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Il\""”.'/\ UNIVERSITY
.55. '7"L ‘OF M;JSYC
ZBRARY
Bloomington, Indiana
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THE
ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
SIMPLY EXPLAINED

BY
CHARLES A. IREW
Examiner and Professor of Harmorzy and C0mpo.rz'lz'on
at the London Academy of [Music

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Boswou, MASS.
1 THE BOSTON MUSIC CO.

NEW YQRK: G. SCHIRMER, INC.


Lounonz JOSEPH WILLIAMS, Ln).
Revised Edition.
Copyright, 19!3, by The Boston Music Co.

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PREFACE

THIS little book is intended as a simple exposition of the


Elements of Music, and as a help to students preparing for
examination.
It is recommended that students add to the questions them
selves as a means of impressing the facts on the memory.
For example, Question 4, Lesson 1..—“How many Quarter
notes are equal to a Half-note?” ——-might be elaborated to
“How many Eighth-notes, Sixteenth-notes, etc., are equal to a
Whole note?” and so on.
It is advised that all notation be Written in ink and not
with a pencil, as ink is not only better to read, but it gives
useful practice towards facility in the handwriting of music.
On this subject see page 37.
C. A. TREW
45 GREYHOUND MANSIONS,
WEST Knnsmoron.

February, 1909

WY‘
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC
SIMPLY EXPLAINED

ICESOII 1

MUSICAL SOUNDS1 are represented by signs called “Notes,”


which by their varying shapes express also the
Notes
length, or duration, of the sounds.
The longest note is called a Breve Hall,’ but it is very
seldom used except in Church Music. The Semi- (or half)
Breve is now the longest, or standard, note from which the
values of all the others are reckoned. The names and
shapes of the notes are as follows :3

The Semibreve . . . . . . . . . . . . . or Whole note . . . . . . 9

” Minim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .or Half-note . . . . . . . . P


” Crotchet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .or Quarter-note. . . . . f
” Quaver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .or Eighth-note . . . . . . a

” Semiquaver . . . . . . . . . . . . or Sixteenth-note. . . . g

” Demisemiquaver. . . . . , . . or Thirty-second-note g

” Semidemisemiquaver. . , . or Sixty-fourth-note E

Each note in the above table is half as long (i.e., has half
the value) of the note above it — for example: a Quarter
note is half as long as a Half-note, and twice as long as an
Eighth-note.
2 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

The Numerical Names of the notes show the number of


such notes contained in the standard, or Whole note —
(Semibreve). \
Thus: 2 Half-notes (Minims) are equal
llgume,-M1 or 4 Quarter-notes (Crotchets) Kt) QT d
ofames
the or -
8 Eighth-notes (Quavers) conin a1ne
one
Note-S or 16 Sixteenth-notes (Sem1- whole note
quavers) (Semibreve) .
ANNOTATIONS
' SOUND is a sensation con high “pitch,” and slow vibrations
veyed to the brain by the wave giving low, deep sounds, or sounds
like movements of the air, caused of low pitch.
by any rapidly vibrating sub
stance (a violin string for example). 2 Formerly, two other notes
These vibrations cause waves
were used, viz.: the LARGE ':|,
and the Lone ‘II, but they are
or ripples in the air, which, spread
ing hi all directions (much as now quite obsolete. Then came
the Snonr or BREVE.
ripples spread round a stone when
it '5 thrown into a pond) convey 3 The French method of naming
the vibrations to our ears, and we the notes is according to their shape
hear “sound.” or color. Thus the Semibreve is
If these waves follow each other called RONDE (round); Oi BLANCHE
in an irregular manner, some
times fast or slow and sometimes (white), J Norma (black); J~
large or small, the effect is merely
noise. But if the waves succeed CROCHE (hooked); 5‘ DOUBLE
each other in a regular, steady CROCHE (double-hooked).
manner, then musical sounds are
roduced, quick vibrations giving
'gh, shrill sounds, or sounds of

EXAMINATION
How are Musical Sounds represented?
What are the Names of the Notes?
What are the Numerical Names?
°“{"P‘-.“’!°'." How many Quarter-notes are equal to a Half-note?
How many Sixteenth-notes to a Quarter-note?
. What is a Breve?
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 8

16550“ 2
Rasrs are named after each of the notes, and represent a
corresponding interval of silence. The names and forms of
the rests are as follows:
The Breve rest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I
” Semibreve-rest. . . . . . . . .or Whole rest1 . . . . . . . . "
” Minim-rest . . . . . . . . . . . . .or Half-rest.1 . . . . . . . . J
” Crotchet-rest . . . . . . . . . . .or Quarter-rest2 . . . . . . I
” Quaver-rest . . . . . . . . . . .or Eighth-rest . . . . . . . . -1
” Semiquaver-rest . . . . . . . .or Sixteenth-rest . . . . . . ‘.1
” Demisemiquaver-rest. . . .or Thirty-second-rest . . 3
” Semidemisemiquaver-rest or Sixty-fourth-rest. . . . 3

A Dot placed after a note or rest lengthens it one-half.

The Dot
Thus: a dotted whole note 0 . is equal to one
whole note and a half—note; or, a dotted quarter
rest indicates that silence is to last as long as a quarter
and an eighth.
Two dots can be added to a note or rest, the second
Double dot adding half the value of the dot before .it.
d°t5 Thus: a double-dotted half-note P ' ' is equal to a
half-note, a quarter, and an eighth; or a double-dotted
whole rest 1—--- means that silence is to last as long as a
whole note, a half-note, ,and a quarter.
Notes are also lengthened by means of a curve called a Tie,
or Bind. Two notes of the same name, joined in
The Tie
this manner, ci_/4', form one continuous sound.
A separate tie for each two must be used when several notes
are joined, thus:
4 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

ANNOTATIONS
1 Note carefully that the Whole 2 To facilitate the writing of
rest is placed under (or suspended the quarter-rest it may be written
from) the Ieger-line; (-—-) and the in the reverse manner of the eighth
Half-rest is placed above the leger- rest, e.g., Y, which is now the old
line (-'-). style of indicating the eighth-rest
in printed music.

