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1. Streetman 3.1.

From eq.3.8 and Appendix II we have

mn* q 4 0.067(9.11 × 10 −31) (1.6 × 10 −19 ) 4

E= = −12 −34 2

= 8.34 × 10 − 22 J = 0.052eV

8(ε 0 ε r ) h

2 2 2

8(8.85 × 10 × 13.2) (6.63 × 10 )

Thus the energy required to excite the donor electron from the n=1 state to the free state

(n=∞) is about 5.2 meV.

2. Streetman, 3.2

1

3. Streetman, 3.3

Since an unknown material is doped with 1015cm-3 donors, the concentration of

electron in the conduction band is n0 = N d − N a ≅ N d = 1015 cm −3

Since the Fermi level lies at least several kT, the concentration of electron in the

conduction band is

− ( EC − E F )

n0 = N C exp = N C exp − (0.25eV ) = 6.4 × 10 −5 N C cm −3

kT 0.0259eV

Thus 1015 cm −3 = 6.4 × 10 −5 N C cm −3

∴ N C = 1.56 × 1019 cm −3 = N V

− Eg

ni = N C N V exp = 1.56 × 1019 exp − (1.1eV ) = 9.36 × 10 9 cm −3

2kT 2 × 0.0259eV

The concentration of holes is p 0 = ni2 / n0 = (9.36 × 10 9 ) 2 / 1015 = 8.7 × 10 4 cm −3

4. Streetman 3.7.

(a)

We know a Si sample is n-type because the Fermi level is above the intrinsic level, so

E F − Ei

n0 = ni exp( ) = 1.5 × 1010 cm −3 exp(0.36eV ) = 1.6 × 1016 cm −3 (at

kT 0.0259eV

300K)

From the doping concentration of the boron acceptor on the problem, we know

N a = 1016 cm −3

n0 = N d − N a

1

(b) f ( E A ) = and we can find EA-EF

1 + exp( E A − E F )

kT

EA-EF = EA-EV-(EF-EV) = 0.16eV-0.26eV=-0.1eV

Note that the Fermi level is not at least 2.3 kT above the energy of interest, so we can

not use the Boltzman approximation.

1

f (E A ) = = 0.98

(1 + exp( − 0 . 1eV )

0.026eV

2

It means that 98% of the acceptors states are occupied, which means the acceptor is

ionized. Thus 2% of dopants is un-ionized atoms, 2% of

Na=0.02x1016cm-3=2.1x1014cm-3

5. Streetman, 3.8

6. Streetman, 3.9.

3

7. Streetman, 3.10

Since Si is doped with 1015cm-3 arsenic donors, the concentration of electron in the

conduction band is n0 = N d − N a ≅ N d = 1015 cm −3

To find the conductivity, we need to find the motilities. From the Figures 3.23 of

Streetman, we have µ n ≈ 1800cm 2 / V ⋅ s and µ p ≈ 600cm 2 / V ⋅ s at 1015 cm-3doping

concentration. Thus

σ = qµ n n + qµ p p = q ( µ n n + µ p p) = 1.6 × 10 −19 [1800 × 1015 + 600 × 2.25 × 10 5 ] = 0.288(Ωcm) −1

1 1

ρ= = = 3.47Ωcm

σ 0.288

Compared with the resistivity of intrinsic silicon ( ρ = 2.3 × 10 5 Ωcm ; You can also

Since Ge is doped with 1015cm-3 antimony donors, the concentration of electron in the

conduction band is n0 = N d − N a ≅ N d = 1015 cm −3

To find the conductivity, we need to find the motilities. From the Figures 3.23 of

Streetman, we have µ n ≈ 4000cm 2 / V ⋅ s and µ p ≈ 2000cm 2 / V ⋅ s at 1015 cm-3doping

concentration. Thus

σ = qµ n n + qµ p p = q( µ n n + µ p p) = 1.6 × 10 −19 [4000 × 1015 + 2000 × 2.25 × 10 5 ] = 0.640(Ωcm) −1

4

1 1

ρ= = = 1.56Ωcm Thus, Ge doped with antimony also could be used.

σ 0.640

8. Streetman, 3.11

This material has Nc=1019cm-3 and Nv=5X1018cm-3, and Eg=2eV at 300 K.

At T = 900 K (627°C),

3/ 2

2πmn * kT

From N c = 2 , we have

h2

3/ 2

T

N c2 = N c1 2 = 1019 × (900 / 300) 3 / 2 = 5.20 × 1019 cm −3

T1

3/ 2

T

Similarly, N v 2 = N v1 2 = 5 × 1018 × (900 / 300) 3 / 2 = 2.60 × 1019 cm −3

T1

Thus ni is

−E

ni = NC NV exp g = 5.2 ×1019 × 2.6 ×1018 exp− 2eV = 2.91×1013cm−3

2kT −5

(2 ×8.616×10 eV / K × 900K)

Using eq. 3-15 and 3-19,

n0 1017 cm −3

E F − Ec = kT ln = 8.616 × 10 −5 eV / K × 900K ln = −0.48eV

Nc 5.2 × 1019 cm −3

p0 8.46 × 109 cm −3

E v − E F = kT ln = 8.616 × 10 −5 eV / K × 900 K ln = −1.52eV

Nv 2.6 × 1019 cm −3

5

EE

cc

0.48 eV

EF

Eg=2eV 1.52 eV

Ev

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