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Sugar and Sugar Containing Drugs

Scientific Name and


Vernacular
Specimen English Name Family (Botanical Part Used (Origin) Major Constituents Uses
Name
Origin)
sweetener,
Stem of sugarcane
preservative,
(saccharum spp.) monosaccharides -
Sucrose Table Sugar, Saccharose Asukal macronutrient
Roots of sugarbeets glucose and fructose
(quick source of
(Beta vulgaris)
energy)
Manna Ash or South Tubang- mannose, mannitol,
Fraxinus ornus Leaves, Roots, Seeds, Emetic (seed, oil)
Manna European Flowering Ash americano Glucose (seed),
(Euphobiaceae) Oil Scabies (leaves)
Saponin (leaves)
Medicinally: for
irritable bladder and
cystitis, a stimulant,
Couch grass, Witch
Agropyron repens dried rhizomes and Triticin, Dextrose, refrigerant, diuretic
Triticum grass, Dog grass,
(Poaceae) roots Levulose
Bermuda Grass
Pharmaceutically:
sweetener

malic acid,
antioxidant, anti-
anthocyanins,
Wild Cherry, Sweet Prunus avium inflammatory,
Cherry Fruit flavonols, citric acid,
Cherry, Mazzard (Rosaceae) astringent, diuretic,
sucrose, glucose,
sedative, antitussive
fructose and sorbitol
Proteins, Minerals,
Suppresant,
Common Fig, Fig, Edible Carbohydrates,
Ficus carica Diuretic, Blood
Fig Fig Igos, Higo Fruit Carotene, Nicotinic
(Moraceae) purifier, Aphrodisiac
acid, Riboflavin,
agent
Ascorbic acid
laxative or
purgative; to treat
skin infections;
cathartic;
Golden Shower Tree, Fistula, Kaña
Cassia fistula, sometimes added to
Cañafistula, Pudding pestula, kanya
Cathartocarpus fistula sugar, pectin, tannins, tobacco and
Cassia fistula Pipe Tree, Indian pistula, lapad- Dried fruit
(Fabaceae) albuminous principle smoked;
Laburnum, Purging lapad,
Suppresant,
Cassia Lombayong
Diuretic; Blood
purifier; Aphrodisiac
agent

Tamarindus indica Tartaric, Citric, Malic


Tamarind Tamarind Sampalok Fruit pulp, seeds Astringent, Tonic
(Fabaceae) acid
reduce the risk of
Malus domestica sugar, malic and
Apple Apple Mansanas Longitudinal portion heart disease and
(Rosaceae) ascorbic acid
stroke, antioxidant

Polysaccharides – Starches
Scientific Name and
Vernacular
Specimen English Name Family (Botanical Part Used (Origin) Major Constituents Uses
Name
Origin)
Zea mays Endosperm (corn Thickening agent,
Corn Starch Corn, Maize Mais Anthocyanin, Tannin
(Gramineae) kernel) Diuretic, Poultice
Thickening agent,
Oryza sativa Starch, Proteins, Iron,
Rice Starch Rice flour, Rice powder Galapong Grains binder, alternative
(Poaceae) Calcium
to all-purpose flour
Pastes, Explosives,
Triticum aestivum L. Essential amino acids, Sizing textiles,
Wheat Starch Wheat Trigo Caryopsis, grains
(Poaceae) Pectin Alcoholic beverage,
Synthetic rubber
Maranta arundinaceae
Arrowroot B-carotene, Niacin, Antidiarrheal,
Arrowroot Araro L. Rhizome (rootstock)
Starch Thiamine Sweetener
(Marantaceae)
Thickeners, binders,
Solanum tuberosum used to
Potato Starch Potato Patatas Tuber Tannin, Sugars
(Solanaceae) manufacture
alcoholic beverages
Antibacterial,
Cassava Manioc, Tapioca, Kamoteng Manihot esculenta Analgesic,
Tuber, leaves Cyanogenic glycoside
Starch Cassava kahoy (Euphibiaceae) Anthelmintic,
Antiamoebacidal
Rich in vitamins A,
B, and C; a fair
25% starch, 5%
Banana Musa sapentum source of iron.
Banana, Plantain Saging Fruit, leaves, bark proteins and others,
Starch (Musaceae) Plant fibers used in
and 70% water
the manufacture of
paper and clothes.
Laxative, used for
internal
Colocasia esculenta Flavonoids, glucose, hemorrhages,
Gabi, Lagbai,
Gabi Starch Taro Linn. Tuber sucrose, fructose, otalgia and adenitis.
Abalong
(Araceae) fiber, maltose Tubers are used for
rheumatic joints, for
Alopecia
Hypolipidemic
Hydrocyanic acid, Lunatusin /
Antimicrobial /
cyanide, trypsin-
Antimicrobial /
inhibitor, lectin, Antiproliferative
Lima Bean Phaseolus lunatus phytin and tannin Estrogen-like
Lima bean, Butter bean Patani Seed
Starch (Fabaceae) Activity
Trypsin Inhibitors /
Contains linamarin Reverse
Transcriptase
Inhibition