EXAMINATION
1. Write two Tied notes representing the value of 1%, 2%,
and 5 Eighths.
2. How many Eighths in a . ?
3. Write the value of 4, and of 6 Sixteenths, by a Rest, sim
ple or dotted.
4. Write all the Rests in their order.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 6

lesson 3
THE NOTES are named A, B, C, D, E, F, G,1 after the first
Letters
seven letters of the alphabet. Repeated series of
these letters are used to express the whole range
of musical sounds.
In order to determine the Pitch (i.e., height or depth) of
sounds, notes are placed upon and between a series
Pitch
of horizontal lines.
There are eleven of these lines, which form a set, called
Great the “ GREAT STAFF ” (see Diagram), the deeper
Sn“? sounds being placed on the lower, and the higher
Leger- sounds on the upper lines and spaces. Sounds
Lines
which are too high or too low to be written on
the Great Staff are placed on very short lines continued
above and below the staff, called Leger-lines?
The position, or pitch, of notes is fixed on the
Clefs
Great Staff by three symbols called C1efs.3
One, called the C-clef E or , is placed on the
C-clef
middle line of the Great Stafi, and indicates that
“ middle C ” is always located on that line.
Another, called the 0-clef4 é is placed on the
0-clef
second line above the middle, which indicates that

all notes on that line are called G


0
And on the second line below the middle one
F-clef
the F-clef 95 is placed, which indicates that all
notes on that line are called F §i_—5—
_—F_
6 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

For voices and instruments generally, only such portions


of the Great Staff are used as correspond with the pitch of
their notes, and a Stafi of only five5 lines has been found
by universal experience to be the most convenient.
Therefore, as the lowest notes of voices lie on the lowest
Bass lines of the Great Stafi, music for them is written
Sim on the rst (counting from the bottom), 2nd, 3rd,
4th and 5th lines, and this set of five lines is called the
Bass Stafi

For voices of a little higher pitch, the next five, or the


Baritone 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th lines were formerly used,
Sm and this set of five lines was called the BARITONE
¢,__—
STAFF, but it is not used now. g I——
The higher voices of men lie on the next five, or
Tenor the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th lines, and this
staff set of five lines is called the Tnnoa Srxrr.

ifii
,___—--:
c
For the lowest voices of women (and for the very highest
Alto voices of men), the next five, or the 4th, 5th, 6th,
st“ 7th, and 8th lines are used, and this set of five

lines is called the Arm STAFF. §%5>—


c
Formerly, the next five, or the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th
M°"°' lines were used for the lower voices of women,
Soprano _ _
sum and this set of five llI1€S was called the MEZZO
,,_—_
SOPRANO SrArr, but it is now obsolete. 5 _—6_
c
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 1

The next five, or the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th lines
Sop,-mo were used for the higher voices of women, and this
sum set of five lines was called the Somuno Sun.
10

if,“
c
Treble The uppermost lines of the Great Stafi are used
SW for the highest voices6 and form a set called
1 __
the TREBLE Srnr. lgéz
1?
. Thus it will be seen that the eleven lines forming the
Summary Great Stafi include seven Staffs of five lines each,
gigs and and, three being more or less obsolete, four are
Clefs left for ordinary use, viz.: the TREBLE, AL'ro, TENOR,
and BAss SrArrs. It is very important that the student
should understand clearly that all staffs are simply portions
of the Great Stafi, which portion being indicated by one of
the three Clefs, which fixes some one note in it.
When music is written for instruments of large compass
Pian0- or range of notes, such as the Pianoforte, Organ,
§’,§‘§ or Harp, the Bass and Treble Stafis are used con
nected by a Brace it , leaving a space between for middle C,
which is written on an added leger-line below the Treble or

above the Bass thus:

This is done because it would be too confusing to read from


the whole of the eleven lines together, as in the Great Stafl.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

ANNOTATIONS

‘ NOTES are also known by 5 In Gregorian church-music a.


certain Italian syllables (taken stat} of four lines is still in use.
from a Latin hymn) as fol ° The Treble Staff is also used
lows:— for the Violin, Flute, Oboe, Clari
(Do, re 1111, fa, sol, la, st. net, Trumpet, and Horn.
or U! The Soprano Staff is seldom
used now. Music in Germany
C, D, E, F, G, A, B. and Italy is sometimes written
2 From léger, the French word on this staff.
for “light.” The Alto Staff is used for
the Viola, Alto Trombone, and
3 The CLEF srcus were for (sometimes) the Contralto Voice.
merly the Latin letters 3 (F), The Tenor Staff is used for
E‘, (C), 9 (G), but in the course the Violoncello, Tenor Trom
of centuries they have been bone, and (sometimes) the Tenor
altered until they have assumed Voice.
their present forms. The Bass Stafl is used for the
The word “Clef” is some Bassoon, Horn, Trombone, Vio
times used for “Staff,” as “in loncello, Double-Bass, Drums, and
the Tenor-clef ” for (more properly) Bass Voice.
“on the Tenor Staff.” When a Tenor or Bass voice
sings from the G-clef, the sounds
The G-clef is often called the produced are an octave lower
Violin Clef. than the written notes.

EXAMINATION
I. Write “ middle C ” in all the Stafls.
2. Name the Stafls in ordinary use.
3. Draw the Great Stafl and place each Clef upon it in its
proper position.
4. Write a note on the third line of a Stajf of five lines, and
by prefixing a different Clef make the same note read successively
A, B, C, D, E, F, and G.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 9

1655011 4
THE SMALLEST division of pitch recognized in modern music
semi- is called a Semitone. The distance from any key
t°n° on the piano-keyboard to the next key above or
below, whether white or black, is a semitone.
The white keys of the piano are called Naturals,
Naturals
as they are represented by the lines and spaces of
the Great Stafi.
The black keys are called Sharps and Flats. The black
Sharps key next above any white key has the same alpha
$16-t, betical name, and is represented by a sign called
8. s

a Sharp fl, placed before the note: The

black key below any white key is called a Flat1 l7, written

thus: §;_—93l:5,—;EH A sharp, therefore, raises a note a.

semitone, a flat lowers it a semitone.


A Double-sharp, thus ><, raises a note two semitones, and
a Double-fiat, l?l7, lowers a note two semitones.
A Natural E, contradicts either the sharp, double-sharp,
fiat, or double-flat (see a).
A double-sharp or double-flat is contradicted by a single
sharp or flat (or, sometimes, thus, Q, and thus, El? — see b).

