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Strand7 Release 2.

4 Features

Plate Element Concrete Reinforcement Analysis

Introduction
Concrete is a widely used construction material with high compressive yet low tensile strengths. Its poor
performance in tension must therefore be addressed by incorporating steel reinforcement in the area where tensile
strength has to be enhanced; compression reinforcement is also sometimes needed to provide additional strength
and stiffness. Strand7 provides a design module to model and analyse reinforced concrete structures of custom
geometry and properties. An overview of the reinforcement module and an example are included here.

Overview
Concrete Reinforcement Layout (Property Setup)
• Choose Property/Plate RC.
The dialog box that defines the reinforcement layout opens up.

There can be up to 4 layers of reinforcement bars included and defined for analyses. Layer 1 of steel bars is always
parallel to Layer 3; Layer 2 is always parallel to Layer 4. Layers 1 and 2 are defined to be near the –z surface of the
plate element, and Layers 3 and 4 near to the +z surface. Layers 1 and 2 (or 3 and 4) do not need to be at right
angles; the angle between them can be defined during the application of the reinforcement attribute to the plate
elements.

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Geometry Tab
• Layout Anti-Symmetric Symmetric

Symmetric option specifies that


Layer 1 is closer to the –z surface
than Layer 2.
Anti-Symmetric option is where
Layer 2 is closer to the –z surface.
• Cover

c1 and c2 define the depth (cover) of the closest layer of steel bars to the –z or +z surface of the concrete material
respectively. These must be entered to define the dimensions of the concrete for design purpose.
• Bar diameters
These define the cross sectional diameters for steel bars from Layer 1 to Layer 4, illustrated as d1 to d4 in the dialog
box figure. Bar diameters automatically become inactive if not required by the intended results calculations.
• Bar spacings
These define the spacings between steel bars in each individual layer, illustrated as s in the dialog box figure. Bar
spacings automatically become inactive if not required by the intended results calculations.
• Colours
Steel bar directions will be displayed on the plate elements with the colours defined. Each colour represents layers in
the same orientation.

Concrete Tab

• E
The modulus of elasticity of the concrete material for design purpose. Note that this value is independent on the
modulus defined in Plate Properties.
• ε
The maximum allowable outer fibre compressive strain on concrete with a typical value of 0.003 in most Concrete
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Codes (ACI, BS8110, AS3600), or 0.0035 in Eurocode2, as illustrated in the dialog box figure.
• fc
The true peak stress on the stress-strain curve of the concrete in compression; i.e. usually the stress value at
0.0022 ε compressive.
• φ
The total strength reduction factor applied to fc to take account of the effects of long-term loading on maximum
compressive stress, illustrated as Φ in the dialog box figure. This value is specified by the appropriate design
Concrete Codes, e.g. 0.85 in Eurocode2, or 0.6~0.8 in AS3600. (Note: additional factor may be applicable, e.g. if
Rectangular Stress Block is used, an additional factor of 0.85 is required by the AS3600.)
• γ
The partial safety factor for concrete with a typical value of 1.5 specified by Eurocode2, illustrated as γC in the
dialog box figure.
fc
Note: the quotient is the effective design concrete peak stress, which is the characteristic compressive cylindrical
γC
strength at 28 days, f’c, in AS3600.

Steel Tab
• E
The modulus of elasticity of the reinforcement steel
material for design purpose.
• fy
The true yield stress for the steel bars. Elastic-Perfectly
Plastic relationship is assumed for the steel.
• γ
The partial safety factor for reinforcement with a typical
value of 1.15 specified by Eurocode2, illustrated as γ S
in the dialog box figure.
• As_b (base)
The steel reinforcement is represented as a uniform layer
of a constant thickness, sandwiched between concrete
layers. The minimum cross sectional area of the
tS
As _ b(base) =
reinforcement per unit length of the slab, usually
specified by various concrete codes, is therefore defined
as the ratio of equivalent thickness of steel bars t S to
t
concrete slab thickness t , as shown in the figure on the tS t
right.
fy
Note: The effective design steel stress f sy is taken as .
γS

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Results Tab

• Method
Simplified (bending only) consists of 3 basic features:

