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SUMMARY OF STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF 1-BARREL BOX CULVERT

1 Design Dimensions and Bar Arrangements Class III Road (BM50)

Type of box culvert B1.0 x H1.5

Clear width m 1.00


Clear height m 1.50
Height of fillet m 0.15

Thickness Side wall cm 25.0


Top slab cm 25.0
Bottom slab cm 25.0

Cover of reinforcement bar (between concrete surface and center of reinforcement bar)
Side wall Outside cm 6.0
Inside cm 6.0
Top slab Upper cm 6.0
Lower cm 6.0
Bottom slab Lower cm 6.0
Upper cm 6.0

Bar arrangement (dia - spacing per unit length of 1.0 m)

Side wall Lower outside Tensile bar mm 16@250


Distribution bar mm 12@250
Middle inside Tensile bar mm 12@250
Distribution bar mm 12@250
Upper outside Tensile bar mm 16@250
Distribution bar mm 12@250

Top slab Upper edge Tensile bar mm 16@250


Distribution bar mm 12@250
Lower middle Tensile bar mm 16@250
Distribution bar mm 12@250

Bottom slab Lower edge Tensile bar mm 16@250


Distribution bar mm 12@250
Upper middle Tensile bar mm 12@125
Distribution bar mm 12@250

Fillet Upper edge Fillet bar mm 12@250


Lower edge Fillet bar mm 12@250

2 Design Parameters

Unit Weight Reinforced Concrete c= 2.4 tf/m3


3
Backfill soil (wet) s = 1.8 tf/m
3
(submerged) s'= 1.0 tf/m

Live Load Class of road Class III (BM50)


Truck load at rear wheel P= 5.0 tf
Impact coefficient (for Class I to IV road) Ci= 0.3 (D<4.0m)
0.0 (D>4.0m)
Pedestrian load (for Class V roads) 0 tf/m2

Concrete Design Strength ck= 300 kgf/cm2


(K300) Allowable Compressive Stress ca= 100 kgf/cm2
Allowable Shearing Stress a= 10 kgf/cm2

Reinforcement Bar Allowable Tensile Stress sa= 2,400 kgf/cm2


(U24, deformed bar) Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar sy= 5,000 kgf/cm2

Young's Modulus Ratio n= 8

Coefficient of static earth pressure Ka= 0.5

1/1 SingleBoxCulvert/01Summary
STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF BOX CULVERT Type: B1.00m x H1.50m Class III Road
Soil Cover Depth: 6.0 m
1 Dimensions and Parameters
Basic Parameters asumsi
Ka: Coefficient of static earth pressure 0.5
w: Unit weight of water (t/m3) 1.00 t/m3
d: Unit weight of soil (dry) (t/m3) 1.80 t/m3
Gwd
s: Unit weight of soil (saturated) (t/m3) 2.00 t/m3
D
c: Unit weight of reinforced concrete (t/m3) 2.40 t/m3
ck: Concrete Design Strength 300 kgf/m2
ca Allowable Stress of Concrete 100 kgf/m2
t2
sa: Allowable Stress of Reinforcement Bar 2400 kgf/m2 400
a: Allowable Stress of Shearing (Concrete) 10 kgf/m2
sy: Yielding Point of Reinforcement Bar 5000 kgf/m2
n: Young's Modulus Ratio 8
H
Hf Fa: Safety factor against uplift 1.2
HT
Basic Dimensions
Hf
H: Internal Height of Box Culvert 3 1.50 m
t3 B: Internal Width of Box Culvert 4 1.00 m
t1 t1 Hf: Fillet Height 0.15 m
B t1: Thickness of Side Wall 5 0.25 m (> 0.25m)
t2: Thickness of Top Slab 6 0.25 m (> 0.25m)
BT t3: Thickness of Invert (Bottom Slab) 7 0.25 m (> 0.25m)
BT: Gross Width of Box Culvert 1.50 m
HT: Gross Height of Box Culvert 2.00 m
D: Covering Depth 8 6.00 m
Gwd: Underground Water Depth for Case 1, 2 6.00 m (= D)
hiw: Internal Water Depth for Case 1, 2 0.00 m
for Case 3, 4 1.50 m

Cover of R-bar Basic Conditions


Top Slab d2 0.06 m Classification of Live load by truck Class 3
Side Wall d1 0.06 m PTM: Truck load of Middle Tire 5.00 t
Bottom Slab d3 0.06 m Ii: Impact coefficient (D≧4.0m:0, D<4.0m:0.3) 0
am: Ground contact length of Middle Tire 0.10 m
bm: Ground contact width of Middle Tire 0.25 m
PTR: Truck load of Rear Tire 5.00 t
ar: Ground contact length of Rear Tire 0.10 m
br: Ground contact width of Rear Tire 0.25 m
PTF: Truck load of Front wheel 1.25 t
af: Ground contact length of Front Tire 0.10 m
bf: Ground contact width of Front Tire 0.25 m
qp: Pedestrian load 0.00 t/m2

Dimension of frame

t1 B t1
H0: Height of frame t2/2 + H + t3/2 1.750 m
D1 B0: Width of frame B + t1 1.250 m
t2 D1: Covering depth at middle of top slab D + t2/2 6.125 m

H H0

t3

B0

1/ 6 (1)SingleBoxCulvert, 02Load
Load distribution of truck tire

(1) Middle tire's acting point: center of the top slab


a) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm: distributed load of middle tire 2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') = 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
am': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+bm = 14.000 m
bm': width of distributed load 2D+am = 12.100 m
b) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr: distributed load of rear tire 2PTR(1+Ii)/(ar'br') 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
ar': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+br = 14.000 m
br': width of distributed load 2D+ar = 12.100 m
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf: distributed load of front tire 2PTF(1+Ii)/(af'bf') 0.0148 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
af': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+bf = 14.000 m
bf': width of distributed load 2D+af = 12.100 m

(2) Middle tire's acting point: on the side wall


a) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm: distributed load of middle tire 2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') = 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
am': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+bm = 14.000 m
bm': width of distributed load 2D+am = 12.100 m
b) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr: distributed load of rear tire 2PTR(1+Ii)/(ar'br') 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
ar': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+br = 14.000 m
br': width of distributed load 2D+ar = 12.100 m
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf: distributed load of front tire 2PTF(1+Ii)/(af'bf') 0.0148 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
af': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+bf = 14.000 m
bf': width of distributed load 2D+af = 12.100 m

(3) Rear tire's acting point: on the side wall


a) distributed load of rear tire
Pvtr: distributed load of rear tire 2PTR(1+Ii)/(ar'br') = 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
ar': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+br = 14.000 m
br': width of distributed load 2D+ar = 12.100 m
b) distributed load of middle tire
Pvtm: distributed load of middle tire 2PTM(1+Ii)/(am'bm') 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m
am': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+bm = 14.000 m
bm': width of distributed load 2D+am = 12.100 m
c) distributed load of front tire
Pvtf: distributed load of front tire not reach to top slab 0.0000 tf/m2, B= 0.000 m
af': length of distributed load 2D+1.75+bf = 14.000 m
bf': width of distributed load 2D+af = 12.100 m

(4) Combination of load distribution of track tire

Case.L1: Pvt1 = 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m Combination for Case.L2 (2) (2) (3) (3)
Pvt2 = 0.0590 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m a) + b) a) + c) a) + b) a) + c)
Case.L2: Pvt1 = 0.1181 tf/m2, B= 1.250 m Distributed load total 0.1181 0.0738 0.1181 0.0590
Pvt2 = 0.0000 tf/m2, B= 0.000 m Select the combination case of 0.1181 tf/m2,
for Case.L2, which is the largest load to the top slab.

