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An Evaluation of Organization

Development Interventions: A Literature

November 1983

This literature review covers those issues and elements necessary to implement a proper evaluation of
the effects of an organization development (OD) intervention. Brief discussions of the purposes of OD
interventions and evaluations are given, followed by a description of each step necessary in carrying out
an evaluation. An optimal evaluation takes into account each of the following steps: the definition of
goals; the selection of criteria; the selection of measures and problems associated with measuring
change; threats to internal validity and research design; and statistical analysis of data collected. Each of
these steps is discussed in detail, followed by an assessment of the current state of the art of OD
research in light of these considerations. Recommendations are then made as to how OD evaluations
can be improved in light of the discrepancies found between the state of the art and the ideal or optimal
An Evaluation of Organization Development Interventions: A Literature Review. Available from:

Organization Development Journal

Organization Development Journal 25(2):35-41 · January 2007
Unresolved emotional trauma in many organizations blocks peoples’ capacity to be effective and
ability to perform. O.D. professionals cannot eliminate suffering, but can be instrumental in
influencing the healing process. O.D. programs must therefore get a new focus on facilitating the
healing of emotional trauma. This article describes a theoretical and conceptual background and
an O.D. framework to organizational trauma, and provides a practical case study on the healing
of trauma in organizations.

Organization Development Journal (PDF Download Available). Available from:
[accessed Mar 21 2018].
Contextual differences in management practices and their effect on organisational development

Hofstede (1998) and Hoppe (2004) emphasise the influence of national cultures on management practices and
organisations. Leaders and managers have norms that determine standards of appropriate behaviour, which they use
to resolve conflict. These norms have cultural foundations and explain differences in conflict management outcomes.

Contextual differences in management practices and their effect on organisational development


Hofstede (1993) found that the American type of manager does not exist in Germany, Japan, France or Holland.
German managers focus on productive roles rather than on leadership ones, Japanese managers see permanent
worker groups as the core of enterprises, French managers focus on cadres vs. non-cadres and the honour of their
class, and Dutch managers concentrate on the need for consensus between all parties using open exchanges of views.
In the USA, the core of enterprises is the management class (Hofstede, 1993).

A Framework To Map A Practice As Organization Development

Sandip Gohila , Dr. Prakash Deshpandeb

* a Research Scholar, Symbiosis Institute of Research and Innovation, Pune b Director, IIMS, Pune


Purpose –Characteristics, values and principles of OD make it a distinct and extremely valuable practice
for the development of organizations, people and society at large. However, OD has also traditionally
remained a hazy field of practice. This paper explores existing ambiguities about OD in practice in Indian
organizations, and proposes a framework of guidelines that Indian organization and professionals could
use to map and distinguish OD practices.

A Research Paper on Trends and Dynamics of Organizational Development Interventions and its
Relationship With Training

Dr. Sna Farooqi Assistant Professor, DR VN Bedekar Institute of Management Studies, Thane, Mumbai.

In this research paper focus in on training as an OD interventions which are now and then being
practically used in various companies both in India and abroad. This research paper starts with an
overview of Organizational development which says Organization development offers a prescription for
improving the “fit” between the individuals and the organization, between the organization and the
environment, and among the organizational components such as strategy, structure and process. It also
states that in OD, there is a reciprocal influence between culture, strategy, structure and processes;
each is important and each influences the other. In this research paper history of OD is also discussed
which includes second generation OD efforts. Through this research paper we also get clarity on what
can be various objectives of organizational development programme before a beginning is made. It
concludes with some of the experiences of Indian Organizations with Various O.D. Interventions

Beckhard (1969), has defined organization development as an effort (1) planned, (2) organization wide,
(3) managed from the top, (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned
interventions in the organization’s “processes,” using behavioural science knowledge. Bennis (1969), OD
is a response to change, a complex education strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values,
and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets and
challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself. Beer (1980), the aim of OD are (1) enhancing
congruence between organizational structure, processes, strategy, people, and culture; (2) developing
new and creative organizational solutions; and (3) developing the organization’s self-renewing capacity

Abbas J. Ali, (1996) "Organizational development in the Arab world", Journal of

Management Development, Vol. 15 Issue: 5, pp.4-

The Arab world has been a centre of international attention since the discovery
there of oil in the early 1990s. Issues related to Arab management styles,
practices and work orientations are neither known nor understood outside the
region. Cross cultural negotiations and organization development activities are
therefore carried out less effectively than they otherwise could be. Addresses the
application of organizational development (OD) in the Arab world, specifies the
peculiarity of the change process in the Arab world, and identifies certain
societal qualities and their implications for OD practitioners/consultants.

Organisation Development and Strategic Intervention for Enterprise Sustainability: Empirical Evidence
from Nigeria. Khairuddin Idris (Ph.D) University of Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Educational Studies
Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education Samuel
Olutokunbo Adekalu (Postgraduate Student) University of Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Educational Studies
Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education Kabiru
Ishola Genty (Postgraduate Student) University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Educational Studies
Department of Professional Development and Continuing Education


Organization development intervention (ODI) is a deliberately planned, organisation-wide effort to

increase an organization's effectiveness or efficiency. Many enterprises today fails to exist because they
lack the strategies for sustainability in term of intervention, ABC specialist hospital a medium size
private owned medical facility is one of them. In order to revive the organisation from low level of
profitability, frequent conflicts among the stakeholders, customer‟s dissatisfaction / low quality of
service and high unethical practices among the staff to mention just a few, the study becomes pertinent.
The main objective of this study is to diagnose and determine ideal organisation development
intervention strategy for ABC specialist hospital, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria and proffer possible solution
to the hospital management base on our findings. The research design adopted in this study is the
survey research design using triangular approach. A sample size of Sixty-seven (67) respondents was
selected with the help of the multi-stage stratified and the Systematic sampling techniques. The stated
hypothesis was tested and analysis using chi-square inferential statistical tool and coefficient of
correlation to measure the degree of relationship of the variables under study. It was revealed from the
study that there is significant relationship between teamwork and performance, thus the study
recommended human process interventions through team building in the organisation because team-
building interventions are directed towards the analysis of the effectiveness of team processes such as
problem solving, decision making and interpersonal relationships, a diagnosis and discussion of the
issues and joint consideration of actions required to improve effectiveness (Armstrong, 2006).