§ It considers only Moments M as shown in dialog box figure;


§ It considers only the tensioned steel bars located in the tensile part of the concrete section.
§ It uses a rectangular stress block in the compressive concrete region.
§ Calculation procedures are as follows:

Rectangular  φ ⋅ fC
 FC = γ ⋅e
Stress Block  C
 AS ⋅ f y
F =
 S γS
 F =F
 S C

 z=d−e
 2

φ ⋅ fC φ ⋅ fC  e  φ ⋅ fC ⋅ d φ ⋅ fC 2
∴M = ⋅e⋅ z = ⋅ e⋅d −  = ⋅e− ⋅e
γC γC  2 γC 2γ C

The following quadratic is solved for e:


φ ⋅ fC 2 φ ⋅ fC ⋅ d
⋅e − ⋅e + M = 0
2γ C γC
Various results can then be derived, e.g. amount of steel required if bar spacings are given.

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If the rectangular stress block is not desired, and/or membrane forces are to be considered, and/or the compression
steel bars are to be considered, then the following method can be selected.
Elasto-plastic iteration replaces the rectangular stress block with a bilinear elastic-plastic stress-strain curve for the
concrete, determined from the values E and ε entered in the Concrete Tab. Although Eurocode 2 recommends
the use of parabolic-rectangular shape stress block, the use of elastic-plastic and rectangular stress blocks are also
allowed as differences are usually not very significant. A similar bilinear elastic-plastic stress-strain curve is used for
the steel.

Iterative Solution of Reinforced Concrete


The nonlinear material behaviour of a steel reinforced concrete slab, where the steel is represented as a uniform layer
of a constant thickness, can be determined by using a layered approach, similarly to the laminated composite
material. For the reinforced concrete analysis, the slab is divided into a number of thin layers with each layer being
either concrete or steel, depending on the reinforcement layout. This approach allows us to consider both
membrane and bending loads on the composite.
The constitutive equation for the slab and concrete composite can be described by

 N  C B  ε m 
 =  
M  B D  κ 
where

 Nx  σ x  σ x ( z ) 
    N hk  
∫ − h / 2 σ y dz = ∑
h/2
N =  Ny  = ∫ σ y ( z )  dz
N  τ  τ ( z )
hk − 1
k =1
 xy   xy   xy 
is the resultant force vector, which has units of force per unit length, and

Mx  σ x  σ x ( z ) 
    N hk  
∫ − h / 2 σ y  z dz = ∑
h/2
M = My  = ∫ σ y ( z )  z dz
M  τ  τ ( z )
hk − 1
k =1
 xy   xy   xy 

is the resultant moment vector, which has units of moment per unit length. N and M are obtained from the finite
structural element solution as stress and moment resultants on the plate element.

C is the extensional stiffness matrix (membrane elasticity matrix) defined by


N
C = ∑ (hk − hk −1 ) Q k
k =1

D is the bending stiffness matrix defined by

D=
1 N 3
(
∑ hk − hk3−1 Qk
3 k =1
)
and B is the extensional/bending coupling matrix defined by

B=
1 N 2
(
∑ hk − hk2−1 Qk
2 k =1
)
where Q k is the elasticity matrix for layer k (which may be either concrete or steel), and the matrices C , D and B are all
symmetric.

ε m is the mid-plane membrane strain vector and κ is the plate curvature vector.

In the case of nonlinear material behaviour (both concrete and steel), Q k is a function of the strain in the layer,

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leading to a set of nonlinear equations which may be solved using standard Newton-Raphson iteration.

Note that although each ply in the reinforced concrete composite may exhibit nonlinear stress-strain behaviour, the
assumption of linear gross strain variation through the slab thickness is made.
If Include membrane forces is active, then the Force N illustrated in the dialog box figure will be considered in the
iterative process together with the Moment M.
Allow compression reinforcement means that compressive steel bars will also be included where required to share
the compressive loads.

Reinforcement Library
Similar to the Strand7 material and section libraries, reinforcement
layouts can be read from and stored to a reinforcement database for
ease of access in other models. The reinforcement libraries have the
extension .REO (c.f. .MAT for material libraries and .BSL for beam
section libraries) and should be located in the ...\DATA folder of the
installed Strand7 directory.

