefront, which is the simultaneous equa-
tion solution routine in ANSYS [144J. However, there are insteractions
between blades and disks and some of these aspects are considered in
this section of the literature review.

Discussed briefly in section 2.3was work done by Johnson and Bishop [36J
on the dynamic behavior of a bladed turbine disk. Three methods are
outlined to find receptance equations for the system. No examples were
developed and no test comparisons were made. Ellington and McCallion D4~
derived the frequency equation for a simple bladed disk structure. It
was assumed that the actual turbine blades were replaced by a set of
uniform parallel blades fixed to the disks at their roots and vibrating
in a purely tangential direction. The rim of the disk is modeled as a

uniform elastic ring restricted from radial motion at the roots as shown
in figure 30. Also, the mass of the rim is neglected and assumed to be
lumped at the roots of the blades. From this configuration the frequency
equation was derived in terms of the receptance functions given in
Bishop and Johnson 135J.

A good review of complex blade disk structure is in Rieger ~4], where

it was found that many investigations took advantage of repeated symmetry
of the structure. Specifically, Rieger ~4~ proposed a finite element/
finite difference technique which used difference calculus procedures for
periodic structures to obtain eigenvalue solutions. Mead ~4~,and Orris
and Petyt [148J developed a similar wave propogation procedure, in matrix
form, to ~t efficient solutions for skin-rib structures. Salama, Petyt
and Mota Soares [149J applied the above procedure to bladed disk assem-
blies. A substructure of the blade and disk sector was developed.
Difference calculus was then applied the boundry nodes in terms of
repeating substructure matrices, to form the total structural matrix.
A test calculation for a simple bladed disk assembly was performed and
compared with matrix difference results, and with experimental and calcu-
lated results by Kirkhope and Wilson [150J showing good correlation.
However, the wave propogation technique was found to be the most

Ewins and Rao [151J analyzed the forced vibration response of bladed
disk assemblies, including damping effects and the influence of blade
mistuning. A receptance procedure is used to describe the coupling
between the blades and the disk. Experiments were performed on three
disk assemblies and charts of response vs. frequency were presented to
demonstrate the effect of damping and of mistuning between blades. Other
related work was done by Ewins [152], [153].

Sector and axisymmetric finite elements were used by Mota Soares, Petyt
and Salama [154J, to describe blade disks of arbitrary thickness. The
wave propagation technique was used to form the entire structure from
one such assembly in order to reduce the eigenproblem. These disk ele-

ments have been tested with simple beam-type blade elements and
shroud sectors to form integrally-shrouded blade-disk structures.
Good correlation was achieved when test calculations were performed
using models by Ewins and Cottney [155~,and Kirkhope and Wilson U5~.

2.8 Torsional Vibrations Analysis

Since torsionally induced vibrations may cause fatigue failure of

blades on turbine disks, it is necessary to consider literature in this
field. Torsional vibration analysis of machine drive trains was ini-
tiated by Holzer [15~. The extensive pre-computer analysis techniques
are discussed in Ker Wilson [158] and practicle torsional vibration pro-
cedures are described in Nestorides [159].

An early computer analysis was made by Rieger [60J, who developed a

torsional model of an in-line turbine-generator set consisting of a
high-, an .. intermediate-, and two low-pressure turbines,
a generator
and exicter. All of the turbines were double flow. The system was
divided into 16 inertias and 15 stiffnesses with two inertias assigned
to each turbine and to the generator. Harmonic excitation simulating
negative sequence current was assumed to the 5.5% of the maximum genera-
tor drive torque because tests on the actual machine had not been con-
ducted to determine exact values. Also, values for damping, resulting
from properties, assembly tolerances, windage and electromagnetic losses,
were not known. It was assumed that damping was no lower than 0.1% and
no higher than 1.0% of critical and these two values were used for separ-
ate calculations. Results showed the ninth system torsional frequency
at 121.66 Hz. This occurs 1.66 Hz above the negative sequency excita-
tion frequency of 120.0 Hz. High torsional amplitudes were calculated
between the two low-pressure turbines, which may give rise to high alter-
nating blade stresses. Alternating stress levels were not specifically

Abolins, Lambrecht, Joyce and Rosenberg [6D investigated the effect of

high speed switching of network faults on stress levels in large turbine-

generator shafts. A turbine-generator set, similar to the one cal-

culated by Rieger [16m, was analyzed by applying generator loads
resulting from single- and three-phase terminal-to-terminal short
circuits, and generator synchronization 120 0 out-of-phase with
respect to line current. A single phase terminal-to-terminal short
circuit is shown in figure 31. If this machine is a 60 cycle machine,
then 60 Hz and 120 Hz components are developed and could easily excite
any system frequencies near 60 Hz and 120 Hz. Mechanical torques were
calculated and it was found that synchronizing 120 0 out-of-phase pro-
duced the largest torques on the shafts. The calculated values compared
favorably to test results are shown in figure 32. Similar work was done
by Hizume [16~ where the effect of a three-phase terminal-to-terminal
short circuit was calculated by modal analysis. It was concluded that
absolutely safe three-phase high-speed reclosing of circuit breaker could
not be achieved by strengthening the shaft.

Ramey, Harold, Maddox, Starnes and Knickerbocker [16~ measured torsional

amplitudes at four different locations on a turbine generator system
consisting of a high- and a low-pressure turbine, both of which are
double flow, and a generator and exciter. Figure 33 shows the location
of measuring devices and figure 34 shows the correlation of relative
torsional deflections for test and calculated results. Exicitation was
applied to the generator on the real machine by synchronizing out-of-phase
and by other line switching techniques. The calculated values were only
capable of frequencies up to 60 Hz due to the simplicity of the model.
Frequency correlation with test results for the first three torsional
modes was 1.1%, 4.6% and 1.6%, respectively.

2.9 Fatigue Analysis.

A combination of mean or steady, and alternating or non-steady stress in

ductile materials may result in component failure by yielding or by fatigue
fracture. Since turbine blades are made of ductile steels, generally AISI
403 stainless or some grade very similar, it becomes necessary to examine
some previous work dealing with fatigue.

In 1962, Heywood [164] published a book entitled Designing Against the

Fatigue of Metals, where over 1000 publications were referenced dealing with
the major aspects of fatigue. In this book, Heywood suggested the appli-
cations of the following equation to alternating nominal stress levels to
account for fatigue notch effects.

= (2.16)

Where is the fatigue stress concentration factor defined

as the ratio of the endurance strength for an un-
notched sample to the endurance strength for a
notched sample
is the geometric or theoretical stress concentration
r is the notch radius
a is the empirical material constant
Typical values of '(a are cited as 0.12 for flake graphite cast iron, 0.43
for cast steels and 0.015 for magnesium alloys. The value of the nominal
alternating stress is multiplied by Kf to determine the alternating stress
level for fatigue analysis. This value along with the mean stress level are
located on a fatigue diagram referred to as a "Goodman" diagram as shown in
figure 35 The upper curve, which is a plot of constant fatigue life based
onlO cycles,is actually a combination of the Gerber diagram, which is a
parabolic line, and the Goodman diagram, which is a straight line, plotted
between the endurance limit located on the ordinate and the ultimate strength
located on the abscissa. This line is a best fit of experimental data and
the diagram is referred to hereafter as the Goodman diagram.

Heywood [164 ] also gave an analytical procedure to reduce the unnotched

fatigue curve, which accepts notched mean and alternating data, to a notch-
ed curve, which accepts unnotched mean and alternating data. The conversion
from an unotched to a notched curve is given by the following formuli as
shown in figure 35

m = 0 mn (2.17)

0 mn + 0 an
= Ks+(KrK s ) 1-
Mean Strength

a =
°0 a (2.18)

= Ks +( KrK s )qa Alternating Strength

Where ~ is the mean strength reduction factor

a is the alternating strength reduction factor
t is the theoretical or geometric stress concentration factor
f is the fatigue stress concentration factor (> 10 7 cycles)
s is the static stress concentration factor given by the ratio
of tensile strength of a plain specimen to the nominal tensile
strength of a notched specimen
om is the mean stress for an unotched specimen of a fatigue
mn is the nominal mean stress fot a notched specimen of a fatigue
loading cycle
is the alternating stress for an unotched specimen of a fatigue
°a loading cycle
an is the nominal alternating stress for a notched specimen of
a fatigue loading cycle
tn is the notched tensile strength of the material given by the
ratio of maximum load to the original minimum area of the
qa is the notch sensitivity coefficient ranging from 0 to 1

A method similar to Heywood's [164] is given by Peterson [165] for the cal-
culation of Kf and is as follows:
Kf = + I
1+ a /r

where a is the number equivalent grain half-length and is similar to the

empirical constant a used by Heywood [164]. Other approaches for calculation
of Kf exist in the open literature but will not be represented at this time.

Juvinall [166J described several approaches to evaluate mean plus alter-

nating stress. The "res idual stress" method has been widely used in the
aircraft industry for several years. The method states that mean as well
as alternating stress levels have stress concentration factors associated
with them. Another method, called the "nominal mean stress" method assumes
that only the alternating stress has a stress concentration associated with
it and the mean stress contains no notch effects. There is less theoretical
justification for this method than for the "res idual stress" method however
it conforms well with experimental data. These methods will be discussed
in more detail in section 7.1.

Juvinall [166] gives 3 basic steps to analyze fatigue:

1) Representing the fatigue strength of the material or part

2) Representing the stresses involved
3) Knowing the relationship between strength and stress to
determine estimated life, safety factor, etc.

Also given is a proposed method for the evaluation of biaxial or 2-dimensional

stress. He recommends that the "strength" of a component be represented on
a conventional constant-life fatigue-strength diagram, similar to the one
shown in figure 35. Equivalent alternating bending stress should be
found by considering all loads and applying distortional energy theory, and
equivalent mean bending stress should be taken as the highest algebraic
principle stress caused by mean loads alone. He also states that it is
left to the engineer to determine whether the residual-stress method or the
nominal-mean-stress method is to be applied.

Some related work required for fatigue evaluation is the calcualtion of

mean stress in turBine Blade fasteners. Ryan and Rettaliata [167J
determined root stress and stress concentration factors for steam turbine
blade roots by photoelastic methods. Stresses at variuus locations of the
blade and disk root dovetail were calculated for a 3600 rpm machine
generating a blade centrifugal force of approximately 42,000 lbs.
The force was applied as a uniform tensile load and this resulted in a

uniform stress distribution in the root, Other photoe1astic work was

done by Fessler [168J who considered "T~slotll type turbine blade fasteners.

Heywood [169J did extensive work with various types of notch configurations,
which may be encountered in turbine blade roots, and. developed the
following analytical relationship for the calculation of fillet stress


where Wis the load applied to the projection

t is the thickness of the projection
a, b, e, R.and yare shown in figure 36 .
Calculated values from the above formula were said to agree within
10.0% of photoe1astic results with all values in th~paper having
agreement within 4.5%.

Other efforts were made to improve the calculation of steady stresses

in the blade-disk root region. Lambert [170J used a-finite element
approach to determlne influence coefficients for hook regions of a blade disk
root. A structural influence coefficient matrix was then formulated.
Assuming perfect initial load distribution on all hooks this matrix was
then solved for displacements, reaction forces and root stresses, Chan
and Tuba [171J, [172J subsequently developed a linear displacement, constant
strain element and a non-linear friction interface element for plane stress
and plane strain analysis of turbine blade roots. A computer program
incorporating these elements was developed to investigate hook-to-hook
clearance effects, the influence of interface friction, and optimum element
grid size for accuracy of results. Comparison with photoe1astic results
was generally from 2% to 25%, Similar trends in stress results from both
these methods were observed,

2.10 Summary: State of the Art

The most representative papers of the "state of the art" are given in
table 1 Since Campbell [ 6J demonstrated the need to avoid running
speed harmonics, massive efforts have been made to accurately calculate
natural frequencies of blades and blade groups to avoid per revolution
harmonics. Myk1estad [69-71J adapted lumped mass procedures accounting

for centrifugal and inertia effects, Lo and Renbarger [17J developed

continuous system approach for centrifugal stiffening, and Smith [12J
was the first to consider dynamic coupling of blade groups by tie-wires.
Carnegie, et. al. [27-45, 49, 51-54J developed the relationships for static
bending and vibration of pre-twisted blades, and solution by variational
methods. Included are centrifugal, inertia and shear effects, various
forms of taper, twist and setting angles, and the development of test
appartus and procedures for experimental verification of analytical
results, Later work was done using finite difference methods and
the digital computer to solve the equations Jof motion for the various
cases. Later work by Rao [48, 57J used Galerkin and Ritz variational
formulation to calculate natural frequencies of turbine blades again
considering tapered and twisted vanes, and shear, inertia and centrifugal
effects. Good correlation to test results and to results obtained by
Carnegie were achieved.

Barton [14J developed the Ritz method for vibration of uniform and skewed
cantilever plates, and showed good correlation with ~xperimental data
obtained for the uniform'case. Jarrett and Warner [72J applied the
Myklestad method to a ta,per, twisted turbine blade under centrifugal
force with an assumed point of fixity at the root. Tie-wires and a cover
boundary condition were considered and results for the first three modes
showed good correlation with test data. M6ntoya [46J used Runge-Kutta
numerical integration to solve the equations of motion for coupled
bending-torsional vibration of a rotating, twisted turbine blade. Correlation
with experimental results was excellent,

The first significant contribution by finite element analysis was made

by Dawe [86J who developed a 12 x 12 dynamic matrix for uniform plate
vibration analysis showing similar comparison to test results as those
achieved by Barton [14J. Dokumaci, Thomas and Carnegie [87J developed
8 x 8 mass and stiffness matrices for beams and calculated natural
frequencies of twisted blades giving good experimental correlation.
Comprehensive studies were done by Rawtani and Dokainish [90-97J using
triangular plate and shell element models to examine different taper,
twist, setting angles aspect ratio and rotational effects. Good cross
correlation with previous work by other authors was shown in all cases.

Zienkiewicz, et. al. [99,103. 104J used plate and isoparametric brick
elements for skewed cantilever vibrations and the vibration of a free
standing turbine blade. Correlation with test results was excellent
for the first mode. Other work added centrifugal effects to the brick
element. Lelanne, et. al. [112-114J used similar el~ment formulations to
investigate the vibration of rotating compressor, gas turbine and radial
inflow turbine blades, also giving good frequency correlation. MacBain
[116J used.the multipurpose finite element program, NASTRAN, to calculate
natural frequencies and modeshapes of a pre-twisted cantilever plate.
Frequency correlation and modeshape correlation with holographic inter-
ferometry was excellent.

The first practical application to frequency calculation of blade groups

was given by Prohl and Weaver [123, 124J where the .Myklestad method
was adapted to the computer for uncoupled tangential and axial vibration
of blade group. Resonant response factors were formulated from disk-
to-blade nozzle phasing and dynamic stress factors were given at the
base of the blades in the absence of damping. Deak and Baird [128J
considered coupled bending~bending vibration of tie-wired blade groups
with the method being very adaptable to the digital computer.

Salama and Petyt [137J used beam finite elements to calculate natural
frequencies of blade groups. Included were size and position tie-wire
effects, speed of rotation, partial arc admission and harmonic excitation.
No source or magnitude of excitation was given and no root stiffness was

Johnson and Bishop [36J formulated receptance equations for coupled

blade/disk vibration and Ellington and McCallion [145J developed closed
form solutions of the equations of motion for coupled blade/disk
vibration. Kirkhope and Wilson [150, 156J used sector analysis and the
finite element method to calculate coupled blade disk vibration. Test
results were obtained and good correlation was seen. Ewins, et. al.
[151~153, 155J developed the receptance formulation to obtain solutions
to coupled blade/disk vibration problems,

Up until this point, all previous work simulated root stiffness or

assumed rigid fixity at or near the base of the vane, and most efforts
were for calculation of natural frequency only. Rieger and Nowak [142,
143J used isoparametric brick elements to calculate natural frequencies
and modeshapes of blade groups. Root stiffness was accounted for by
modeling the entire blade/disk root structure. The work also included
steady and dynamic stress levels throughout the cover, vane, blade/disk
root structure. Non-steady steam excitation was supplied from water
table results by Rieger and Wicks [125, 126J and generator excitation
of coupled system torsional/blade vibration was considered. A general
fatigue procedure developed by Heywood [164J was described for evaluation
of fatigue failure of turbine blades. Other sources of excitation data was
presented by Partington D7~ who experimentally obtained blade excitation
data by rotating strain gauge apparatus and other fatigue evaluation
procedures were given by Juvinall [166J.

3.1 Analysis Method for Steady State Loading

Described in the sectiriri· 1.3 was the general procedure developed

for fatigue analysis of turbine blades. This method was then applied to
a typical low pressure turbine blade specifically, the third stage from
the condensor denoted by L-2, as shown in figure 38. This blade is
approximately 20 inches from cover to platform and is of the taper twisted
variety measuring 3.25 inches in chord length at the base to 2.75 inches in
chord length near the tenon. It has an axial entry fastener of the" Christ-
mas tree" variety which conforms to the general radii of the concave-convex
surface of the bottom of the vane section. The vane sits on the platform of
approximately 0.5 in. in thickness. This particular blade was designed
without a tie-wire but has been modified by the addition of one. The original
design experienced failures in the upper notch region of the blade root and the
tie-wire was added, as one of the design modifications, to reduce vibratory
amplitudes. Both blade designs will be analyzed and the results compared.
Special attention will be given to the upper blade r~ot n~tch region (pro-
bable failure location,fi.gure 39) during the entire 'fatigue calculation.

