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JULY 2013

HOW TO PLAN MHPP


By IFNU SETYADI G

Section 2 : Planning & Design


HEAD DESIGN:
HEAD DESIGN: FRANCIS & KAPLAN TURBINE
DISCHARGE DESIGN:

1. Based on Flow Duration Curve (FDC)

FDC is present the available of water river flow through year. This curve
developed by following methods :

1. Historical records of flow data in the area surrounding the project site
should be used to estimate the river flow. It’s the best method.

2. If no flow data is available, it is possible to estimate the rough flow


duration curve based on rainfall data ( 10 – 20 years). The available
rainfall data from gauging stations in both small and large drainage areas
are useful information to evaluate the discharge at the project site.
DISCHARGE DESIGN:

Flow Duration Curve Panopa NRECA ( %) days ( m3/s)


16
FDC NRECA
based on catchment & rainfall
12
Discharge (m³/s)

Q max-design, based on planing


8
Q average

4
Ecological flow, Q95%

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
Persentase (%)
DESIGN OF CIVIL WORKS

I. DIVERSION AND INTAKE

1. the appropriate section within the river channel to construct the intake
structure is where the channel is as straight as possible in order to ensure
steady and smooth flow of water to the intake and also to prevent scouring
of the river banks downstream of the intake site
2. Stability of Hillside Slope
3. Use of existing civil structure, the use of existing civil structures such as
barangay roads, intake facilities for agriculture and irrigation channels, etc.
Can contribute to the reduction of the development cost.
4. Water intake for agricultural or other purposes should be considered in the
survey in order that the use of river water for power generation will not
affect the present use of the river water. The Intake location and design
should reject bed load and prevent excessive floodwater from entering the
system. The intake and weir should withstand a flood with a return period
of at least 50 years.
DESIGN OF CIVIL WORKS

I. DIVERSION AND INTAKE

1. the appropriate section within the river channel to construct the intake structure is where
the channel is as straight as possible in order to ensure steady and smooth flow of water
to the intake and also to prevent scouring of the river banks downstream of the intake site
2. Stability of Hillside Slope
3. Use of existing civil structure, the use of existing civil structures such as barangay
roads, intake facilities for agriculture and irrigation channels, etc. Can contribute to the
reduction of the development cost.
4. Water intake for agricultural or other purposes should be considered in the survey in
order that the use of river water for power generation will not affect the present use of the
river water.
5. The Intake location and design should reject bed load and prevent excessive floodwater
from entering the system. The intake and weir should withstand a flood with a return
period of at least 50 years.
6. The intake should be equipped with a trashrack to minimise the amount of debris and
sediment carried by the incoming water; a settling basin where the flow velocity is
reduced, to remove all particles over 0.2 mm; a sluicing system to flush the deposited silt,
sand, gravel and pebbles with a minimum of water loss; and a spillway to divert the
excess water
DIVERSION WEIR + INTAKE

Intake Bendung
KOMPONEN PLTM

Kolam pengendap lumpur Saluran pelimpas

The velocity along the intake may vary from 0.8 – 1.5 m/s through the
trashrack
WATER WAY

Headrace can be designed as open or close channel.


The channel shall be plastered from inside using cement
concrete ratio 1:3 if the
channel is in brick or stone masonry. The channel may
also be open earth channel.

To prevent aquatic plant growth, sedimentation


and erosion, the minimum velocities are 0.5-
0.75 m/s.

For canal lined, generally the velocity of water


around 1 – 1,5 m/s
SAND TRAP DAN HEAD PONDS

V (m/s)

h = a.v d
a = 0,545 for symmetrical inflow
= 0,725 for asymmetrical inflow
V = velocity of water in penstock
SAND TRAP + HEAD PONDS/FOREBAY

The forebay in the form of a tank connects The trashrack should have a net area (the
the headrace to the penstock. It shall total area less the bars frontal area) so that
the water velocity does not exceed 0.75 m/s
house an overflow spillway, a drain valve on small intakes .
or stop log gate to flush sediment, a trash The spacing plat at trashrack :
rack to intercept floating debris and 2 – 3 cm, turbin pelton
penstock intake. 4 – 5 cm, turbin francis /crossflow
8 – 10 cm, turbin propeller
PENSTOCK

A. PVC/HDPE/GRC PIPE : shall be buried at depth at least 0,5 m from ground surface
B. SEAMLESS STEEL PIPE : up to dia. 8 inch 6 mm, suitable for high head with discharge 50 -
100 liter/second
C. WELDED ROLLED STEEL PIPE :

P 0.043
D1  0.62  0.65
H

D. PENSTOCK shall be paint


E. Provided a EXPANSION JOINT after anchor block structure
F. SPACING BETWEEN SADDLE SUPPORT 6 - 8 M
G. VELOCITY IN PENSTOCK 2,5 – 3.5 M/DETIK
H. CLEARANCE DISTANCE BETWEEN PENSTOCK SURFACE TO THE GROUND MIN.30 CM
I. HEADLOSS PENSTOCK DESIGN UP TO 4% (MEDIUM HEAD), MAX 10% FOR LOW HEAD
J. MAX. PENSTOCK LENGHT AROUND 5 X HEAD
PENSTOCK DIAMETER EQUATION II

P 0.043
D1  0.62  0.65
H

P
D  0.176  ( ) 0.466
H

D = (10.3 n2Q2L / hf )0.1875

Hf = estimasi awal head losses


n = koefisien kekasaran (roughness) untuk welded steel, 0.012
Q = debit desain, m3/det
L = panjang penstock, m
H = tinggi jatuhan air (gross head), m
P = Power, kW
SURGE TANK

Syarat sebuah PLTM tidak memerlukan Surge Tank adalah :

• PENSTOCK LENGHT < 5 X HEAD, apabila lebih maka dicek sbb:

• L penstock < L max = 3.14 . H . Tclosing guide vane / Vpenstock

• Waktu pengisian air penstock (conduit acceleration time)

Ta = Q . Lpenstock / g. Apenstock. H < 3 detik


PENSTOCK THICKNES
WATER HAMMER PRESSURE RISES