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4 Features

Introduction

Concrete is a widely used construction material with high compressive yet low tensile strengths. Its poor

performance in tension must therefore be addressed by incorporating steel reinforcement in the area where tensile

strength has to be enhanced; compression reinforcement is also sometimes needed to provide additional strength

and stiffness. Strand7 provides a design module to model and analyse reinforced concrete structures of custom

geometry and properties. An overview of the reinforcement module and an example are included here.

Overview

Concrete Reinforcement Layout (Property Setup)

• Choose Property/Plate RC.

The dialog box that defines the reinforcement layout opens up.

There can be up to 4 layers of reinforcement bars included and defined for analyses. Layer 1 of steel bars is always

parallel to Layer 3; Layer 2 is always parallel to Layer 4. Layers 1 and 2 are defined to be near the –z surface of the

plate element, and Layers 3 and 4 near to the +z surface. Layers 1 and 2 (or 3 and 4) do not need to be at right

angles; the angle between them can be defined during the application of the reinforcement attribute to the plate

elements.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Geometry Tab

• Layout Anti-Symmetric Symmetric

Layer 1 is closer to the –z surface

than Layer 2.

Anti-Symmetric option is where

Layer 2 is closer to the –z surface.

• Cover

c1 and c2 define the depth (cover) of the closest layer of steel bars to the –z or +z surface of the concrete material

respectively. These must be entered to define the dimensions of the concrete for design purpose.

• Bar diameters

These define the cross sectional diameters for steel bars from Layer 1 to Layer 4, illustrated as d1 to d4 in the dialog

box figure. Bar diameters automatically become inactive if not required by the intended results calculations.

• Bar spacings

These define the spacings between steel bars in each individual layer, illustrated as s in the dialog box figure. Bar

spacings automatically become inactive if not required by the intended results calculations.

• Colours

Steel bar directions will be displayed on the plate elements with the colours defined. Each colour represents layers in

the same orientation.

Concrete Tab

• E

The modulus of elasticity of the concrete material for design purpose. Note that this value is independent on the

modulus defined in Plate Properties.

• ε

The maximum allowable outer fibre compressive strain on concrete with a typical value of 0.003 in most Concrete

284 Presented by Strand7 Pty Limited

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Codes (ACI, BS8110, AS3600), or 0.0035 in Eurocode2, as illustrated in the dialog box figure.

• fc

The true peak stress on the stress-strain curve of the concrete in compression; i.e. usually the stress value at

0.0022 ε compressive.

• φ

The total strength reduction factor applied to fc to take account of the effects of long-term loading on maximum

compressive stress, illustrated as Φ in the dialog box figure. This value is specified by the appropriate design

Concrete Codes, e.g. 0.85 in Eurocode2, or 0.6~0.8 in AS3600. (Note: additional factor may be applicable, e.g. if

Rectangular Stress Block is used, an additional factor of 0.85 is required by the AS3600.)

• γ

The partial safety factor for concrete with a typical value of 1.5 specified by Eurocode2, illustrated as γC in the

dialog box figure.

fc

Note: the quotient is the effective design concrete peak stress, which is the characteristic compressive cylindrical

γC

strength at 28 days, f’c, in AS3600.

Steel Tab

• E

The modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement steel

material for design purpose.

• fy

The true yield stress for the steel bars. Elastic-Perfectly

Plastic relationship is assumed for the steel.

• γ

The partial safety factor for reinforcement with a typical

value of 1.15 specified by Eurocode2, illustrated as γ S

in the dialog box figure.

• As_b (base)

The steel reinforcement is represented as a uniform layer

of a constant thickness, sandwiched between concrete

layers. The minimum cross sectional area of the

tS

As _ b(base) =

reinforcement per unit length of the slab, usually

specified by various concrete codes, is therefore defined

as the ratio of equivalent thickness of steel bars t S to

t

concrete slab thickness t , as shown in the figure on the tS t

right.

fy

Note: The effective design steel stress f sy is taken as .