In case of covering depth (D) is over 3.0m, uniform load of 1.0 tf/m2 is applied on the top slab of culvert instead of live load calculated above.

Distribution load by pedestrian load

Pvt1 = 0.000 tf/m2

2 Stability Analysis Against Uplift


Analysis is made considering empty inside of box culvert.
Fs=Vd/U > Fa Fs= 6.6360 > 1.2 ok
where, Vd: Total dead weight (t/m) Vd= 19.908 tf/m
U: Total uplift (t.m)
U=BT*HT*w U= 3.000 tf/m

Ws: Weight of covering soil Ws = BT*{(D-Gwd)*(sw)+Gwd*d} = 16.200 tf/m


Wc: Self weight of box culvert Wc = (HT*BT-H*B+2*Hf^2)*c = 3.708 tf/m
Fa: Safety factor against uplift Fa= 1.2

2/ 6 (1)SingleBoxCulvert, 02Load
3 Load calculation
Case 1: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L1
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wtop= 0.7632
Pvd=Gwd*gd+(D-Gwd)*gs Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Pv1= 12.5632

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2) Horizontal pressure by track tire
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000 we1= 1.0000 tf/m2
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000 we2= 0.0000 tf/m2
P3=Ka*gd*Gwd P3= 5.4000
P4=Ka*gs*(D1-Gwd) P4= 0.1250
P5=gw*(D1-Gwd) P5= 0.1250
Ph1= 6.1500

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2)
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000
P3=Ka*d*Gwd P3= 5.4000
P4=Ka*s*(D1+H0-Gwd) P4= 1.8750
P5=w*(D1+H0-Gwd) P5= 1.8750
Ph2= 9.6500

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m)
Wsw=t1*H*c Wsw= 0.9000

5) ground reaction
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wbot= 0.7632
Wtop Wtop= 0.7632
Ws=Wsw*2/B0 Ws= 1.4400
Pvd Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0 Wiw= 0.0000 hiw: internal water depth 0.00 m
Up=-U/B0 U= -2.4000
Q= 12.3664

summary of resistance moment


Item V H x y M
(tf/m) (tf/m) (m) (m) (tf.m/m) acting point of resultant force
Self weight top slab 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 X = M/V = 0.625 m
side wall (left) 0.9000 - 0.0000 - 0.0000 e = B0/2 - X = 0.000 m
side wall (right) 0.9000 - 1.2500 - 1.1250
invert 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 ground reaction
load on top slab Pvd 13.5000 - 0.6250 - 8.4375 q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 12.3664 tf/m2
Pvt1 1.2500 - 0.6250 - 0.7813 q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 12.3664 tf/m2
Pvt2 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
soil pressure side wall (left) - 13.8250 - 0.8104 11.2036
side wall (right) - -13.8250 - 0.8104 -11.2036
internal water 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
uplift -3.0000 - 0.6250 - -1.8750
total 15.4580 9.6613

6) load against invert


Acting Load (tf/m2)
Pvd 10.8000
Pvt1 1.0000
Pvt2 0.0000
Wtop 0.7632
Ws 1.4400
Pq= 14.0032

3/ 6 (1)SingleBoxCulvert, 02Load
Case 2: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L2
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wtop= 0.7632
Pvd=Gwd*gd+(D-Gwd)*gs Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Pv1= 12.5632

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2) Horizontal pressure by track tire
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000 we1= 1.0000 tf/m2
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000 we2= 0.0000 tf/m2
P3=Ka*gd*Gwd P3= 5.4000
P4=Ka*gs*(D1-Gwd) P4= 0.1250
P5=gw*(D1-Gwd) P5= 0.1250
Ph1= 6.1500

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2)
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000
P3=Ka*d*Gwd P3= 5.4000
P4=Ka*s*(D1+H0-Gwd) P4= 1.8750
P5=w*(D1+H0-Gwd) P5= 1.8750
Ph2= 9.6500

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m)
Wsw=t1*H*c Wsw= 0.9000

5) ground reaction
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wbot= 0.7632
Wtop Wtop= 0.7632
Ws=Wsw*2/B0 Ws= 1.4400
Pvd Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0 Wiw= 0.0000 hiw: internal water depth 0.00 m
Up=-U/B0 U= -2.4000
Q= 12.3664

summary of resistance moment


Item V H x y M
(tf/m) (tf/m) (m) (m) (tf.m/m) acting point of resultant force
Self weight top slab 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 X = M/V = 0.6250 m
side wall (left) 0.9000 - 0.0000 - 0.0000 e = B0/2 - X = 0.0000 m
side wall (right) 0.9000 - 1.2500 - 1.1250
invert 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 ground reaction
load on top slab Pvd 13.5000 - 0.6250 - 8.4375 q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 12.3664 tf/m2
Pvt1 1.2500 - 0.6250 - 0.7813 q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 12.3664 tf/m2
Pvt2 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
soil pressure side wall (left) - 13.8250 - 0.8104 11.2036
side wall (right) - -13.8250 - 0.8104 -11.2036
internal water 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
uplift -3.0000 - 0.6250 - -1.8750
total 15.4580 9.6613

6) load against invert


Acting Load (tf/m2)
Pvd 10.8000
Pvt1 1.0000
Pvt2 0.0000
Wtop 0.7632
Ws 1.4400
total Pq= 14.0032

4/ 6 (1)SingleBoxCulvert, 02Load
Case 3: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L1
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wtop= 0.7632
Pvd=D*d Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Pv1= 12.5632

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2) Horizontal pressure by track tire
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000 we1= 1.0000 tf/m2
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000 we2= 0.0000 tf/m2
P3=Ka*d*D1 P3= 5.5125
WP=-w*0 P4= 0.0000
Ph1= 6.0125

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2)
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000
P3=Ka*d*(D1+H0) P3= 7.0875
WP=-w*H P4= -1.5000
Ph2= 6.0875