Property Application (Attributes Setup)


• Choose
Attributes/Plates/Concrete
Reinforcement.
• Select the appropriate Layers 2, 4
Reinforcement Layout defined in
property from the dropdown menu.
• The orientation angle of Layers is
an angle in degrees, between the
plate element’s local x-axis and the
direction of the reinforcement on
layers.
Layers 1, 3

Aligning Reinforcements
The reinforcement directions can be modified by changing the
element’s local axis direction, or by setting different angles in the
attribute dialog box. The reinforcement alignment tool is very
useful for the aligment of reinforcement directions on large models.
• Choose Tools/Align/Plate Reinforcement Direction to open
dialog box for aligning tool.
This tool allows the orientations of the reinforcements to be
modified according to any desired coordinate system. Note that a
coordinate system must be defined before the alignment can be
made.

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Layers 1, 3
Layers 2, 4

Aligning…

Extracting Results

Contours
There are various results options available
for the reinforced concrete module.
• Choose Results/Results Settings
and select Contour under Draw as,
and RC under Quantity.
There is also a useful Unit button, which
allows the selection of preferred units to
be displayed in the reinforcement contour.

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• Wood-Armer Moments
These are moments to be resisted by each layer of reinforcement calculated according to the published equations,
which allow designers to make allowance for plate bending and twisting moments when designing the reinforcement
within a reinforced concrete panel.
The approach assumes that one direction of reinforcement is aligned with the x axis of the plate. The second
direction need not be orthogonal to the first. The second direction of reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) is
defined as being α degrees from the x reinforcement measured anti-clockwise from the x reinforcement.
The equations calculate the moment in the x and α direction that the section needs to be designed to withstand.
These terms are defined as M x* and M α* .

Strand7 uses the following plate convention:


Fy
z
M xy
M yy

M xx y M xy
α
− Fx Fx
x
M yy M xx
M xy

M xy

− Fy

This convention should be used when using the equations defined here.
M xx and M yy moments are bending moments.

M xy is a twisting moment.

Bottom Steel:
 * M xy + M yy cot α
M x = M xx + 2 M xy cot α + M yy cot α +
2

 sin α

 * M yy M xy + M yy cot α
M α = sin 2 α + sin α

if M x* < 0 then fix M x* = 0


 M yy +
(
M xy + M yy cot α
2
)
 M xx + 2 M xy cot α + M yy cot 2 α
and M α =
*

 sin 2 α
if M α* < 0 then fix M α* = 0

 (
M xy + M yy cot α )
2

and M x = M xx + 2M xy cot α + M yy cot α +


* 2

 M yy

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Top Steel:
 * M xy + M yy cot α
M x = M xx + 2 M xy cot α + M yy cot α −
2

 sin α

 * M yy M xy + M yy cot α
M α = sin 2 α − sin α

if M x* > 0 then fix M x* = 0

 (
M xy + M yy cot α )
2

 M yy −
 M xx + 2M xy cot α + M yy cot 2 α
and M α =
*

 sin 2 α
if M α* > 0 then fix M α* = 0

 (
M xy + M yy cot α )
2

and M x = M xx + 2M xy cot α + M yy cot α −


* 2

M yy


• Steel (As)
This is a contour that gives the required reinforcement for a balanced section supporting the calculated moment and
membrane forces if specified. The contour can be calculated at each layer and can be presented in one of five
different ways.
● /Length: The total amount of reinforcement steel required in terms of total cross sectional area of the steel
bars per unit length in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the steel bars.
● Spacing: Based on the nominal bar diameters defined in the reinforcement layout, spacing between the steel
bars is calculated, illustrated as s in the dialog box figure.
● Bar diameter: Based on the nominal bar spacings defined in the reinforcement layout, bar diameters for the
chosen layer are calculated.
● /A_slab: The ratio of the reinforcement cross-sectional area to the cross-sectional area of the slab.
● /A_base: The ratio of the amount of reinforcement to the base amount specified in the reinforcement
layout. If this value is greater than 1, it indicates that the base amount of reinforcement specified by the
Codes is insufficient.
• Steel (As less As_b)
This is a contour that gives the extra amount of reinforcement required in addition to the base amount of steel
specified in the reinforcement layout. The contour is the same as Steel (As), but the values have the base amount
subtracted, i.e. As - As_b.
• Steel Stress (User)
The stress of each layer of steel reinforcement may be contoured. For this contour, the steel property defined in the
reinforcement layout is used to determine the stress due to the moments.
The results can also be viewed by using Peek, Listing and XY Plots.

