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]

Classical measure theory is fundamentally non-constructive, since the classical definition

of Lebesgue measure does not describe any way to compute the measure of a set or the

integral of a function. In fact, if one thinks of a function just as a rule that "inputs a real

number and outputs a real number" then there cannot be any algorithm to compute the

integral of a function, since any algorithm would only be able to call finitely many values of

the function at a time, and finitely many values are not enough to compute the integral to any

nontrivial accuracy. The solution to this conundrum, carried out first in Bishop's 1967 book, is

to consider only functions that are written as the pointwise limit of continuous functions (with

known modulus of continuity), with information about the rate of convergence. An advantage

of constructivizing measure theory is that if one can prove that a set is constructively of full

measure, then there is an algorithm for finding a point in that set (again see Bishop's book).

For example, this approach can be used to construct a real number that is normal to every

base.

**The place of constructivism in mathematics[edit]
**

Traditionally, some mathematicians have been suspicious, if not antagonistic, towards

mathematical constructivism, largely because of limitations they believed it to pose for

constructive analysis. These views were forcefully expressed by David Hilbert in 1928, when

he wrote in Grundlagen der Mathematik, "Taking the principle of excluded middle from the

mathematician would be the same, say, as proscribing the telescope to the astronomer or to

the boxer the use of his fists".[3]

Errett Bishop, in his 1967 work Foundations of Constructive Analysis, worked to dispel these

fears by developing a great deal of traditional analysis in a constructive framework.

Even though most mathematicians do not accept the constructivist's thesis, that only

mathematics done based on constructive methods is sound, constructive methods are

increasingly of interest on non-ideological grounds. For example, constructive proofs in

analysis may ensure witness extraction, in such a way that working within the constraints of

the constructive methods may make finding witnesses to theories easier than using classical

methods. Applications for constructive mathematics have also been found in typed lambda

calculi, topos theory and categorical logic, which are notable subjects in foundational

mathematics and computer science. In algebra, for such entities as toposes and Hopf

algebras, the structure supports an internal language that is a constructive theory; working

within the constraints of that language is often more intuitive and flexible than working

externally by such means as reasoning about the set of possible concrete algebras and

their homomorphisms.

Physicist Lee Smolin writes in Three Roads to Quantum Gravity that topos theory is "the

right form of logic for cosmology" (page 30) and "In its first forms it was called 'intuitionistic

logic'" (page 31). "In this kind of logic, the statements an observer can make about the

universe are divided into at least three groups: those that we can judge to be true, those that

we can judge to be false and those whose truth we cannot decide upon at the present time"

(page 28).

Wilhelm Ackermann. In 1912. Brouwer: "On the significance of the principle of excluded middle in mathematics. 1923. the topological invariance of degree. 1879-1931. in 1908: liography[edit] In English translation[edit] Jean van Heijenoort. indeed his thesis advisor refused to accept his Chapter II "as it stands. all interwoven with some kind of pessimism and mystical attitude to life which is not mathematics. L. UK. at age 31. E." With two Addenda and corrigenda. 46–59). It formed part of the early history of semiotics—the study of symbols—around Victoria. 94). at the age of 24. Harvard University Press.Bib Biography[edit] Early in his career. which justifies the reduction to combinatorial terms. The main results were his fixed point theorem. Nevertheless. intuitionism is essentially a philosophy of the foundations of mathematics.[8] Brouwer in effect founded the mathematical philosophy of intuitionism as an opponent to the then-prevailing formalism of David Hilbert and his collaborators Paul Bernays. John von Neumann and others (cf. Arthur Schopenhauer had a formative influence on Brouwer.[6] He was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1908 at Rome[7] and in 1912 at Cambridge. not least because he insisted that all concepts be fundamentally based on sense intuitions. 334- 45. p. about the topological invariance of degree.. and the topological invariance of dimension. Art and Mysticism described by Davis as "drenched in romantic pessimism" (Davis (2002). Brouwer was a member of the Significs Group. The third is perhaps the hardest. Cambridge MA. p. he was elected a member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.[9] It is sometimes and rather simplistically characterized by saying that its adherents refuse to use the law of excluded middle in mathematical reasoning. p. especially in function theory. .. nor has anything to do with the foundations of mathematics" (Davis. ISBN 0-674- 32449-8 pbk. 1967 3rd printing 1976 with corrections. p. Kleene (1952). The most popular of the three among mathematicians is the first one called the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem. after sufficient subdivision of simplicial complexes. 41). Brouwer also proved the simplicial approximation theorem in the foundations of algebraic topology. The original papers are prefaced with valuable commentary. of the treatment of general continuous mappings.[10][11][12] Brouwer then "embarked on a self-righteous campaign to reconstruct mathematical practice from the ground up so as to satisfy his philosophical convictions". Brouwer gives brief synopsis of his belief that the law of excluded middle cannot . 94 quoting van Stigt. Lady Welby in particular. The original meaning of his intuitionism probably can not be completely disentangled from the intellectual milieu of that group. As a variety of constructive mathematics. Brouwer proved a number of theorems that were in the emerging field of topology. Brouwer expressed his philosophy of life in a short tract Life. In 1905. It is a simple corollary to the second. and this one is the most popular among algebraic topologists. A Source Book in Mathematical Logic. J.