Figure 40 shows the three-dimensional single blade finite element model

for steady calculations. Steady stresses are calculated as follows:
1. Isolate a single blade-cover-root section from the group structure.
2. Develop Model 1 from this isolated blade, consisting of cover,
vane and platform sections as shown in figure 41.
3. Apply suitable constraints at the cover connection nodes, to
represent the adjoining group structure effects, and at the plat-
form support nodes; to produce reaction forces for later blade
disk calculations.
4. Apply centrifugal and steam bending loads to Model 1 and calculate
stresses and displacements throughout this structure.
5. Develop Model 2 for the root region, consisting of blade root
and disk root with interconnecting nodes as shown in figure 42.
6. Calculate the stresses and displacements in Model 2 by applying
reaction forces calculated from Modell-step 4 to the upper nodes
of blade root.

7. Develop Model 3, Figure 43,for two-dimensional detailed work

of the blade/disk root region.
8. Apply the reaction forces calculated from Modell-step 4 to the
upper nodes of Model 3 to calculate steady stress concentration
in blade/disk root.

3.2 Three-dimensional Single Blade Model - Modell

Modell, Figure41, was developed using linear strain isoparametric brick

elements consisting of 8 node points with 3 degrees of freedom each. A 3x3x3
Gaussian integration scheme is used to give more accurate formulation to the
element stiffness matrix due to slightly shewed elements in the cover and
vane region. The platform contains extremely skewed elements and reliable
stress output, even with a 3x3x3 integration scheme; is unlikely. However,
a great deal of attention is not needed in this region and it serves only
as a transition layer between the vane and blade root section. The under-
side of the platform is constrained from all motion and the three-dimensional
reaction forces will be applied later to several different root models for
subsequent calculations. The elements in this particular model of the vane
section are considerably longer radially than they are wide. Concern over
this aspect ratio (4:1) is justified if steady steam bending force is a
large part of the loading. In last stage blades, however, 95% of the load-
ing is due to centrifugal force and this model formulation is completely
acceptable. The cover section of Model 1 is constrained to zero displace-
ment in the axial and tangential directions but is allowed to move freely
in the radial direction under prescribed centrifugal and steady steam load.
The elements in the cover region are the same isoparametric formulation as
the rest of the model.

3.3 Three-dimensional Single Blade/Disk Root Model - Model 2

Model 2 figure 42, is three-dimensional representation of the blade/disk

root region for the isolated blade. Loads are transmitted to the platform
upper surface, by applying reaction forces of the vane nodes as indicated
in the Model 1 results. Loads are transmitted through the blade root to

to the disk root via the hooks on either section. The corresponding stress
distributions may be significantly influenced by hook-to-hook tolerances.
These effects are considered in Model 3. Model 2 is composed of elements with
the same formation as Model 1 and is constrained to zero displacement along
its lower surface, and to radial displacement only aiong its sides. Axial
displacements at the upstream and downstream faces are unrestricted and

3.4 Two-dimensional Single Blade/Disk Root Model - Model 3

A fine mesh of two-dimensional linear strain isoparametric elements con-

sisting of 4 nodes with 2 degrees of freedom per node, were used to obtain
detailed stress information on the blade and steeple region, figure 43.
A 2x2 Gaussian intergration scheme is used with this element. High stress
concentrations are known to occur in the notch fillet regions, so a fine
uniform element mesh was used in these regions to ensure accurate surface
stress results with accurate representation of the steep stress gradients
occuring in these regions .. Away from the notch fillet regions, stress
gradients are smaller, and a degeneration to larger elements is made by
using triangular constant strain elements. These lower order elements should
only be used in small stress gradient regions due to their inability to vary
in strain within the element. Gap elements were included at the blade/disk
root contact interfaces of Model 3 to account for the effect of manufacturing
tolerance errors and a friction boundary. As no manufactured root is dim-
ensionally perfect, small errors in hook-to-hook dimensions can produce
substantial effects on the hook loads and notch stresses.

Model 3 is loaded at the top of the blade root using reaction forces obtained
from Model 1 of the cover, tenon, vane and platform data. The location of
maxium stresses in tha axial direction throughout the root are obtained from
Model 2. Suitable loads then are applied to Model 3 for the maximum stress
axial 'slice ' of the structure to allow the two-dimensional plane stress/plane
strain calculation to give an accurate stress distribution. Centrifugal
load effects are also included in Model 3.

Model 3 is constrained to zero radial displacement and zero tangential dis-

placement along the bottom of the steeple seciton. No axial constraints
are required because this is a two-dimensional analysis. The sides of the
disk root sections are constrained to zero displacement in the tangential
direction, but may move freely in the radial direction.

The IIthree-model technique described above has been developed over several

years. It represents the most economical method for obtaining good stress
details, and it includes all major and many minor effects of this complex
problem in a practical and sophisticated manner.

3.5 Modified Blade and Corresponding Model Changes

The original design of the L-2 blade was modified a~corrective action against
failures. The following alterations were made.
1. A tie-wire was added at 12.625 inches above the platform at the
center of the vane section.
2. The stacking line was repositioned, moving fhe platform and every-
thing above it 0:120 inches tangentially toward the concave with
respect to the blade root.
3. The upper blade root notch fillet radius was increased from 0.031
inches to 0.062 inches to decrease the stress concentration at the
failure location.
4. The tenon was altered to a IIfootball" type configuration which con-
forms better to the top of the vane.
5. The underside of the platform was altered to allow more clearance
between it and the disk root. This was done to allow more precise
tuning of blade group natural frequencies.
6. The sides of the platform were altered to allow more clearance
between blades. This was also done to allow more precise blade
group tuning.
7. Blade grouping was changed from 40 groups of 5 blades and 4 groups
of 4 blades to 36 groups of 6 blades.

The tie-wire is modeled into the original blade design Model 1 by the use
of beam finite elements. They contain all geometric properties of the tie
wire and are attched rigidly to the vane at 12.625 inches above the platform.
An additional layer of vane elements are added to allow this. The stacking

line changes were easily accomplished by translating all nodal locations

above the underside of the platform by 0.120 inches. minor platform, root
and tenon changes were also completed. The upper notch radius of the blade
root was changed from 0.031 inches to 0.062 inches on the two-dimensional blade
root model (model - 3). The blade group was reconstructed, ~sing superelements,
to account for six blades.

The following modifications are all justifiable design changes. The upcoming
analysis will try to evaluate the effectiveness of these design changes by
determining the likelyhood of a fatigue failure of both L-2 designs.

4.1 Analysis Method for Flow Excited Loading

The second step is to develop a blade group for natural frequency and dynamic
stress analysis. The complete blade group structure including root section
must be modeled. Single blade modeling as for static analysis is no longer
adequate ~~, but the ~ingle blade models described previously are used
as substructures or 'superelements' for the blade group model. The dynamic
ana lys is precedes as fo 11 ows:
1. Remove cover constraints from Modell and seperate the platform
from the vane section.
2. Generate 3 'superelements', from Modell (cover/vane and platform)
and from Model 2 (blade/disk root section).
3. Generate a blade figure 44,using super elements generated in step
2 by coup1i ng the covers together (and ti e-wi re if app1i cab1e) .
Each root remains independent however.
4. Calculate natural frequencies of the group.
5. Calculate dynamic stresses precisely at resonant frequencies due
to harmonic excitation.

The superelement technique described in ANSYS [144] and described in much more
detail by Guyan [102] is utilized as a computer time saving technique. By
dividing an eleborate finite element mesh into several substructures and then
reducing the stiffness and mass matricies of these sections down to only nodal
degrees of freedom required to couple these sections to one another, an enormous
amount of stiffness matrix formulation time is saved when using these sections
over and over again. This is demonstrated when only a single blade of 3 super-
elements can generate an entire blade group.

4.2 Superelements and Critical Stress Elements

The single blade described in the previous section was modified slightly before
being mesh generated into the blade group. The modified blade consisted of three
sections. The first section was similar to Model 1 described in section 3.2,
consisting of the cover, tie-wire (if applicable) and vane, but lacking the plat-
form. This section is then reduced to a single superelement containing only
those nodes and degrees freedom needed to attach the cover to adjacent covers,

and to connect the bottom vane with the upperside of the platform. The
platform does not offer any valuable stress output due to the skewed nature
of the elements and because high stresses are not expected in this region. It
was made into a superelement seperate from the cover/vane superelement and
blade/disk root superelement. This would allow a complete stress analysis of
the cover/vane region without back substituting for the platform region. In
other words, it is a computer time saving modeling procedure.

A similar procedure was used in the blade/disk root region. However a method
is employed here to give direct stress results in certain locations without
having to back substitute for superelement stress results. Under dynamic
bending the blade root maximum stresses occur at the upper notch region. A
special layer of "critical stress" elements is therefore inserted to provide
detailed stress output from this upper notch region. This region is not included
in the platform superelement or the disk root superelement but can give stress
results directly with no superelement back substitution. Critical stress elements
were included as normal three-dimensional linear strain isoparametric brick
elements described previously. If additional stress output is required in the
remainder of the root a back substitution of the particular superelement is
needed. The remainder of the blade/disk root section is generated into a third
superelement with the same boundary constraints described in Model 2 of the
single blade calculation.

4.3 Blade Group Model

The substructured single blade model described in section 4.2 is then used to
generate a disk blade group as shown in figure 44. Each substructured blade
model is coupled at the cover and tie-wire (if applicable) with adjacent sub-
structured blades. This provides dynamic interaction of the blades necessary
for the dynamic analysis. However it is assumed that no dynamic interaction
occur between blade roots as they are completely isolated from one another.
The group model shows the critical stress elements and the dynamic degrees
of freedom chozen for use in the Guyan reduction.

4.4 Natural Frequency and Forced Response Calculation for Blade Group

After the generation of the blade group, section 4.3, an undamped natural
frequency calculation is performed on the blade group utilizing the Guyan
reduction routine in ANSYS [144]. The primary purpose of this calculation
is to identify the natural frequencies of the blade group. This enables a
damped forced response calculation precisely at the resonant frequencies.
The first concern is damped natural frequency is lower than undamped. However,
for small values of damping (say s = .5%) the undamped natural frequency,
w, is very close to the damped natural frequency, wo' as shown below:

Wo = wVl-s 2 where s = .005

o = .9999875 w

A second concern is the effect of tuning the blade group natural frequencies
not to coincide with per rev harmonics as discussed in Campbell [6]. Thus a
resonant condition will not exist and the forced response calculation is for
a resonant condition. However, if the number of cycles away from the closest
per rev harmonic can be determined, the stress and/or displacement results can
be reduced by the frequency ratio ~, referred to as the magnification factor.

i:o(resonance) = is = XR
1 = Xu
x_ : (undamped) =
X - 1.0 o
o 1

w = IK
o .../M

A third purpose of this calculation is verification of the finite element

model. Calculated frequencies are compared to independent test results and
any gross errors were made in modeling should become evident by this comparison.
Of course small discrepancies in frequencies are expected (~ 5%) but these may
be attributed to boundary conditions assumed in the disk-root model and to lumped
mass approach applied to this finite element group model.

The damped forc€d response calculation, where the forcing function is harmonic,
is performed precisely at the resonant frequencies. Forcing data for the blades
was obtained from a device called a "wa ter table" which models flow through
turbine stages by means of the hydraulic analogy. Data received from water table
results gives forcing in the axial and tangential directions for given cross-
sections of turbine vanes. A more elaborate description of the water table
can be found in Rieger and Wicks [125] and the assumpttons and restrictions of
the hydraulic analogy are given by Rieger and Wicks [126].

4.5 Analysis Method for Generator Excited Loading

The second type of dynamic loading on turbine blade groups is a result of short
circuits of one or more phases of the 3 phase generator which is powered by the
turbine. The most likely occurance is a one phase fault. This type of fault
will cause the worst possible electrical imbalance in the generator which will
cause high torsional transient excitation to the rest of the system (e.g. shafts,
blades, couplings, etc.) Torsional system oscillations will cause displacements
in all blades and blade groups of the system. If a natural frequency of the
coupled blade rotor system coincide with the transient excitation frequency a
resonant or nearly resonant condition occurs. Tangential displacements of the
blade group would usually show the greatest response to torsional excitation,
thus tangential blade group model would be most susceptible to this excitation.
However axial component modes must also be considered if they are coupled with
tangential components. The blade under consideration is known to have a tan-
gential failure mode judging by the fracture surface (see figure 40), and special
attention is directed to a given blade row in a given turbine of the rotor

The general finite element procedure is summarized as follows:

1. Generate a simple finite element model of the turbine
generator system composed of beams, springs and inertias.
2. Calculate the natural frequencies and mode shapes to gain
insight into the probability that the failed-blade is troubled
by torsional transient excitation frequency.
3. Apply electrical imbalance to the generator representing a single
phase fault condition for the given generator.
4. Calculate the response of simplified blade representations on
the torsional system.
5. Apply this response to the eleborate finite element group model
generated in section 4~3 to determine transient stress levels
throughout the blade group.

4.6 Turbine Generator Torsional Model

A cross section drawing of the complete turbine-generator unit is shown in

figure 45 The required finite element models were developed using the
principles described in Nestorides [159] for modeling shaft-disk torsional
systems, as follows:
1. Turbine disks were modeled as rigid disk members by their polar inertia.
Numerical values of I were supplied for each disk by the turbine vendor.
2. Shafts were modeled as uniform elastic, inertialess shafts of stiffness:

004 - O~1
K = 32 G L

Tapered shafts were modeled using more than one uniform section. Shafts
within solid sections (e.g. couplings) were modeled using the guidlines
in [159 ]. Shaft inertia was concentrated at the ends of the stiffness

3. Massive Rotors (e.g. HP turbine) were divided into several separate

rigid inertias. These inertias were joined from e.g. to e.g. by
equivalent inertialess shafts of appropriate stiffness.

4. Flexible-massive rotors(e.g. generator, excitor)were developed as

the massive rotors with more detailed modeling of the sections of
the rotor.

5. Couplings were represented as solid inertias at the c.g. of each

half on the assumption that no slip would occur at the coupling.
This assumption may possibly require some reconsideration for tran-
sient sheck calculations. There is no known data to provide guidance
on this point. An allowance was made for coupling elasticity using
the above stiffness formula in forming the coupling models.

6. Shrink fit conditions were modeled by including a suitable torsional

spring between adjacent disk inertias, where required. The purpose
here is to include the stiffening effect of the disk shrink fit on
the shaft. Both a three-dimensional finite element analysis and a
strength of materials calculation was performed to finally access the
shrink fit.

With these basic considerations in mind, the modeling of the turbine

generator is broken out into five major components consisting of the high
pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, the generator, and the exciter.
The details of the modeling is as follows:

1. High pressure turbine model. Figure46 shows a cross section through

the high pressure turbine rotor. Beams from nodes 53 through 56 repre-
sent the main body of the high pressure rotor. These beams constitute
the entire torsional inertia elements were input at each node to account
for the inertia of the high pressure blade rows. More accurate modeling
of these blade rows is not required for the present calculations because
the HP rotor blades are effectively rigid at all frequencies above 200.0

2. Low pressure turbine model. Figure47 shows an axial cross section

through a low-pressure turbine rotor. Both LP turbine rotors are very
similar, and were modeled with identical finite element models in this
calculation. The construction of the LP rotors is more complex and
more flexible than higher the HP rotor or the generator, and so the

Finite element models are more detailed. LP rotor modes are known
to exist in the frequency range 60 to 200 Hz, and substantial inter-
disk nodal displacements are known to occur through both LP rotors.

It is assumed that all rotor disks remain rigid during torsional

oscillation, and that all system flexibility is concnetrated in the
shaft on which the disks are mounted. The flexibility of this shaft
is complicated by the skrink fit which secures each disk on to the
shaft, and the negligible length of shaft between each disk which is
not conditioned by the shrink fit.

For the original blade design the following blade group frequencies
for the first tangential and axial modes were used:

Stage Blade Group Frequency, Hz

Tangential Axial
L-O 73.0 105.0
L-l 103.0 l17.0(LP1)
L-2 128.0 197

This data was used to model blades for each of the four L-O stages,
four L-l stages, and four L-2 stages of the machine.

From data provided by the turbine vendor, it was known in advance that
the L-O, L-l, and L-2 disks carry blade groups which have their lower
natural frequencies (tangential and possibly axial) in the frequency
range of interest, zero through 200.0 Hz. Thus, it was decided to
include the effect of the tangential and axial modes of the blades
in the calculations for each of these stages. The blades of the re-
maining stages were considered to remain rigid during vibration
(i.e. their blade dynamics would exert no significant effect on the LP
rotor torsional dynamics).

The L-O, L-l, and L-2 stages were modeled by including the rigid disks
as discrete inertias, and by representing the total blade inertia I b
supplied by the turbine vendor) as a single mass Me at the end of a

single flexible beam element Kb . The blade satisfies the following


(i ) Blade Inertia: I
I (given) It
~ Lj..
, \

i. e. M

(ii) Blade Natural Frequency:

(given) -
-~ JK:

b = blade inertia ( 2 ) (given)
e = effective mass of blade row (lb.sec 2 /in.) (unknown)
d = rim radius of disk (in.) (given)
L length of blade (in.) (given)
b = tangential natural frequency blade (l/sec) (giVen)-

11, = effective blade stiffness (lb./in.) (unknown)

Thus the blade stiffness may be "tuned" to give the correct inertia
value and the correct natural frequency for the L-O, L-l, and L-2
disks. Both Me and Kb are required input.