Evaluating Selected Organization Development Interventions: The

State of the Art

The purpose of this study was to assess comparatively the state of the art of
evaluation of four major organization development (OD) intervention types—
laboratory training, survey feedback, team-building, and process consultation. A
review of the OD literature from 1965 to 1980 yielded 67 studies which were
analyzed along the following dimensions: (a) evaluator characteristics, (b) subject
characteristics, and (c) methodology/design characteristics. Deficiencies and needs
within each of the four OD intervention types were highlighted. It was concluded that
only through better and more methodologically sound evaluation practices can the
field of OD achieve the degree of respectability critical for continued growth and


Practitioners need systematic and congruent organisational structures, systems, strategies and designs if they are to
implement OD interventions successfully. In addition, they need to note the dynamic nature of organisations, which
numerous internal and external factors constantly influence, and create the need for organisations to change and
adjust to their environmental pressures and opportunities. Because of global competition, technological
advancements and economic changes, practitioners have created a variety of OD interventions that aim to redesign
organisations, change their cultures and align corporate strategies to external demands and opportunities. These
changes have expanded the robust and growing field of OD. They have also had significant implications for OD
practitioners or consultants. They emphasise that it is necessary to align the practices and techniques of OD so that
they can adapt to the values and cultures of organisations and societies where they are to be implemented. The
varying values and unique dimensions of cultures, which the various countries and societies espouse, emphasise that
it is necessary to achieve congruence between OD and national values and for organisations to believe in, and
support, OD values.
HRD Role in Organizational Development (A Case of Corporate Thinking at ETISALAT, UAE)

Nadir Kolachi1 & Obasi Akan2 1 Skyline University, UAE 2 North Carolina A&T State University, USA
Correspondence: Nadir Kolachi, Skyline University, UAE. Tel: 971-56-264-2546. E-mail: Received: June 27, 2014 Accepted: July 15, 2014 Online Published: July 25,
2014 doi:10.5539/ibr.v7n8p160 URL: Abstract The paper
reports on the role of HRD towards the changing practices of OD in the companies. OD practitioners
always utilize HRD processes to speed up the success based on the OD practices. The best corporate
thinking is to lead company towards success with simplified models & processes. This paper submits a
basic approach of four steps that elaborate the role of HRD and justifies the practices of OD as required
in modern companies. There are various processes that are used as company development but HRD; OD
& CMP are the dominant factors for companies‟ success. Organizations are not interested in evaluating
and adopting complex processes but looking for simplified tactics to achieve the results as desired. This
paper will describe the practical framework based on the four steps that are basic parameters of OD
with required explanations of HRD roles. Top companies have maintained such strategic role in
sequential way by putting organizational management as initial point that builds the strategic lines for
organizational development. There are many things that keep changing the shape of an organization but
HR & OD remains same. The innovations in technology, the development of employees or organizational
hierarchy depends on the trends of workforce. Workforce can put company into different shape in order
to lead for success. This is the corporate approach that is linked with the practices of HRD & OD in
modern organizational times. All different specialized managers seek different opportunities in the
modern practices. HR managers utilize the development opportunity from organizational management
perspectives and this can be possible due to the combined activities of HRD & OD in modern companies.
This paper is mainly concerned to HRD role in OD that is termed as corporate thinking and evaluated on
the success of ETISALAT

Case Findings & Recommendations

ETISALAT is very successful company and maintaining the Corporate thinking with required standards as
planned in mission & vision statements. There are many areas that are improved at ETISALAT but still
few can be explored more to beat many potential competitors ahead.  Working on corporate culture at
all levels.  Top management should initiate more training for all to understand the commitment at all
levels. More long term process should be planned  ETISALAT needs to develop more corporate
curriculum to train tactical staff. This corporate case study has found that ETISALAT is one of the leading
Telecom Company that is using HRD role in most productive way and utilize the OD practices in
accordance with mission & vision of the company. This case has also found that companies can take
benefits of the proposed framework and benchmark the progress of ETISALAT with special reference to
its HRD role & OD practices in dealing with colleagues & customers. The sequential steps in
collaboration with HRD division will be much better for the smooth conduct of company operations.
Corporations are at stake if they don‟t invest in achieving organizational standards to be in the market
for longer time. ETISALAT is comparatively better than many companies in utilizing the sequential steps
of the proposed framework in this research.

Objectives of organizational development programme:

1. Individual and group development. 2. Development of organization culture and processes by
constant interaction between members irrespective of levels of hierarchy. 3. Inculcating team spirit. 4.
Empowerment of social side of employees. 5. Focus of value development. 6. Employee participation,
problem-solving and decisionmaking at various levels. 7. Evaluate present systems and introduction of
new systems thereby achieving total system change if required. 8. Transformation and achievement of
competitive edge of the organization. 9. Achieve organization growth by total human inputs by way of
research and development, innovations, creativity and exploiting human talent. 10. Behaviour
modification and self managed team as the basic unit of an organization.