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Examples
Two examples are included to demonstrate the functionality of the Reinforced Concrete module.

Example 1
300 mm
Singly Reinforced Rectangular Beam
This example shows the method of
setting up a reinforced beam by using a
plate model with reinforcement

390 mm
attributes assigned. The steel stress,

450 mm
minimum requirements of steel in terms
of area/length, spacings, diameters and
ratio of areas, as well as the effective
design bending moments are calculated
without Code specific constraints. 3 X N24 Bars

Example 2
60 mm

Doubly Reinforced T-Beam with 1000 mm


Design Factors
Calculations are performed on a T-beam
7 X N20
to determine various results based on Bars
Code specific design criteria with the

120 mm
inclusion of both compressive and

800 mm
tensile reinforcement. Due to the
geometry offset, membrane forces are
90 mm

expected to be generated in addition to


the bending moment; hence, the
membrane forces are included in the 6 X N28 Bars
Elasto-Plastic Iteration option.
300 mm

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Example 1: Singly Reinforced Rectangular


Recta ngular Beam

• The reinforced rectangular section on the right


2
contains three N24 (450 mm ) bars for 300 mm
bottom reinforcement. A positive bending
5
moment of 1 x 10 kN.mm is applied and
compression reinforcement is not employed.
Find:

390 mm
a) The Steel Stress based on the
1 x 105 kN.mm

450 mm
configuration shown on right;
b) Effective Design Moment to resist by the
reinforcements;
c) Minimum reinforcement Spacings if N24
3 X N24 Bars
bars are used;
d) Minimum reinforcement bar Diameter if
spacings of 100 mm are used;
e) Minimum area of reinforcement per
length.
f) Minimum area ratio of reinforcement and
concrete.
’ 3
Material properties are: f C = 32 MPa, EC = 31000 MPa, ES = 200 x 10 MPa, fSY = 500 MPa. To keep the model
simple, a single Quad8 plate element is adequate.

Model Preparation
• Choose File/New.
• Choose Global/Units and set Nmm.
• Choose Create/Node:
● Node 1: (0,0,0)
● Node 2: (300,0,0)
• Choose Create/Element and create a beam element connecting node 1 and 2.
• Choose Tools/Extrude/by Increment and extrude the beam element into a plate element, with Increments Y
set as 300, and Source set as Erase.
• Choose View/Entity Display and check Draw Axes and select Orientation under Draw As in the Plate tab.
• Choose Attributes/Node/Restraint and fix all degrees of freedom of node 1 and node 3.
• Choose Tools/Subdivide, set Quad8 as the Targets Plate and Divisions A and B to 1, then applies to the only
plate element in the model.
• Choose Create/Link, select Rigid from the drop down menu, and create XYZ rigid links to node 2, node 7, and
node 4.
• Choose Attributes/Node/Moment, apply a –1e8 N.mm of Y Moment to node 7.
• Choose Property/Plate, choose Materials.. and select AS3600 (1994) Concrete - Compressive Strength f'c
= 32 Mpa from the material library, and enter 0 for the Poisson’s Ratio to exclude the Poisson’s effect.
• Enter a Membrane Thickness of 450 mm in the Geometry tab.

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• The model can be solved; choose Solver/Linear Static and click Solve. Based on this, the reinforcement
concrete module performs further calculations to produce the reinforcement results.