γS

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Results Tab

• Method

Simplified (bending only) consists of 3 basic features:

§ It considers only the tensioned steel bars located in the tensile part of the concrete section.

§ It uses a rectangular stress block in the compressive concrete region.

§ Calculation procedures are as follows:

Rectangular φ ⋅ fC

FC = γ ⋅e

Stress Block C

AS ⋅ f y

F =

S γS

F =F

S C

z=d−e

2

φ ⋅ fC φ ⋅ fC e φ ⋅ fC ⋅ d φ ⋅ fC 2

∴M = ⋅e⋅ z = ⋅ e⋅d − = ⋅e− ⋅e

γC γC 2 γC 2γ C

φ ⋅ fC 2 φ ⋅ fC ⋅ d

⋅e − ⋅e + M = 0

2γ C γC

Various results can then be derived, e.g. amount of steel required if bar spacings are given.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

If the rectangular stress block is not desired, and/or membrane forces are to be considered, and/or the compression

steel bars are to be considered, then the following method can be selected.

Elasto-plastic iteration replaces the rectangular stress block with a bilinear elastic-plastic stress-strain curve for the

concrete, determined from the values E and ε entered in the Concrete Tab. Although Eurocode 2 recommends

the use of parabolic-rectangular shape stress block, the use of elastic-plastic and rectangular stress blocks are also

allowed as differences are usually not very significant. A similar bilinear elastic-plastic stress-strain curve is used for

the steel.

The nonlinear material behaviour of a steel reinforced concrete slab, where the steel is represented as a uniform layer

of a constant thickness, can be determined by using a layered approach, similarly to the laminated composite

material. For the reinforced concrete analysis, the slab is divided into a number of thin layers with each layer being

either concrete or steel, depending on the reinforcement layout. This approach allows us to consider both

membrane and bending loads on the composite.

The constitutive equation for the slab and concrete composite can be described by

N C B ε m

=

M B D κ

where

Nx σ x σ x ( z )

N hk

∫ − h / 2 σ y dz = ∑

h/2

N = Ny = ∫ σ y ( z ) dz

N τ τ ( z )

hk − 1

k =1

xy xy xy

is the resultant force vector, which has units of force per unit length, and

Mx σ x σ x ( z )

N hk

∫ − h / 2 σ y z dz = ∑

h/2

M = My = ∫ σ y ( z ) z dz

M τ τ ( z )

hk − 1

k =1

xy xy xy

is the resultant moment vector, which has units of moment per unit length. N and M are obtained from the finite

structural element solution as stress and moment resultants on the plate element.

N

C = ∑ (hk − hk −1 ) Q k

k =1

D=

1 N 3

(

∑ hk − hk3−1 Qk

3 k =1

)

and B is the extensional/bending coupling matrix defined by

B=

1 N 2

(

∑ hk − hk2−1 Qk

2 k =1

)

where Q k is the elasticity matrix for layer k (which may be either concrete or steel), and the matrices C , D and B are all

symmetric.

ε m is the mid-plane membrane strain vector and κ is the plate curvature vector.

In the case of nonlinear material behaviour (both concrete and steel), Q k is a function of the strain in the layer,

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

leading to a set of nonlinear equations which may be solved using standard Newton-Raphson iteration.

Note that although each ply in the reinforced concrete composite may exhibit nonlinear stress-strain behaviour, the

assumption of linear gross strain variation through the slab thickness is made.

If Include membrane forces is active, then the Force N illustrated in the dialog box figure will be considered in the

iterative process together with the Moment M.

Allow compression reinforcement means that compressive steel bars will also be included where required to share

the compressive loads.

Reinforcement Library

Similar to the Strand7 material and section libraries, reinforcement

layouts can be read from and stored to a reinforcement database for

ease of access in other models. The reinforcement libraries have the

extension .REO (c.f. .MAT for material libraries and .BSL for beam

section libraries) and should be located in the ...\DATA folder of the

installed Strand7 directory.

