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Engine Lubrication and


Section - I : Engine Lubrication

8.1 What is Lubrication ?

 The relative motion of one block sliding over another blocks is always resisted by a
force called force of friction.
 This force of friction always acts in the direction opposite to motion and it is tangential
to the surfaces at point of contact.
 Some energy will always be absorbed to overcome these frictional forces.
 In order to reduce this waste of energy, all efforts are required to be made to reduce the
frictional forces.
 The method of reducing the friction by introducing the substance called lubricant
between the mating parts is called lubrication.
8.1.1 Objectives of Lubrication :
 The piston-cylinder arrangements of an internal combustion engine are subjected to a
very large variation of temperatures and the maximum temperatures attained during the cycle
may be of the order of 2000C and higher. Such high temperatures will burn the lubricating
oil film and may form gummy materials which would cause the sticking of piston rings and
may also lead to engine seizure.
 Apart from high temperatures, engine parts are also subjected to heavy loads which
cause very high friction losses in case of lubrication failure with increased wear rate of
mating parts.
 Therefore, the lubrication requirements of I.C. engines are very demanding, therefore,
the lubrication system is so designed that adequate quantity of oil reaches to all
sliding/moving parts at all times and maintain sufficient thickness of oil film between them.
Therefore, the objectives of a lubrication system are :
1.Lubrication to prevent metal to metal contact between mating parts to reduce friction. It
reduces friction power loss and improves the power output and efficiency.
2.To reduce wear and tear of moving parts.
3.It provides cooling of component by carrying away the heat generated by friction.
4.Provides sealing action between cylinder walls and piston rings, thereby, it reduces leakage
of gases past the rings to crank case called blow by losses.
5.Provides protection to components of machine parts against corrosion.
6.Lubrication film acts as cushion and reduces vibrations.
7.Provides cleaning of various parts by carrying away the grit and other deposits.
8.1.2 Main Components of I.C. Engine to be Lubricated :
Following components which need lubrication are :
1.Piston and cylinder.
2.Main crankshaft bearings.
3.Small end and big end bearings of connecting rod.
4.Cam, cam shaft and its bearings.
5.Valve and valve operating mechanism.
6.Timing gears.
8.1.3 Types of Lubricants :
The lubricants are of three types viz.
(i)Solid lubricants e.g. graphite molybdenum, mica.
(ii)Semi-solid lubricants e.g. heavy greases.
(iii)Liquid lubricants e.g. mineral oils obtained by refining petroleum oil, vegetable oils obtained
from olive, linseed, caster and animal oils.
8.1.4 Properties of Lubricants :
Various important properties are :
1.Viscosity : It is a measure of the resistance to flow of an oil. It is measured in saybolt universal
seconds (SUS). It is also expressed in centistrokes, centipoise and Redwood seconds.
SUS represents the time required in seconds for a given quantity of oil to flow through a capillary
tube under specified test conditions.
Centistroke is a unit of kinematic viscosity and centipoise is the unit of absolute viscosity. These
are measured by viscometers.
2.Viscosity index : Viscosity of oil decreases with increase in temperature. This variation of
viscosity of an oil with change in temperature is measured by viscosity index (V.I.). Higher
V. I. of an oil indicates relatively smaller changes in its viscosity with temperature.
3. Cloud point : If an oil is cooled, it will start solidifying at some temperature. The temperature
at which the oil starts solidifying is called cloud point. The clouding or haziness of oil
interferes with the flow of the oil.
4.Pour point : It is the temperature just above which the oil sample will not flow under certain
prescribed conditions. This temperature depends on the wax content in the oil. Oil derived from
crudes having more paraffins tend to have higher pour point than derived from crudes having
more naphtenes. The property of pour point is important for operation of engines and
substances at low temperature condition. It is necessary to have at least 10C differential
between the pour point of oil and the temperature of operation of the system.
5.Flash point and fire point : The temperature at which the vapour of an oil flash when subjected
to a naked flame is known as flash point. Fire point is the temperature at which the oil, it once
lit with flame, will burnt steadily at least for 5 seconds. Fire point temperature is usually 10C
to 12C higher than flash point temperature. Flash and fire points of an oil must be high to have
safety from fire hazards.
6.Specific gravity : It varies between 0.85 to 0.96. Paraffin base oils have lower specific gravity
compared to naphthenic based oils.
7.Acidity : Oil must have low acidity.
8.Carbon residue : It is the quantity of carboneous residue which remains after evaporation of a
sample oil under specified conditions.
9Oiliness : It is the property of oil to cling to the metal surface by molecular action and then to
provide a very thin film under lubrication condition. This property affects starting of the
8.2 Requirement of an Ideal Lubricant :
Based on the properties discussed, we can enumerate the requirement of an ideal lubricant
as follows :
(1)It should maintain the required oil film on the cylinder walls to prevent excessive wear of cylinder
liners, pistons and rings.
(2)Leave no carbon residue on burning.
(3)Prevent wear of bearings.
(4)Cleanse the interior of the engine.
(5)Have low pour point to avoid starting problems and flow of lubricant at low temperatures to the
oil pump.
(6)It should not form an emulsion with water.
(7)It should be free from dirt and water.
(8)Should not contain sulphur.
(9)Have low consumption rate.
(10)Should have very less tendency to oxidation.
(11)Low cost.
(12)High film strength to prevent seizure when under heavy load.
8.3 Additives of a Lubricant :
Additives are the compound added to lubricant oils to promote and improve their desired
properties. Some of the additives are :
1.Viscosity index improvers are the additives which improves the viscosity to work over wide range
of temperatures.
2.Anti-oxidants are the additives which reduces the oxidation of lubricating oils.
3.Antiwear and detergent are the additives which serve to cleanse and prevent sticking of piston
Some of the additives used for lubricating oils are given below :