When sharps, flats or naturals occur, they affect every


note of the same name and on the same staff throughout
the measure, unless contradicted.
io THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC

When the last note in any measure has been affected by


any one of these signs, and the next measure begins with
the same note, that note will be similarly affected if tied to
the one preceding.
Each Piano (or Organ) key, except the black one between
G and A, represent three notes. Thus:

C = Bil = Dbb F# = EX = Gb
C# = BX = Db G = FX = Abb
D = CX = Ebb 0:t = Ab
Dli = Eb = Fbb A = GX = Bbb
E = DX = Fb All = Bb = Cbb
F = Bil = Gbb B = AX = Cb

E131?‘ An alteration of the name of a sound, without


momc
Change alteration of pitch, as above, is called an Enhar
monic Change, and the notes are Enharmonic
notes.

ANNOTATION
1 The note B was originally only one semitone above A. But when
B natural was introduced into music the letter b was used as a sign for
lowering any note a semitone, and called a flat (b).
In Germany, B flat is called B, and our B natural is called H , (pro
nounced hah). In other cases they affix is for sharp and es for flat thus:
Cis (C sharp), Ce: (C flat).

EXAMINATION
1. What is the eflect of a Sharp placed before a note?
2. What is an Enharmonic Change?
3. Write the Enharmonics of each note.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 1]

1655011 5
AN INTERVAL is the distance, or difference in pitch, between
two sounds.‘
Intervals are named according to the number of letters
How representing divisions, or degrees, of an octave they
“med may include, and are reckoned upwards from the
first letter mentioned. Thus C — D is the interval of a sec
ond because two letters, or degrees, are included; but F — A
is a third, because, though only two letters are used, three let
ters, or degrees, are included. And G — D is a fifth, because
five letters —G, A, B, C, and D, are included.
Difierent There are different kinds of seconds, thirds, etc.,
“"“‘s according to the number of semitones they contain,
as follows:
TABLE OF SIMPLE INTERVALS

NUMBER Nuunizn
Name of Interval or SEMI- Name of Interval or SEMI
ronas TONES

Minor Second . . . . . I Perfect Fifth . . . . . . . . . . 7


Major Second . . . . . . . . 2 Augmented Fifth . . , . . . 8
Augmented Second. . . . 3 Diminished Sixth . . . . . . 7
Diminished Third . . . . . 2 Minor Sixth . . . . . , . . . . 8
Minor Third . . . . . . . . . . 3 Major Sixth . . . . . . . . . . 9
Major Third . . . . . . . . . . 4 Augmented Sixth . . . . . . ro
Augmented Third . . . . . 5 Diminished Seventh . . . 9
Diminished Fourth. . . . 4 Minor Seventh . . . . . . . . 120
Perfect Fourth . . . . . . . . 5 Major Seventh . . . . . . . . II
Augmented Fourth . . . . 6 Diminished Eighth, . . . . II
(or Tritone) Perfect Eighth , . . . . . . . rz
Diminished Fifth . . . . . . 6 (or Octave)
12 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

Intervals beyond the Octave are termed Compound


Intervals.2
All intervals can be inverted, that is —- the lower sound can
How to be reckoned an octave higher, or the upper sound
invert an octave lower. Thus, C —'D is a second, but
Intervals being inverted it becomes D—C, which is a.

seventh, because seven letters are included, viz. D, E, F, G,


A, B, and C.
When inverted, intervals can be readily reckoned
Easy rule
by subtracting the original interval from 9; thus,
as above, a 2nd from 9 leaves a 7th as the new interval.
Intervals, when inverted, often change their kind, but not
always. Thus, C — F is a perfect fourth, and being inverted
becomes F — C, a fifth, but yet a perfect fifth. C — A is a
major sixth, and being inverted becomes A — C, a third, but
a minor third — another kind of third.
Therefore it should be remembered that —
Perfect intervals, when inverted remain Perfect
Minor ” ” become Major
Major ” ” ” Minor
Augmented ” ” ” Diminished
Diminished (less than an eighth) ” Augmented
Seconds, by inversion ” Sevenths
Thirds ” ” Sixths
Fourths ” ” Fifths
Fifths ” ” Fourths
Sixths ” ” Thirds
Sevenths ” ” Seconds
Diminished eighths, by inversion become chromatic semir

tones, thus:
-6
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 13

A Semitone is called Chromatic when it is described by the


same letter, as C — C#.

ANNOTATIONS

‘ The UNISON is usually in- I is the TWICE-MARKED OCTAVE, as


cluded in the list of Intervals.
c, d, and so on. The octave be
It occurs when two or more
low middle C is called the SMALL
voices sing the same note.
OCTAVE; the octave lower, the
2 To find the inversion of a Com GREAT OCTAVE.
pound Interval subtract from 16. A note and its octave vibrate
OCTAVES are distinguished in in the ratio of 2 to 1; therefore
Pitch in the following manner: if middle C be produced by 256
The octave of sounds above middle vibrations in a second, its oc
C is the ONCE-MARKED OCTAVE, as tave below will have 128 vibra
Z, Z; the second octave above tions.

EXAMINATION
1. Write a table of Intervals commencing from middle C.
2. Name the Perfect Intervals from A and E.
3. Write the Inversions of Simple Intervals.