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m)
Wsw=t1*H*c Wsw= 0.9000

5) ground reaction
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wbot= 0.7632
Wtop Wtop= 0.7632
Ws=Wsw*2/B0 Ws= 1.4400
Pvd Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0 Wiw= 1.1640 hiw: internal water depth 1.500 m
Up=0 U= 0.0000
Q= 15.9304

summary of resistance moment


Item V H x y M
(tf/m) (tf/m) (m) (m) (tf.m/m) acting point of resultant force
Self weight top slab 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 X = M/V = 0.6250 m
side wall (left) 0.9000 - 0.0000 - 0.0000 e = B0/2 - X = 0.0000 m
side wall (right) 0.9000 - 1.2500 - 1.1250
invert 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 ground reaction
load on top slab Pvd 13.5000 - 0.6250 - 8.4375 q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 15.9304 tf/m2
Pvt1 1.2500 - 0.6250 - 0.7813 q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 15.9304 tf/m2
Pvt2 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
soil pressure side wall (left) - 10.5875 - 0.8732 9.2449
side wall (right) - -10.5875 - 0.8732 -9.2449
internal water 1.4550 - 0.6250 - 0.9094
uplift 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
total 19.9130 12.4456

6) load against invert


Acting Load (tf/m2)
Pvd 10.8000
Pvt1 1.0000
Pvt2 0.0000
Wtop 0.7632
Ws 1.4400
total Pq= 14.0032

5/ 6 (1)SingleBoxCulvert, 02Load
Case 4: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L2
1) vertical load against top slab
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wtop= (t2*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wtop= 0.7632
Pvd=D*d Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Pv1= 12.5632

2) horizontal load at top of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2) Horizontal pressure by track tire
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000 we1= 1.0000 tf/m2
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000 we2= 0.0000 tf/m2
P3=Ka*d*D1 P3= 5.5125
WP=-w*0 P4= 0.0000
Ph1= 6.0125

3) horizontal load at bottom of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m2)
P1=Ka*we1 P1= 0.5000
P2=Ka*we2 P2= 0.0000
P3=Ka*d*(D1+H0) P3= 7.0875
WP=-w*H P4= -1.5000
Ph2= 6.0875

4) self weight of side wall


Acting Load (tf/m)
Wsw=t1*H*c Wsw= 0.9000

5) ground reaction
Acting Load (tf/m2)
Wbot=(t3*BT+Hf^2)*c/B0 Wbot= 0.7632
Wtop Wtop= 0.7632
Ws=Wsw*2/B0 Ws= 1.4400
Pvd Pvd= 10.8000
Pvt1 Pvt1= 1.0000
Pvt2 Pvt2= 0.0000
Wiw=(hiw*B-2Hf^2)*w/B0 Wiw= 1.1640 hiw: internal water depth 1.500 m
Up=0 U= 0.0000
Q= 15.9304

summary of resistance moment


Item V H x y M
(tf/m) (tf/m) (m) (m) (tf.m/m) acting point of resultant force
Self weight top slab 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 X = M/V = 0.6250 m
side wall (left) 0.9000 - 0.0000 - 0.0000 e = B0/2 - X = 0.0000 m
side wall (right) 0.9000 - 1.2500 - 1.1250
invert 0.9540 - 0.6250 - 0.5963 ground reaction
load on top slab Pvd 13.5000 - 0.6250 - 8.4375 q1 = V/Bo + 6Ve/Bo^2 = 15.9304 tf/m2
Pvt1 1.2500 - 0.6250 - 0.7813 q2 = V/Bo - 6Ve/Bo^2 = 15.9304 tf/m2
Pvt2 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
soil pressure side wall (left) - 10.5875 - 0.8732 9.2449
side wall (right) - -10.5875 - 0.8732 -9.2449
internal water 1.4550 - 0.6250 - 0.9094
uplift 0.0000 - 0.6250 - 0.0000
total 19.9130 12.4456

6) load against invert


Acting Load (tf/m2)
Pvd 10.8000
Pvt1 1.0000
Pvt2 0.0000
Wtop 0.7632
Ws 1.4400
total Pq= 14.0032

Summary of Load Calculation


Item Pv1 Ph1 Ph2 Pq Wsw q1
Case (tf/m2) (tf/m2) (tf/m2) (tf/m2) (tf/m) (tf/m2)
Case.1 12.5632 6.1500 9.6500 14.0032 0.9000 12.3664
Case.2 12.5632 6.1500 9.6500 14.0032 0.9000 12.3664
Case.3 12.5632 6.0125 6.0875 14.0032 0.9000 15.9304
Case.4 12.5632 6.0125 6.0875 14.0032 0.9000 15.9304

6/ 6 (1)SingleBoxCulvert, 02Load
4 Analysis of Plane Frame
Case 1: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L1

1) Calculation of Load Term


Ph1 Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall 6.150 tf/m2
Ph2 Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall 9.650 tf/m2
Pv1 Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab 12.563 tf/m2
Pv2 Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab 0.000 tf/m2
Pq Reaction to bottom slab 14.003 tf/m2
a Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2 1.250 m B (t2) C
b Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2 0.000 m
H0 Height of plane frame 1.750 m
H0 (t1) (t1)
B0 Width of plane frame 1.250 m
t1 Thickness of side wall 0.250 m
t2 Thickness of top slab 0.250 m A (t3) D
t3 Thickness of invert (bottom slab) 0.250 m
B0

CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60 = 2.10547 tf・m


CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H02/60 = 1.92682 tf・m
2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2
CBC = CCB = Pv1B0 /12 + {(a -b )B0 /2 - 2B0(a -b )/3 + (a -b )/4}Pv2/B0 = 1.63583 tf・m
2
CDA = CAD = PqB0 /12 = 1.82333 tf・m

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint

k1 = 1.0
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) = 1.4000
k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) = 1.4000

2(k1+k3) k1 0 k3 -3k1 A CAB - CAD


k1 2(k1+k2) k2 0 -3k1 B CBC - CBA
0 k2 2(k1+k2) k1 -3k1 C = CCD - CCB
k3 0 k1 2(k1+k3) -3k1 D CDA - CDC
k1 k1 k1 k1 -4k1 R 0

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.

A = -D B = -C R =0

2k1+k3 k1 A CAB - CAD


=
k1 2k1+k2 B CBC - CBA

3.4000 1.0 A 0.28213542


=
1.0 3.4000 B -0.29098958

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.