• Choose

Attributes/Plates/Concrete

Reinforcement.

• Select the appropriate Layers 2, 4

Reinforcement Layout defined in

property from the dropdown menu.

• The orientation angle of Layers is

an angle in degrees, between the

plate element’s local x-axis and the

direction of the reinforcement on

layers.

Layers 1, 3

Aligning Reinforcements

The reinforcement directions can be modified by changing the

element’s local axis direction, or by setting different angles in the

attribute dialog box. The reinforcement alignment tool is very

useful for the aligment of reinforcement directions on large models.

• Choose Tools/Align/Plate Reinforcement Direction to open

dialog box for aligning tool.

This tool allows the orientations of the reinforcements to be

modified according to any desired coordinate system. Note that a

coordinate system must be defined before the alignment can be

made.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Layers 1, 3

Layers 2, 4

Aligning…

Extracting Results

Contours

There are various results options available

for the reinforced concrete module.

• Choose Results/Results Settings

and select Contour under Draw as,

and RC under Quantity.

There is also a useful Unit button, which

allows the selection of preferred units to

be displayed in the reinforcement contour.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

• Wood-Armer Moments

These are moments to be resisted by each layer of reinforcement calculated according to the published equations,

which allow designers to make allowance for plate bending and twisting moments when designing the reinforcement

within a reinforced concrete panel.

The approach assumes that one direction of reinforcement is aligned with the x axis of the plate. The second

direction need not be orthogonal to the first. The second direction of reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) is

defined as being α degrees from the x reinforcement measured anti-clockwise from the x reinforcement.

The equations calculate the moment in the x and α direction that the section needs to be designed to withstand.

These terms are defined as M x* and M α* .

Fy

z

M xy

M yy

M xx y M xy

α

− Fx Fx

x

M yy M xx

M xy

M xy

− Fy

This convention should be used when using the equations defined here.

M xx and M yy moments are bending moments.

M xy is a twisting moment.

Bottom Steel:

* M xy + M yy cot α

M x = M xx + 2 M xy cot α + M yy cot α +

2

sin α

* M yy M xy + M yy cot α

M α = sin 2 α + sin α

if M x* < 0 then fix M x* = 0

M yy +

(

M xy + M yy cot α

2

)

M xx + 2 M xy cot α + M yy cot 2 α

and M α =

*

sin 2 α

if M α* < 0 then fix M α* = 0

(

M xy + M yy cot α )

2

* 2

M yy

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Top Steel:

* M xy + M yy cot α

M x = M xx + 2 M xy cot α + M yy cot α −

2

sin α

* M yy M xy + M yy cot α

M α = sin 2 α − sin α

if M x* > 0 then fix M x* = 0

(

M xy + M yy cot α )

2

M yy −

M xx + 2M xy cot α + M yy cot 2 α

and M α =

*

sin 2 α

if M α* > 0 then fix M α* = 0

(

M xy + M yy cot α )

2

* 2

M yy

• Steel (As)

This is a contour that gives the required reinforcement for a balanced section supporting the calculated moment and

membrane forces if specified. The contour can be calculated at each layer and can be presented in one of five

different ways.

● /Length: The total amount of reinforcement steel required in terms of total cross sectional area of the steel

bars per unit length in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the steel bars.

● Spacing: Based on the nominal bar diameters defined in the reinforcement layout, spacing between the steel

bars is calculated, illustrated as s in the dialog box figure.

● Bar diameter: Based on the nominal bar spacings defined in the reinforcement layout, bar diameters for the

chosen layer are calculated.

● /A_slab: The ratio of the reinforcement cross-sectional area to the cross-sectional area of the slab.

● /A_base: The ratio of the amount of reinforcement to the base amount specified in the reinforcement

layout. If this value is greater than 1, it indicates that the base amount of reinforcement specified by the

Codes is insufficient.