4. Notate the Pitch of 1?, i, and


14 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

12550“ 6
A SCALE is a succession of sounds ascending or descending
from any note to its octave, in a particular order.
Diatonic There are two kinds of Scales: Diatonic1 Scales,
Enhgomfic which are composed of tones as well as semitones,
5681°8 and Chromatic2 Scales, which are composed of
semitones only.
Diatonic Scales are subdivided into two Modes. The
Major mode, having a Major third, and therefore
Modes
called a Major Scale; and the Minor mode, having
a Minor third, and therefore called a Minor Scale.
A Major Scale is composed of the following intervals,
counting from the first note:
a major 2nd. a perfect 5th. a major 7th.
:32’ a major 3rd. a major 6th. a perfect 8th.
a perfect 4th.
A major scale can be formed upon any note, provided the
above order of intervals is preserved.
When a major scale is formed on C, the necessary intervals
follow naturally, but when a major scale is formed on any
other note, sharps or flats must be used to obtain the correct
intervals.
The separate notes of a scale are called Degrees”.
The eight notes of a major scale constitute two sets of
Teh.,,_ four notes each, called Tetrachords,‘ and each
°h°"d Tetrachord has similar intervals, that is, two tones
followed by a semitone, thus:
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 15

|, IstTetrach0rd —l I 2nd Tetrachord .1


6, —:2 9 G
atone tone $2216“ tone tone tsoegg

‘ ANNOTATIONS
‘ 1 DIATONIC comes from two 4th degree is called the SUB
of Greek words: dia (through) and DOMINANT.
lonos (tone) — “through tones.” 5th degree is called the Dom
2 CHRoMATIC,— from chmmos NAgt1li degree is called the SUB
(C°l°r) ' MEDIANT.
5 The 1st degree is called the 7th degree is called the LEAD
T0N1c. ING-NOTE.
Toglllg degree '5 called the sUPER' f0;’TE’I'RA,— the Greek word for

3rd degree is called the MEDIANT. '


115.
EXAMINATION

1. Write Major Scales on C, Cit, Db, D, Eb, E, F, Flt,


Gk», G, Ab, A, Bb, B.
2. Name the Mediant of C# major.
tllfi
3. In which scales will the note A be respectively the Tonic,
Supertonic, Mediant, Subdominant, Dominant, Submediant,
V315
and Leading—note?
all)’
red

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QBEIKD

P J. .,.
16 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

1658011 7
A Mmon ScAm; differs from a Major Scale chiefly in having
its Third always minor, and, generally, its Sixth also minor,
giving a certain plaintive or sad character to the sound of
the scale, and thus forming a contrast to the brighter and
more cheerful character of the Major Scale.
A Minor Scale is composed of the following intervals,
counting from the Tonic:
a major 2nd. a minor 6th.
H§1'm°ni° a minor 3rd. a major 7th.
Minor
Scale a perfect 4th. a perfect 8th.
a perfect 5th.
And the same intervals in descending.

HARMONIC Mmon ScAm; or C

§?v_5,9_v;e—_l*_Q_i?_'9_*l'i_==;Qw5,..;ua_iH
Q
It will be observed that in the above form, between the
minor 6th and the major 7th there is an interval of an
augmented second; as this interval is an awkward one to
sing, another form of the minor scale is sometimes used,
called the “Melodic ” form.
In this form, the 6th degree is major, consequently the
mg?“ upper part of the scale is the same as the major
Scale scale; but, in descending, in order to preserve, so
far as possible, the plaintive character produced by
minor intervals, the 6th and 7th degrees are both made
minor}
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 17

MELODIC MINOR ScAm: or C

The Chromatic Scale, or scale of semitones, is written in


three ways:
I. With sharps for the accidentals ascending, and flats
descending (see a).
II. An improved notation, using the augmented 4th and
minor 7th, counting from the tonic (see b).
III. The True Chromatic Scale, founded on the notes
belonging to the major and minor tonic scales (see c).

( ARBITRARY CHROMATIC SCALE


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Tm: TRUE Cnnomnrc Scam: or 0
(Same descending.)
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18 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

Semitones are of two kinds: Diatonic and Chromatic.


Diatonic A Diatonic Semitone is described by diflerent
$iiShr°' letters, as C to Db. A Chromatic Semitone is
5°mit°11e$ named by the same letter, as C to Cit. In writing
Chromatic scales, the notes belonging to the Diatonic scale
are not to be changed.

ANNOTATIONS
1 In forming Scales, the student Scottish music is generally writ
should first write the series of ten on a PENTATONIC SCALE (five
natural notes, adding the sharps notes, without a 4th or 7th).
or flats afterwards: — The five successive black keys
on the piano keyboard— begin
__—6_Z9 iifl ning with F; for the major scale,
——: and Eb for the minor—produce
this “five-tone” scale.

EXAMINATION
1. Write all the Minor Scales in both forms, commencing
on C, C#, D, Eb, E, F, Fit, G, Git, A, Bi: and B.
2. Name the Leading-note of each Minor Scale.
3. Write the Chromatic Scale from Eb in three diflerent
ways.
4. Mark the Diatonic and Chromatic semitones in the fore
going exercise.
THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC 19

ICSSOII 8
Amp Acc1m:n'rALs are the sharps, flats, or naturals
denms occurring in a musical composition in addition to
those appearing in the Key-signature.
Related Scales are said to be related when they have a
Smes Tetrachord in common, as may be seen in the
following Example :1
I Scale of .':_l
I Scale OTF ll ,'. _ 3:. |
T— 1 —. *- —-E4f-
Scale of C
bi Scale of Bl? __‘— *1
l___-__——J

A Minor Scale commencing on the same note as a


Tonic and Major Scale, is called the Tonic Minor Scale,
gleiglgirve and a Minor Scale commencing on the Minor
$1181°8 3rd below a Major Scale, is called the Relative
Minor Scale.
The same Key-signature is used for a Major Scale and
its relative Minor Scale.
Key_sig, In all music the sharps or flats required to form
name the key are placed together at the beginning of the
staff. These are called the Key-siggnature.2
The order of sharps is found by counting perfect 5ths
(s3111'g:;s°f from Fit, thus, Fit, Cit, Git, D#, A#, Ell, B#.
and Flats The order of flats is found by counting perfect
4ths from B|>, thus, Bb, Er», Ab, Db, Gb, Cb, Fb.
20 THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC

./~~. C, or A minor

aé , or D 77117107‘
——
G, or E minor

._.— fi—_._

Bb, or G minor "’ D, or E minor


__ __ Diagram showing _ __
j2_—‘_ order of Keys ::
~——-—— with their -—I
Eb. Or C minor Signatures A—,or Flt minor

Ab, or Fmim; E, or Cl? minor

Db, or Bl; minor B, or G1--II mmor

fi_-:_:#z——:
Gb, or Eb minor F#, or D# mino

ANNOTATIONS

1 The degree of relationship Thus:—D Major is related in


between Major Scales may be the 2nd degree to C Major," Ab is
found by counting a series of the 4th degree to C Major.
Perfect 5ths and Perfect 4ths. 2 Although the Leading-note
Is, and 3rd 4th 5th 6th is essential in the minor key, it
G_D_A_E_B_'F# is not placed in the Signature,
C<p_3|,-E1,-_4[;-pl,-G}, but is always written as an Ac
cidental.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 21