Vol." Three of the topics involve the law of excluded middle. 1927. Brouwer. J. "a short book." 480-484. e.. 37 (1996). 1990. Hilbert's prize pupil. 1975. and methods of intuitionism. "Mathematics. J. he discusses the ramifications of intuitionism with respect to "transfinite judgements". science. Kolmogorov: "On the principle of excluded middle". 1925. van Stigt with an introduction by the translator. J. be "applied without reservation even in the mathematics of infinite systems" and gives two examples of failures to illustrate his assertion. Kolmogorov supports most of Brouwer's results but disputes a few. From Kant to Hilbert: A Source Book in the Foundations of Mathematics. "Life." Ewald. Collected Works. Vol. William B. 1928. van Stigt. Brouwer lists four topics on which intuitionism and formalism might "enter into a dialogue. But in this address Weyl "while defending Brouwer against some of Hilbert's criticisms. Brouwer: "Intuitionistic reflections on formalism. 1976. P." 1170-85. Press. principles.. 414–437. "The structure of the continuum." Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic. Collected Works. Amsterdam: North-Holland." 1186-96. transfinite induction." 490-92. I. Translated by W. 389–429.. 381–87. Brouwer. 1927.." 1197-1207." 464-80 1927. E.[14] Brouwer. and language. 1990 efinitions of mathematics Main article: Definitions of mathematics . Art.attempts to bring out the significance of Hilbert's approach to the problems of the foundations of mathematics. W. Oxford Univ. Amsterdam: North-Holland. 2 vols. L. pp. 94). E. drenched in romantic pessimism" (p. A. In 1920 Weyl.. 1952. 1927. L. with an extended commentary. Brouwer's intuitionistic treatment of the continuum. 1928. and Mysticism.. J. Brouwer's Intuitionism. ed. II. 1996. Amsterdam: North-Holland. E. N.. pp. L. E. P. L.. David Hilbert: "The foundations of mathematics. E. sided with Brouwer against Hilbert. Davis quotes from this work. vol. L. Brouwer: "On the domains of definition of functions". pp. Hermann Weyl: "Comments on Hilbert's second lecture on the foundations of mathematics.. "Historical background. J.g.

even among professionals.[6] There is not even consensus on whether mathematics is an art or a science. when the study of mathematics increased in rigor and began to address abstract topics such as group theory and projective geometry.[27] Starting in the 19th century. the Italian mathematician who introduced the Hindu–Arabic numeral system invented between the 1st and 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians.Leonardo Fibonacci. some emphasize its abstractness. and this definition prevailed until the 18th century. to the Western World Aristotle defined mathematics as "the science of quantity". Today. which have no clear-cut relation to quantity and measurement.[28] Some of these definitions emphasize the deductive character of much of mathematics. no consensus on the definition of mathematics prevails. mathematicians and philosophers began to propose a variety of new definitions. some emphasize certain topics within mathematics.[7] A great many professional .