. 3. Generator Model The generator figure 48 ,was modeled with rigid

inertias and beam stiffnesses representing shaft lengths within the
generator. More detail was paid to this model than the high pressure
turbine even though flexible inertias, as in the low pressure model,
were not present. Detail in this model is needed to apply the excita-
tion along the 228" main body. Being such a long section of the system,

the load was applied uniformly at four different nodes located at

equal distances along the generator main body. Between each of these
nodes are three stiffness sections representing the effective diameter
of the generator main body. At each node are the inertias associated
with each effective diameters. The effective di~meters and inertias
were supplied by the turbine vendor.
(d) Exciter model. The exciter model figure 49 ~ was similar to the
generator. Less detail was used because no excitation was applied
to the exciter as was to the generator. The effective diameters and
inertias were again supplied by the turbine vendor.

4.7 Natural Frequency Calcualation for Turbine Generator Torsional System.

Undamped natural frequency calculation were performed -on various configurations

of the turbo-machine. The original and modified rotor with the exciter included
are the most important of the calculations. The importance of these calculations
are to gain insight on the torsional dynamics of the system to help identify the
cause of failure.

Dynamic degrees of freedom were chosen for the dynamic calculation.

These consisted of 6 in the exciter~ 8 in the generator~ 22 in each
of the low pressure turbines, 4 in the high pressure and the
remaining 10 in sections of the shaft connecting the major components
- - - .- - - - -
Only a fraction of the total number of oriainal d~arees
of freedom are used in the dynamic calculation as was the case in the forced
response calculation of the blade group described in section 4.~ How-
ever the reduction routine will give good accuracy for all modes below 200 Hz.
Mode shape plots ,will utilize only the relative amplitude of the dynamic
degrees of freedom as to eliminate the need for back substitutions. This will
suffer is the contour of the modeshape plots.

4.8 Transient response calculation for turbine generator system.

Two approaches, shown in figure 50, were considered to apply the response of the
torsional system to the elaborate model of the blade group developed in section
4.3. The first approach was to apply the response at the rim of the turbine
disk to the base of the blade group model for a given time period and perform
a transient analysis of the blade group under this given -response. Modification

of the blade group would have to be made to allow the base to be excited in
the tangential direction. Also, the cost of such a calculation would be
quite high.

An alternate procedure is used by applying the tip displacement of the beam,

representing the blade groups of a given stage, to the blade group in section
4.3. The tip displacement relative to rim displacement is calculated and is
then applied to the elaborate blade group model as a series of static calculation.
However, this procedure would only be valid for the first two blade modes,
which are the first tangential and the first axial. Higher modes would be omit-
ted from this calculation because originally only a single beam, with an axial
and tangential degree of freedom at the end, represented the blade groups.
Thus, only the first two cantilever modes (axial and tangential directions)
can be represented with this. This approach is valid because the L-2 failure
is believed to be attributed to the excitation of the first tangential blade
group mode at 128 Hz. Verification for this procedure is given in section 6.10.

4.9 Model Changes for Modified Blade.

The only significant changes for the modified blade on the torsional model is
the retuning of the beam representing the blade dynamic properties (i.e. 167
hz tangential and 190 hz axial). From the beam frequency calculations in
section 4.6, only the second moment of area was adjusted to suit the new
frequencies for the tie wire blade. The same transient stress procedure was
used to apply the tip deflection of the torsional response to the modified
blade group model discussed in section 3.5.


5.1 Original Blade

Table 2 presents details of information used in the 5teady state calculations

and table 3 gives a summary of the steady stress results of the single blade
model. Specifically, the centrifugal force was produced from the rotational
speed of 1800 rpm at a radius that varied from 43 inches at the platform to
63 inches at the cover. A steady steam force was uniformly distributed along
the length of the vane section at values of 2.93 lbs/in. in the tangential
direction. These forces produced a bending moment at the base of the vane
of 585.3 in-lbs. in the tangential direction and 646.3 in-lbs. in the axial

Detailed steady stress results for the vane, tenon and cover region are given
in table 4 . Reviewing the data shows the section producing the largest steady,
radial stresses, a~ , on the surface of the vane in section F. The center of
the pressure face of section
F gives asr maximum of 17,220 psi.
This stress
occurs at the centroid of the face which is 0.84 inches above the base of
the blade. The trail edge of the suction face of section F produced a maximum
a~ of 17,303 psi. These stresses occur at the centroid of the face of the
elements which is also located 0.84 inches above the base of the blade. A
more detailed model could have been developed for the base region if the stress-
es were critically high. However, stresses of this magnitude at the centroid
of the lowest element layer on the vane would produce only slightly larger
stresses at the base (in the order of one percent increase). Therefore, a
refined model can not be justified.

This is referred to as the nominal a~ because no stress concentration factors

were accounted for in the modeling of the base of the blades shown schematically
in figure5l. Refering to Peterson [165] shows that a radius of 0.75 inches
and a diD factor of approximately 1.0 gives no significant stress riser ass-
ociated with this configuration. Thus, the nominal a~ is also the maxjmum
a~ in the lowest vane section.

Reaction force data from the underside of the platform of model 1 in the
steady state analysis is applied to the 3 dimensional root model (model 2).
The radial load on model 2 are given in figure 52. Axial and tangential loads
are not included here because they are only a fractio~ of the radial load
(less than 5%) and can not easily be represented in this schematic.
Figure 53 shows nominal surface stresses in the radial direction in the
upper notch region of the blade root. The nominal stress reaches a maximum
at center of the suction face side of the blade were 0~ is 38,134 psi. This
stress is nominal because no stress concentration for the fillet was modeled
into this notch region. From Peterson [165] a stress concentration factor for
this region was picked to be 2.54 thus increasing the nominal 0~ of 96,860

We confined ourselves to stress results in the upper blade root notch region
where blades of this design typically fail. The middle and lower blade root
notch regions will experience smaller stress levels as will be seen later in
the 2 dimensional model of the blade/disk root and therefore are not calculated
in this more expensive 3-dimensional analysis.

To provide a more accurate definition of stress in the blade/disk root region,

especially in fillet areas, the maximum stress region in the preceeding section
was remodeled in 2 dimensions (mode13) using the grid pattern shown in figure
43 This 2 dimensional model is a cross section of the high stressed region
in the predeeding 3 dimensional analysis of model 2 as shown in figure 54.
This section varies in tangential thickness a small amount do to the offset in
radii in the design of the curved root. The thickness, d, was arbitarily
taken at its minimum as this would produce a worse case condition for nominal
stress across any given area of the root. As described in figure 54,55% of
the load was applied as a conservative assumption. The resulting maximum
radial surface stress, 0~ is 175,633 psi and is located in the upper blade
root notch fillet region on the suction face side and is shown in the stress
contour plot, figure 55. This compares to 96,860. psi found in the 3 dimen-
sional calculation. The reason for this discrepancy is described in figure 56.

The idealized stress gradient from a uniform load is compared to the true
stress gradient from a non-uniform centrifugal load. While the 3 dimensional
model sees a severe change in load due to centrifugal force, the elements
representing the root notch region are only capable of representing a linear
gradient as shown in figure 56. Even with the application of a stress concen-
tration factor from Peterson [165] this stress level still falls short of the
true stress level in this zone. The need for a more complicated 2-dimensional
model is ther~fore justified.

It is also noted that the previous stress levels lie in the plastic domain
for typical steam turbine blade steel (i.e. AISI 403 Stainless). The finite
element calculation assumes constant elasticity of steel and no yield point
is considered. An elasto-plastic calculation by the finite element method
is possible but costly. The high elastic stresses are. dealt with in a more
convenient and economical fashion in section7.2 .

5.2 Modified Blade

The same loading conditions care used for the modified blade (see table 2)
and a summary of the results 9btained in this calculation is given in
table 3. The data shows the maximum a~ in section F. The center of
the pressure face on the modified blade gives a a~ of 16,946 psi at the
centroid of the element which is 0.84 inches above the base of the blade.
The trail edge of the suction face of section F produced a maximum a~ of
17,453 psi at the centroid of the element face. Again, these are nominal
stresses and there is a fillet region at the base which could act as a stress
concentration. However, for the modified blade, as with the original, there
is no significant stress riser associated with this configuration. The
nominal stress levels are also the maximum stress levels in this region.

Reaction force data from the modified blade model (model 1) is represented
in figure 57. Axial and tangential components are not included because
they are small relative to the large radial loads from centrifugal force.
Axial, tangen~ial and radial components are applied to model 2.

Figure 58 shows nominal radial surface stress, a~, in the upper blade
root notch region at the center of the convex surface at a value of
25,267 psi. This is a 33.7% decrease from the original blade. This does
not include the effect of the stress concentration with the associated notch.
From Peterson [ 165] a stress concentration factor of 2.10 was applied to
the nominal a~ and a maximum a~ was calaulated to be 53,061 psi. This
is 45.2% lower then the original blade.

A comparison of the load applied to the two-dimensional models of the

original and the modified is shown in figure 59. Due to the .120 inch off-
set alone, the load gradiant shifted and become more uniform. The offset
and the larger upper notch radius (.062 inches) resulted in significantly
lower stress levels in the blade root for the two-dimensional analysis.
The maximum stress still occurred in the fillet region (where the crack
initiated in the original failure), but with a a~ of only 94,331 psi as
shown in the stress contour plot, figure 60. This is 46.3% decrease from
the original blade stress value.

Note that the percent decrease from the 3-dimensional analysis is close
to the percent decrease for the 2-dimensional analysis. This consistancy
supports the results obtained. However, the need for a refined 2-dimensional
analysis still remains as seen from the difference in the 2-dimensional and
3-dimensional values.

5.3 Verification of Steady State Results.

While the finite element method is an extremely powerful and dependable

analitical tool for the analysis of complex structures, many sources of error
accompany the method. Therefore, it is important to check the results
obtained by finite element analysis against simple strength of material cal-
culations, experimental values and other procedures,when ever possible, to
offer confidence in the final results.

First, a check on the centrifugal force is appropriate. Considering a

blade configuration similar to model 1 (ie, vane, cover and platform). The

following formula is used.


Where Fc is the centrifugal force in lbs.

WB is the weight of the blade in lbs.
g, is the acceleration due to gravity in in./sec.
w is the rotational speed in rads/sec.
Rc is the radius at the centroid of the blade in inches.

If WB is 6.0 lbs., g is 386.4 in./sec. 2 , w is 188.5 rad./sec. (1800 rpm)

and Rc is then 51.0 inches, then the centrifugal force, Fc ' is28,138.9 lbs.
This is the centrifugal force at the underside of the platform. The finite
element results gave an Fc of 2~611.3 lbs. which is a 9.0% difference in
answers. This difference is not crucial because values of WB and Rc were
crudely estimated. However, the strength of material calculation does offer
confideRce in the finite element values.

Another check can be performed on centrifugal stresses. Using the above

formula the weight of. the platform was estimated to 0.5 lbs. and was subtracted
from the total weight of the blade giving WB of 5.5 lbs. ALso, then Rc would
be increased slightly because the platform is not being considered. A new
value of 52.0 inches is assumed. Keeping g at 386.4 in./sec. 2 and w at
188.5 rad./sec., the calculated value for Fc at the base of the vane is
2~794.0 lbs. A value of 1.55 in. 2 is calculated for the vane crossection,
A, using a planimeter on a scale drawing. The radial stress. or' is given
by the following formula:

= (5.2)

A value of 1~541 psi was calculated. From the finite element results, an
average of the radial stresses at the centroid of the elements forming the
lowest layer of the vane section is16,612 psi, which agrees less than 0.2%
with the simple strength of materials calculation. This is extremely good
agreement and one can't help to think that it was a "lucky guess" calculation.
Just to know that the results show similar values gives confidence that the

results show similar values gives confidence that the finite element analysis
for steady stress analysis is valid.


6.1 Original Single Blade Frequencies

A preliminary frequency calculation was completed on a- single blade to .

compare results with on sight tests at the power ststion. Before assem-
bling a blade group, an undamped natural frequency calculation was per-
formed on the superelement model in section 4.2 The first natural fre-
quency calculation was performed on the superelement model in section 4.2
The first natural frequency of this model was calculated at 91.0 hz. Test
results at 0 rpm produced a frequency at 89 hz. This is a 2.2% difference
in values. 1his could be attributed to root conditions at 0 rpm, character-
istic errors in the lumped mass procedure and differences in Young's modulus
for the given material. These facts will be discusseo in more detail in
section 6.8 for the verification of the finite element analysis. However,
2.2% difference is not an unreasonable amount and further support for the
blade model is offered in the group natural frequency resul~s in the next

6.2 Original Blade Group Frequencies and Mode Shapes

The first 10 calculated natural frequencies of the five blade groups are
given in table 6 along with independent spin pit testing data for the
same blade. A brief comment on each mode shape is also included. The first
two blade group frequencies at 0 rpm are within 0.5% of the independent
test results. Figure 61shows a Campbell diagram of this blade group and
the calculated frequencies located on it.

Figure 62through 71 show the first 10 blade group mode shapes. These are
simplified computer plots of the relative amplitudes of the dynamic degrees
of freedom only. A plot of every node point of the entire blade group would
be extremely confusing to the eye and costly due to back substitution of the
superelements to obtain relative displacements of all nodal points in the

The first 2 modes at 119.14 hz. and 205.15 hz, respectively, are the most
criticle of the first 10 modes under consideration. The both are fundamental

cantilever modes which do not need a great deal of energy to excite.

Mode 1 is most supceptable to tangential flow excitation and Mode 2 is
governed by axial flow excitation because of their associated mode shapes.
Mode 1 being a tangential mode could also be supcepta~le to coupled blade/
disk system torsional modes excited by electrical imbalance in the generator
of a turbine generator machine. The modes above these first two fundamental
frequencies should not be ignored. With the proper phasing of exciting force
or if a frequency should coincide with a per rev harmonic of running speed,
these, as well as the first 2 modes, could contribute to a fatigue failure.
The forced response calculation will verify the likelihood of this.

The effect of centrifugal stiffening was accounted for by using a special

option in ANSYS [114] which requires a two-pass procedure. The first
calculation is a steady load calculation which alters the structural stiffness
matrix in order to compensate for the stiffening effect of the centrifugal
load. The second pass is a standard natural frequency calculation using the
modified stiffness matrix from the previous calculation. The first natural
frequency of the original blade group was 132.10 hz. which agrees within
0.1% of the upperbound of the spin pit test data at 1800 rpm given by the:
vendor (figure 61). The second mode at 215.24 hz. was in poor agreement
with the spin pit test frequency of 197.0hz., however. As rotational speed
increased the frequency of the test data decreased do to coupled blade/disk
effects. The finite element model does not include these disk effects because
of computer cost and core size problems. Because of these disk problems,
the centrifugally stiffened natural frequencies will be determined by the
vendor1s spin pit test results for the purpose of detuning of resonant stress
levels at 1800 rpm utilizing magnification factors. This is less desirable
than a complete analytical solution to the blade problem, however it is an
acceptable exchange looking from a practical and economical viewpoint.

6.3 Modified Blade Group Frequencies and Mode Shapes

The first 10 calculated frequencies of the modified 6 blade group are given
in table 7 along with independant spin pit test data. Figure 72 shows a
Campbell diagram [6 of this blade group and the calculated frequencies
on it. The difference in the results at 0 rpm for modes 1 through 4 are
0.0%, 9.3% 4.5% and 1.0%, respectively. The large difference in frequencies

for the second mode calculations is not understandable. The original

blade group frequency for the second mode was calculated to be 205.15 hz.
The only modifications were the addition of a tie-wire and another blade.
These modifications are clearly seen in the increase of the first group
natural frequency from 119.14 hz. in. the original 5 blade group to 158.89 hz.
in the tie wire 6 blade group and good correlation is shown with test
results. However, the tie-wire offers increased stiffness mainly for deflec-
tion in the tangential direction and offers littleor no stiffness increase
in the axial direction. The addition of another blade in the group and the
additional mass of the tie-wire should not cause such a dramatic decrease
in frequency for the first axial mode. The added tie-wire mass will cause
a small decrease in frequency. Th~ addition of another blade should, in-
tuitively, cause no change in the frequency because the stiffness in the
axial direction is not geverned by the tie-wire or the cover, but mainly
by the flexural stiffness of each individual blade. However, test results
show a decrease varying from 24 hz to 28 hz at the lower and upper limits,
respectively, of the frequency band~ The finite element cal~ulatiQns for.
the· ori gi nal 5 blade group produced a second natura'i frequency Of 205. 15
hz. and the modified 6 blade group.gave a second .natural frequency of 203.35
hz. This is a 1.8 hz decrease in frequency which is a more reasonable change.

Figure 73 through 82 show the first 10 blade group mode shapes which are simpli-
fied computer plots of the dynamic degrees of freedom. Again, the modes of major
concern are the first tangential (158.89 hz) and the first axial (203.35 hz).
These two modes are most susceptable to tangential and axial flow excitation.
However, the higher modes should not be disregarded, because flow conditions might
be to supply these group modes with enough energy to cause a failure.

6.4 Original Blade Group Forced Response Results

Flow excited loading conditions and values are described in table 2.