EXAMINATION
1. Name the Relative Minors of five major scales.
2. Show how the scales of A and G are related to D.
3. Which scale is related in the 3rd and 4th degrees to F?
4. Write all the Key-signatures.
22 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

‘lesson 9
ALL music progresses in a regular succession of pulsations,
. called Beats, and when we listen to a March or
Time
a lively dance tune, we feel a strong inclination.
to “keep tim.e ” with these beats, because of the natural
sympathy existing between our mental constitution and the
pulsations in all music.
These pulsations, or beats, follow steadily after one
Accented another, but they vary as to the force, or stress,
gfigegga laid upon each; those beats having the most
Beats stress being called “ Accented ” beats, and those
having less, being called “ Unaccented ” beats.1
Accented and unaccented beats are in sets of twos or
threes, that is to say, either each accented beat is followed
by one unaccented beat, thus: — Om; two, ONE two; or
and each accented beat is followed by two unaccented
Time beats, thus: —— ONE two three, ONE two three.
All the different forms of Time in music are in one of these
two sets of beats, or in modifications of one of them.
Each complete set of beats is called a Measure, which is
Measures denoted by a line, called a Bar, drawn across the
staff at the end of each measure.
Duple’ \‘. hen the measure contains only two beats, the
T1'iP1°s time is called Duple time. A measure containing
8114 Qu8d- . . . . . . .
mple three beats is said to be in Triple time; or, if it con
Time tains four beats, is said to be in Quadruple time.
When the beats are simple divisions of a whole note, such
Simple as half-notes, quarter-notes, or eighths, the time is
and C°m' called Simple time; but if the beats are dotted
pound
Time notes, that is compounded of a note and part of
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 23

a note, it is then called Compound time.2 Thus: a measure


with two quarter-notes, or two half-notes, is in Simple Duple
time (see a), and a measure with three quarter-notes, or
three half-notes, is in Simple Triple time (see b); but a
measure with two dotted quarter-notes, or two dotted-half
notes, is in Compound Duple time (see c), and a measure
with three dotted quarter-notes is in Compound Triple time
(see d).

(d )

The Time of every piece of music, or the number of beats


Time_sig- in each measure, is shown by the Time-signature
nature at the beginning of the piece, which consists of two
figures, one above the other; the lower one denoting the
parts of a whole note represented by each beat, and the upper
figure denoting the number of them. Thus: 2 denotes
three quarter-notes in a measure; 3 denotes two half-notes
in a measure.
TABLE OF TIME—SIGNATURES
DUPLE TIME—TWO Beats
Simple Compound
(1; 0.22 d
I
24 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

TRIPLE TIME —Three Beats


Simple Compound
8 l 99' \ I
2 a Q d, 42 a- a
3 J \ | 9 l | 2 \
4. d d 3 d - d d -
3
8 1 J‘ at J 9
16 ah- dh

QUADRUPLE TIME — Four Beats


Simple Compound
2
4- AAA@v 4§d|-dI-a|_dl
12%.’

Cori J J JJ ‘£32 J-J-J-J


42 n h s n 12 N h \ Jq
83 0 d d U 16 4- d- d -

The stems of the notes in a measure are usually grouped


grztllllgiggf (joined or hooked) together to show the beats. In
Notes this way the Time can be indicated independently
of the Time-signature, thus: —

ist beat znd beat ist beat znd beat ist beat znd beat

2? Lnjbnnnnr‘ géonnhnnrnr

An exception occurs in 2 Time, in which the eighth-notes


are grouped in fours. Also in 2 Time and gTime the eighth
notes and sixteenths are generally joined together. In vocal
music, when separate syllables are sung to single notes, the
stemming is written separately.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 25

The Rests in a measure are indicated in the following


manners:

H3 H3 . 6
15 e 1|4 0' ‘‘ ‘Ma 4“ "led -1 =K Tl
Silence for one whole measure in any time, is represented
by a Whole Rest, thus: ~-—_-
{E

And silence for several measures of Whole Rests, is indi


cated by a figure designating the number of silent measures,—
4
in this manner: ~-H

EXAMPLES OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF TIME


Simple Duple Time

diam?- Bacn

BACH

sang“
Simple Triple Time
4 BACH
26 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

5 SCHUBERT

- 52-8

Simple Quadruple Time


7 MENDELSSOHN

93%;? st-5 ei—'f?Ei3‘-3§£1';,t ‘fill


W“
“l -..-t- me-?_l
er.-avast
9 COWEN

see-~-.-e-i-at-5; as--;-@
10 WAGNER

fir.-**iEe 1-¢L»g=€f1;-:~*'
ll RAFF

=- 1- - p.
I
I-_

12 BACK
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 27

Compound Triple Time


13 HANDIL
fi_%—L3_:l:1—
1.: - -o" - 5-ELLIIZZEL7
i-iii
14 SPO]-IR

§%‘§i-ig_t_j_iil_.,.iF;.-;i_ iii‘-_-H
1 SPO!-ll

Compound Quadruple Time


16 Cl-IOPIN

--sea:-E
I-"F Ks, - _
BACH
.