"[6] Three leading types of definition of mathematics are called logicist. different from the ordinary meaning of "a self- evident truth". or tokens. or consider it undefinable. statements.[31] Intuitionist definitions. In particular. none has widespread acceptance. In formal systems.[6] Some just say."[29] A peculiarity of intuitionism is that it rejects some mathematical ideas considered valid according to other definitions. and attempted to prove that all mathematical concepts. identify mathematics with certain mental phenomena.[32] A formal system is a set of symbols.E. developing from the philosophy of mathematician L. "Mathematics is what mathematicians do.[29] All have severe problems. Haskell Curry defined mathematics simply as "the science of formal systems". while other philosophies of mathematics allow objects that can be proved to exist even though they cannot be constructed. 495 BC).mathematicians take no interest in a definition of mathematics. Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead advanced the philosophical program known as logicism. An example of an intuitionist definition is "Mathematics is the mental activity which consists in carrying out constructs one after the other. intuitionism allows only mathematical objects that one can actually construct. and some rules telling how the tokens may be combined into formulas. In formal systems.[30] In the Principia Mathematica. 570 BC – c. the word axiom has a special meaning. Brouwer. and principles can be defined and proved entirely in terms of symbolic logic. commonly credited with discovering the Pythagorean theorem . Formalist definitions identify mathematics with its symbols and the rules for operating on them. and no reconciliation seems possible.[29] An early definition of mathematics in terms of logic was Benjamin Peirce's "the science that draws necessary conclusions" (1870). and formalist. intuitionist. A logicist definition of mathematics is Russell's "All Mathematics is Symbolic Logic" (1903). an axiom is a combination of tokens that is included in a given formal system without needing to be derived using the rules of the system efinitions of mathematics Main article: Definitions of mathematics Greek mathematician Pythagoras (c.J. each reflecting a different philosophical school of thought.

like time – days.[20] . algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations. prehistoric peoples may have also recognized how to count abstract quantities. elementary arithmetic (addition. land measurement. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have been many and diverse. painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time. and for astronomy.[18] Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC. in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects. subtraction.Mayan numerals As evidenced by tallies found on bone. for building and construction. years. multiplication and division) first appears in the archaeological record.[citation needed] Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. seasons.[19] The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading. with the first known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. In Babylonian mathematics. when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic.

Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī.9 million. meaning "that which is learnt". and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science. in the January 2006 issue of the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society."[21] Etymology The word mathematics comes from Ancient Greek μάθημα (máthēma). In particular. 780 – c. The word for "mathematics" came to have the narrower and more technical meaning "mathematical study" even in Classical times. Latin: ars mathematica. mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics: most of them include the contributions from Persian mathematicians such as Al-Khwarismi. "The number of papers and books included in the Mathematical Reviews database since 1940 (the first year of operation of MR) is now more than 1.[23] Its adjective is μαθηματικός (mathēmatikós). During the Golden Age of Islam. μαθηματικὴ τέχνη (mathēmatikḗ tékhnē). meant "the mathematical art".[22] "what one gets to know". Similarly. meaning "related to learning" or "studious". to the benefit of both. hence also "study" and "science". one of the two main schools of thought in Pythagoreanism was known as the mathēmatikoi (μαθηματικοί)—which at the time meant "teachers" rather than "mathematicians" in the modern sense. According to Mikhail B. which likewise further came to mean "mathematical". Mathematics has since been greatly extended. 850). . and more than 75 thousand items are added to the database each year. Sevryuk. especially during the 9th and 10th centuries. the inventor of algebra. Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi (c. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today. The overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs.