From water table results it was found that both the tangential and the
axial excitation are 15% of the steady steam force. It was previously assumed
that the steady steam force was uniformly distributed along the length of
the blade at values of 2.93 lbs/in. in the tangential direction and 3.23 lbsl
in. the axial direction. The non-steady steam force was taken as 15% of the
tangential and axial values, The non-steady force was evenly distributed
along the vane being applied at the dynamic degrees of

freedom. The flow excited force was assumed to act in phase, a condition
which may not be true, but a worst case condition for the first 2 modes.
Water table data is supplied for a single blade and the actual effect of
blade to blade phasing is not considered by the water table. Table 8
summarizes alternating stress levels in the original blades.

Figure83 given values of nominal alternating radial surface stress, cr~,

in the upper-blade root notch region for mode 1 (119.14 hZ) of the original
blade. The values have positive or negative notation associated with them
but change sign every time a reverse loading occurs (ie vibratory motion,
+ and - stress levels). For 1% criticle damping, a maximum nominal value
of cr~ is seen in the 4th blade of the group at the center of convex surface,
where a value of 18,046 psi is reached. This is at least 14.0% higher than
any of the other values in the upper notch region of the fourth blade. Not
only is this region the most highly stressed by alternating stress but is also
the area already identified as the region of highest steady stress. From
studying actual failed blades, cracks show their Drigins at this point and
propogating outward in a conical fashion as shown in figure 39 .

Again this is a nominal surface stress as were the steady stress values in
section~:!. From Peterson [165 ] for the given root configuration and loading
condition (bending) a stress concentration factor of Kt was choozen as 2.10.
This will then produce a maximum cr~ of 37,897 psi. This is a resonant stress
and is the worst stress possible for 15% excitation and 1% criticle damping.
Most design procedures keep blade groups from coinciding with per rev harmonics
and are therefore, not at a resonant condition. Utilizing the magnification'
factor described in section 4.4, spin pit data (figure 61 ) at 1800 rpm shows
the first blade group natural frequency is 8.0 hz above the resonant
condition of 4 per rev at 1800 rpm. This leads to a 6.05 to 1 reduction in
stress level. The maximum cr~ at this operating condition is found to be
6,259 psi.

Figure 84 gives values of nominal alternating radial surface stress, cr~, in

the upper blade root notch region for mode 2 (205.15 hz). The second mode pro-
duced a maximum nominal alternating surface stress level, cr a , of 5,482 psi.
This stress occurs in the 5th blade of the blade group on the concave side of
the upper notch region at the trial edge. From Peterson [ 165] for this type

of bending condition a Kt was picked at 1.81. This produced a maximum

alternating stress in the second mode of 9,922 psi. This is a resonant
condition. From spin pit test data (figure 61 ) at 1800 rpm, it is found
that the first blade group natural frequency is 13.0 ~z removed from the
actual operating resonant condition of 7 per rev at 1800 rpm. This leads
to a 6.00 to 1 reduction in the stress level. The maximum a~ at this op-
erating condition is reduced to 1,654 psi.

Higher modes (3-10) show only very small dynamic stresses in the blade root
and else where in the blade group. This does not always have to be true but is
in the case of the original blade.

Alternating stress levels in other regions of the blade are also high (eg.
base of the vane). However, the mean stress at these locations is low and
fatigue failure is not possible at these levels. These areas are easily
dismissed from the analysis.

6.5 Modified Blade Forced -Response Results

Because of the same airfoil geometry and the same number of blades in the
L-2 row, the same flow excitation is applied to the modified blade group
model as was to the original blade group model. These values are given in
table 2 and are applied uniformly along the length of the vane section
as 15% of the steady steam force in the axial and tangential directions.
Again, the flow excitation was assumed to act in phase on the blade group.
Table 8 summarizes alternating stress levels in the modified low pressure blade

Figure 85 gives values of nominal alternating radial surface stress, a~,

in the upper blade root notch region for mode 1 (158.89 hz) of the modified
blade. Again + and - values denote a reverse loading condition. For 1%
criticle damping, a maximum nominal value of a~ is seen in the 6th blade of
the group at the lead edge of the concave surface where a value of 15,463
psi is calculated. Not only is this stress value 14.3% lower than the
maximum value of 18,046 psi observed in the original design, but it occurs
in a low mean stress region as seen in figure 58 . A nominal steady stress
value, as, of 10.090 psi is observed here. Therefore. a maximum
nominal aar of 13,441 psi occurs in the center
of the convex side of the
upper notch region of the 6th blade root in the modified design. From
Peterson [165], a value 1.65 was chozen for Kt . This produced a maximum
a~ of 22,178 psi in the first mode for the modified blade root. Again, this
high stress occured at the point of fracture for the original blade. However,
in the first mode, the stress values are lower in the modified blade than in
the original blade which indicates an improved design. From spin pit test
data it is recognized that their resonant condition is 13.0 hz below the
actual operating resonant condition of 6 per rev at 1800 rpm. This gives
a 6.96 to 1 reduction n stress levels as shown in figure 51 and reduces
the maximum a~ -to 3,186 psi in the first mode for the modified blade.

Figure 86 gives values of nominal a~ in the upper blade root notch region
for mode 2 (203.35 hz). The modified blade second mode produced a maximum
nominal a~ of 6,032 psi which occurs in the 6th blade at the trail edge of
the concave surface in the upper blade root notch region. From Peterson [165
a K for second mode bending was chozen to be 1.50. This produced a maximum
a~ of 9,048 psi in the second mode for the modified blade root. Again, this
is a resonant stress condition which is 10.0 hz above the actual operating
resonant condition of 6 per rev at 1800 rpm according to spin pit test data.
This leads to a 5.12 to 1 reduction in stress levels as shown in figure
and reduces the maximum a~ to 1,767 psi in the second mode for the modified

Hiqh dvnamic stress levels were cbserved in the tiewire region where
a minimum resonant value of 54,156 psi was observed on the pressure face
side of the third blade in the first mode. Since the analysis was focused
on blade root failures, tie modeling of the tiewire region was extremely
course and this stress valuemay bemisleading because of U. This is also
a region of very low stress concentration (large fillet radii). If a 6.96
to 1 reduction in dynamic stress is considered here again for first mode
operating condition, a determined nominal stress value of 7,781 psi is
observed. However, care should be taken in the welding procedure of the
tiewire to avoid any problems.

Again the upper modes (3-10) show only small synamic stresses in the blade
root and in other regions of the blade group.

6.6 Turbine Generator Torsional Frequency Results-Original Blade

Table 9 and figure 88 through 112 give the first 25 natural frequencies and
torsional modeshapes. A natural frequency calculation is important in the tor-
,inn~l ,v,tpm_ ~, it W~~ in thp blade arOUD sYstem. for similar reasons. First

the insight gained from examination of the mode shapes allows identification of
modes and frequency ranges which may be troublesom~ to the particular failure
investigation. Secondly, the corrolation of frequencies with test results
and with calculations done independently by the turbine vendor add confidence
in the modeling of the turbine generator torsional system.

From the results it is noted that mode 16 through 22, which range from 117.77
hz to 132.52 hz, define a frequency range which contain the orig~nal low-
pressure first blade group frequency of 128 hz ( from Campbell diagram in
figure 61 at 1800 rpm) and the 120 hz component of excitation attributed
to a single phase fault in the turbine generator. Examining the mode shapes
more closely show large tip displacements of the low pressure blade being
considered (denoted L-2 as in figure 47 ) relative to the L-O and L-l stages.
This is significant because it identifies the contribution of the L-2 low
pressure blade to the frequency range which exists around the 120 hz component
of excitation. There is also a 60 hz component of excitation which could
contribute as well to the excitation of this frequency range because the frequency
range (120 hz) is an integer multiple of the 60 hz component. This excitation
is discussed further in section 6.8.

6.7 Turbine Generator Torsional Frequency Results-Modified Blade

Table 9 and figure 113 through 137 give the first 25 natural frequencies
and torsional modeshapes of the modified rotor. These modeshapes and frequenc-
ies are very similar to the rotor with the original blades modeled, except in
the frequency range above 116 hz. In this region resonant values have changed
significantly. The reason for such a dramatic change is the modeling of the
low pressure blade (L-2) on the torsional system. The @riginal blade represent-
ation with a blade group frequency of 128 hz. was changed to the modified blade
representation with a blade group frequency of 167 hz. This moved group frequen-
cies in the 120 hz. range into the 170 hz. range. By changing the L-2 blade fre-
quency to 167 hz. will cause lower amplitude in the transient response of that
lower pressure blade because the blade frequency is 47 hz. above the 120 hz exci-
tation component induced by the generator.

6.8 Original Blade Group Transient Response Results

The generater model of the system torsional model was loaded by values obtained
from the turbine vendor as shown in figure 138. The excitation was applied .1

second and left to diminish over a full second for a value of damping of 0.1%
critical at 150.0 hz. Note the 60 hz. and 120 hz. component superimposed on
the DC component level which tends to offset the curve up from the time axis.
The response due to this excitation is obtained by ta~ing the axial and tangent-
ial displacement response in time to produce the "re lative transient tip dis-
placment". The relative tip displacement for the L-2 stage closest to the
generator produced the largest relative applitudes and the response is plotted
for a 1.0 second duration in figure139. A maximum tip amplitude of 0.1368
inches in the tangential direction and 0.0387 inches in the axial direction is
observed at 0.115 seconds. Beyond this point the response dies out over the
remainder of the 1.0 interval.

The above maximum displacement is now applied to the blade group model used
in the forced response analysis for flow excited loading (section 6.2). This
time a dynamic analysis is not necessary. Only a single static analysis with
the maximum tip displacements applied is completed to give maximum transient
stresses in critical locations in the blade group~ Figure 140 shows maximum
nominal radial surface stress in the upper blade root notch region of the original
blades. A maximum nominal cr~ of 18,048 psi was observed. These stresses
are nominal for the same reason as were the forced response stress results for
flow excited loading, ie no stress concentrations were modeled in. Because
the deflection in the transient response calculation was almost identical to
the first mode deflection of the forced response calculation (ie. almost purly
tangential) the same values for stress concentration, Kt , can be used for the
nominal transient stress. With a Kt of 2.10 a maximum transient radial stress,
cr~, for the original blade group was found to be 37,901 psi.

Values at other points in time can be easily found by scaling the displacement
at a given time to the maximum values alone, since the stress is linearly
proportional to the tip displacement. For instance displacement values at
0.28 seconds during the transient of 0.09 inches in the tangential produce
a maximum transient stress cr;, in the failure location of 24,935 psi.

The failure criteria imposed on these transient stress levels are given in
section 7.2 .

6.9 Modified Blade Group Transient Stress Results.

The same type of loading described in section 6.8 that was applied to the tor-
sional system with the original blades was applied to _the torsional system
with the modified blades. The response due to this excitation is obtained the
same way as was in original blade transient analysis. Relative transient tip
displacements reached a maximum, again at the L-2 stage closest to the generator
where a maximum value of 0.0295 inches tangential and 0.0044 inches axial were
observed at 0.175 seconds. The transient tends to diminish after this point
for the 1.0 second duration, as seen in figure 141

The maximum transient tip displacements are applied to the modified blade
group model from section 6.3 and the maximum nominal transient radial stresses,
0;, in the upper notch region are shown in figure 142-. A stress concentration
Kt , of 1.65, which was the same used in the modified blade forced response
analysis for the first mode was applied to the nominal o~ of 5,090 psi and a
maximum 0; of 8,399 psi was observed at the center of the convex side of the
upper blade root notch region. This location is still at the original blades
failure location, however, the modified blade configuration has 0; values of
about 1/4 that of the original blade group configuration.

Tie-wire nominal stress levels of 24,688 psi are observed in the 3rd blade
of the group as seen in figure 143. This is the highest in the modified
blade configuration. These are not dangerously high levels but it is noted that
inadequeate tie-wire welding procedures could cause stress concentrations in
this region of the blade structure. Great care should be taken in the welding

6.10 Verification of Dynamic Results

Previously discussed in Section 6.1 through 6.3 were the verifications of

natural frequencies calculated for the original single blade and blade
group and the modified blade group. The correlation with test results was
good at every available value with the exception of the original blade group
configuration calculated second mode value at 1800 r.p.m. Similar correla-
tion for system torsional frequencies was also achieved. Table 9 gives
the first 25 frequency of the turbine generator set under study. The first
column gives the calculated finite element valves for the rotor with the
original low pressure blades. The next column are the turbine vendor's
calculated valves followed by a column of percent difference between cal-
culated valves. Difference range from 6.9% for mode 1 down to 0.3% for mode
18. The next column gives experimented values obtained from strain gauge
apparatus affixed to shaft between the generator and the first low pressure
stage, and on the shaft between the two low pressure turbines. It can be
noted from table 9 that there are fewer experimental frequencies than there
are calculated. However, the two sets of calculated values show the same
number of frequencies and are in fairly good agreement. This would indicate
that the strain gauge apparatus did not sense all the frequencies in the 0 hz
to 200 hz range. This may be due to the gauges being affixed to a "zero
strain" region of a given mode. The experimental results agree well with the
finite element calculations at certain modes. Correlation ranges from 0.0%
at mode 1 to 4.9% at mode 2. There is no modeshape correlation with test and
calculated results, so the frequencies do not have to coincide as they do in
the table. But the close correlation, of finite element results and the re-
sults given by the vendor, support the finite element modeling of the turbine
generator system.

An understanding is also required of the coupled blade/disk torsional modes

of a typical turbine rotor may be obtained by considering the simple finite
element model blade disk rotor shown in figure 144 . This model gives an
approximate representation for those modes observed in the two low pressure
rotors when the generator and the high pressure rotor remain almost motionless,
and a sequence of interacting motions occurs between the disks and the blades
of the two LP rotors.

The model in figure 144 consists of four massive rotor disks represented
by rigid beam elements and are mounted on a common shaft, also a beam ele-
ment. The ends of the shaft are fixed so that no torsional motion occurs at
these points. The shaft sections are symmetric about the mid-point but there
are different shaft stiffness values, as indicated. Each disk has a single
tangential degree of freedom beam element, representing a blade, attached to
its rim. The model has eight degrees of freedom, and is positive definite.
It, therefore, has eight natural frequencies and modes.

This model relates to the LP rotor modes as follows. Each disk represents
an LP rotor end section. The blade shown on each disk represents any blade
row which has interactive motions with the disks of the machine. Different
blade frequencies may therefore be tuned for a given rotor. The motions of
any blade row may thus be studied to gain understanding by tuning these blades
to their desired natural frequency on the disk.

Two cases were studied. The first case assumed that the blade row remained
rigid and only four frequencies and torsional disk modes resulted. The
second case allowed for flexible blades so eight frequencies and coupled disk
torsional/blade bending modes were included. The mode shapes for both these
cases are given in figures 145 through 147

Again, this offers insight into the type of motion expected of a large turbine
generator system. It would have been too complicated to describe every point
of the turbine generator modeshapes plot given in figures 88 through 137
As long as the motion can be seen in a simple model like the previously described
one, then a confidence can be gained for the results of the larger system.

Another technique that should be addressed in the calculation of transient

stress levels discussed in section 4.8 and applied in section 6.8 and 6.9 was
a simple technique of calculating transient root stress. From the torsional
model of the turbine generator set, which was excited by a terminal short
circuit, transient displacements were calculated and plotted as shown in
figure 139 and 141 . These are blade tip displacements relative to the base
of the beam representing the tuned blade group. These tip displacements are
then applied to the shroud of the elaborate blade group superelement model,
developed in section 4.3 for a series of static calculations to determine

transient stress levels. This method was chozen over a more costly method
that would have applied transient rim displacement to the base of the
elaborate blade group superelement model for a transient calculation. There
are obviously going to be differences in stress results between the two methods
because we are applying the displacement results from a single mass, two degree
of freedom system, to a multiple mass and degree of freedom system (blade froup
model from section 4.8). A check on the difference can be determined from a
look at the forced response results for the original blade group given in
section 6.4. An average tip displacement of the five blades of the group was
found to correspond to a root stress of 19,928 psi nominal from the forced re-
sponse result. The same tip displacement was applied statically to the blade
group and a root stress in the same location was found to be 18,048 psi. This
is a 9.4% error from the true dynamic stress level that would be expected but
it is felt that such an error is easy to live with , j~stified by the large
savings in computer time gained by using this method.


7.1 Fatigue Analysis Procedures

Since steady and alternating stress levels have been obtained, a suitable
fatigue analysis procedure is now required to evaluate the possibility of
fatigue failure in the blade group. Many fatigue procedures, and modifica-
tions on these -procedures, exist in the literature. Most have been developed
for special circumstances and all such procedures have some experimental and
theoretical support. Juvina11 [166J describes ,the general problem as follows:

"There is as yet no general agreement regarding the

proper method of analyzing situations involving stress
risers together with combined mean and alternating stress.
All methods apply some stress-concentration factor to the
alternating stress. Disagreements arise as to how to de-
termine this factor, whether or not a factor should also
be applied to the mean stress (and if so, whether it should
be the same factor as applied to the alternating stress),
and how risidua1 stresses resulting from stress peaks -
should be hand1ed."

Considering the above statement, it is evident that no general method pre-

sently exists for fatigue analysis of structures. Juvina11 [166J further
describes two well-known procedures for fatigue evaluation. The first
procedure is the "res idua1 stress" method which makes the following assump-

1. Mean as well as alternating stresses are increased by a stress

concentration factor.
2. The appropriate stress concentration factor in both cases is the
fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf .
3. The residual stresses caused by the initial application of peak
loads can be determined from conventional stress-strain curves.