A = 0.11839 C = 0.12041
B = -0.12041 D = -0.11839

1/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB = -1.9891 tf・m
MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA = 1.8044 tf・m
MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC = -1.8044 tf・m
MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB = 1.8044 tf・m
MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD = -1.8044 tf・m
MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC = 1.9891 tf・m
MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA = -1.9891 tf・m
MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD = 1.9891 tf・m

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint MBA
w2
w1 Load at end A 9.650 tf/m2
w2 Load at end B 6.150 tf/m2 B
MAB Bending moment at end A -1.9891 tf・m
MBA Bending moment at end B 1.8044 tf・m
L
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m x
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m A
w1
SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L MAB
= 7.528 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2 = -6.297 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 4.006 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.370 m
Sx2 = -3.815 tf

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB = -1.989 tf・m
MB = -MBA = -1.804 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 7.5284 -9.6500 x + 1.0000 x2 , x = 8.794
0.856
Bending moment at x = 0.8561 m is;
Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB = 1.129 tf・m

2/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
2-2) Top Slab
a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Uniform load 12.563 tf/m2


a
w2 Uniform load 0.000 tf/m2 b
a Distance from end B to near end of w 0.000 m
b Length of uniform load w2 1.250 m
MBC Bending moment at end B -1.8044 tf・m w2
MCB Bending moment at end C 1.8044 tf・m
L Length of member (=Bo) 1.250 m w1
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m B C
d Effective height of member 0.190 m
MBC x MCB
SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L = 7.852 tf L
SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b = -7.852 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.

Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a) in case of 0.000 m <= x <= 1.250 m

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.078 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.078 tf

c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC = -1.804 tf・m
MC = -MCB = -1.804 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0.625 m is;
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC = 0.649 tf・m

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Load at end C 6.150 tf/m2 MCD


w2 Load at end D 9.650 tf/m2
w1
MCD Bending moment at end C -1.8044 tf・m C
MDC Bending moment at end D 1.9891 tf・m L x
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m D w2
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


= 6.297 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2 = -7.528 tf

3/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.815 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.370 m
Sx2 = -4.006 tf

c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD = -1.804 tf・m
MD = -MDC = -1.989 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 6.2966 -6.1500 x -1.0000 x2 , x = -7.044
0.894
Bending moment at x = 0.8939 m is;
Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD = 1.12889 tf・m

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Reaction at end D 14.003 tf/m2


w2 Reaction at end A 14.003 tf/m2 L
MDA Bending moment at end B -1.98909 tf・m MAD x MDA
MAD Bending moment at end C 1.98909 tf・m
L Length of member (=B0) 1.250 m A D
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m w2 w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


= 8.752 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2 = -8.752 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 3.431 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.431 tf

c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA = -1.989 tf・m
MA = -MAD = -1.989 tf・m
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 8.7520 -14.0032 x , x = 0.625

Bending moment at x = 0.6250 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA = 0.746 tf・m

4/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
Case 2: Box Culvert Inside is Empty, Underground Water up to Top slab, Track load Case. L2

1) Calculation of Load Term


Ph1 Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall 6.150 tf/m2
Ph2 Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall 9.650 tf/m2
Pv1 Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab 12.563 tf/m2
Pv2 Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab 0.000 tf/m2
Pq Reaction to bottom slab 14.003 tf/m2
a Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2 1.250 m B (t2) C
b Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2 0.000 m
H0 Height of plane frame 1.750 m
H0 (t1) (t1)
B0 Width of plane frame 1.250 m
t1 Thickness of side wall 0.250 m
t2 Thickness of top slab 0.250 m A (t3) D
t3 Thickness of invert (bottom slab) 0.250 m
B0

CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60 = 2.10547 tf・m


2
CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H0 /60 = 1.92682 tf・m
CBC = CCB = Pv1B02/12 + {(a2-b2)B02/2 - 2B0(a3-b3)/3 + (a4-b4)/4}Pv2/B02 = 1.63583 tf・m
2
CDA = CAD = PqB0 /12 = 1.82333 tf・m

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint

k1 = 1.0
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) = 1.40000
k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) = 1.40000

2(k1+k3) k1 0 k3 -3k1 A CAB - CAD


k1 2(k1+k2) k2 0 -3k1 B CBC - CBA
0 k2 2(k1+k2) k1 -3k1 C = CCD - CCB
k3 0 k1 2(k1+k3) -3k1 D CDA - CDC
k1 k1 k1 k1 -4k1 R 0

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.

A = -D B = -C R =0

2k1+k3 k1 A CAB - CAD


=
k1 2k1+k2 B CBC - CBA

3.4000 1.0 A 0.28213542


=
1.0 3.4000 B -0.29098958

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.

A = 0.11839 C = 0.12041
B = -0.12041 D = -0.11839

5/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB = -1.9891 tf・m
MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA = 1.8044 tf・m
MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC = -1.8044 tf・m
MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB = 1.8044 tf・m
MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD = -1.8044 tf・m
MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC = 1.9891 tf・m
MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA = -1.9891 tf・m
MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD = 1.9891 tf・m

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint MBA
w2
w1 Load at end A 9.650 tf/m2
w2 Load at end B 6.150 tf/m2 B
MAB Bending moment at end A -1.9891 tf・m
MBA Bending moment at end B 1.8044 tf・m
L
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m x
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m A
w1
SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L MAB
= 7.5284 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2 = -6.2966 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 4.006 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.37 m
Sx2 = -3.815 tf

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB = -1.989 tf・m
MB = -MBA = -1.804 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 7.5284 -9.6500 x + 1.0000 x2 , x = 8.794
0.856
Bending moment at x = 0.8561 m is;
Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB = 1.129 tf・m

6/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
2-2) Top Slab
a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Uniform load 12.563 tf/m2


a
w2 Uniform load 0.000 tf/m2 b
a Distance from end B to near end of w 0.000 m
b Length of uniform load w2 1.250 m
MBC Bending moment at end B -1.8044 tf・m w2
MCB Bending moment at end C 1.8044 tf・m
L Length of member (=Bo) 1.250 m w1
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m B C
d Effective height of member 0.190 m
MBC x MCB
SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L = 7.852 tf L
SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b = -7.852 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.

Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a) in case of 0.000 m <= x <= 1.250 m

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.078 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.078 tf

c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC = -1.804 tf・m
MC = -MCB = -1.804 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0.625 m is;
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC = 0.649 tf・m

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Load at end C 6.150 tf/m2 MCD


w2 Load at end D 9.650 tf/m2
w1
MCD Bending moment at end C -1.8044 tf・m C
MDC Bending moment at end D 1.9891 tf・m L x
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m D w2
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


= 6.297 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2 = -7.528 tf

7/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 3.815 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.370 m
Sx2 = -4.006 tf

c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD = -1.804 tf・m
MD = -MDC = -1.989 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 6.2966 -6.1500 x -1.0000 x2 , x = -7.0439
0.8939
Bending moment at x = 0.8939 m is;
Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD = 1.1289 tf・m

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Reaction at end D 14.003 tf/m2


w2 Reaction at end A 14.003 tf/m2 L
MDA Bending moment at end B -1.9891 tf・m MAD x MDA
MAD Bending moment at end C 1.9891 tf・m
L Length of member (=B0) 1.250 m A D
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m w2 w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


= 8.752 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2 = -8.752 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 3.431 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.431 tf

c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA = -1.989 tf・m
MA = -MAD = -1.989 tf・m
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 8.7520 -14.0032 x , x = 0.6250

Bending moment at x = 0.6250 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA = 0.746 tf・m

8/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
Case 3: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L1

1) Calculation of Load Term


Ph1 Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall 6.013 tf/m2
Ph2 Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall 6.088 tf/m2
Pv1 Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab 12.563 tf/m2
Pv2 Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab 0.000 tf/m2
Pq Reaction to bottom slab 14.003 tf/m2
a Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2 1.250 m B (t2) C
b Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2 0.000 m
H0 Height of plane frame 1.750 m
H0 (t1) (t1)
B0 Width of plane frame 1.250 m
t1 Thickness of side wall 0.250 m
t2 Thickness of top slab 0.250 m A (t3) D
t3 Thickness of invert (bottom slab) 0.250 m
B0

CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60 = 1.54592 tf・m


2
CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H0 /60 = 1.54210 tf・m
CBC = CCB = Pv1B02/12 + {(a2-b2)B02/2 - 2B0(a3-b3)/3 + (a4-b4)/4}Pv2/B02 = 1.63583 tf・m
2
CDA = CAD = PqB0 /12 = 1.82333 tf・m

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint

k1 = 1.0
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) = 1.40000
k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) = 1.40000

2(k1+k3) k1 0 k3 -3k1 A CAB - CAD


k1 2(k1+k2) k2 0 -3k1 B CBC - CBA
0 k2 2(k1+k2) k1 -3k1 C = CCD - CCB
k3 0 k1 2(k1+k3) -3k1 D CDA - CDC
k1 k1 k1 k1 -4k1 R 0

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.

A = -D B = -C R =0

2k1+k3 k1 A CAB - CAD


=
k1 2k1+k2 B CBC - CBA

3.4000 1.0 A -0.27740885


=
1.0 3.4000 B 0.09373698

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.

A = -0.09819 C = -0.05645
B = 0.05645 D = 0.09819

9/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB = -1.68586 tf・m
MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA = 1.55680 tf・m
MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC = -1.55680 tf・m
MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB = 1.55680 tf・m
MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD = -1.55680 tf・m
MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC = 1.68586 tf・m
MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA = -1.68586 tf・m
MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD = 1.68586 tf・m

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint MBA
w2
w1 Load at end A 6.088 tf/m2
w2 Load at end B 6.013 tf/m2 B
MAB Bending moment at end A -1.6859 tf・m
MBA Bending moment at end B 1.5568 tf・m
L
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m x
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m A
w1
SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L MAB
= 5.378 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2 = -5.209 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.068 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.370 m
Sx2 = -2.921 tf

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB = -1.686 tf・m
MB = -MBA = -1.557 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 5.3784 -6.0875 x + 0.0214 x2 , x = 283.197
0.886
Bending moment at x = 0.8863 m is;
Mmax = SABx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MAB = 0.695 tf・m

10/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
2-2) Top Slab
a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Uniform load 12.563 tf/m2


a
w2 Uniform load 0.000 tf/m2 b
a Distance from end B to near end of w 0.000 m
b Length of uniform load w2 1.250 m
MBC Bending moment at end B -1.557 tf・m w2
MCB Bending moment at end C 1.557 tf・m
L Length of member (=Bo) 1.250 m w1
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m B C
d Effective height of member 0.190 m
MBC x MCB
SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L = 7.852 tf L
SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b = -7.852 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.

Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a) in case of 0.000 m <= x <= 1.250 m

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.078 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.078 tf

c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC = -1.557 tf・m
MC = -MCB = -1.557 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0.625 m is;
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC = 0.897 tf・m

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Load at end C 6.013 tf/m2 MCD


w2 Load at end D 6.088 tf/m2
w1
MCD Bending moment at end C -1.557 tf・m C
MDC Bending moment at end D 1.686 tf・m L x
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m D w2
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


= 5.209 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2 = -5.378 tf

11/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 2.921 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.370 m
Sx2 = -3.068 tf

c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD = -1.557 tf・m
MD = -MDC = -1.686 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 5.2091 -6.0125 x -0.0214 x2 , x = -281.45
0.864
Bending moment at x = 0.8637 m is;
Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD = 0.695 tf・m

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Reaction at end D 14.003 tf/m2


w2 Reaction at end A 14.003 tf/m2 L
MDA Bending moment at end B -1.686 tf・m MAD x MDA
MAD Bending moment at end C 1.686 tf・m
L Length of member (=B0) 1.250 m A D
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m w2 w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


= 8.752 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2 = -8.752 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 3.431 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.431 tf

c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA = -1.686 tf・m
MA = -MAD = -1.686 tf・m
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 8.7520 -14.0032 x , x = 0.625

Bending moment at x = 0.6250 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA = 1.049 tf・m

12/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
Case 4: Box Culvert Inside is Full, Underground Water up to invert, Track load Case. L2

1) Calculation of Load Term


Ph1 Horizontal Pressure at top of side wall 6.013 tf/m2
Ph2 Horizontal Pressure at bottom of side wall 6.088 tf/m2
Pv1 Vertical Pressure(1) on top slab 12.563 tf/m2
Pv2 Vertical Pressure(2) on top slab 0.000 tf/m2
Pq Reaction to bottom slab 14.003 tf/m2
a Distance from joint B to far end of Pv2 1.250 m B (t2) C
b Distance from joint B to near end of Pv2 0.000 m
H0 Height of plane frame 1.750 m
H0 (t1) (t1)
B0 Width of plane frame 1.250 m
t1 Thickness of side wall 0.250 m
t2 Thickness of top slab 0.250 m A (t3) D
t3 Thickness of invert (bottom slab) 0.250 m
B0

CAB = CDC = (2Ph1+3Ph2)H02/60 = 1.54592 tf・m


2
CBA = CCD = (3Ph1+2Ph2)H0 /60 = 1.54210 tf・m
2 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2
CBC = CCB = Pv1B0 /12 + {(a -b )B0 /2 - 2B0(a -b )/3 + (a -b )/4}Pv2/B0 = 1.63583 tf・m
2
CDA = CAD = PqB0 /12 = 1.82333 tf・m

2) Calculation of Bending Moment at joint

k1 = 1.0
k2 = H0t23/(B0t13) = 1.40000
k3 = H0t33/(B0t13) = 1.40000

2(k1+k3) k1 0 k3 -3k1 A CAB - CAD


k1 2(k1+k2) k2 0 -3k1 B CBC - CBA
0 k2 2(k1+k2) k1 -3k1 C = CCD - CCB
k3 0 k1 2(k1+k3) -3k1 D CDA - CDC
k1 k1 k1 k1 -4k1 R 0

As load has bilateral symmetry, the equation shown below is formed.