ANNOTATIONS
1 The Accents in a measure or Z. It is derived from the old
are distinguished in importance Common Time of four half-notes
as Primary (A) and Secondary (-). in a measure. Therefore, the mod
2 To convert Simple time into em measures are half measures.
Compound Time, multiply the Quintuple Time, with five beats
in a measure, is sometimes used.
upper figure of the Time-signa
ture by 3, and the lower figure Duple and Quadruple Times are
sometimes called by the same
by 2. Thus: 2 Time will be the
name — Common Time.
Compound form of 2.
Alla breve Time, in modern
The modern sign for Common
music, is a quick kind of Com Time, C,is derived from a broken
mon Time with two half-notes circle, the early writers using the
counted in a measure, and only circle 0 for Triple (or Perfect)
ONE accent. The Signature is (B | Time.
28 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

EXAMINATION
1. Write a measure of Eighth-notes, properly grouped, in
g, 2, 2, g, and 3, times.
2. Group twelve Sixteenth-notes in 182, 3, Z.
3. Write a table of Time-signatures.
4. Mark the Primary and Secondary accents in each example
on pages 2 5—27.
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 29

16550“ IO
THE Appoggiatura (pronounce ap-pod-jah-too’-rah) is a small
Appot note which takes its value from the note which
Siam“ follows it. It is generally one degree above the
principal note (see a).
The Acciaccatura (pronounce at-chak-kah-loo’-rah) is a
Ac¢i,,¢¢a_ small note distinguished from the above by a
ma small dash through its stem. It is to be played
as quickly as possible (see b).
(11)
Written Played Written Played Written Played
<
fan‘§—i
K

(5)
fiililgtiiggmtifl?
Written Played
>

A Turn, ~, is a group of notes which generally begins


The with the note above the written note, next fol
Tm lowed by the principal note and the note below, and
ending with the principal note again (see c). An Inverted
Turn w, is played in reverse order, i.e., the lower note first
(see d). A it or b under or above the sign indicates that
the upper or lower note of the Turn is to be sharp or flat
(see e).
(‘) (4 ) (¢)
Written Played Written Played Written Played
~
-==“ _ '1’ 7 __
§-€Hgf-git H==g_,'—r-H-lifiiii-H.
30 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

There are various ways of playing the Turn between two


notes (see f, g).

(f) (5')
Wri!ten Played Written Played
T

The TRILL or SHAKE (abbreviated to trm) is a rapid


The succession of two notes, a tone or semitone apart,
Trm and generally ending with a Turn. A small note
placed before the principal note indicates which note is to
commence the Trill (see h, i).

EXAMINATION

1. Write : and f:as quarter-notes, with a Turn between them.


3.
2. Write
What an
is Inverted
the diflerence
Turn on
between an Appoggiatura and

an Acciaccatura? Give Examples.


THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC ‘ 31

16550“ 11
SYncoPA'r1on1 is produced by shifting the accent in a measure,
Sym°_ or in other words, a reversal of accent from a strong
Pad” to a weak beat. The two notes forming the synco
pation are sometimes tied together, but are usually written
as follows: .
Whole beat Syncopation
Written

4 P P/\P P . P > P
4| | | | l | F | H
Half-beat Syncopation
Written
A A A
4-nflrrflfrr PPPPP
4-\_l_'._*'.__‘._J VI I I v

Quarter-beat Syncopation
Written
/\ A A

?»&='="='=:'='ll&___1""ll
A Duplet is the performance of two notes of equal value
Duplet in the time of three (see a). A Triplet is the
and combination of three notes of equal value which
Triplet are to be performed in the same time as two

(see b). When any number of notes beyond the normal


number are required to be played to a beat, a figure showing
their total is placed above or below the group (see 0).
(4) (5) - (f)
2 2 3 3 ' 5

§‘§-c;a*_e;- : “¢“‘i*E“‘1fi
32 THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC

The student may sometimes find it diihcult to determine


How to whether a melody is written in a major or a minor
gt‘; ‘:6! key, the same signature being used for two scales.
m°l°dY If we take the signature of two sharps, the keys are
D major and B minor. As the Leading-note of the minor
scale is always written as an accidental, the minor key may
be discovered by the use of the A#, generally appearing in
the first few measures; its absence denotes the major key.
Therefore, the rule will be to look for the Leading-note of
the minor key. The following Examples will make this
clearer: .
Key of D major

§i_***-r4‘:?‘e_3E%‘3lE;t—;>;*€Etw@€.i .
Key of 8 minor

__ /,.s _
it P» the ~ set
The rule above is sufiicient for simple melodies, but the
real test of a key requires the study of Harmony.
Transposition is the performance of a piece of music in
T1-ans- a different key from that in which it is written.
p°Sifi°n Every transposed note must bear the same relation
to the Tonic of the new key as it did to the Tonic in the
original key.2 In the following Example the numbers repre
sent the intervals from the Tonic: —
1 1 3 3 5 5 3
THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC 33

Transposed in to D

§d#§—.1e¢=¥- -H
1 1 3 3 5 5 3

All students should practice beating time and counting


How to aloud, as this helps to impress the feeling of time.
Beat Time When two beats are required in a measure, the sim
ple Down and UP movement of the hand is used. For three
beats the hand action is Down, RIGHT, UP. Four beats —
Down, LEFT, RIGHT, UP.

ANNOTATIONS
‘ From the Greek, meaning cut- 2 Transposing a semitone is
ling. The early musicians notated easily done by imagining a change
Syncopation thus: — of signature from flats to sharps,
: - or vice versa,as, for example, Ab to
— —— A; E to Eb.

EXAMINATION
1. Write three examples of Syncopation, each containing
two measures.
2. Give two examples of a Duplet and Triplet.
3. Name the Keys of each Example on pages 25-27.
4. Transpose the Examples on pages 25 and 26 (Nos. 1 to 15
inclusive) a tone lower.
84 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

1€550I1 12
THE AnpEooxo sign § means that the notes of a chord are
to be spread, or played as on 'a harp, thus:
Written Played

gzt
'
A Slur, /, placed over notes of different pitch indicates
that all the notes thus grouped are to be played
Slurs
smoothly and connectedly. The word Legato is
used to express the same meaning (see a).
Dots, or wedge-shaped points, - - - v v v placed over the
Dots and notes, signify that they are not to be sustained
P°ints their full value, but are to be performed in a
short and detached manner (see b). In moderate time a Point
(v) means shorter than a Dot (.). The word Staccatissimo is
used to describe this manner of playing. I

A kind of half-staccato is used by combining Slurs and


Dots, -' - >; the notes are then held nearly their full value
(see c).
The Mordent or Passing Shake, w-, consists of a principal
The note, the note above and the principal note
M°Td°nt again, or in other words it is one beat of a trill
(see d). The Inverted Mordent, W‘, is performed with the
lower note after the principal note (see e).
THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC 35

The following Abbreviations are chiefly used in MS.