• Steel (As less As_b)

This is a contour that gives the extra amount of reinforcement required in addition to the base amount of steel

specified in the reinforcement layout. The contour is the same as Steel (As), but the values have the base amount

subtracted, i.e. As - As_b.

• Steel Stress (User)

The stress of each layer of steel reinforcement may be contoured. For this contour, the steel property defined in the

reinforcement layout is used to determine the stress due to the moments.

The results can also be viewed by using Peek, Listing and XY Plots.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Examples

Two examples are included to demonstrate the functionality of the Reinforced Concrete module.

Example 1

300 mm

Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam

This example shows the method of

setting up a reinforced beam by using a

plate model with reinforcement

390 mm

attributes assigned. The steel stress,

450 mm

minimum requirements of steel in terms

of area/length, spacings, diameters and

ratio of areas, as well as the effective

design bending moments are calculated

without Code specific constraints. 3 X N24 Bars

Example 2

60 mm

Design Factors

Calculations are performed on a T-beam

7 X N20

to determine various results based on Bars

Code specific design criteria with the

120 mm

inclusion of both compressive and

800 mm

tensile reinforcement. Due to the

geometry offset, membrane forces are

90 mm

the bending moment; hence, the

membrane forces are included in the 6 X N28 Bars

Elasto-Plastic Iteration option.

300 mm

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

Recta ngular Beam

2

contains three N24 (450 mm ) bars for 300 mm

bottom reinforcement. A positive bending

5

moment of 1 x 10 kN.mm is applied and

compression reinforcement is not employed.

Find:

390 mm

a) The Steel Stress based on the

1 x 105 kN.mm

450 mm

configuration shown on right;

b) Effective Design Moment to resist by the

reinforcements;

c) Minimum reinforcement Spacings if N24

3 X N24 Bars

bars are used;

d) Minimum reinforcement bar Diameter if

spacings of 100 mm are used;

e) Minimum area of reinforcement per

length.

f) Minimum area ratio of reinforcement and

concrete.

’ 3

Material properties are: f C = 32 MPa, EC = 31000 MPa, ES = 200 x 10 MPa, fSY = 500 MPa. To keep the model

simple, a single Quad8 plate element is adequate.

Model Preparation

• Choose File/New.

• Choose Global/Units and set Nmm.

• Choose Create/Node:

● Node 1: (0,0,0)

● Node 2: (300,0,0)

• Choose Create/Element and create a beam element connecting node 1 and 2.

• Choose Tools/Extrude/by Increment and extrude the beam element into a plate element, with Increments Y

set as 300, and Source set as Erase.

• Choose View/Entity Display and check Draw Axes and select Orientation under Draw As in the Plate tab.

• Choose Attributes/Node/Restraint and fix all degrees of freedom of node 1 and node 3.

• Choose Tools/Subdivide, set Quad8 as the Targets Plate and Divisions A and B to 1, then applies to the only

plate element in the model.

• Choose Create/Link, select Rigid from the drop down menu, and create XYZ rigid links to node 2, node 7, and

node 4.

• Choose Attributes/Node/Moment, apply a –1e8 N.mm of Y Moment to node 7.

• Choose Property/Plate, choose Materials.. and select AS3600 (1994) Concrete - Compressive Strength f'c

= 32 Mpa from the material library, and enter 0 for the Poisson’s Ratio to exclude the Poisson’s effect.

• Enter a Membrane Thickness of 450 mm in the Geometry tab.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

• The model can be solved; choose Solver/Linear Static and click Solve. Based on this, the reinforcement

concrete module performs further calculations to produce the reinforcement results.