A = -D B = -C R =0

2k1+k3 k1 A CAB - CAD


=
k1 2k1+k2 B CBC - CBA

3.4000 1.0 A -0.27740885


=
1.0 3.4000 B 0.09373698

By solving above equation, the result is led as shown below.

A = -0.09819 C = -0.05645
B = 0.05645 D = 0.09819

13/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
MAB = k1(2A +B) - CAB = -1.68586 tf・m
MBA = k1(2B+A)+CBA = 1.55680 tf・m
MBC = k2(2B+C) - CBC = -1.55680 tf・m
MCB = k2(2C+B)+CCB = 1.55680 tf・m
MCD = k1(2C+D) - CCD = -1.55680 tf・m
MDC =k1 (2D+ C)+CDC = 1.68586 tf・m
MDA = k3(2D+A) - CDA = -1.68586 tf・m
MAD = k3(2A+D)+CAD = 1.68586 tf・m

2) Calculation of Design Force


2-1) Side Wall in left
a) Shearing Force at joint MBA
w2
w1 Load at end A 6.088 tf/m2
w2 Load at end B 6.013 tf/m2 B
MAB Bending moment at end A -1.686 tf・m
MBA Bending moment at end B 1.557 tf・m
L
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m x
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m A
w1
SAB = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MAB+MBA)/L MAB
= 5.378 tf
SBA = SAB - L(w1+w2)/2 = -5.209 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.068 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.37 m
Sx2 = -2.921 tf

c) Bending Moment
MA = MAB = -1.686 tf・m
MB = -MBA = -1.557 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SAB - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 5.3784 -6.0875 x + 0.0214 x2 , x = 283.197
0.886
Bending moment at x = 0.8863 m is;
2 3
Mmax = SABx - w1x /2 - (w2-w1)x /(6L) + MAB = 0.695 tf・m

14/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
2-2) Top Slab
a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Uniform load 12.563 tf/m2


a
w2 Uniform load 0.000 tf/m2 b
a Distance from end B to near end of w 0.000 m
b Length of uniform load w2 1.250 m
MBC Bending moment at end B -1.557 tf・m w2
MCB Bending moment at end C 1.557 tf・m
L Length of member (=Bo) 1.250 m w1
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m B C
d Effective height of member 0.190 m
MBC x MCB
SBC = (w1L+w2b)/2-(MBC+MCB)/L = 7.852 tf L
SCB = SBC -w1L - w2b = -7.852 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.

Sx = SBC - w1x - w2(x-a) in case of 0.000 m <= x <= 1.250 m

(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m


Sx1 = 3.078 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.078 tf

c) Bending Moment
MB = MBC = -1.557 tf・m
MC = -MCB = -1.557 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the center of member due to symmetry loading distribution.
Bending moment at x = 0.625 m is;
Mmax = SBCx - w1x2/2 - w2(x-a)2/2 + MBC = 0.897 tf・m

2-3) Side Wall in right


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Load at end C 6.013 tf/m2 MCD


w2 Load at end D 6.088 tf/m2
w1
MCD Bending moment at end C -1.557 tf・m C
MDC Bending moment at end D 1.686 tf・m L x
L Length of member (=H0) 1.750 m
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m D w2
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m MDC

SCD = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MCD+MDC)/L


= 5.209 tf
SDC = SCD - L(w1+w2)/2 = -5.378 tf

15/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint
Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 2.9212 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 1.370 m
Sx2 = -3.0683 tf

c) Bending Moment
MC = MCD = -1.557 tf・m
MD = -MDC = -1.686 tf・m

The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SCD - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 5.2091 -6.0125 x -0.0214 x2 , x = -281.4
0.864
Bending moment at x = 0.8637 m is;
Mmax = SCDx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MCD = 0.695 tf・m

2-4) Bottom Slab


a) Shearing Force at joint

w1 Reaction at end D 14.003 tf/m2


w2 Reaction at end A 14.003 tf/m2 L
MDA Bending moment at end B -1.686 tf・m MAD x MDA
MAD Bending moment at end C 1.686 tf・m
L Length of member (=B0) 1.250 m A D
ch Protective covering height 0.060 m
t Thickness of member (height) 0.250 m
d Effective height of member 0.190 m w2 w1

SDA = (2w1+w2)L/6 - (MDA+MAD)/L


= 8.752 tf
SAD = SDA - L(w1+w2)/2 = -8.752 tf

b) Shearing Force at 2d point from joint


Shearing force at the point with a distance of 2d from joint is calculated by following equation.
Sx = SDA- w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
(i) In case of x1 = 0.380 m
Sx1 = 3.431 tf
(ii) In case of x2 = 0.870 m
Sx2 = -3.431 tf

c) Bending Moment
MD = MDA = -1.686 tf・m
MA = -MAD = -1.686 tf・m
The maximum bending moment occurs at the point of that shearing force equal to zero.
Sx = 0 = SDA - w1x - (w2 - w1)x2/(2L)
= 8.7520 -14.0032 x , x = 0.625

Bending moment at x = 0.6250 m is;