This method with some minor modifications has been used in the aircraft
industry for years.

The second procedure is the "nominal mean stress" method which is similar
to the residual stress method in its treatment of alternating stress. How-
ever, for mean stress no stress concentration is applied and the nominal
value of mean stress is used for the evaluation of fatigue. The method
has less theoretical justification but conforms reasonably well with ex-
perimental data. It is not applicable to brittle materials.

The most comprehensive procedure to date for fatigue evaluation is given

by Heywood [164J and is described in section 2.9. The procedure which
reduces unnotched fatigue data to notched fatigue data using equations
2.17 and 2.18, was chozen from 15 variations of similar methods examined.
Heywood [164J states that this formulation, "is suggested as giving the
most reliable indication of behavior," meaning general fatigue behavior.

The formulation is adaptable to any number of cycles to failure, which

will conform well to the low-pressure blade fatigue analysis, because the
number of transient stress cycles encountered in the life of the blade
is less than 1000. Also, either the nominal mean stress or the residual
stress method can be adapted to this procedure becuase a fatigue stress
concentration factor, Kf , is calculated for both mean and alternating load-
ing. Heywood1s method clearly has all variables of fatigue accounted for
and the method will be used for fatigue evaluation of the low-pressure

Figure 148 gives a Goodman diagram with fatigue envelopes ranging from
1 cycle to failure to 107cycles to failure for AISI 403 stainless. For
non-steady steam excitation, the 107 cycle envelope is considered because
rotating blades would experience at least 107 cycle during machine operation
due to consecutive loadings from the stationary vanes. For torsional
transient excitation, the 10 3 cycle envelope is'considered because it is
not expected that more than 1000 such transients could occur during a
given operation period (ie. 2 to 3 years).

7.2 Blade Fatigue Results

Two cases of fatigue are being considered for both blade designs. For
flow excited loading, the fatiuge criteria is based on infinite life or
107 cycles to failures. Since one loading occurs every tjme a blade passes
a nozzle during the operating of the machine, the cyclic limit for infinite
life is reached during a very short period of operation. For generator
excited loading, the fatigue criteria is based on 103 cycles to failure
since it would be highly unlikely that more than 1000 terminal short circuits
be encountered during a 2 or 3 year period of operation.

For both fatigue cases, the standard unnotched Goodman diagram, and notched
mean and alternating stress data i~ plotted to evaluate fatigue. Since
notched mean stress data is used, the residual stress method is supported.
It was chosen over the nominal mean stress method because very high mean
stress concentrations were found in fillet regions and it was felt that
these high stress concentrations could not be ignored as they would be if
the nominal mean stress method was supported. For the flow eXGited loading
case, Heywood's method described in the preceding section was also used
since, for fatigue based on infinite life, equations2.17 and 2.1& reduce to
a more simple form (see reference [164J) and the notched fatigue curve
(figure 35) is easily computed. For generator excited loading, where low
cycle fatigue is being considered, a considerable amount of fatigue data is
required from test specimens because all quantities in equations 2.17 and
2.18 are needed to compute the notched fatigue envelope which makes simpli-
fication of these equations impossible. Therefore, only the unnotched Goodman
diagram with notched data is used for generator excited loading.

Another problem arises from the high elastic steady stress values calculated
in the upper notch region of the blade root. Since the yield point of this
material is approximately 85,000 psi, it is evident that the high elastic
stress values of 175,633 psi and 94,331 psi for the original and modified
design, respectively, will cause plastic flow of the material. If the assump-
tion is made that only local plastic deformation occurs in this root region,
then the elasto-plastic stress and strain values may be approximated as

shown in figures149 and 150. These values are 86,000 psi for the original
blade and 85,000 psi for the modified blade with the corresponding strain
values of 0.0059 in/in and 0.0031 in/in, respectively. An elasto-plastic
finite element analysis of the blade root would be the best answer to
this problem. However, such a calculation would be extremely costly and the
preceding approximations were made as an effort to minimize expenditures
without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.

Table 10 and figures 151 through 154 give all fatigue data necessary for
the fatigue evaluation of the low pressure blade along with a brief comment
on how these values were obtained. In general, calculated values for
the modified blade were significantly lower than for the original blade with
the exception of nominal mean stress in the upper blade root crossection,
as The maximum elastic mean stress, a Sr showed a reduction of almost
nom -
2 to 1 as was the case with the elastic fatigue stress concentration
factor, Kf. Only a 1,000 psi decrease was found in the mean fatigue stress,
aSfr' However, the significant change was noted previously as the change
of strain from 0.0059 in/in in the original design to 0.OG31 in/in in
the modified design. Fatigue stress concentration factor for alternating
stress showed only a 13% decrease from the original to the modified design,
however resonant and non-resonant stress showed a 1.6 to 1 and a 1.8 to
1 decrease, respectively. The most significant change in fatigue stress
levels was the change of the transient fatigue stress, atfr, from 30,140
psi for the original design to 7,381 psi for the modified design. As will
be noted in section 7.3, this high alternating stress in the original design
may have been the most dominant effect on the original blade failure and
the decrease of this stress level may result in the longevity of the modified
blade design.

7.3 Assessment of Fatigue Hazard from Calculated Values

Referring to figures 151, it is noted that for a resonant condition a predicted

failure due to fatigue is shown by the use of the notched and unnotched
Goodman diagram. According to vendor test data, the blades do not operate
at a resonant condition and a analytical detuning process discussed earlier

is used to reduc~ to a non-resonant stress level. For the non-resonant case,

both fatigue evaluation procedures (notched and unnotched curves) show a
marginally safe operating condition. This is termed "marginal" because the
high mean stress level causes the location of a fatigue point near the
failure envelope in both cases. A poorly tuned blade group could cause
an increase of the dynamic stress level to a point that coincides with or
exceedes the failure envelope, thus increasing the chance of fatigue.

Similar trends are shown in figure 152 for the modified blade design. A
slight discrepancy between the notched and unnotched fatigue curve procedure
results at the resonant condition, however. The notch fatigue curve procedure
indicates a safe condition at a resonant condition and the unnotched fatigue
cunve procedure shows a failure condition. The reason for this discrepancy
is not known and not speculated upon. However, it is safe to conclude that
both methods show a safe, non-resonant operating condition.

For torsionally excited loading, a more critical fatigue condition for the
original blade design is evident from figure 153. Originally the fatigue
evaluation was to be based on 103 cycles to failure. As shown in figure
153, not only is a failure condition predicted fof 103 cycles to failure
but, for 1 significant stress cycle per terminal short circuit, the transient
fatigue stress value, 0~r of 30,140 psi is also plotted above the fatigue
envelope based on a one cycle failure. This means that a failure condition
will be present everytime a terminal short circuit occurs. The likelihood
of such a terminal short circuit occurring is not known to the author, but it
is a realistic event which could occur in the generator of the turbine
generator system during normal operation. Also, during the decay of the
transient resulting from a single terminal short circuit, 10 cycles of
20,000 psi or greater would occur with 30,140 psi being the largest of these
values. This further increases the possibility of a fatigue failure occurring.

The modified design showed more than a 4 to 1 decrease in the fatigue stress
value for 1 significant cycle per terminal short circuit. This corresponds
to a transient fatigue stress value, 0~r ' of 7,381 psi. As shown in figure
154, not only does this failure point lie below the curve based on 1 cycle
to failure, but it lies below all failure envelopes which indicate a possible
infinite life condition for the modified blade design.

Since the flow excited loading condition is always present, the transient
stress results should be superimposed on the alternating stress resluting
from flow excited loading. For a nonresonant condition, this will give a
total dynamic stress for the original blade design of 35,117 psi which only
further increases its chances of failure as shown in fig~re 153. Consider-
ing the modified blade design, the total dynamic stress will be raised to a
value of 10,181 psi. This is slightly worse condition than before, but it
is still marginally safe as shown in figure 154.

8. Conclusions

1. A new procedure for the fatigue analysis of turbine blades has

been described and demonstrated.

2. The new procedure employs the finite element method to calculate

the static and dynamic stresses, in a given turbine blade group.
Excitation data obtained from water table measurements is used,
typical values of blade d:amping based upon experience are util-
ized for resonant stresses.

3. The above procedure was initially developed for flow excited load-
ing. It was later extended for the anlysis of turbine-generator
blade torsional response to generator excitation.

4. The procedure has been demonstrated for a practical case of turbine

blade fatigue analysis. Results obtained for an original blade design
and for a modified blade design showed significantly lower static and
dynamic stress levels in the. modified design.

5. Elastic static stresses at the blade root failure location decreased

from 175,633 psi (original design) to 94,331 psi (modified design).
The corresponding elasto-platic stresses values are estimated as
86,000 psi and 85,000 psi for AISI 403 steel, respectively. Cor-
responding strain values are 0.59 in/in (original) and 0.31 in/in

6. For flow excited loading the dynamic stress levels at the failure
location decreased from 6,259 psi (original design) to 3,186 psi
(modified design) for a non-resonant operation, in the first mode.

7. Maximum dynamic stresses at the failure location from system torsional

response, due to a single electrical transient excitation in the gener-
ator, decreased from 37,901 psi in the original design to 8,399 psi in
the modified design.

8. Nominal tie-wire stresses for the modified blade were 54,156 psi
for the flow excited loading. For generator loading gave a nominal
value of 24,688 psi. In the absence of significant static stress
values and stress concentrations at their location these values
demonstrate a safe operating condition in fatigue:

9. The comprehensive fatigue criteria at 107 cycles for flow excitation

indicated a marginally safe condition for the original design. A some-
what improved condition was found for the modified blades design case
at the non-resonant operating condition.

10. Fatigue evaluation based on one significant vibration cycle per generator-
excited transient, show a definite failure condition for the original
design. An improved, marginally-safe, condition exists for the modified
blade design under the same loading conditions.

11. At present no general fatigue criterion appears to exist which is well

suited to this type of turbine blade calculation. The comprehensive
fatigue methods used herein have shortcomings when dealing with high
stress concentration effects, with the definition of significant
transient cycles, with plasticity effects, and with suitability of the
material fatigue data available.

9.0 Recommendations

1. A comprehensive fatigue criterion should be developed for turbine blading.

This criterion should be suitable for notched blade root sections, with
preloaded effects.

2. An elasto-plastic finite element analysis should be undertaken to verify

the plastic stress and strain values estimated herein for high elastic
stress conditions observed in this analysis.

3. More comprehensive flow excitation data should be obtained for turbine

stages. The worst conditions for typical geometries should be defined
for design use.

4. Further experimental damping studies of actual turbine blades should be

conducted. The influence of mean stress, amplitude, vibration frequency,
and root interface conditions should be defined.

5. The present method extended to include coupled blade/disk

vibration effects. More accurate results should be obtained for
centrifugally stiffened natural frequencies at the operating condition,
ego Mode 2 of the original blade design at 1800 rpm.

6. More detailed finite element gridworks should be developed for 3-D

static and dynamic stress calculations, so that use of stress concentra-
tion factors from tables and graphs can be avoided when determining fillet

7. The effects of overstressing and blade root tolerance mismatch should be

examined in futher detail by finite element analysis.

8. More material test fatigue data should be collected to improve the fatigue
evaluation process. Such tests should include corrosive environment
effects. A major study of this problem appears to be needed.

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I. Mech. E., pp 384-391,1948.

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Problems of Solid Bodies - Part II. Application to Turbine
Blade Fastenings," Int. J. Mech. Sci., vol. 13, pp. 627-639,1971.

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Reference to Turbine-Blade Vibration," J. of Appl. Mech., pp.
421-429, Sept. 1956.

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Proposed to E.P.R.I., Palo Alto, Calif, July, 1977.

175. Partington, A.J., "Experimental Study of Sources of Blade

Vibration Excitation in a Low Pressure Turbine," Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, EC-384,NOBS-94380, April-1968.
240~-+-+-+--+--j-t---i--+-+--t---t--t-t-f-fI+-I_l-I-+--l,L+/-+--ol ~
II I /
'--I I I /
1 ill 1/ 1
1/ Iii 11
zoo ~--+--I-+---1--+-+--+-+-+-A-7'--1Y'+I-/'+' -+1-+-VA-+-l1---,l/ $
i I eo ~1--+--I-+--l--+-+--+-t-fV'--'-f1 1---lI-f7L-Y-;-i-J'V
3 I I i !/i I V !
.;; V 'I If /i I /1 I
L160 f-+-+-t--+-+-t-+-+-,f-II-l-+,L+-+-:,(~-+-I/-,f--+-+-f---,.l/

~140 1 1/ Y 1/
~ f - __ ~ J /!I / V, Vi I
1/ / v /V;/ll 1/1 i
~'oo _. _ li/ / 1/1 ,~v 1,,/
,~ --L-1 i / / I / ~~ ..--1 ,
<.t I I I IV VI - 1/ ~ )/1 I
8Q I VIV 1/ [7f- / V ~
be ItIV 1/1./ /1 I')-:::::-~
I Z/I/./ /1 I ~i i

I~::::;::--r-- i I I
00 '" IS IZ Ii 10 14 l8 3Z 36 '/0_
Speed. Rev, per Sec,

Fig. '1. Frequency-Speed Diagram Showing First Type Tangential

Vibration (ref. 7).

Fig. 2. Op~ional Viewing System for Blade Vibration (ref. 10j.

'911 .. t
~)C'd CI s ~H•. w'r"l9 ~~d,. H'I('~w'n9
T('ItlJl Me" of ~"''''rou-dI:'"\9
r '". 1.'01. ~ollo ___ ~d:1 ..'ymn-«I" r r," t.., ""'fYlf try
i ~ 81__ " I ' I__~~~",OlfFl'O~1'
I G'

1 __
.'- c_l!55JJ I
45rTIIl3i , T i l
--T" - -,' ._\i ," r --.. ,.-. 1'" .---

l][l l. -!---
401- --,,, ..-- ----.-[---.1. '--i :""/.. -- .---j-..
: -;;
w: /
';: 'I;';:.; • --
~ ',;.-
7 ----t-7
/ I

. -- ._~.-
-::=-r-c •
_ ~~



'''=I~:·~I~f7;·~~F =-F ·l:~
I :/9J

--t~·~LIr-)' :--:---'1'- -27'" ----I

i 1I . i

~ _......1
v ..M- ' / .
, ~o6c---~.L_.
I -t--+--J'-_.
i y/ I I----I.
I"~, ' --=~I--::i=-,--~ 0-._~__
1-_ .--!--

!!VTm U:J-.-- _,__. __. . --.-r~-A'7:--

~::- ---'II
~ : '0' s ~~f-- ~ ~l~Lll.U
>0. - _ .. /"... ." I " ",--y
1"";1 --1-- -- - +- L't=:/

~ IC 2SIU r--·l--g-f-~J~t:71---r·---·j-----i--

± _
'7 ...

~l ~ -?::;:::. . ::- . 81 It " "

fIl.lV I
.j(J~;"~~-;- I-~~I=·~~=--:-{=.~J---l--· "-'-[--1' -[-,---1, '1'-
i ..~ 4
lu I' Ir
---, ·-+--1--·· r---- .--
- -. TtI[OIlY ,
i' _ _--<1--__ ._._.•__ ..._
1-0 .....t--- 1 - -
-l 'I...l- ""1--'-- . -.---.
1[,1 -: .. --
I. ~E ..... _- - - 1 - ' .. _._+_._+-~ .
3' - - - - - --.-r-
," fl I
I , I I U2rl'J, ' ,
I! --+-----*- -....-·-·..···-·-·.·.----1...----.1-.--1-. !
----;=-. ,.;.~_L=-J-q .J
101· 'i.~. ·I---·~.·i

2 f··--t---+·····+--+--+_·+·--·~---~-·- I :

.--- _.- f,] -
l' A • 5Ll !r-l-l-:"ll.J-l-~T~~~-=-
~ ~rr~~~_ .:--=:=:: ,:.:_~=-~~ ~ '0' ·--t-Q'~'~I:·-t-q.J--r~--[--- i---
------ I I
I ,
~ - ~ oL- ,[~- .~-
~ I~-r-- ,- '. -J"n-t-I~'- o 10 20 30
40 50 60

0'o , ., , , (J.g '..-

~I Q.ot! 0.1 oA O,S O.b 0.1 O.q 1.0
Fig. 4. Frequency of Vibration of Skew
, ~;t..K,~~J'_I .. Y~1q~I!'" .o!_~?:'f. ~>1(.h_o1 S~"'.oud!,q
1.!_f!.'9·~jj y.... flotl~. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
"lc,~rof R",ld1ty cd 9nt h'll\1r
Cantilever Plates (ref. 14).

Fig. 3. Six Blade Group Frequency Ratio vs Rigidity Ratio and

Tangential Mode Shapes (ref. 12).

-------------- " /
/ /

'.'- c:
c 0

D -0
f3 ,n .
-..t:-'---..L.......--J _ ..... - 4f =- -
Z 1'0..... .....


Fig. 5. Vibration in a Arbitrary Plane Defined by B (ref. 17).

11 ~ J

XI ~
l Xz (a)

. A

~ ~

x. } X

H c (c)

Fig. 6. Two Mass Torsional System Broken into Two Sub-systems, Using
the Receptance Method (ref. 33).