meaning astrologers.[26] Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma. study. when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day. measurement.[2] space. the meaning gradually changed to its present one from about 1500 to 1800. after the pattern of physics and metaphysics. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932)."[11] Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) referred to mathematics as "the Queen of the Sciences". Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics. It is written in mathematical language.[25] In English. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena. It is often shortened to maths or. David Hilbert (1862–1943). "The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. Saint Augustine's warning that Christians should beware of mathematici. calculation. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. in English-speaking North America.[13] David Hilbert said of . circles and other geometrical figures. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. used by Aristotle (384–322 BC). the noun mathematics takes a singular verb. Without these. most notably in Euclid's Elements.[1] structure. although it is plausible that English borrowed only the adjective mathematic(al) and formed the noun mathematics anew. then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. goes back to the Latin neuter plural mathematica (Cicero). one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth. and meaning roughly "all things mathematical". mathematics developed from counting. and in English until around 1700. This has resulted in several mistranslations. For example.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[1] and change. based on the Greek plural τα μαθηματικά (ta mathēmatiká).In Latin. the term mathematics more commonly meant "astrology" (or sometimes "astronomy") rather than "mathematics". "knowledge. is sometimes mistranslated as a condemnation of mathematicians. without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance.[24] The apparent plural form in English. Through the use of abstraction and logic. and the letters are triangles. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures.[10] Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said. it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. learning") is the study of such topics as quantity. which were inherited from Greek.[12] Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880) called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions". math. like the French plural form les mathématiques (and the less commonly used singular derivative la mathématique).

[1] NABT also publishes the journal The American Biology Teacher nine times a year. without having any application in mind. Individuals may purchase individual issues.mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense."[14] Albert Einstein (1879–1955) stated that "as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality. NABT was formed in 1938 and incorporated in 1956. medicine. Arkansas in 1982 and Kitzmiller v.S. Presidents[edit] This is an incomplete list.[16] The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) is an American-based scholarly society. including natural science. affiliations and committees that help to facilitate networking and support. they do not refer to reality. Rather. please see List of National Association of Biology Teachers presidents Current President: Susan Finazzo Past Presidents 2016: Bob Melton 2015: Jane Ellis 2014: Stacey Kiser 2013: Mark Little 2012: Don French 2011: Dan Ward 2010: Marion V. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics. they are not certain. Subscriptions to the journal are available for institutions. including McLean v. or mathematics for its own sake. it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. "Bunny" Jaskot . engineering. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics. such as statistics and game theory. and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered."[15] Mathematics is essential in many fields. finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines. and abroad. Some examples of these are: 4-Year College Section 2-Year College Section AP Biology Multicultural Affairs Section International Section Role & Status of Women in Biology Education Retired Members Section State and Province Affiliate NABT BioClub Outreach Coordinators & Informal Educators NABT has been involved in several controversies over teaching of creationism in public schools. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. and as far as they are certain.[2] NABT has a large number of sections. Dover Area School District in 2005. Their membership comprises thousands of biology educators and administrators—representing all grade levels—from the U. for a complete list.

This is done on both the microscopic and molecular levels. The next larger scale. Molecular biology is the study of biology at the molecular level. particularly those of genetics and biochemistry. and protein synthesis and how those interactions are regulated. and Developmental biology Schematic of typical animal cell depicting the various organelles and structures.[44] Genetics is the science of genes. Anatomy is a treatment of the macroscopic forms of such structures organs and organ systems. Cell biology. interactions with other cells. including the interrelationships of DNA. Genetics.[45][46] Genes encode the information needed by cells for the .[43] This field overlaps with other areas of biology. and with their environment. Molecular biology is a study of the interactions of the various systems within a cell. and the variation of organisms. including their internal behavior. as well as the specialized cells of multicellular organisms such as humans. heredity. Understanding the structure and function of cells is fundamental to all of the biological sciences.2009: John Moore 2008: Todd Carter 2007: Patricia Waller 2006: Toby M Horn Structural Main articles: Molecular biology. cell biology. studies the structural and physiological properties of cells. for unicellular organisms such as bacteria. RNA. The similarities and differences between cell types are particularly relevant to molecular biology.