Mmax = SDAx - w1x2/2 - (w2-w1)x3/(6L) + MDA = 1.049 tf・m

16/16 (2)SingleBoxCulvert03MSN
Summary of Internal forces

Check M N S (tf)
Member Case
Point (tf・m) (tf) at joint at 2d
Side wall A -1.989 8.752 7.528 4.006
(left) Case.1 Middle 1.129 8.312 0.000 -
B -1.804 7.852 -6.297 -3.815
A -1.989 8.752 7.528 4.006
Case.2 Middle 1.129 8.312 0.000 -
B -1.804 7.852 -6.297 -3.815
A -1.686 8.752 5.378 3.068
Case.3 Middle 0.695 8.296 0.000 -
B -1.557 7.852 -5.209 -2.921
A -1.686 8.752 5.378 3.068
Case.4 Middle 0.695 8.296 0.000 -
B -1.557 7.852 -5.209 -2.921
Top slab B -1.804 6.297 7.852 3.078
Case.1 Middle 0.649 6.297 0.000 -
C -1.804 6.297 -7.852 -3.078
B -1.804 6.297 7.852 3.078
Case.2 Middle 0.649 6.297 0.000 -
C -1.804 6.297 -7.852 -3.078
B -1.557 5.209 7.852 3.078
Case.3 Middle 0.897 5.209 0.000 -
C -1.557 5.209 -7.852 -3.078
B -1.557 5.209 7.852 3.078
Case.4 Middle 0.897 5.209 0.000 -
C -1.557 5.209 -7.852 -3.078
Side wall C -1.804 7.852 6.297 3.815
(right) Case.1 Middle 1.129 8.312 0.000 -
D -1.989 8.752 -7.528 -4.006
C -1.804 7.852 6.297 3.815
Case.2 Middle 1.129 8.312 0.000 -
D -1.989 8.752 -7.528 -4.006
C -1.557 7.852 5.209 2.921
Case.3 Middle 0.695 8.296 0.000 -
D -1.686 8.752 -5.378 -3.068
C -1.557 7.852 5.209 2.921
Case.4 Middle 0.695 8.296 0.000 -
D -1.686 8.752 -5.378 -3.068
Invert D -1.989 7.528 8.752 3.431
Case.1 Middle 0.746 7.528 0.000 -
A -1.989 7.528 -8.752 -3.431
D -1.989 7.528 8.752 3.431
Case.2 Middle 0.746 7.528 0.000 -
A -1.989 7.528 -8.752 -3.431
D -1.686 5.378 8.752 3.431
Case.3 Middle 1.049 5.378 0.000 -
A -1.686 5.378 -8.752 -3.431
D -1.686 5.378 8.752 3.431
Case.4 Middle 1.049 5.378 0.000 -
A -1.686 5.378 -8.752 -3.431

1/1 (3)SingleBoxCulvert04Sum MSN


5 Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar
5-1 Calculation of Required Reinforcement Bar
1) At Joint "A" of side wall
Case.1
M= 1.9891 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.7520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 7.5284 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 4.0058 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 22.73 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 75.526 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +428.74 c^2 -12754 c -1913160.30
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.2011
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.3660 cm2

Case.2
M= 1.9891 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.7520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 7.5284 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 4.0058 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 22.73 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 75.526 kgf/cm2 ( -5E-05 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +428.74 c^2 -12754 c -1913160.30
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.2011
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.3660 cm2

Case.3
M= 1.6859 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.7520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 5.3784 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.0683 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 19.26 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 70.268 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +431.26 c^2 -11242 c -1686372.09
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1898
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 1.6319 cm2

Case.4
M= 1.6859 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.7520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 5.3784 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.0683 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 19.26 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 70.268 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +431.26 c^2 -11242 c -1686372.09
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1898
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 1.6319 cm2

The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 2.3660 cm2 in Case. 1 from above calculation.

Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 2.3660 2.3660 1.6319 1.6319 (cm2)

2) At Joint "B" of side wall


Case.1
M= 1.8044 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.8520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 6.2966 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.8152 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 22.98 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 71.329 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +430.76 c^2 -11542 c -1731278.45
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1921
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.1519 cm2

Case.2
M= 1.8044 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.8520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 6.2966 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.8152 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 22.98 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 71.329 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +430.76 c^2 -11542 c -1731278.45
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1921
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.1519 cm2

1/ 5 (4)SingleBoxCulvert, 11R-bar req


Case.3
M= 1.5568 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.8520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 5.2091 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 2.9212 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 19.83 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 66.885 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +432.82 c^2 -10307 c -1546092.54
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1823
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 1.5549 cm2

Case.4
M= 1.5568 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.8520 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 5.2091 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 2.9212 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 19.83 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 66.885 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +432.82 c^2 -10307 c -1546092.54
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1823
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 1.5549 cm2

The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 2.1519 cm2 in Case. 1 from above calculation.
Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 2.1519 2.1519 1.5549 1.5549 (cm2)

3) At Joint "B" of top slab


Case.1
M= 1.8044 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 6.2966 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 7.8520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.0780 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 28.66 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 69.537 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +431.6 c^2 -11038 c -1655660.33
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1882
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.5559 cm2
Case.2
M= 1.8044 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 6.2966 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 7.8520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.0780 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 28.66 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 69.537 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +431.6 c^2 -11038 c -1655660.33
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1882
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.5559 cm2
Case.3
M= 1.5568 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.2091 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 7.8520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.0780 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 29.89 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 63.684 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +434.25 c^2 -9450.7 c -1417606.34
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1751
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.2438 cm2

Case.4
M= 1.5568 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.2091 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 7.8520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.0780 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 29.89 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 63.684 kgf/cm2 ( -4E-06 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +434.25 c^2 -9450.7 c -1417606.34
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1751
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.2438 cm2

The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 2.5559 cm2 in Case. 1 from above calculation.
Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 2.5559 2.5559 2.2438 2.2438 (cm2)

2/ 5 (4)SingleBoxCulvert, 11R-bar req


4) At Joint "A" of invert
Case.1
M= 1.9891 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.5284 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 8.7520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.4308 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 26.42 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 74.170 kgf/cm2 ( -1E-05 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +429.4 c^2 -12358 c -1853677.45
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1982
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.6829 cm2

Case.2
M= 1.9891 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.5284 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 8.7520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.4308 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 26.42 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 74.170 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +429.4 c^2 -12358 c -1853677.45
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1982
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.6829 cm2

Case.3
M= 1.6859 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.3784 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 8.7520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.4308 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 31.34 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 66.302 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +433.08 c^2 -10149 c -1522366.39
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1810
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.5094 cm2

Case.4
M= 1.6859 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.3784 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
S0= 8.7520 tf n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
S2d= 3.4308 tf c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 31.34 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 66.302 kgf/cm2 ( 4.8E-07 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +433.08 c^2 -10149 c -1522366.39
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1810
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 2.5094 cm2

The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 2.6829 cm2 in Case. 1 from above calculation.

Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 2.6829 2.6829 2.5094 2.5094 (cm2)

5) At Middle of side wall


Case.1
M= 1.1289 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.3117 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 13.58 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 59.2954 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +436.13 c^2 -8322.6 c -1248395.80
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1650
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.4103 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

Case.2
M= 1.1289 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.3117 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 13.58 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 59.295 kgf/cm2 ( 0.0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +436.13 c^2 -8322.6 c -1248395.80
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1650
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.4103 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

3/ 5 (4)SingleBoxCulvert, 11R-bar req


Case.3
M= 0.6951 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.2962 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 8.38 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 50.144 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +439.74 c^2 -6154.5 c -923176.51
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1432
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.0000 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member
Case.4
M= 0.6951 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 8.2962 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 8.38 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 50.144 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +439.74 c^2 -6154.5 c -923176.51
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1432
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.0000 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 0.4103 cm2 in Case. 1 from above calculation.
Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 0.4103 0.4103 0.0000 0.0000 (cm2)
Side inside inside inside inside