Reinforcement Application
• Choose Property/Plate RC and create a reinforcement layout with the default name, then enter the followings
into their respective cells under the Geometry tab (note the layout is specified in the plate local axis system):
● Bar diameter 1 : sqrt(450*4/pi)
● Bar spacing 1 : 300/3
● Cover c1 : 450-390

• Under the Concrete tab, the design parameters are adjusted as follows, since we are only interested in the
unscaled steel stresses:
● E : 31000
● ε:0
● fc : 32
● φ:1
● γ:1
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• Under the Steel tab, the design factors are not considered for this example:
● E : 200000
● fy : 500
● γ:1
● As_b (base) : 0
• Under the Results tab, Select Simplified (bending only) since the compressive reinforcement is absent. The
Elasto-plastic iteration method can also be chosen and the results are expected to be similar.
• Choose Attributes/Plate/Concrete
Reinforcement, select 1: Reinforcement Layout 1
from the dropdown menu and assign this layout to
the plate element. You will only need to align
Layer 1 to the local x-axis of the plate element,
which is 0 deg orientation.

Extracting Reinforcement Results


• Choose Results/Open Results File and open the appropriate results file.
• Choose Results/Results Settings and select Contour, and then select RC. Various options are available and
the required results can be contoured.
a) Steel Stress (User) Layer 1: 203.661 MPa
b) Wood-Armer Moments Layer 1: 333333 N.mm/mm (note: moment to be resisted by reinforcement in
layer 2 is 0 in this case; yet, you should expect a small design moment in layer 2 if Poisson’s ratio was set to
a non-zero value.)
c) Steel (As) Layer 1 Spacing: 245.505 mm if N24 is used and just starts to yield under the design moment
(minimum requirement is approximately 2.5 times the spacing we specified as the yield stress is roughly 2.5
times the steel stress for the current configuration).
d) Steel (As) Layer 1 Bar diameter: 15.2767 mm if 100 mm spacing is used and just starts to yield under
1/2
design moment (minimum requirement is approximately (1/2.5) times the bar diameter we specified).
e) Steel (As) Layer 1 /Length: 1.83295 mm /mm is the minimum area of reinforcement per unit length.
2

f) Steel (As) Layer 1 /A_slab: 0.00407323 is the minimum area ratio between reinforcement and the gross
concrete area. This value is usually restricted to be at least 0.01 in the design Code, which means that the
basic Code requirement is more than enough in this case.
Note: you can change the display units into a preferable set; this can be done by clicking the Unit button, and select
the preferable units for area and length.
You can also extract results using Peek, Graphs, and Listings, Peek results is shown in the following:

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Example 2: Doubly Reinforced T-


T- Beam with Design Factors

The reinforced T section on the right

60 mm
2
contains six N28 (620 mm ) bars for the 1000 mm
bottom reinforcement and 7 N20 (310
2
mm ) bars for the top reinforcement. A
5
positive bending moment of 4.5 x 10 7 X N20
kN.mm is applied. From the Eurocode 2 Bars
limits onwards, investigate the

120 mm
characteristics of the section with the

800 mm
decrease in concrete and steel strength.
90 mm

4.5 x 105 kN.mm


6 X N28 Bars

300 mm

’ 3
Material properties are: f C = 32 MPa, EC = 31000 MPa, ES = 200 x 10 MPa, fSY = 500 MPa. The Eurocode 2
constraints are: Φ = 0.85, γC = 1.5, γS = 1.15, ε = 0.0035, AS/AC = 0.01. Four Quad8 elements are used to model
the problem. We will use the Elasto-plastic Iteration method to obtain reinforcement results due to the presence of
compression reinforcement and the membrane forces.