65 _ ..

60 - --I- --
r I

.. 50
U 45
1/ 1 - .

l I

- 35 -- I
a: 30
/ .~.

1/ .-
/ / --
1/ V '.10DE 2

/ ./
l-- -
V V 1--:~
o / ---"'
l-----' - J,..;--: MODE 4
o 1000 2000 3000 4000

Fig. 7. Uniform Rectangular Section Blading Without Pretwist Showing

Frequency Rise Corresponding to Mode Number and Rotational
Speed (ref. 42).
\(j 12 :I


200 t:=:==---,io=:=t----f---:::::>"':F- _4

I!iOI----+----,I----+--I---I---+-I---..,I.-----,i 3



o = Measurements disregarding blade root influence

t'1 = 0 ~
t'1 =1= 0 f Curves with blade root influence

Frequencies Measured Calculated

cIs values
- values

F1 83·4 80·3
F2 184·8 185·5
Fa 344·3 356·3
F4 399·7 410·3
Fs 500 535·7
F6 655 724·3
F7 840 847·1

Fig. 8. Resonant-Frequencies at 0 r.p.m. Without Root

Influence (ref. 46).

Fig. 9. Schematic of a Cantilever on a Massive Sprung Support '4(){l L~--- __ r

- hllOlllY
o I . ' I ....("'.' .. ~ ~UU\,r.

(ref. 47).



.1\ 4S0·

"3 3.0


ll: 0
~ I- 0 RAO

~ 60
t I-
~ ~ o . ·,01
)oJ ~
.. . ."9

1-011--- I~ Fig. 11. Theoretical and Experimental Coupled Frequencies
of Pre-twisted Cantilever Blades (ref. 63).
O· l
0'75 -0-5 -0-25 0 0-25 0'5 -... "'-- I· o

Fig. 10 Frequency Parameter Ratios for the First M6de

of Tapered Beams (ref. 49).
F,;g. 12 . My k lestad Lumped Mass Procedure for a Cantilever Beam (ref.69).

_ _ _ _ A5:\Ut.Ae:O POINT"



Fig. 13. Assumed Point of Blade/Disk Attachment for Natural Frequency

Calculation (ref. 72).
-- --- ----L---~---l----

I I f~ I
. .L _ _ _ _ _ _ .
(u) --@--®--:----:·_-·@'----&--;7-@-

- - CALC. 40·TWIST
ro-- l ·--~T..-- ),'----,+~--,f ------!-- ~ -~-I
o 14~ r-I r' r-H r+2 RIGID MASSLESS
Q I )

(b) --L:~~_~~~IFFNE~;r

z /
-0 _-
w //
::> /

"- /
;;: 6 - ~ -l-J'" ---<>/.:. ---( / STIFFNESS:: Hit
(c) 22~@~=~:77.z=~=
Z / T,
"- / .-; ~A
~ 2
1/'" I F,& '"

(d) 5t' ~U:~ / C!!f=.=;p:rrr=n:·::~=qJE5.r::...
2 4 6 8 ~ Q

(II. It. and fa are' the first. second. and third modes in the flexible direction for
the untwisted beam; F, is the first mode in the stiff direction for the un-
twisted beam; T,. T,. and T, are the first three modes of the beam with 40-
deg total twist.) BENDING STIFFNESS=EI

Fig. 14. Analytical Results Using the Myklestad

Method and Experimental Results for Fig. 15 . Schematic Representations of Four
Various Configuration of Cantilever Different Beam Formulations (ref. 791~

Blades (ref. 78).

10 30
9 28
l/ Mo k:le 5 / "

8 l/ 26 V
Mo de 3 V V 15 I r I
24 ---. - - FINITE
....... V o
::- ...-

+= 6 22
0) 5 20 10 I- I D


~ 4 18
-~ t- Mo de 2 ~ h..
JD /l'hQ

- 16

i'... Mo

n,. r::,. 5 I I I
Mo de
12 i-~, 6-r--~ MOOE 1

o 10
o 30 60 90 0 30 60 90 oo 10 I
20 30 I
Angle of pre- twist (degrees) ANGLE OF 40 I

---- Present results

- - Computed results of Carnegie [83]
Fig. 17. Frequency of Vibration of Skew
)( Experimental resu!1s of Carnegie [83J
Cantilever Plates (ref. 99).

Fig. 16. Comparison of Frequency Ratio Against

Pre-twist Angle (ref. 82).
, j,
( , I
I \ !, '
I \:,
I ',

't-.. !

Mode I Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4

Mode I Type I Frequency, Hz ._ _

___I i__~~~ur~I~~!~ted_
1 First flap i 517 518
2 First edgewise i 1326 1692
3 First torsion I 2885 2686
4 Second flap I 2510 2794

Fig. 18. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of a Turbine Blade by the
Finite Element Method (ref. 103).
.iG In x 61n long )
60I 80
7J ~2T~

~ 50
~ 1/ 60b___ 38 °1
60bo 38 ° ° I
I °
.f: 40

eg" 50
40 1 Aspect rotI0-3,1-0
~ t
50 Aspect ratio -3, 0-1
~ 30 '"-..J '"

., / 30 3 o
" 0 °__ 0 II
C!l.. 3°~--b

C 20
200---==0-0 1T
° I
200 1T

18 0
/ - 1:~~ ~~1
/ tin x 5in long
I---- o °b ~ ..
~ V I i-r I
1 _
2 3

of natural frequcncics with specd of rotation.

2 3 4 5

Variation of natural frequencies with disc radiu~.

o 1 2 3 4 x 10 3
DIsc rotational speed D = Platc rigidity. D = J2/"I" = non-dimensional speed of rotation.
rev/min L = Length'of platc, H' = l"atural frequency of rotating plate.
r = Radius of disc. ",(, = l'atural frequency at zero speed of rotation.
I' = riL. 1B = First bending Illode.
Zero-speed frequencies, liz t = Thickncss. 2B = Second bending mode.
------ I I f3 = Non-'dimensional frcqucncy of vibration. 3B = Third bei1ding mode.
Illade Cakulatioll I Experimellt I' = Dcnsity. IT = First torsional mode.

-/. inx6 in
1 in x 5 in
I 299
!l = Specd of rotation. 2T = Second torsional mode.

All blades 1 in widc. Disc diamctcr 6 in.

Flg,. 20. Comparison for Thick Shell and Triangular Plate Finite
Fig. 19. Comparison of Thick Shell Finite Element Results for Cantilever Plates (ref. 104).
Element and Test Results for
Cantilever Plates (ref. 104).
- ..
... .....
21JW HZ 21"" Hl ::""::?I-lz.
332 HZ 419 HZ 10"1 liZ 1m HZ
1m I':;' ~ tln 1;°"3\
12f) un Of)

-_ .. _-\
.... -. -..
-~-.. ~-\ I
.-. •

.-~_.~~j .
• I
f- t, I j

. __ j.
..... -
[ , "-\
i .

"- j

1 J~~ It! 20lulll ;'d..' tIl

l~) 11'\1\'
lill ol"II'

Fig. 21. Comparison for Holographic and Calculated Mode Shapes

for Gas Turbine Blade (ref. 116).

3.65 ..~ '" = J.096
.~ = 0.132
Speed =4900 rpm -

~ 2.0
\ '\1
0 Measured

~ !
(:) Me.ured Str. . o 20 40 60 80 100

Fi'g.22. Comparison of Analytical and, Fig. 23. Distribution of Stress for,

Experimental Stresses from the Radius at Loading Edge
Hydrodynamic Load Conditions (ref. 117).
(ref. 117).
,. ~p_! ~ I-p-.j..p-l t


tlj tt D

I" r/ I 1/

Fig. 24. Schematic Representation of

Banded Group of Buckets (ref. 123) .


Mode Shope
Mode 2- 4264.Cpa
0 D~ ~ t (I
:- .3
.2 Mode 3- 43511 Cpa

V( ~ f ~ Y

a: .2
Mode 4- 43115 Cps

-' V~ ~q '-

.2 Mod. 5- 4450 Cpa

0 I vX~ ~
Mod • 6 -4461 Cps
- 0
~ ( y>~ ~
-? Mode 7- 584~ Cpa
0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5
1.0 .11 .8 .7 .6 .5


Fig .. 25. Plot of Resonant-Response Factor K vs ~k (ref. 124).
, WI

i~~~ ttti tffi f/11lffi ®

l~~ i {! 'Yl 'Y"K '~.
1 1 \ 1Y\
Fig. 26. Relative Mode Shapes of a Four-Blade Doubly-Laced Group
at 3600 r.p.m. (ref. 128).

o 400 000 1200 1600 200<1 2400 2800 3200 3600


I "
Fig. 27. Campbell Diagram for Four-Blade Double-Laced Group (ref. 128).

Fig. 28. Continuous Prismatic Bar for Moment and Shear

Equation Convention (ref. 130).



Fig. 29. Schematic of Three-Dimensional Vane Loading on Upper

Surface and Typical Stress Distribution Accross Hook
Sections (ref. 142).
r-2 r-I

Fi g. 3(}. Porti on of Turbi ne Rim and 81 ades (ref. 145).

, hIll''
1 p,U
5 II
I';: (A)
------M m

Mm41 1
II ------M e

3 'I
: I •
1 I
, I

(IJ_t i'L: f.__

I I 'I 'IS
I II!/::
-1 Cycles--i l -- ....
" II 11 I'
-2 11 II II 11
II 'I ~ V



Fig. 31. Single Phase Terminal-to-Terminal Short Circuit Showing Electrical

and Mechanical Torque Levels (ref. 161).

t I

V-\j \J.
,~e .. :,ured . ' (No O'lmpll"})

M,n !

Fig. 32. Measured Mechanical Torgue in a 780 MVA Generator Shaft

After Load Rejection (ref. 161) .
M,lyf1l'IIC VnlncllV Maylll'lll; VlIlOCtly Ormon lradang
r·P1Ck.UPS un Governor
I Notchod Sholt
PIck· up" nn
TurOlng Gear
60 1F1EV/
SlOe Wnw.',

,--------, '1]6-0= I'

nI\. "
Gener8tor VeloCity
Mogne.>c velOCI~
PIck-ups on
Toothed Wheel

Fig. 2 Schematic outline of the San Juan No.2 turbine-generator showing

points for measuring shaft velocity during the field lesl

Fig. 33. Schematic Outline of the San Juan No.2 Turbine-Generator

Showing Points for Measured Shaft Velocity During the Field
Test (ref. 163).


9><J=={)<]i=== ,--_f==3§:o=o

.1 - -_ _Qlr- ...:
<l: Mode 1
o'" 8 g

ro - - Calculated Mode Shape
iii o Measured Points

Fig. 34. Comparison Between Calculated and Measured Mode Shapes

for the San Juan No.2 Turbine Generator (ref. 163).






Fig. 35. Schematic of Typical Goodman Diagram Including Heywood Procedure

for Notched Fatigue Strength.

Fig. 36. Dimensions Used for Calculating Fillet Stress (re~; 169).

~ J,



" "



MOTION :.~r.ll"J,




Figure 37. Analysis Procedure for Fatigue of Low-Pressure Stea~ Turbine, Blades
Induced by Torsional Transient Motions of Turbine-Generator Unit.
~:--_--- Tenon _ ~


/.--'-"r~ 411I:- Pl atform '" f--- --,

Root ~

Figure 38. Schematic of TXPical Low Pressure Steam Turbine Blade

Crack Initiated Here \

,. \.-.e ~•• --./ Ci~. ".

~.~ I . , ..~ • \.-- •
.......... I~•

• \
•V •• , " -• •
............ \. '-
",. j .~.,



Figure 39. Schematic of Failure Surface of UDPer Blade Root Notch Region
Co ver J.l H

~ B


" ,.., -===

/ /

Vane " " v

\ .


Platform \

--_. -- - _._.-
Blade/Disk " .

Root I I I I I I

Figure 40. Finite Element Model of Typical Low Pressure Blade and Blade Root
Co ver



P1 atform 1/ " .

Figure 41. Finite Element Model of Low Pressure Blade

Figure 42. Cross-Section of 3-D Blade/Disk Root
Figure 43. 2-D Finite Element Model of Blade/Disk Root
~I'I --
_~n =
f~ 1..1~
Ff :J _ ~I V1 '1 ~I

Cover Continuum

i I i I

~ I
I i I I
! ! I
; r I

Vanes I I I
I; I
, I



I i I !

~ -

Critical Str ess :--Pl atform Substructures

Elements \l IN 1\ \1- . /I 1\ \11171

Disk Root
V V V V \J Blade Root
Su bstructures

Figure 44. Low Pressure Blade Group Model Showing Substructured Root
With Critical Stress Elements.

Figure 45. Cross Section Through Turbine-Generator Unit (Generator and Exciter not shown)

Figure 46. Cross Section Through HP Turbine Rotor Showing Finite Element
Inertia and Shaft Stiffness Representations~



II 1'

v .'
.c .


• •

L-l l


Figure 47. Finite Element Model of a Low Pressure Turbine

Generator ExcJtation Applied Uniformly
Along Here

- F""'-

....... .... ...- .., ~

....... ........
I, "" "" ""

I - 1..0-

t Beam Elem p

Figure 48. Finite Element Model of a Generator Using Beam and Lump Mass Elements


(/)(/) ~
(\j+J QJ

"'OE u
0-..- I.J.J
EI.J.J e:
-I (\j
(/) ::E:
e: +J
QJ e:
..- QJ
I.J.J r-
(\j QJ
CO .....


=9 Transient Stress Results
from F.E. Transient


Tip Transient Stress Results
D"p. from F.E. Static Calculations

Figure 50. Two Methods for Transient Stress Evaluation

Actual Blade F.E. Blade

F i 11 e t Reg ion
J-sma 11
Ino s tres s
,-.----~, con ce nt rat i on '\--t---+-+-.......

Figure 51. Schematic and Finite Element Model of Fillet Reqion at the
Base of the Vane Section.


Figure 52. Loads on Blade Root at UnderSide of P1atfonn--Original Desigq (lbs.,force)


-621 -204

Figure 53. Nominal Steady Surface Stress in Radial Direction at Upper Blade Root Notch
Region--Original Design (PSI)
3-D Model of Upper Notch Region
(radial view)

3-D Section of Blade Root Showing Total Nodal Loads

2-D Model

Figure 54. Transition from 3-Dimensional to 2-Dimensional Loading for Detailed

Blade Root Analysis.
175,633 si -

Figure 55. Stress Distribution of Original Blade Root (8000 psi increments)
200,000 psi - -- - -- , - - - - - -
2-0 Stress Gradient
100,000 ps i - - - - - -I - - - - --
-0 Stress Gradient


Figure 56. Discrepancy Between 2-D and 3-D Stress Results
3321 2048

2978 1490



Loads in lb

Figure 57. Loads on Blade Root at Underside of -Platform-":Mddifi~d Design (lbs. forte)
25267 22777


Figure 58. Nominal Steady Surface Stress in Radial Direction at Upper Blade Root Notch Region--
Modified Design (PSI)




(0.120 offset
DESIGN toward concave

Figure 59. Normalized Steady Centrifugal Loads on Platform.


Figure 60. Stress Distribution of Modified Blade Root (5000 psi increments)

2nd Mode

200 5


t:ls:t=M:od=e==il-~fz~~~~;2:;71r-::7~--=~ 3

o:l 100


o 600 1200 1800 2400


Figure 61. Comparison of Finite Element Results with Vendor Wheel Box Data
for the Original Blade Design
ci . f[GURE. 62 d
N . fIGURE 63
MODE. 1 Ml.'JOE 2
fRE.QUE.NC.1 119.14 1f2. fRElJUENC.l 205'.15' 1f2.
o c
d.... d

o o
o.' d

o . d
1 I
20.0 b-lO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0


erl0.0 0.0
I 'j'
I ,I

o c .

'j' I
-10.0 0.0

1- 10 • 0
0.0 10.0 20.0
c c
, ] . FIGURE 64
N ,\ \ I I
MODE 3 ~ fIGURE 65
FREQUE.Ntl 298.86 HZ. MODE I.J
fREtlUEtlCl '3~O. J8 H2.


20.0 i' I I I I
erl0.0 0.0
o· c
N ('II

o o
o.... ci
o o
'0 · ci
o o
7~ ci
0-10.0 0.0
I I I i' I I I I
erl0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0
ci ci


o ci
o o
I' I I ci
-10.0 0.0
I i' I I I i
-10.0 0.0 10.0
,.,,"""t~ ..

::1 0
- . f[GURE
'390.5'5 HZ.
~l (f\
1100E 6
fRECUENCT '396.95 HZ.
~~ \~ ~)

V 0

0 0
0 0
0.... 0....
~10.0 0.0 20.0 ~1O.0 0.0 10.0


... I
\ \\ / /
I \};\ / I \ \V AXIAL VJEW

I I I ....
o-JO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0 ~1O.0 0.0 10.0 20.0

;] 0


cii ~ ~
~~10 • 0

I I I ., ....
1- 0.0 10.0 20.0 1- 10 • 0 0.0 10.0 20.0
c . c

~l t""Vr
. FrGURE. 68 . fIGURE 69
/ MelDE 8

fREDUENCT 403.36 HZ. fREClUENCT 5'10.27 liZ.