Teas, stimulant,
carminative, GIT-
Zingiber officinale
Ginger Starch Ginger Luya rhizome terpenoids related illnesses,
(Zingiberaceae)
treatment for the
common cold
fiber, protein,
refrigerant,
vitamins (folate and
appetizer, fattening,
vitamin C), minerals
laxative, alleviative
(iron, magnesium,
of bile, phlegm and
The small spherical seed phosphorus and zinc),
burning of the skin.
Green pea, Pea, Garden Pisum sativum or the seed-pod of the and lutein.
Green Pea citzaro, chicaro
Pea, Snow Pea (Fabaceae) pod fruit. Each pod starch, albuminoids,
Starch Flour from the
contains several peas. an oil, galactolipids,
seeds is considered
alkaloids, trigonelline
emollient and
and piplartine,
resolvent and it is
essential oil, soluble
applied as
carbohydrates, D-
cataplasm
alanine.
starch extracted in the
Metroxylon sagu spongy center, or pith, Glucose and other Thickener, textile,
Sago Starch Sagu, Tapioca balls Sago
(Arecaceae) of various tropical palm carbohydrates paper, sugar
stems
Good source of
vitamins A, B and
C, iron, calcium and
polyphenolics - phosphorus.
Camote Kamote, Ipomoea batatas Linn.
Sweet Potato Tuber anthocyanins and
Starch Camote (Convulvulaceae)
phenolic acids High in complex
carbohydrates and
dietary fiber;
deficient in protein.

Polysaccharides – Cellulose
Filament of Cotton in water
Filament of Cotton in Schweitzer’s Reagent

Scientific Name
Vernacular
Specimen English Name and Family Part Used (Origin) Major Constituents Uses
Name
(Botanical Origin)
made into surgical
cotton
made into gun
Gossypium hirsutum cotton fruit or boll, around
Cotton Cotton Bulak cellulose cotton for
(Malvaveae) the sound
explosives
made into pulp for
papermaking
Carbohydrate Derivatives – Gums & Mucilages
Scientific Name
Vernacular
Specimen English Name and Family Part Used (Origin) Major Constituents Uses
Name
(Botanical Origin)
polysaccharides and
their calcium,
Acaciae gummi, magnesium, and Emulsifier, stabilizer,
Arabic gum, Gum
Gummi mimosae, potassium salts, which
Tears of arabic, Gum acacia, nutritive, demulcent
Gummi arabicum, Stems and branches on hydrolysis yield
Acacia Gum mimosa, Gum
Gummi africanum arabinose, galactose, and thickener
Senegal
(Fabaceae) rhamnose, and
glucuronic acid.

Suspending/
Goat’s thorn Astragalus Bassorin, Cellulose, Emulsifying agent,
Gummy exudates (stem),
Tragacanth Gum dragon, Syrian tragacanthus Polyarabinan- adhesive,
Dried sap
tragacanth (Fabaceae) trigalactan-geddic acid demulcent,
stabilizer
Microbiology –
Culture Media

Pharmacy- Laxative,
gelling agent,
Agar-Agar, Agar Weed, Gelidium amansii, G. thickening agent,
Japanese/Chinese corneum, Gracilaria Agarose stabilizer, bulking
Agar Gulaman Entire Plant
Isinglass, Red Algae, (Gracilariaceae, Agaropectin agent,
Ceylon Moss Gelidiaceae)
Other uses –
thickening agent,
clarifying agent,
vegetarian gelatin
substitute
Gels, in the
manufacture of
Gelatin, Collagen
Collagen (which is capsule shells,
Animal Hydrolysate, Hydrolyzed
obtained from various Peptides and Proteins cosmetics, in weight
Gelatin Gelatin, Marine Collagen
animal products) loss, in the
Hydrolysate
manufacture of
paper
expectorant,
soothes and softens
tissues while
controlling bacterial
altheahexacosanyl
infections,
lactone, 2β-
confection, forms
Marshmallow root, hydroxycalamene
Halaman ng protective layer of
Sweet Weed, Althea, (altheacalamene) and
masmelow, mucilage on the
march mallow, white Althaea officinalis altheacoumarin
Althea Root Halamang Roots mucous linings of
mallow root, Mallards, (Malvaceae) glucoside, along with
Marsmalo the body, treat
Mortification Root the known
inflammation and
phytoconstituents
ulceration of
lauric acid, β-sitosterol
digestive system,
and lanosterol
used also externally
for localized
inflammation,
aphrodisiac, antacid
Pasau, Passau-
na-haba,
Saluyut, Ca, P, Fe, K, Fiber,
Jute, Jute Mallow, Jew’s
Saluyot, Corchorus olitorius Vit. A, thiamine, Antioxidant
Mallow Leaf Mallow, Red Jute, Tossa Leaves
Tagabang, (Malvaceae) ascorbic acid, Anti-inflammatory
Jute
Taka, riboflavin
Tugabang,
Yaka
Industrial-can be
spun into thread,
twine, or rope

Ulmus rubra Galactose, Rhamnose,


Elm Bark Slippery Elm, Red Elm Bark Pharmacological-
(Ulmaceae) Galacturonic acid
demulcent, tea,
nutritional
supplement,
abordifacient
Medicinal- Sore
throat, Cough,
Gastroesophogeal
reflux disease
(GERD), Crohn's
disease, ulcerative
colitis, and irritable
bowel syndrom
(IBS), Diarrhea,
Wounds, burns,
boils, psoriasis, and
other skin
conditions
(external)
Irish moss or Demulcent, Bulk Carageenan
Chondrus Chondrus crispus
Carrageenan moss Gulaman Whole plant (dried) laxative, thickener and hydrocolloids,
crispus (Gigartinaceae)
stabilizer Galactans
Soothe mucus Carrageenan,
Gigartina Gigartina mamilosa membranes and skin, mucilage, iodine,
mamillosa (Gigartinaceae) bulk laxative, bromine, iron, and
thickening agent vitamins A and B