music:
35 THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC

_
l§is_=-T'——H - Q 3 - is n —-i
,

. E _ _ _.c. i -13-

When several silent measures are to be counted, the number


Silent of the measure is said in place of the first count
Measures in each measure, thus: 4 measures in 2 time are
counted I-2-3 I 2-2-3 1 3-2-3 I 4-2-3 I .
THE ELEMENTS or MUSIC 37

The A Pause 4* is a sign placed over a note, which


Pause signifies that it can be prolonged at pleasure.
A Double Bar is used to show the end, or an important
Double division in a piece of music. When dots occur on
B“ the left sideit indicates a repetition from a previous
Double Bar, which is generally dotted on the right side.
Da Capo means a repetition from the beginning. The sign
-8: signifies that the music is to be repeated from the first 18:.
A Cadenza is a florid passage introduced near the end of a
Difierence musical composition, and intended to display some
léitglgig especial form of dexterity. A Cadence is a pro
and gression of chords giving a feeling of momentary
Cadence or complete musical repose—in much the same
manner ' as punctuation does in language. Most pieces of
music end with a Perfect Cadence.
In an Open, or Full Score, each vocal or instrumental
part is placed on its proper staff. A Short Score
Scores
compresses the parts upon fewer staffs.
A Metronome is an instrument used to indicate the exact
Met,-o_ pace at which a piece of music is to be performed.
“me A note followed by a number, placed at the begin
ning of a composition, shows how many such notes are played
in a minute. Thus: a‘ = 60 would mean that sixty half
notes are to be performed in a minute; and again, 4' = 80,
that the rate is to be eighty quarter-notes in a minute.
Music is best written with a quill or “ J ” pen. The elbow
Musical should be held away from the body, and the pen
N°tafi°" inclined from left to right, i.e., the nib to the left
and the holder to the right. In this position perpendicular
lines can be formed upward or downward. A whole note
38 THE ELEMENTS OF MUSIC

is commenced with the upper half, thus: A, and the lower


half added separately, v.
Half-notes are formed in three parts, A V
Quarter-notes and eighth-notes are made by sufiicient
pressure to form a large round dot, stem and hook being
then added without lifting the pen from the paper. Quarter
rests are generally written in this manner in MS. music: \'
The G- and F-clefs
NAMES are both
OF NOTES IN commenced
DIFFERENTatLANGUAGES
the dot. g

English German French Italian

C 6' Do (U!) Do
C-flu Cgg Do (Ur) bémol Do bemolle
C-5114;-p C1; Do (U!) dlése Do dlests
D D Re Re
D-flat Des Re bémol Re bemolle
D-sharp Dis Re dtése Re diesls
E E MI MI
E-flat Es Mt bémol Ml bemolle
E-sharp Els Ml dlése M I dlesls
P F Fa Fa
F-flat Fes Fa bémol Fa bemolle
F-sharp Fls Fa dlése Fa diesls
U 0 So! So!
0-1!!! 088 Sol bémol Sol bemolle
0-sharp (its $0! diése Sol dlesls
A A La La
A-"It -45 La bémol La bemotle
A-shun A18 La dlese La dlesls
B 11 SI SI
B-flat B St be'moI St bemolle
B-shnrp His SI diese SI dlesls
MUSICAL TERMS

Adagio. Slow. Crescendo. (cresc.) Gradually louder.


Andante. Going at a moderate pace. Chorale. A German hymn-tune.
Andantino. Bears two meanings, Con Sordino. With mute.
whether faster or slower than An
dante depending on the character Decrescendo. Decreasing the tone.
of the music. Diminuendo. (dim.) Gradually grow
Assai. Very. ing softer.
Attacca. Go on immediately. Dolce. Sweetly.
Accelleranda. Gradually quicker. Duet or Duo. A composition for two
Allegro. Lively, with spirit. voices or instruments
Allegretto. Not so quick as Allegro.
A tempo. In time. Used to contra Espressione, con. }with expression_
dict any term which has slackened Espressivo.
or accellerated the time.
Ad libitum. “At pleasure” or “at will.” Forte. (f) Loud.
Agitato. With agitation. Fortissimo. ()7) Very loud.
fizzizzfoéozr } With animation. Forza, con With force.
Forzando. (jz) Generally applied to
Aria. An Air. Vocal Solo in an single notes, that they should have
Opera, or Oratorio. a forcible accent.
Fuoco. Fire.
Fuoco, con. With fire.
Ballad. A simple song. Also a term
applied to elaborate vocal and in Grazioso. With grace and refine
strumental pieces. Grazia, con. ment.
Barcarolle. A boat-song in Q time. Grave. Gravely, solemnly, very
Bravura. Spirit. Gravita, con i slowly.
Bis. Twice. When placed over a
passage, it signifies it must be re Langsam. Slowly.
peated. Largo. Very slow, in a measured and
Brindisi. A drinking song. broad style.
Brillante. With brilliancy. Lorghetto. Not quite so slow as
Brio, con. With life and animation. Largo.
Bolero. A Spanish dance in _-Z timi, 1 Legato. Very smoothly and connect
the dancers playing castanets. edly.
Bourrec. An old French dance. Leggiero.
Buflo. Comic. Leggteramente. 2 With lightness.
Leggierezza, con.
Calando. Slower and softer. Lento. Slow.
Cantabile. In a singing style. Loco. The place. Used after 8v0 to
Cantata. .A vocal composition of show that the notes are to be re
dramatic character. stored to their places as written.
40 MUSICAL TERMS—£ontinu:a'