8.4 Types of Lubrication System for I.C. Engines :

Following are the various types of lubrication system usually used in I.C. engines :
1.Mist or charge lubrication system.
2. Wet sump lubrication system.
It is further classified as :
(i)Splash system.
(ii)Splash and pressure system.
(iii)Fully pressure feed system.
3. Dry sump lubrication system.
8.5 Mist or Charge Lubrication System :
 This system is employed for two stroke petrol engines.
 In this system the petrol and lubricating oil are previously mixed in the fuel tank from
where it is supplied to the carburettor.
 The mixture of fuel and air from carburettor finds its way to all working parts of engine
like cylinder, piston, piston rings, main and connecting rod bearings via the crank case.
 The proportion of oil to petrol varies a great deal on the engine design speed and power,
usually, the oil is mixed in proportion of 20 cc to 50 cc to a litre of petrol.
 Most of the lubricating oil in the cylinder burns due to high temperatures existing in the
cylinder, due to this the carbon deposits are formed on various parts of the engine cylinder.
 Too much use of oil than recommended quantity will invariably foul the spark plug and
the use of less oil will lead to excessive wear. Therefore, it is essential to use the mixture of
oil and petrol as recommended by the manufacturers.
 If the engine has its main crankshaft bearings as plain bearings instead of ball or roller
bearings, then the greasers or separate oil cups are often provided in addition to mixing oil
with petrol.
 Also, the separate lubrication is provided to those parts of the engine where the mixture
of oil and petrol cannot reach or in cases it gives unsatisfactory lubrication.

Advantages of the system :

1.It is economical and cheap.

2.It needs no oil pump, filters and piping to carry lubricating oil.
3.Quantity of oil is automatically regulated with load and speed of the engine.
4.The probability of lubrication failures are the least.

Disadvantages of the system :

1.It gives increased carbon deposits due to burning of oil film.

2.Needs increased maintenance due to formation of carbon deposits.
3.It can give spark plug fouling due to carbon deposits.
4.Oil consumption is high, rather the engine is usually over-oiled.
5.During long duration of no load running of engine the throttle valve is in almost closed position.
Since the mixture of oil and petrol reaching is very small, the engine mating parts may not get
adequate lubricating oil.
8.6 Wet Sump Lubrication System :
 In the wet sump lubrication system the bottom of the crankcase contains an oil pan
called sump.
 The sump which has the lubricating oil serves as a reservoir to supply lubricating oil to
various parts of the I.C. engine with the help of an oil pump.
 After lubricating the parts of the engine, the oil flows back to sump by gravity. The oil
is again recirculated by the lubricating oil pump to various parts.
 Various types of wet sump systems are explained below.
8.6.1 Splash Lubrication System : (GTU - May 2016)
 The system is suitable for small capacity four stroke engines with moderate speed and
bearings loads.
 The system is schematically represented in Fig. 8.6.1 with only one connecting rod with
its scoop dipping into troughs.
 It consists of a sump containing lubricating oil.
 The oil from the sump through filters (to remove dirt, small condaminants) is supplied
to the troughs with the help of an oil pump.
 The troughs are located just below the lower portion of connecting rod. In this case the
big end bearings of the connecting rod are provided with scoops which dip in troughs
containing oil and through the holes in the caps of the connecting rod, the oil reaches to big
end bearings.
 When the scoop of the connecting rod dips in oil, it splashes the oil and reaches to the
lower portion of the cylinder walls, cam shaft and other parts of the engine requiring
 Excess of lubricating oil falls back into the sump.
 The level of oil in troughs is always maintained with the help of oil pump.
 Any failure of not maintaining the oil level in troughs will deprive the lubrication of
engine parts which may occur either due to failure of oil pump or other reasons like the
movement of vehicle on downward slope. For this reason the splash system is never
considered as positive lubrication system.
Fig. 8.6.1 : Splash system