6) At Middle of top slab


Case.1
M= 0.6493 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 6.2966 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 10.31 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 46.088 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +441.2 c^2 -5278.5 c -791767.42
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1332
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.0000 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member
Case.2
M= 0.6493 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 6.2966 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 10.31 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 46.088 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +441.2 c^2 -5278.5 c -791767.42
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1332
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.0000 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member
Case.3
M= 0.8969 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.2091 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 17.22 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 50.172 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +439.73 c^2 -6160.6 c -924085.25
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1433
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.6750 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member
Case.4
M= 0.8969 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.2091 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 17.22 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 50.172 kgf/cm2 ( 1.3E-06 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +439.73 c^2 -6160.6 c -924085.25
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1433
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.6750 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member
The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 0.6750 cm2 in Case. 3 from above calculation.
Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 0.0000 0.0000 0.6750 0.6750 (cm2)
Side inside inside inside inside

4/ 5 (4)SingleBoxCulvert, 11R-bar req


7) At Middle of invert
Case.1
M= 0.7459 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.5284 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 9.91 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 50.1655 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k. h d
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0 d
 0 = c^3 +439.73 c^2 -6159.2 c -923880.96
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1433
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.0000 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

Case.2
M= 0.7459 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 7.5284 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 9.91 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 50.166 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +439.73 c^2 -6159.2 c -923880.96
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1433
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.0000 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

Case.3
M= 1.0491 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.3784 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 19.51 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 53.734 kgf/cm2 ( 5.1E-05 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +438.38 c^2 -6974.3 c -1046146.31
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1519
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.9900 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

Case.4
M= 1.0491 tf・m ca = 100 kgf/m2 h= 25 cm (height of member)
N= 5.3784 tf sa = 2400 kgf/m2 d= 19 cm (effective height of member)
n= 8 d' = 6 cm (protective covering depth)
c= 6.50 cm (distance from neutral axis)
b= 100 cm
e = M/N = 19.51 cm
Solving the formula shown below, c = 53.734 kgf/cm2 ( 0 kgf/cm2) o.k.
c^3+{3sa/(2n) - 3N(e+c)/(bd^2)}c^2 - 6N(e+c)sac/(nbd^2) - 3N(e+c)sa^2/(n^2bd^2) = 0
 0 = c^3 +438.38 c^2 -6974.3 c -1046146.31
s = nc/(nc+sa) = 0.1519
Asreq = (c*s/2 - N/(bd))bd/sa = 0.9900 cm2 Tensile is on inside of member

The maximum requirement of reinforcement bar is 0.9900 cm2 in Case. 3 from above calculation.

Case. 1 2 3 4
Requirement 0.0000 0.0000 0.9900 0.9900 (cm2)
Side inside inside inside inside

8) Summary of required reinforcement

Required reinforcement for design is the maximum required reinforcement calculated above in 1) - 4).

Item Side wall Side wall Top slab Invert Side wall Top slab Invert
Point bottom top end end middle middle middle
Side outside outside outside outside inside inside inside
Calculation 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)
Requirement 2.366 2.152 2.556 2.683 0.410 0.675 0.990 (cm2)

5/ 5 (4)SingleBoxCulvert, 11R-bar req


6 Bar Arrangement and Calculation of Stress
Type: B1.00m x H1.50m
Side wall Top slab Invert
bottom middle top end middle end middle
outside inside outside outside inside outside inside
Bending moment M kgfcm 198,909 112,889 180,440 180,440 89,695 198,909 104,914
Shearing force (joint) S kgf 7,528 0 6,297 7,852 0 8,752 0
Shearing force (2d) S2d kgf 4,006 - 3,815 3,078 - 3,431 -
Axial force N kgf 8,752 8,312 7,852 6,297 5,209 7,528 5,378
Height of member h cm 25 25 25 25 25 25 25
Covering depth d' cm 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Effective height d cm 19 19 19 19 19 19 19
Effective width b cm 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Effective area bd cm2 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900 1900
Young's modulus ratio n - 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Required R-bar Asreq cm2 2.37 0.41 2.15 2.56 0.67 2.68 0.99

R-bar arrangement 16@250 12@250 16@250 16@250 16@250 16@250 12@125

Reinforcement As cm2 8.04 4.52 8.04 8.04 8.04 8.04 9.05


Perimeter of R-bar U cm 20.11 15.08 20.11 20.11 20.11 20.11 30.16
M/N e cm 22.727 13.582 22.980 28.657 17.219 26.421 19.506
Dist. from neutral axis c cm 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50 6.50
a' 30.7 3.2 31.4 48.5 14.2 41.8 21.0
b' 112.8 43.6 113.8 135.7 91.5 127.0 113.0
c' -2143.1 -827.8 -2161.6 -2577.9 -1739.2 -2413.9 -2146.5
x 6.24 7.09 6.22 5.76 7.14 5.91 6.97
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
(check) ok ok ok ok ok ok ok

Compressive stress c kgf/cm2 48.4 28.3 44.0 45.0 20.8 49.3 24.1
Allowable stress ca kgf/cm2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
Tensile stress s kgf/cm2 791.9 380.7 724.1 828.8 276.7 873.6 332.5
Allowable stress sa kgf/cm2 2400.0 2400.0 2400.0 2400.0 2400.0 2400.0 2400.0
ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
Shearing stress at joint  kgf/cm2 3.96 0.00 3.31 4.13 0.00 4.61 0.00
Allowable stress a kgf/cm2 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
Shearing stress at 2d 2d kgf/cm2 2.11 - 2.01 1.62 - 1.81 -
Allowable stress 2da kgf/cm2 10.00 - 10.00 10.00 - 10.00 -
ok - ok ok - ok -

Resisting Moment Mr kgfcm 390,591 316,064 389,167 386,939 385,562 388,679 403,250
Mr for compression Mrc kgfcm 390,591 316,064 389,167 386,939 385,562 388,679 403,250
x for Mrc cm 5.181 4.206 5.088 4.930 4.823 5.055 5.062
s for Mrc kgf/cm2 2133.6 2813.8 2187.5 2283.0 2351.5 2207.1 2202.6
Mr for tensile Mrs kgfcm 555,087 351,366 539,510 512,860 494,432 533,938 554,411
x for Mrs cm 5.960 4.926 5.864 5.694 5.571 5.829 5.859
c for Mrs kgf/cm2 137.1 105.0 133.9 128.4 124.5 132.8 133.7

Distribution bar (>As/6 and >Asmin) 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250 12@250
Reinforcement As cm2 4.52 4.52 4.52 4.52 4.52 4.52 4.52
ok ok ok ok ok ok ok
Reinforcement bar for fillet 12@250 12@250
Reinforcement As cm2 4.52 4.52

Minimum requirement of reinforcement bar As min = 4.5 cm2

1/1 (5)SingleBoxCulvert12R-bar stress