Reinforcement Application

• Choose Property/Plate RC and create a reinforcement layout with the default name, then enter the followings

into their respective cells under the Geometry tab (note the layout is specified in the plate local axis system):

● Bar diameter 1 : sqrt(450*4/pi)

● Bar spacing 1 : 300/3

● Cover c1 : 450-390

• Under the Concrete tab, the design parameters are adjusted as follows, since we are only interested in the

unscaled steel stresses:

● E : 31000

● ε:0

● fc : 32

● φ:1

● γ:1

294 Presented by Strand7 Pty Limited

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

• Under the Steel tab, the design factors are not considered for this example:

● E : 200000

● fy : 500

● γ:1

● As_b (base) : 0

• Under the Results tab, Select Simplified (bending only) since the compressive reinforcement is absent. The

Elasto-plastic iteration method can also be chosen and the results are expected to be similar.

• Choose Attributes/Plate/Concrete

Reinforcement, select 1: Reinforcement Layout 1

from the dropdown menu and assign this layout to

the plate element. You will only need to align

Layer 1 to the local x-axis of the plate element,

which is 0 deg orientation.

• Choose Results/Open Results File and open the appropriate results file.

• Choose Results/Results Settings and select Contour, and then select RC. Various options are available and

the required results can be contoured.

a) Steel Stress (User) Layer 1: 203.661 MPa

b) Wood-Armer Moments Layer 1: 333333 N.mm/mm (note: moment to be resisted by reinforcement in

layer 2 is 0 in this case; yet, you should expect a small design moment in layer 2 if Poisson’s ratio was set to

a non-zero value.)

c) Steel (As) Layer 1 Spacing: 245.505 mm if N24 is used and just starts to yield under the design moment

(minimum requirement is approximately 2.5 times the spacing we specified as the yield stress is roughly 2.5

times the steel stress for the current configuration).

d) Steel (As) Layer 1 Bar diameter: 15.2767 mm if 100 mm spacing is used and just starts to yield under

1/2

design moment (minimum requirement is approximately (1/2.5) times the bar diameter we specified).

e) Steel (As) Layer 1 /Length: 1.83295 mm /mm is the minimum area of reinforcement per unit length.

2

f) Steel (As) Layer 1 /A_slab: 0.00407323 is the minimum area ratio between reinforcement and the gross

concrete area. This value is usually restricted to be at least 0.01 in the design Code, which means that the

basic Code requirement is more than enough in this case.

Note: you can change the display units into a preferable set; this can be done by clicking the Unit button, and select

the preferable units for area and length.

You can also extract results using Peek, Graphs, and Listings, Peek results is shown in the following:

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

T- Beam with Design Factors

60 mm

2

contains six N28 (620 mm ) bars for the 1000 mm

bottom reinforcement and 7 N20 (310

2

mm ) bars for the top reinforcement. A

5

positive bending moment of 4.5 x 10 7 X N20

kN.mm is applied. From the Eurocode 2 Bars

limits onwards, investigate the

120 mm

characteristics of the section with the

800 mm

decrease in concrete and steel strength.

90 mm

6 X N28 Bars

300 mm

’ 3

Material properties are: f C = 32 MPa, EC = 31000 MPa, ES = 200 x 10 MPa, fSY = 500 MPa. The Eurocode 2

constraints are: Φ = 0.85, γC = 1.5, γS = 1.15, ε = 0.0035, AS/AC = 0.01. Four Quad8 elements are used to model

the problem. We will use the Elasto-plastic Iteration method to obtain reinforcement results due to the presence of

compression reinforcement and the membrane forces.

Model Preparation

• Choose File/New.

• Choose Global/Units and set Nmm.

• Choose Create/Node:

● Node 1: (0,0,0)

● Node 2: (1000,0,0)

• Choose Create/Element and create a beam element connecting node 1 and 2.

• Choose Tools/Extrude/by Increment and extrude the beam element into a plate element, with:

● Increments Y set as 350, and Source set as Move;

● Increments Y set as 300, and Source set as Move, Property Increment set as 1;

● Increments Y set as 350, and Source set as Erase, Property Increment set back as 0.

• Due to different thicknesses between plate elements, the middle plate element of property type 2 shall be offset

by 400 mm. Choose Attributes/Plate/Offset, enter a value of -400 mm and apply to the middle plate

element.

