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ECE331 Homework #5 Solution

(Due Monday, February 20, 2006)

1. Streetman 3.1.
From eq.3.8 and Appendix II we have
mn* q 4 0.067(9.11 × 10 −31) (1.6 × 10 −19 ) 4
E= = −12 −34 2
= 8.34 × 10 − 22 J = 0.052eV
8(ε 0 ε r ) h
2 2 2
8(8.85 × 10 × 13.2) (6.63 × 10 )
Thus the energy required to excite the donor electron from the n=1 state to the free state
(n=∞) is about 5.2 meV.

2. Streetman, 3.2

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3. Streetman, 3.3
Since an unknown material is doped with 1015cm-3 donors, the concentration of
electron in the conduction band is n0 = N d − N a ≅ N d = 1015 cm −3
Since the Fermi level lies at least several kT, the concentration of electron in the
conduction band is
− ( EC − E F )
n0 = N C exp = N C exp − (0.25eV ) = 6.4 × 10 −5 N C cm −3
kT 0.0259eV
Thus 1015 cm −3 = 6.4 × 10 −5 N C cm −3

∴ N C = 1.56 × 1019 cm −3 = N V

− Eg
ni = N C N V exp = 1.56 × 1019 exp − (1.1eV ) = 9.36 × 10 9 cm −3
2kT 2 × 0.0259eV
The concentration of holes is p 0 = ni2 / n0 = (9.36 × 10 9 ) 2 / 1015 = 8.7 × 10 4 cm −3

4. Streetman 3.7.
(a)
We know a Si sample is n-type because the Fermi level is above the intrinsic level, so
E F − Ei
n0 = ni exp( ) = 1.5 × 1010 cm −3 exp(0.36eV ) = 1.6 × 1016 cm −3 (at
kT 0.0259eV
300K)
From the doping concentration of the boron acceptor on the problem, we know
N a = 1016 cm −3

n0 = N d − N a

∴ N d = n0 + N a = 1.6 × 1016 + 1016 = 2.6 × 1016 cm −3

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(b) f ( E A ) = and we can find EA-EF
1 + exp( E A − E F )
kT
EA-EF = EA-EV-(EF-EV) = 0.16eV-0.26eV=-0.1eV
Note that the Fermi level is not at least 2.3 kT above the energy of interest, so we can
not use the Boltzman approximation.
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f (E A ) = = 0.98
(1 + exp( − 0 . 1eV )
0.026eV

2
It means that 98% of the acceptors states are occupied, which means the acceptor is
ionized. Thus 2% of dopants is un-ionized atoms, 2% of
Na=0.02x1016cm-3=2.1x1014cm-3

5. Streetman, 3.8

6. Streetman, 3.9.

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7. Streetman, 3.10
Since Si is doped with 1015cm-3 arsenic donors, the concentration of electron in the
conduction band is n0 = N d − N a ≅ N d = 1015 cm −3

p 0 = ni2 / n0 = (1.5 × 1010 ) 2 / 1015 = 2.25 × 10 5 cm −3


To find the conductivity, we need to find the motilities. From the Figures 3.23 of
Streetman, we have µ n ≈ 1800cm 2 / V ⋅ s and µ p ≈ 600cm 2 / V ⋅ s at 1015 cm-3doping

concentration. Thus
σ = qµ n n + qµ p p = q ( µ n n + µ p p) = 1.6 × 10 −19 [1800 × 1015 + 600 × 2.25 × 10 5 ] = 0.288(Ωcm) −1
1 1
ρ= = = 3.47Ωcm
σ 0.288
Compared with the resistivity of intrinsic silicon ( ρ = 2.3 × 10 5 Ωcm ; You can also

calculate the resistivity of intrinsic silicon using n0=p0=ni , µ n ≈ 1350cm 2 / V ⋅ s and

µ p ≈ 470cm 2 / V ⋅ s ), Si doped with arsenic would be useful in this application.

Since Ge is doped with 1015cm-3 antimony donors, the concentration of electron in the
conduction band is n0 = N d − N a ≅ N d = 1015 cm −3

p 0 = ni2 / n0 = (1.5 × 1010 ) 2 / 1015 = 2.25 × 10 5 cm −3


To find the conductivity, we need to find the motilities. From the Figures 3.23 of
Streetman, we have µ n ≈ 4000cm 2 / V ⋅ s and µ p ≈ 2000cm 2 / V ⋅ s at 1015 cm-3doping

concentration. Thus
σ = qµ n n + qµ p p = q( µ n n + µ p p) = 1.6 × 10 −19 [4000 × 1015 + 2000 × 2.25 × 10 5 ] = 0.640(Ωcm) −1

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1 1
ρ= = = 1.56Ωcm Thus, Ge doped with antimony also could be used.
σ 0.640

8. Streetman, 3.11
This material has Nc=1019cm-3 and Nv=5X1018cm-3, and Eg=2eV at 300 K.
At T = 900 K (627°C),
3/ 2
 2πmn * kT 
From N c = 2  , we have
 h2 
3/ 2
T 
N c2 = N c1  2  = 1019 × (900 / 300) 3 / 2 = 5.20 × 1019 cm −3
 T1 
3/ 2
T 
Similarly, N v 2 = N v1  2  = 5 × 1018 × (900 / 300) 3 / 2 = 2.60 × 1019 cm −3
 T1 
Thus ni is

−E
ni = NC NV exp g = 5.2 ×1019 × 2.6 ×1018 exp− 2eV = 2.91×1013cm−3
2kT −5
(2 ×8.616×10 eV / K × 900K)

Since Nd =1017 cm-3 >>ni, so n0 ≈ N d = 1017 cm −3

The concentration of hole is p0 = ni2 / n0 = ( 2.91 × 1013 ) 2 / 1017 = 8.46 × 10 9 cm −3


Using eq. 3-15 and 3-19,
n0 1017 cm −3
E F − Ec = kT ln = 8.616 × 10 −5 eV / K × 900K ln = −0.48eV
Nc 5.2 × 1019 cm −3

p0 8.46 × 109 cm −3
E v − E F = kT ln = 8.616 × 10 −5 eV / K × 900 K ln = −1.52eV
Nv 2.6 × 1019 cm −3

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EE
cc
0.48 eV
EF
Eg=2eV 1.52 eV

Ev