Ma. But. Quartet. A composition for four


Ma non troppo allegro. But not too voices or instruments.
fast. Quasi. In the manner of; like.
Maextoso. With majesty. Quintet. A composition for five
Maggiore. Major. voices or instruments.
Mano destm. (M .D.) The right hand.
Mano sinistra. (M.S.) The left hand. Rallentando.(rall.) } Gradually slacken
Morziale. In a martial style. Ritardando. (ril.) ing the time.
Meno. Less. Ritenuto. (ri!en.) Slower time.
Meno allegro. Less fast. Recitative. A musical declamation.
Minore. Minor. Rinforzandoa (rfz) Forcing the tone
Mezzo. Half, or medium. throughout the passage.
Mezzo-forte, (mj). Half-loud. Risoluto. With resolution.
Moderato. In moderate time.
Molto. Much. Very. Scherzando. Playfully.
Molto vivace. With much animation. Sempre. Always.
Moren-do. Dying away. Softer and Senza. Without.
slower. Senza sordino. Without mute.
Mosso, pid. More movement, quicker. Septet. A composition for seven
Moto, con. An animated, energetic voices or instruments.
movement. Sextet. A composition for six voices
or instruments.
Nonelt. A composition for nine voices Sforzando. (sfz.) With great emphasis.
or instruments. Forced.
Slentando. Gradually slower.
Patetico. With pathos. Staccato. Detached and light.
Perdendosi. Losing the tone gradu- Stringendo. Accelerating the time.
ally. Softer and slower. Smarzando. Gradually softer.
Pesante. With weight and accent. Solo. A composition for one voice
Piacere, a. At pleasure, with regard or instrument.
to time. Sostenuto. Sustained.
Piano, (p). Soft. Subito. Sudden.
Pianissimo, (pp). Very soft.
Pia. More. Tempo rubato. Not in strict time.
Piit lento. More slowly Tenuto. Held the full time.
Paco. A.little. Tremolo. Tremulously.
Paco Andante. Rather slow. Troppo. Too much.
Poco a poco. Little by little.
Pomposo. With pomp and dignity. Vivace. With vivacity.
Presto. Fast. Volti subilo, (V.S.) Turn over very
Preslissimo. Very fast. quickly.

EXAMINATION
1. What is the meaning of the abbreviations: p, f, mf, mp,
fl, pp, sjz, rfz, fz, cresc., dim.?
2. Give the meaning of Adagio, Allegra, Allegretto, An
dante, Andantino, Grave, Largo, Larghetto, Lento, Presto,
Prestissimo, Vivace.
THE GREAT STAFF
|',|r|,|.,|l.<.,l.
INDEX
Page Page Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . P
. as5e
Abbreviations. . . .35, 36 Great stafi . . . . . . . . . 5
Accent . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22 Grouping of notes. . . 24 Quadruple time. =. 22
Acciaccatura. . . . . . 29 H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10 Quarter-note . . . . . . . 1
Accidentals. . . .. 17 Half-note . . . . . . . . . . I Quaver . . . . . 1:
Alla breve time . . . 27 Harmonic minor scale 16 Quintuple time. . . . . 27
Altosta.fi........... 6 Harmony . . . . . . . . .. 32 Related scales . . . . . . 20
Appoggiatura. . . . . . . 29 Instruments . . . . . . . . 8 Relative note-values 1
Arpegglo . . . . . . . . . .. 34 Intervals, how to Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Bar-lines . . . . . . . . . .. 22 reckon . . . . . . . . . .. 11 Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14
Baritone stafl . . . . . . . 6 Intervals of the major Semibreve . . . . . . . . . . 1
Bass staff . . . . . . . . . . 6 scale.............14 Semidemisemiquaver. 1
Beat . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22 Intervals, table of. . . 11 Semiquaver . . . . . . . . 1
Beating time . . . . . . . 33 Italian terms . . . . . . . 39 Semitone . . . . . . . . 11, :3
Bind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Inversion . . . . . . . . .. 12 Shake . . . . . . . . . . . .. 30
Bis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 39 Keys, order of . . . . . . 20 Sharp............. 9
Brace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Key, how to find the 32 Short score . . . . . . . . . 34
Breve. . 1 Key-signature . . . . .. 19 Signature . . . . . . . .19, 23
C-clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Leading-note . . . . . .. 15 Simple time . . . . . . . . 22
Chromatic interval. . 14 Leger-lines . . . . . . . .. 5 Sixteenth-note . . . . . . 1
Chromatic scale . 17 Major scale . . . . . . .. 14 Sixty-fourth-note. . . . 1
Chromatic semitone. 13 Measures . . . . . . . . .. 22 Slur . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34
Circle of fifths . . . . . . 2o Mediant . . . . . . . . . .. 15 Sound, cause of. . . . . 2
Clefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Melodic minor . . . . . . 16 Soprano staff . . . . . . . 7
Clefs, how to write. . 38 Metronome. . . .. . . .. 37 Staccato . . . . . . . . . .. 34
‘Common time . . . . . . 27 Mezzo-soprano staff . 6 Stafl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Compound intervals. 12 Middle C . . . . . . . . . . 5 Subdominant . . . . . .. 15
Compound time. . . . 22 Minim . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Submediant . . . . . . .. 15
Crotchet . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Minor mode . . . . . . . . 14 Supertonic . . . . . . . .. 15
Da Capo (or D.C.).. 37 Minor scale . . . . . . . . 17 Syncopation . . . . . . .. 31
Demisemiquaver. . . . 1 Modes . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14 Tenor stafl . . . . . . . . . 6
Degrees . . . . . . . . . . .. 14 Mordent . . . . . . . . . .. 34 Tetrachord . . . . . . . .. 15
Diatonic intervals. . . 18 Musical sound, how Thirty-second-note. . 1
Diatonic scale . . . . . . 14 produced . . . . . . . . 2 Tie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Diatonic semitone. .. 18 Names of notes in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 different languages 38 Time-signatures . . . . 24
Dominant . . . . . . . . .. 15 Natural . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Tone . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15
Double-bar . . . . . . . .. 37 Naturals . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Tonic . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 15
Double-flat . . . . . . . . . 9 Noise and music, Transposition . . . . . .. 33
Double-sharp . . . . . . . 9 difference between 2 Treble staff . . . . . . . . 7
Duple time . . . . . . . . . 22 Notation . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Trill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Duplet............. 31 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Triple time . . . . . . . . . 22
Eighth-note . . . . . . . . 1 Notes, duration of .. 1 Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . .. 31
Enharmonic change . 10 Numerlcal names of Tritone . . . . . . . . . . .. 11
F-clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 notes . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Fifths, circle of. . . . . 20 Octaves, how dis
Flat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 tinguished . . . . . . .. 13
French names of notes 2 Open score . . . . . . . . . 37 Whole note . . . . . . . . .
G~clef . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Pianoforte stafi. .... 7
/ -- .
. mm UNNERSITY
SCHOOL OF MUSIC
Blnornilglnflliiianl
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