• Choose Create/Element, and select Quad4 with Property set as 1, and create a plate element by joining nodes

3, 4, 6, and then 5. Make sure local axes of all plate elements are aligned.

• Choose Attributes/Node/Restraint and fix all degrees of freedom of nodes 1, 3, 5, and 7.

• Choose Tools/Subdivide, set Quad8 as the Targets Plate and Divisions A and B to 1, then applies to all plate

elements in the model.

• Choose Create/Link, select Rigid from the drop down menu, and create XYZ rigid links to nodes 2, 11, 4, 14,

6, 17, and 8.

• Choose Attributes/Node/Moment, apply a –4.5e8 N.mm of Y Moment to node 14.

• Choose Property/Plate, choose Materials.. and select AS3600 (1994) Concrete - Compressive Strength f'c

= 32 Mpa from the material library, and enter 0 for the Poisson’s Ratio to exclude the Poisson’s effect for all

plate properties.

296 Presented by Strand7 Pty Limited

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

• Enter a Membrane Thickness of 120 mm and 680 mm in the Geometry tab for plate property 1 and 2

respectively.

• Choose Solver/Linear Static and click Solve.

Top Plates

Bottom Plate

As shown in the figure above, membrane forces are present and are large enough to cause considerable influence to

the reinforcement results; hence, they should be taken into account.

Reinforcement Application

• Choose Property/Plate RC and create a reinforcement layout for the top plates with the following setup:

● Bar diameter 3 : sqrt(310*4/pi)

● Bar spacing 3 : 1000/7

● Cover c2 : 60- sqrt(310*4/pi)/2

• Under the Concrete tab, the Eurocode 2 design factors are included:

● E : 31000

● ε : 0.0035

● fc : 32

● φ : 0.85

● γ : 1.5

• Under the Steel tab, the design factors are also considered:

● E : 200000

● fy : 500

● γ : 1.15

● As_b (base) : 0.01

• Under the Results tab, Select Elasto-plastic Iteration method and set both Include membrane forces and

Allow compression reinforcement.

• Choose Property/Plate RC and create a new reinforcement layout for the bottom plate with the same

Concrete, Steel, and Results setup, but with a different layout pattern:

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

● Bar spacing 1 : 300/6

● Cover c1 : 90 - sqrt(620*4/pi)/2

• Choose Attributes/Plate/Concrete Reinforcement, select 1: Top Reinforcements from the dropdown menu

and assign this layout to the top plate elements, and assign 2: Bottom Reinforcements to the bottom plate

element.

The effective design parameters are as follows:

Design Concrete Compressive Stress

= 0.85*32/1.5

= 18.13 MPa

Design Steel Yield Stress

= 500/1.15

= 434.7 MPa

The Concrete Compressive Stress without

Reinforcement is approximately -7 MPa as

shown in the stress contour, which is

considerably lower than the design concrete

yield stress; hence, elastic behaviour of the

concrete is expected when the partial safety

factor for the concrete is set as 1.5. When the

design concrete strength decreases with the

partial safety factor, the amount of steel

reinforcement is expected to increase.

Strand7 Release 2.4 Features

The behaviour of the reinforced concrete section is summarised in the table below, with variable partial safety factor:

1.50 3.00 4.20 5.00

Design Strength (Mpa) 18.13 9.07 6.48 5.44

EC

(User)

Stress

Steel

Compressive

Minimum Requirement

2

Tensile

Compressive

Diameter (mm) fix spacing

Tensile

Compressive

Spacing (m) fix diameter

Tensile

Compressive

As/Ac x10

-6

Tensile

Design Strength (Mpa) 434.78 333.33 250.00 200.00

Compressive

Minimum Requirement

2

Tensile

Compressive

Diameter (mm) fix spacing

Tensile

Compressive

Spacing (m) fix diameter

Tensile

Compressive

As/Ac x10

-6

Tensile

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