;1 \(~ ) TANGENTfAL VlEW


l' c
0.... '
o-JO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0 &-10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0


&-10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0

0.0 10.0 20.0
en i3

;::: cti ...

a:: 13
.... ....
-:z. .... >

....a:: ...o

... ICQI!
..... s: ..... ....
~ ~

0 0 0
0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

o 0 0
o c:i 0

o 0 0

O'o~ o'or 0'0 o'or-b'o~
Door 0'0 -

o'or-b'oc: o'or 0'0 -


o'or- •


01 13
....o:to- 13
.... ....
01~ >
:z. -oJ
~ ;:)
t5 ...J ....o

i5 wa
.... 1Cll.l
oW :z. ....

..... S:lA- ....a:: ~ ~

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

- 0



~ 0

c:i c:i o
.... .... r-------,....-----T----f--
O"oz- o"or 0'0 o'or-b'oc: o'or 0'0 o"or-b"oc: o'or 0'0 0 '0 - •
60 50 40 35 30 28 26 24 22 20

517 .
500 ~-------l---1--+--+---V--f--+-f-+------';f£---j---t~,L----I


400 ~-----I--I-1-+--I---!---J~--¥:--I---1---f---+--+--+--7'112

:::c 10

5- 300 9

lLJ 270 8

200 6


100 3

o 500 1000 1500 1800 2000

Fi gure 72. Comoarison of Finite Element Results with Vendor Wheel Box Data
for'the Modified Blade Design
c c
. fIGURE 73 f [GUll!£. 74
OJ ·


B.O 16.0 24.0

I 111111

I I I I I I OJ ·


o-1O.r 0.0 10.C 20.0 B.O 16.0 24.0




~l =::

1- 10 . 0 0.0
10.0 20.0
I 0 ·0. 0 8.0 16.0 24.0
N . F£&URE
MOOf. 1.1
76 o
· . n&URE 75

FRf.QUf.NCT 516.59 HZ. MODE 3

o fRECUENCl '269.71 tfZ.
C o...
o, c
o o
6-10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 71 I I I
~JO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0

c c
c:i C)
· I I I
6-10.0 0.0 20.0 ~10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0
c:i c:i


~ c
o c
c:i o
i' I I I I
7 -t I I I
-10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 -10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0
. fIGURE. 77 c:i . FIGURE 78
1100E 5 1100E 6
fREOUENCT ? 95'.32 HZ. FREOUENC'T 85'0.98 HZ.
c c
o.1 o
j j I 71 I j I
crlO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0 crJO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0
~ N

o o
o... o...
o o
o o
~I I j I

· , j I I
cr 1O. 0 0. 0 to. 0 2C. 0 . crIO.O
0.0 10.0 20.0

o . ·

~~ (j\ ~
o ·
j j I 1- 10 . 0
0.0 10.0 20.0 0.0 10.0 20.0
. f[(;URE 79
· . FIGURE Sf)
MOllE 7
.-. ·
o c
~I I I I

crJO.O 0.0 10.0 20.0 ~12.0
0.0 12.0 2l l, 0

o o
o N
c o
o C
o c
71 I I I
cr12.0 0.0 12.0 21.l.0
~ ~
o o
c.... N

o . o

o C
o o
o N
i' I I I I
-LO.O 0.0 LO.O 20.0 1- 12 • 0 0.0 12.0 24.0
o o
fJ . fIGURE 81 o
('II . frGURE 82
FREClUENCT 984.07 tfZ. FREWEN CT 991. 4'3 HZ •
o o
o o
'i' I I , i 7'~11-----"-1- - -...., - - -.. . .
~10.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 0-]0.0 0.0 JO.O 20.0

o o
... ....o
o o
o o .'
o o
L' o
'i' I I I i 7i I I I
o-JO.O 0.0 ' 0.0 20.0 ~IO.O 0.0 JO.O 20.0
~ ~

o o
.... o

~ ~
o o
o o
o o
o d
-10.0 0.0
-]0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0
trai 1 lead tra i 1 1ead
edge edge edge edge
Blade No.
15455 17988 13755 5432

1 4

-14789 -16013

17840 13552 5232

___ I .. i .....


-~870 -7983 -9526 -15261

13661 5262
4' • , ......
1 %damping

15% Excitation axial & tang.

3 -8307 -9907 -15902

-9157 119.14 Hz at 0 RPM


Figure 83. Nominal Dynamic Radial Surface Stress in Upper Blade Root Notch Region--Mode 1--0riginal Design
trail lead
edge edge

Blade No. -2278 -3115 -2470. -3651

...-..-4Irr i • • __ -2569 ~67

473 164 4

4440 5150

-2372 -3300 -2647
~ • i
-2822 i
___ I IB ::J196

5 441
2 29 -56

-2462 -3470 -2806

~ i' • t ~ 1% Damping
15% Excitat10n axial & tang.

409 205.15 hz at 0 RPM

3 -25


Figure 84. Nominal Dynamic Radial Surface Stress in Blade Root Upper Notch RegionuMode 2--0rigina1 Design
trail lead trai 1 lead
edge edge edge edge
Blade No.
10608 4931 12920 9691 4234
8: E __
8' i ,

1 -~047 -4332 -6440 -12629 -5984 -5315, -7805 -14981


12790 9472 4043

9852 4418


2 -6208 -5373 -7702 -14702

12891 9744 4317 10780 7677 3059

__ t i.» 2UAw-...

-5365 -7767 -14860 b . 8496

3 -6269 -5856 - -15463
-11555 1% Damping
-12114 15% Excitation Axial &Tan~
158.89 hz at 0 RPM
Figure 85. Nominal Dynamic Radial Surface Stress in Blade Root Upper Notch Region--Mode 1--Modified Design
trail lead tra i 1 lead
edge edge edge- edge
Blade No.
-2679 -2489 -3076
1 ""71 - -2306


1 C 4 212

4533 5438

-2844 -3207
-?062 -2438

-547 . / I ~ ,---. 5

368 ...-- ~1275 133

336 2967 -191
~ ~

-1171 -2353 -3295 -2553

r ~_--1-
286 6 ~-O 57 -389

Ie-V:;:} 155
6032 1% Damping
15% Excitation Axial & Tang
203.35 hz at 0 RPM

Figure 86. Nominal Dynamic Radial Surface Stress in Blade Root Upper Notch Region--Mode 2--Modified Design


1% Damping
15% Excitation Axial & Tanl

Figure 87. Maximum Nominal Bending Stress in Tiewire at 3rd and 5th Blade at
158.89 hz.--lst Mode
lP2 HP

FJGlmE· 944

1j . - •
fIGURE 98. TrJRSlflMl. "COE 11 NATlM. fREQUfHC'( J(N.931 HZ.


fltaE 99. TtmSICNFl. "OOE J2 NATURR.. fli£WENC1 lOS.1496 HZ.
EXt GEt4 lP2 LPJ HP .
fIGURE lO~ TCRSlota t1mlE 21 NAl'lY)fl. fRfQUENCY 131.Sl&O HZ.

lP2 LPI -



































. _'

f JGURE 13'
• ., ll. .
lJ. ;
Uniformly Distributed Torque

.Ie Jc .} } -It
Generator Main Body
*J ]
~--22811 ~


T = Ae-at.
slnwt - Be -St. . -yt
Sln 2wt + Ce

A = 3179.5 MW a = 4.44
B = 1586.8 MW s = 0.0
C = 353.5 MW y = 3.98

w = 2~f = 2~(60) Rad/Sec.

lMW = 46944 in. lb. @ 1800 RPM



Figure 138. Torsional Excitation Data Representing a Terminal Short Circuit

.160 l

-----0.1368 in. tangential

r I! I , '0.0387 in. axial

'I !

III II 1'1
II!I~ Ii 'III'

,I; ,II, II II 1, I
.1\ !III
Ii 1,"jll'II'II II Ii " !{llli
liflil1 Tr'
\I~ lilill
VI't'l" I, ,
I I! ,I. i' r :,1
I ~ 1IIIIjl1' i
.: ~"

I !,
Iii " ~WAWi~i~~~~~
.oeof ii!III II ~ II ~
-. 120~
-.l~ M! ,IW I ,'';0 2t!" 2',''' im< 3';" .•11'" •• 13 .S0J . sse ,We .613 ,/00 .Is\! ,Bt& 6~ "Ii", «<:Ii • ,N

Figure 139. Transient Response of the Failed Low Pressure Blade Group

Displacement (in) vs. Time (sec) for 1 Second Duration.

18048 14359 6196 16837 13:44 5649
.-.a ill. =-- -== I i . 244aAl

8628 800

-8923 -7817 -8965 -14190

-8718 -7706 -14127 -9047
-15567 -16136

16891 133: 4 5631 15608 12220 4995

....... , I' _
...... i i ..........

-8937 -14162 -7937 -14287

Maximum transcient tip displacement of:
.-Ilia i'
,. f
____ .1368 inch tang .
.0387 inch axial


Figure 14U Nominal Transcient Radial Stress--Peak Stress--Origina1 Design

,- 0.0295 in. tangential
- 0.0044 in. axial






-.0"1lbla IlSb Btl

. . .1 . 1st! .20'll .24 .3Btl .34 .4LJ2 .4s1a .",,'3 ."st! .60\1 .6S\l ./0\6 .14 .e00 .estl .:lm. ""h I v.:!.

Figure 141. Transient Response of the Modified Low Pressure Blade Group

Displacement (in) vs. Time (sec) for 1 Second Duration

5090 4391 2332 4886 4092
.-G i .. i_

-494 -59E

-4761 -5677

4085 2139

~ -2030 -2422 -461

4870 4080 2138 3888 3227 1689

-IJI.aa Ii .. L ......
• • • , a::dIJL

-2855 -2048 -2437 -4637 -2672 -4686

-5777 Maximum Transcient tip dis-

-5672 placement of:
.0295 inch tang .
. 0044 inch axial
Figure142. Nominal Transcient Radial Stress--Peak Stress--ModifiedDesian

3rd Blade

---- 24688

Maximum Transcient tip Displacement 0

.0295 inch tangential
.0044 inch axial

Figure 143. Maximum Nominal Bending Stress in Tie-wire at 3rd Blade of

Transcient Response
Rotary inertia of disk alone I = 55.071 2
Shaft stiffnesses Kl = 2.0215.10 9
K2 = 12.235.10 9
K3 = 11.559.109
Disk rim radius R = 42.877 in.
Blade length L = 20.0 in
~ Total mass of blades Mt = 2.1996 lbsec 2jin.
Effectiveness stiffness of
blades H = 2.086.10 6 1bjin.
Blade natural frequency f = 155.0 Hz (tangential)


Rigid B1ades(Hz) Flexible B1ades(Hz)

Mt ,

H :tIH M
I • H I4IIIP 26.165
39.104 111.95
K K2
6 K3
6 K2
6 & 112.94
l 138.13
137.42 138.68

Figure 144. Finite Element Approach to Bladed Four-Disk Torsional System



134.55 Hz

Figure lA5. Mode Shapes of Four Disk Model Without Blades.

~ ~~
26.088 H .. ~ .. ,... .. ~

Figure 146.. Mode Shapes of Four Disk Model t-Jith Blades. (Modes 1-4)

~ ~ ~ ~ - - -- -- ---

c6 ~

~ ~

167.59 Hz c3
Figure 147. Mode Shapes of Four Disk Model With Blades. (Modes 5-8)
Dynami c

J1ean Stress,

Figure 148. Goodman Diagrams for Cycles to Failure Ranging from 1 to 10 .
Stress~ KSI

i : i ;'
:. .I'I'~'
;',' ,
:I' j! i.
, ;i ; ,

100 hiiJ
I , 'i
"-;., I j , ,
__j_,_~~'j......,.:::' I
: -I
I:',' i' "II

I ': -


I :,
i ' , ,
I '
I ;: 'i
, f·
__L -'- - ' , "-

I ',I
! -::':
. 1·!t I
r 86 000 psi i : ;
. ~: W:; ~., .t~ I I ",. I. •
J ~J+;-'
" I ,-

~~ •
-.., I !

----;---.....-,---.-.J-f-;r-.. - !-'-I'- - : --7~ ~ !_----J

,: ' :. ::.; ill : : ; . I : . :- I' ::, ;'.: -, ::.:

I: ,.I_~:+f8+';
I;: ..
,I, I,.iii,;,
itt:: i ,_:'
,t~_'1JJ !.:,
, ,.,,]./:.j ,

,.. . J-I·.-I"1;,:"I"_:':';:;
r I ;-I ' : . , : j : , '" t : I j.
,":' I: 'I
,.: •• 1
:: I:

, ~-+~-- I'''!
, ,~----~I'-:'~-~"rr'+,~'-i--,,--+-- "
;i 1:
I I, I .:
'I I ; Ii'
, 1 • I ;' I"
, ;
'I '
t , , ,
'I • t • I I 'I'" I '" I" "I
; 1 • I . I ' • : I :

o 0.0059 iff/in
o 0.5 1.0 1.5 Strain~ percen'

Figure 149. Elasto-PlasticEvaluation of Mean Stress for Original Blade Design


Stress ~ KSI
; , j
I I';: I
100 _',__ .~.Ljlj ; I Ii' . i
, I i j I I : : i
"' : i:'~~I
1 r -j.
r I.
-f· -! ~
i 1
;! I :
. I


o 0.0031 in/in
o 0.5 1.0 1.5 Stra in, percen1

Figure 150. Elasto-Plastic Evaluation of Mean Stress f~r Original Blade Design
Notched Fatigue Envelope Unnotched Fatigue Envelope
Unnotched Fatigue Data Notched Fatigue Data

Nominal aS nom = 18,779 psi Mean as = 86,000 psi

Mean Stress Fatigue Stress fr

Nominal a _ Alternating
a nom - 18,046 psi 30,137 psi
Alternating Stress (resonant) Fatigue Stress
= 2,980 = 4,977 psi
(non-resonant) (non-resonan1

KSI n.. :

.J; ':i.,:
. • '. ,lJ :, . 1H': •.Jinl- '-_1'
~:En.v~lqpe;I;·;~' FATIGUEi$uRFACf! ::: I tL; I':::
" i ;:

F" J;:;.C;':'~.
:_'.1 : iLL'I~~_: .".~ 6IJ~ !._Es-i-1DAJA·J_.: I . ii, I, ."
'D" I " l " " 1. I '. .! '_. '1'
I ' lit, :'1 ";1
." ., "~'t<h~' "1 it' "'; i,: . l"" ';"-;'1';;"
!':. ':, ~ ~~V~l~ e i ! " ! I ' .
_~._1 .L .. __ ....__ .__.........-,..._._._'_,
' ...............
'. •• _ •..__._ •
ijd hi 7 ' -;1 ii . :H3~: iT: ~. I
__£",,-,.9 ,__ IJ.S,~_: 1_,-r----l
I : i : I

-r'+-: ;.~:I. ,I
I " " I "." h1
: ' ; i ! : 1';'1 h.i:! 'f:I,:'l-!iL,J"!':1
I···.;.· 1'-;-'. I
" 00 • 0 0 •• ' " , 0 .- ,

I· i . I '. I
,. , 'I-++-'.' 81:!' •Ij-' ,
6:PSi . : i i'Hi' L.
. I ia
"i' ;!.'
. ; Ii
i '.'
I I' ..
": i ..
I ' . . .
I ; , .
11 i I J il I
'i 1: : ; :
: I iii' I"
i I. I
! i-iTI i i
J. '. t·, ..; '.,
t·, i';
n····~ i 1-:";"1:::' :'J': ,!:;' :.','
! "i',
• ,t, " 4,; 9:77 ps -.
i ' I :
. ["-:-;':;
I' - i
, , ,. "T
I i '" I .
I ... :'I!
o , ,

18,779 psi 86,000 psi

o 20 40 60 80 100 120
_Mean Stress, KSI

Figure 151. Fatigue Evaluation of ,Original Blade Design for Flow Excited Loading
Notched Fatigue Envelope Unnotched Fatigue Envelope
Unnotched.Fatigue Data Notched Fatigue Data

Nominal aS 21,096 psi Mean s

Mean Stress nom
= Fatigue Stress a fr = 85,000 psi

Nominal 13,441 pst Alternating 19,490 psi

Alternating Stress (resonant) Fatigue Stress (resonant)
= 1,931 psi = 2,800 psi
(non-resonant) (non-resonant;




_Mean Stress, KSI

Figure 152. Fatigue Evaluation of Modified Blade Design for Flow Excited Loading
Mean Fatigue Stress a fr ~ 86,000 psi

t = 30,140 psi 1 significant cycle/transient

Transient Fatigue Stress a
f r ~ 20,000 psi 10 significant cyc1es/transien-
Combined Transient
and Alternating Stress 35,117 psi (denoted-by X)

Dynamic 120




_._~ . --1-----·· .
~~ __~L =- "1
! j


__•~JJEg--~ _c~tBA- --~--~-

86,000 .psi
p"--- wC --_.