Model Preparation
• Choose File/New.
• Choose Global/Units and set Nmm.
• Choose Create/Node:
● Node 1: (0,0,0)
● Node 2: (1000,0,0)
• Choose Create/Element and create a beam element connecting node 1 and 2.
• Choose Tools/Extrude/by Increment and extrude the beam element into a plate element, with:
● Increments Y set as 350, and Source set as Move;
● Increments Y set as 300, and Source set as Move, Property Increment set as 1;
● Increments Y set as 350, and Source set as Erase, Property Increment set back as 0.
• Due to different thicknesses between plate elements, the middle plate element of property type 2 shall be offset
by 400 mm. Choose Attributes/Plate/Offset, enter a value of -400 mm and apply to the middle plate
element.
• Choose Create/Element, and select Quad4 with Property set as 1, and create a plate element by joining nodes
3, 4, 6, and then 5. Make sure local axes of all plate elements are aligned.
• Choose Attributes/Node/Restraint and fix all degrees of freedom of nodes 1, 3, 5, and 7.
• Choose Tools/Subdivide, set Quad8 as the Targets Plate and Divisions A and B to 1, then applies to all plate
elements in the model.
• Choose Create/Link, select Rigid from the drop down menu, and create XYZ rigid links to nodes 2, 11, 4, 14,
6, 17, and 8.
• Choose Attributes/Node/Moment, apply a –4.5e8 N.mm of Y Moment to node 14.
• Choose Property/Plate, choose Materials.. and select AS3600 (1994) Concrete - Compressive Strength f'c
= 32 Mpa from the material library, and enter 0 for the Poisson’s Ratio to exclude the Poisson’s effect for all
plate properties.
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• Enter a Membrane Thickness of 120 mm and 680 mm in the Geometry tab for plate property 1 and 2
respectively.
• Choose Solver/Linear Static and click Solve.

Top Plates

Bottom Plate

As shown in the figure above, membrane forces are present and are large enough to cause considerable influence to
the reinforcement results; hence, they should be taken into account.

Reinforcement Application
• Choose Property/Plate RC and create a reinforcement layout for the top plates with the following setup:
● Bar diameter 3 : sqrt(310*4/pi)
● Bar spacing 3 : 1000/7
● Cover c2 : 60- sqrt(310*4/pi)/2
• Under the Concrete tab, the Eurocode 2 design factors are included:
● E : 31000
● ε : 0.0035
● fc : 32
● φ : 0.85
● γ : 1.5
• Under the Steel tab, the design factors are also considered:
● E : 200000
● fy : 500
● γ : 1.15
● As_b (base) : 0.01
• Under the Results tab, Select Elasto-plastic Iteration method and set both Include membrane forces and
Allow compression reinforcement.
• Choose Property/Plate RC and create a new reinforcement layout for the bottom plate with the same
Concrete, Steel, and Results setup, but with a different layout pattern:

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● Bar diameter 1 : sqrt(620*4/pi)


● Bar spacing 1 : 300/6
● Cover c1 : 90 - sqrt(620*4/pi)/2

• Choose Attributes/Plate/Concrete Reinforcement, select 1: Top Reinforcements from the dropdown menu
and assign this layout to the top plate elements, and assign 2: Bottom Reinforcements to the bottom plate
element.

Extracting Reinforcement Results


The effective design parameters are as follows:
Design Concrete Compressive Stress
= 0.85*32/1.5
= 18.13 MPa
Design Steel Yield Stress
= 500/1.15
= 434.7 MPa
The Concrete Compressive Stress without
Reinforcement is approximately -7 MPa as
shown in the stress contour, which is
considerably lower than the design concrete
yield stress; hence, elastic behaviour of the
concrete is expected when the partial safety
factor for the concrete is set as 1.5. When the
design concrete strength decreases with the
partial safety factor, the amount of steel
reinforcement is expected to increase.

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The behaviour of the reinforced concrete section is summarised in the table below, with variable partial safety factor:

Concrete Partial Safety Factor


1.50 3.00 4.20 5.00
Design Strength (Mpa) 18.13 9.07 6.48 5.44

Concrete Stress Block EC EC EC


EC
(User)
Stress

Compressive (Mpa) -32.587 -32.587 -32.587 -44.2312


Steel

Tensile (Mpa) 185.036 185.064 185.072 185.075


Compressive
Minimum Requirement

As/Length (mm /m)


2

Tensile
Compressive
Diameter (mm) fix spacing
Tensile
Compressive
Spacing (m) fix diameter
Tensile
Compressive
As/Ac x10
-6
Tensile

1.15 1.50 2.00 2.50


Design Strength (Mpa) 434.78 333.33 250.00 200.00
Compressive
Minimum Requirement

As/Length (mm /m)


2

Tensile
Compressive
Diameter (mm) fix spacing
Tensile
Compressive
Spacing (m) fix diameter
Tensile
Compressive
As/Ac x10
-6
Tensile

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