but some principles of physiology are universal. immune. and their change over time.[49] the mouse Mus musculus. for example. The study of these systems is shared with such medically oriented disciplines as neurology and immunology. and "cellular morphogenesis. Developmental biology.)[53] Physiological Main article: Physiology Physiology is the study of the mechanical.[48] the zebrafish Danio rerio.[50] and the weed Arabidopsis thaliana. function and interact." which is the process that progressively gives rise to tissues. which in turn play a central role in influencing the final phenotype of the organism. and anatomy. Physiology is the study the interaction of how. Developmental biology studies the process by which organisms grow and develop. endocrine. It employs scientists from many taxonomically oriented disciplines. Evolutionary Evolutionary research is concerned with the origin and descent of species. originated from embryology. or the analysis of genetic interactions. no matter what particular organism is being studied. Genetics provides research tools used in the investigation of the function of a particular gene. The theme of "structure to function" is central to biology. Within organisms. genetic information is physically represented as chromosomes. and biochemical processes of living organisms function as a whole. what is learned about the physiology of yeast cells can also apply to human cells. studies the genetic control of cell growth. For example. organs. Plant physiology borrows techniques from both research fields. The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. those with special . respiratory. Physiological studies have traditionally been divided into plant physiology and animal physiology. Model organisms for developmental biology include the round worm Caenorhabditis elegans. and circulatory systems. the nervous. for example.[47] the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.synthesis of proteins. with the expectation that discoveries made in that organism provide insight into the workings of other organisms. cellular differentiation. within which it is represented by a particular sequence of amino acids in particular DNA molecules. physical.[51][52] (A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena.

some cross over with biochemistry Nanobiology – the study of how nanotechnology can be used in biology.training in particular organisms such as mammalogy. systematics. developmental biology re- entered evolutionary biology after its initial exclusion from the modern synthesis through the study of evolutionary developmental biology. but are of use in answering more general questions about evolution. which uses the fossil record to answer questions about the mode and tempo of evolution. animals. . including Population ecology – the study of how population dynamics and extinction Population genetics – the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms Paleontology – the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life Pathobiology or pathology – the study of diseases. Integrative biology – the study of whole organisms Marine biology (or biological oceanography) – the study of ocean ecosystems. Epigenetics – the study of heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence Hematology (also known as Haematology) – the study of blood and blood-forming organs.[55] In the 1980s. plants. nature.[54] and partly on the developments in areas such as population genetics. and the study of living organisms and parts on the nanoscale level of organization Neuroscience – the study of the nervous system Population biology – the study of groups of conspecific organisms. Evolutionary biology is partly based on paleontology. and the causes. and other living beings Microbiology – the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things Bacteriology – the study of bacteria Mycology – the study of fungi Parasitology – the study of parasites and parasitism Virology – the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents Molecular biology – the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level. ornithology. and development of disease Physiology – the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms Phytopathology – the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology) Psychobiology – the study of the biological bases of psychology Radiobiology – study of the action of ionic radiation on living things. Evolutionary biology – the study of the origin and descent of species over time Genetics – the study of genes and heredity. processes. or herpetology. and taxonomy are related fields often considered part of evolutionary biology.[56] Phylogenetics. botany.

where different medical specialties are mixed to function in certain occasions. • . including classification. e. to help diagnose or treat the main problem or any subsequent complications/developments. Sociobiology – the study of the biological bases of sociology Systems biology – the study complex interactions within biological systems through a holistic approach Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology. radiology. Physicians have many specializations and subspecializations into certain branches of medicine.. surgical. the cardiology team. including: Ethology – the study of animal behaviour Entomology – the study of insects Herpetology – the study of reptiles and amphibians Ichthyology – the study of fish Mammalogy – the study of mammals Ornithology – the study of birds A patient admitted to the hospital is usually under the care of a specific team based on their main presenting problem.g. which are listed below. development. There are variations from country to country regarding which specialties certain subspecialties are in. physiology. and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules Theoretical biology – the branch of biology that employs abstractions and mathematical models to explain biological phenomena Zoology – the study of animals.g. and some return to in biomedical research • Medical specialties • Interdisciplinary fields. biochemistry. and behaviour. The main branches of medicine are: • Basic sciences of medicine. this is what every physician is educated in.. who then may interact with other specialties. e. Quantum biology – the study of quantum mechanics to biological objects and problems.

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