20 40 60 80 100 120
Mean Stress; KSI
Figure 153. Fatigue Evaluation of Original Blade Design for Torsionally
Ext'ited· Loading
Mean Fatigue Stress a fr = 85,000 psi

Transient Fatigue Stress at

= 7,381 psi 1 significant cycle/transient

Combined Transient 10,181 psi (denoted by X)

and Alternating Stress

Stress, KSI


_____ 1
. .. I
-- 1--- -- .I T
-r 1------ ,-----
t '
1 I,



95,0'00 psi
o 20 40 60 80 ·100 120
Mean Stress, KSI
Figure 154. Fatigue Evaluation of Modified Blade Design for Torsionally Excited
Table 1 Summary: State of the Art


1. Equati ons Campbell 1925 Vibration analysis to avoid running 6

and Mechanics speed harmonics.
Kroon 1948 Effect of Centrifugal force and lash- 9, 10
ing wires on stress. Optical viewing
of blade vibration, partial arc admis-
Myklestad 1944- Lumped mass procedures with and with- 69-71
1956 out centrifugal and inertia effects.
Smith 1948 Vibration analysis of blade packets, 12
closed form solution to frequency
equations, frequencies, mode-shapes.
Mendelson, Gendler 1951 Station function analysis. 16
Lo, Renbarger 1952 Centrifugal stiffening of natural fre- 17
quencies, continuous.
Carnegie 1957- Static bending and vibration of pre- 37, 38
1959 twisted blades, application of energy
and variational methods.
Rao 1965- Galerkin, Ritz methods for bars and 48, 57
1970 . vanes.

2. Single Blade Barton 1951 Ritz method for uniform and skew plates. 14
Natural Frequency Test results.
Jarrett, Warner 1953 Myklestad analysis for taper, twisted, 72
rotating tie-wire blade. Test results.
Carnegie, 1957- Variational formulation. Vane vibration 37-45,49,
1972 analyses. Finite difference methods. 51-54
Test facility.
Dawe 1965 Finite element 12x12 dynamic matrix for 86
cantilevers. Test results.
Montoya 1966 Runge-Kutta integration. Coupled bending- 46
torsional analysis of twisted, rotating
blade. Test results.
Table 1 Summary: State of the Art (continued)

Dokumaci, Thomas, 1967 Finite element 8x8 mass and stiffness 87

Carnegie matrices, twisted cantilever. Test
Zienkiewicz, 1968- Plate and brick elements, uniform, skew, 99,103,104
1973 variable thickness cantilevers. Test
results. Single, taper, twisted turbine
blade. Test comparison.
Rawtani,Dokainish 1969- Triangular plate development. Application 90-97
1974 to single blade. Centrifugal force. Test
Lelanne, 1974 Rotating compressor, gas turbine, radial 112-114
inflow turbine vibration analysis. Variable
thickness shell and brick elements used.
Experimental results.
MacBain 1975 NASTRAN analysis. Pre-twisted cantilever 116
plates, holographic interferometry, fre-
quency and mode corrolation with tests.

3. Blade Group Prohl, Weaver 1958 Myklestad analysis for natural frequencies 123,124
Natural Frequency and mode shapes.
Deak, Baird 1963 Bending-bending frequencies, modes of tie- 128
wire blade groups .
Salama, Petyt 1977 . Beam elements for frequencies, effects of 137
rotation, size, tie-wire position.
Rieger, Nowak 1977 Brick elements for group, frequencies in- 142,143
cluding disk root flexibility.

4. Forced Response Prohl, Weaver 1958 Resonant response factor, vibratory amp- 123,124
of Turbine Blades litudes, disc to blade nozzle phasing,
dynamic stress at blade root, no damping.
Rieger, Nowak 1977 Non-steady steam forcing determined from 142,143
water table, dynamic stresses throughout
blade/disk group structure, damping.
Table 1 Summary: State of the Art (continued)

5. Transient Response Rieger, Nowak 1977 Generator excitation of turbine 142,143

of Turbine Blades generator sets, effect on turbine
blade response, terminal short circuit,
stresses throughout blade/disk
group structure for first 2 modes.
6. Coupled Blade- Johnson, Bishop 1956 Receptance approach to coupled 36
Disk Vibration blade/disk vibration.
Ellington, McCallion 1959 Closed form solution to frequency 145
Kirkhope, Wilson 1971- Experimental and finite element 150,156.
1975 investigations.
Ewins, 1974- Receptance formulations and 151-153,155
1976 solutions.

7. Excitation of Partington 1965- Experimental analysis, rotating 175

Turbine Blades 1968 strain gage tests.
Rieger, Wicks 1976- Non-steady excitation of turbine 125,126
1977 stages, water table, hydraulic

8. Damping of Turbine Goodman, Klump 1956 Analytical determination of damping 173

Blades in blade roots.
Rieger 1977 Review of damping studies. 174

9. Steady Stress Heywood 1948 Empirical formulation for fillet stress 1'69
Evaluation calculations.
Chan, Tuba 1971 Steady stress levels in turbine blade 171, 172
roots by finite elements.
Rieger, Nowak 1977 Steady stress levels throughout blade/ 142,143
disk structure.
Table Summary: State of the Art (continued)

10. Fatigue Analysis Heywood 1962 Procedures to evaluate and prevent 164
the fatigue of metals.
Juvinall 1967 Procedures to evaluate and prevent 166
the fatigue of metals.
Rieger, Nowak 1977 General fatigue procedures for blade 142,143
groups. Demonstration for, I.P. and
L.P. turbine blade groups.
Table 2. Material Properties of 403 Stainless Steel
(Ref. IIMater i a 1s Eng i neer i ng l l 11 /15/77)

AISI Type ~ 403 410 414 416, 416SC 420 420F

r-OMPOSITION, % C 0.15 max, Mn C 0.15 max, Cr C 0.15 max, Cr C 0.15 max, Cr C >0.15, Cr 12· C 0.15, Cr 12-14,
1.00 max, P 0.040 11.5·13.5, Mn 11.5·13.5, Ni 12-14, P 0.06 14, Mn 1.00 max, Mn 1.25 max, Si
max, S 0.030 max, 1.00 max, Si 1. 1.25·2.5, Mn max, Si 1. malt, P 0.040 max, S 1.00 max, P 0.060
Si 0.50 max, Cr max, P 0.040 max, 1.00 max, Si 1. S 0.15 min, S 0.030 max, Si max, Mo 0.60 (opt),
11.5-13 S 0.030 max max, P 0.040 max, 0.06 max (416Sc), 1.00 max, Fe bal S 0.15 min
S 0.030 max Se 0.15 min
Density, Ib/cu in... ..... 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
Melting Point, F ........ 2700·2790 2700·2790 - 2700·2790 2650·2750 2650·2750
Ther Cond (212 F),
Btu/hr/sq ft/oF/ft 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.5
Coef of Ther Exp, per of
32-212 F ·. 5.5 x 10-' 5.5 x 10-' 5.8 x 10-' 5.5 x 10-' 5.7 x 10-' 5.7 x 10-'
32·1200 F .·." - 6.5 x 10--6 - 6.5 x 10-' 6.8 x 10-' -
Spec Ht (32·212 F),
Btu/lb/oF ..... 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11
Elec Res (rm temp),
microhm-em .... . ..... 57 57 70 57 55 55
Magnetic? ............. - - - - Yes Yes
Mod of Elast in Tension, psi 29 x 10' 29.0 x 10< 29.0 x 10< 29.0 x 10" 29.0 x 10< 29 x 10'
Ten Str, 1000 psi
Annealed " . .......... 70-75 65·75 115·120 75 95 95 d
Hard & Temp ......... 110 90·190 120·200 90·190 230 110d •
Yld Str, 1000 psi
Annealed '... . . ....... . 40·45 35·45 90·105 40 50 55 d
Hard & Temp ......... 85 60·145 105-150 60-145 195 100d •
Elong (in 2 in.), %
Annealed .. . ....... 25-35 . 25·35 15·20 30 25 22d
Hard & Temp ... ... . 23 15·30 15-20 12-25 8 14d •
Hardness (Brinell) I
Annealed ..... ..... . · . 80-155 155 235 155 195 220 d
Hard & Temp . ....... . 225 180·390 250·410 180-390 500 228 d •
Impact Str (Izod), ft-Ib
Annealed ...... . · . 90 90 50 70 - -
Hard & Temp ......... 75 35·75 45-50 20-60 10 -
Endurance Limit (annealed),
1000 psi ... 40 40 45 40 40 -
Creep Str (1 % ext in
10,000 hr, annealed), psi
1000 F ........... - 9200 - 9200 - -
1300 F ....... . . . . . . - 1000 - 1000 - -
Annealing Temp, F ... ..
Hardening Temp, F
Tempering Temp, F 400·1400 400·1400 400-1300 400·1400 300-700 300·700
Machinab"'ty Index' ' " .. Fair 55 b Fair 80 45 b t
Weldability ............. Fair Fair; small welds Fair· Not rec Fair -
can be annealed
Forging Temp (start), F · . 2000·2200 2000-2200 2100·2200 2100-2300 2000·2200 2050-2250
~ORROSION RESISTANCE Good resistance to weather and water; also good resistance to some chemicals
~VAILABLE FORMS Sheet, strip, bar Plate, sheet, strip, bar, tube, rounds, structural and Plate, sheet, Bar, wire
bar shapes, round and flat wire, tubing strip, bar, tube,
shapes, wire
~SES Turbine blades, General purpose Springs, knife Automatic screw Cutlery, sur· Similar to 420
highly stressed blades, tempered machine parts gical instru· where better mao
parts rules ments, ball bear- chinability is
ings, magnets required
• Based on AISI B1112 Steel-lOO. b Hardened to 200-225 Bhn. • With preheat and postheat. d Bar. • Annealed and cold drawn. t More machinable.
Table 3. Summary of Steady State Results

~ Value Comment

Maximum Elastic Mean 175,633 psi 94,331 psi Calculated from 2-D finite
Stress, a~ element model.

Corresponding Plastic 86,000 psi 85,000 psi Evaluated in section 7.2

Mean Stress a~p using figures149 and 150.

Nominal Mean Stress 18,779 psi 21,096 psi Calculated from a~/A where
a~om A is the minimum crossectional
area of the upper blade root notch.

Elastic Geometric Stress 9.35 4.47 Calculated from as/as

r nom
Concentration Factor, Kt

Plastic Geometric Stress

Concentration Factor, Ktp 4.58 4.03 Calculated from as /a s
rp nom
Table 4. Original L-2 Steady Stress Results (as at Centroid of Element Face in PSI)

Location Trial Edge Lead Edge

Cover Maximum of 1572 (von Mises)

Tenon 636 443 566

Section A pf 1782 5158 5792 4636 4502 2768

sf 1004 2771 3655 3158 3648 1830

Section B pf 6274 7254 7821 8306 8578 8858

sf 6494 7402 8000 8484 8741 8975

Section C pf 10981 11248 11514 11700 11805 11948

sf 10946 11236 11557 11789 11907 11905

Section D pf 14362 14015 13827 13903 14019 14303

sf 14509 14132 13661 13509 13736 14151
Table 4 cont. Original L-2 Steady Stress Results

Section E pf 16180 16104 15865 15671 15482 15146

sf 15887 15416 15325 15136 14803 14758

Section F pf 17154 17073 17220 16906 16482 16124

sf 17303 16338 14816 14580 16029 16582
Tab1e5. Modified L-2 Steady Stress Results (a~ at Centroid of Element Face in PSI)

Location Trial Edge Lead Edge

Cover Maximum of 1608 (von Mises)

Tenon 783 455 566

Section A pf 1768 4620 5048 3999 4318 2610

sf 1410 3550 4354 3540 4322 2255

Section B pf 6715 7626 8070 8446 8481 8344

sf 6491 7153 7615 7970 7957 8050

Section C-C· pf 10239 10051 10207 9985 9761 1010,1

sf 10433 10340 10498 10972 11350 11 012

Section CI-O pf 12544 13168 13690 13733 13141 13112

sf 12369 12700 12731 13124 12791 12402
Table 5 cont. Modified L-2 Steady Stress Results

Section D pf 14866 14448 14246 14289 14531 14905

sf 15037 14635 14306 14165 14486 14956

Section E pf 16198 16583 16302 16164 15941 15472

sf 15762 15613 15743 15709 15410 15142

Section F pf 16698 16788 16946 16612 16374 16476

sf 17453 16835 15688 15533 16401 17027


119. 14 Hz 112.0- 120.0 Hz

2 205. 15 206.0-214.0
3 298.86
4 390.18
5 390.55
6 396.95
7 403.36
8 520.27
9 695.97
10 729.54


158.89 Hz 157.0-162.0 Hz
2 203.35 182.0-186.0
3 269.71 247.0-258.0
4 516.69 522.0-528.0
5 795.32
6 850.98
7 922.33
8 963.64
9 984.07
10 991.43
Table 8 Summary of Dynamic Results

~ Value Comment
Original Modified

Maximum Elastic Alternating 37,259 psi 22,178 psi (resonant) Calculated from Mode 1 in
upper blade root notch re-
Stress, cr~ 6,259 psi 3,186 psi (non-resonant) gion and detuned according
to spin pit test data.

Nominal Alternating Stress, 18,046 psi 13,441 psi (resonant) Calculated from Model in
cranom 2,980 psi 1,931 psi (non-resonant) upper blade root notch re-
gion and detuned according
to spin pit test data.

Maximum Elastic 37,901 psi 8,399 psi Calculated from torsional

Transient Stress, crt model using tip displace-
r ments.

Nominal Transient 18,048 psi 5,090 psi Calculated from torsional

Stress, crt model using tip displace-
nom ments.

Geomteric Stress 2.10 1.65 Evaluated from Peterson

[165J according to blade
Concentration Factor, Kt root geometry of upper
blade root notch region.
Table 9. Torsional Natural Frequency Results

Calculated Calculated Calculated

F.E.(hz.) Vendor( hz. ) Experimental % Difference % Difference F. E. (hz. )
Mode Original Original Original F.E.jVendor F.E.jExper. Modified

1 7.60 8.16 7.60 6.9 0.0 7.58

2 16.55 16.31 I
17.4, 19. 1.5 4.9, 16.50
3 18.40 19.71 24.8 6.6 3.2 18.40
4 46.31 45.49 29.6 1.8 46.31
5 68.63 71.3 35.0 3.7 68.65
6 68.75 71. 3 40.0 3.6 68.76
7 75.70 76.3 54.8 0.8 75.74
8 75.76 76.3 59.6 0.7 75.80
9 95.90 101 .7 94.8 5.7 1.2 96.16
10 96.77 101 .7 99.5 4.8 2.7 97.04
11 104.93 106.0 1.0 105.09
12 105.49 109.1 107.0 3.3 1.4 105.71
13 11 0.02 109.1 108.0 0.8 2.0 110.77
14 113.75 115.1 1.1 114.33
15 114.77 118.3 2.9 116.47
16 117.77 118.5 0.4 1]8.11
17 119.94 121 .4 119.6 1.2 0.3 120.39
18 122.54 122.96 0.3 124.65
19 123.64 123.0 0.5 138.41
20 125.07 123.2 126.0 1.5 0.7 141.31
21 131 .84 125.2 131 .0 5.0 0.6 156.98
22 132.52 126.4 4.6 169.35
23 156.69 154.0 1.7 169.99
24 157.2(', 154.0 2.1 171.111
2~ I ~)r). ~~ 158.6 0.6 1i' i . ~j I
Table 10 Fatigue Evaluation Data


~ Value Comment
Original Modified

Maximum Elastic Mean 175,633 psi 94,331 psi Calculated from 2-D finite
Stress, 0~ element model.

Corresponding Elasto-Plastic 86,000 psi 85,000 psi Evaluated in Section 7.2

Mean Stress, 0~p using figures149 and 150.

Nominal Mean Stress, 18,779 psi 21,096 psi Calculated from 0~/A
Elastic Geometric Stress 9.35 4.47 Calculated from 0~/0~om
Concentration Factor, Kt
Elastic Fatigue Stress 6.51 3.53 Calculated using eq.2.16
Concentration Factor, Kf va= .043, and r = .031 in.
and .062 in. for the orig-
inal and modified design,
Elasto-Plastic Geometric Stress 4.58 4'.03 Calculated from 0~p/0~om
Concentration Factor, Ktp

Elasto-Plastic Fatigue Stress 3.31 3.20 Calculated using eq.2.16

Concentration Factor, K when va = .043, and r =
fP .031 in and .062 in. for
the original and modified
design, respectively.
Table 10 Cont. Fatigue Evaluation Data


~ Value Comment
Original Modified
Mean Fatigue Stress, 86,000 psi 85,000 psi Effect of stress concen-
s tration factor not appli-
°fr 'cable in plastic domain.


Maximum Elastic 37,897 psi 22, 178 psi (resonant) Calculated from Mode 1 in
Alternating Stress, 6,259 psi 3,186 psi (non-resonant) upper blade root notch

Nominal Alternating 18,046 psi 13,441 psi (resonant) Calculated from Mode 1 in
Stress, oa 2,980 psi 1,931 psi (non-resonant) upper blade root notch
nom region
~1aximumElastic 37,901 psi 8,399 psi Calculated from torsional
Transient Stress, model

Nominal Transient 18,048 psi 5,090 psi Calculated from torsional

Stress, o~om

Geometric Stress 2.10 1.65 Evaluated from Peterson [165J

Concentration Factor, Kt
Table 10 Cont. Fatigue Evaluation Data


~ Value Comment
Original Modified
Fatigue Stress 1.67 1.45 Calculated using eq.
Concentration Factor, Kf when va = .043, and
r = .031 in. and .062 in.
for the original and modi-
fied design, respectively.

Alternating Fatigue Stress, 30,137 psi 19,490 psi (resonant) Calculated from
a 4,977 psi 2,800 psi (non-resonant) 0~· (Kf/Kt)

Transient Fatigue Stress, 30,140 psi 7,381 psi Calculated from

fr °tr . (Kf/Kt)