8.6.2 Splash and Pressure Feed System :

 The splash and pressure feed system is shown in Fig. 8.6.2.
 Splash system is not sufficient in case of bearing loads are high. For this reason, the
lubricating oil under pressure is supplied by the oil pump to main and crankshaft bearings as
shown in Fig. 8.6.2.
 The oil pump also supplies oil under pressure to pipes which directs a stream of oil
against the dippers on the connecting rod bearing cups.
 Other parts of the engine are lubricated by splash of oil thrown up by the dippers.
Fig. 8.6.2 : Splash and pressure feed system
8.6.3 Fully Pressure Feed System :
 This system is suitable for all types of modern engines including heavy duty engines.
The schematic diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 8.6.3.
 In this method the lubricating oil is fed to various parts under pressure ranging from 2
to 4 bar pressure with the help of an oil pump driven by the crankshaft of the engine.
 The oil from the sump is drawn by the pump through filters and it is forced to the main
bearings and the caps of other bearings through the branches of a distributor header.
 A pressure relief valve (not shown) is provided on the delivery side of the pump to
return the excess oil to the sump if the pressure exceeds the predetermined value.
 Drilled passages (shown by dotted lines) help to provide lubricating oil from the main
bearing to the crank pin and it lubricates the big end bearings.
 The oil from the big end bearing is supplied to small end bearings through the drilled
passages in the connecting rod.
 The lubrication of cylinder walls and the rocker arms is done by the oil sprays thrown
by the crankshaft and the connecting rod.

Fig. 8.6.3 : Fully pressure feed system

8.7 Dry Sump Lubrication System :8.7.1 Difference between Wet Sump and Dry Sump
Lubrication Systems :
Dry sump system is similar to wet sump method except that in this case the lubricating
oil is maintained in a separate tank kept behind the radiator.
 The oil is kept cool because of air blast thrown on the radiator.
 The oil from the tank is supplied by the oil pump under a pressure of 3 - 8 bar to various
parts of the engine through a distributor header covering the entire cylinder block.
 Since the temperature rise of lubricating oil in case of dry sump method is less than the
wet sump method due to cooling, this system permits the use of thinner oil compared to wet
sump method.
 This is an added advantage over wet sump method since the thinner oils reduce
the viscous friction loads on the engine.
8.7.2 Working of Dry Sump System :
 The general arrangement of dry-sump lubrication system is shown in Fig. 8.7.1.

Fig. 8.7.1 : Dry sump lubrication system

 In this system the oil contained in the sump is drawn by the pump through the strainer.
 This oil after passing through a filter is supplied to supply tank kept outside the cylinder
 The function of the filter is to remove from oil the abrasive particles upto
10 to 15 microns that causes the wear of working surfaces and also to prevent sludge deposits
to the bearings.
 Oil from storage tank is pumped to the engine cylinder and bearings through a oil
 The system uses a pressure relief valve to prevent excessive pressure build up after a
cold start of the engine.
8.8 Oil Pump :
 The function of an oil pump is to circulate the lubricant under pressure to various parts
of the engine. It is driven by a gear mounted on the cam shaft.
 A gear type of lubricating pump is shown in Fig. 8.8.1.
 It is most commonly used for pressure lubrication in automobile engines.
 It consists of two meshing spur gears of equal size in a housing.
 One of the gear is driven by the engine crankshaft and the other gear is driven by it.
Lubricating oil which enters the pump inlet is carried between the spaces of the gear teeth
and pump body and delivers this oil under pressure to the engine.
 The pressure developed depends on the speed of the gears.
Fig. 8.8.1 : Gear type lubricating pump
 Due to close fit between the gears and its housing, the lubricating oil cannot move back
to its inlet side.
 In order to overcome the excessive pressure developed by the high speed engine,
a pressure relief valve is provided.
 During the excessive pressure build up, the valve is operated and the oil is by-passed
into the pump inlet.
 Though this pump is simple in construction and compact, the wear and tear over a long
periods will affect the delivery pressures of oil. To overcome this difficulty, helical gear
pump are used.
8.9 Types of Lubricants in Use :
 There are three types of lubricants used namely solid, semi-solid andliquid lubricants.
 The selection of the type of lubricants to be used depends upon the nature of work,
temperatures encountered and the area to be lubricated.
8.9.1 Solid Lubricants :
 Solid lubricants are used when the film lubrication is not possible and the mating parts
are subjected to high pressures and they run at low speeds.
 Commonly used solid lubricants are graphite, soap stone, molybdenum and milk stones.
These lubricants are powdered very finely and mixed with oil or water before they are put to
 These lubricants will fill up the pores/gaps of the surfaces and make them frictionless.
8.9.2 Semi-solid Lubricants :
 These lubricants are used where the retention of liquid lubricants is not possible and the
mating parts are subjected to very high pressures and temperatures e.g. the engine suspension
system, certain type of bearings exposed to atmosphere etc.
 These are basically greases made by mixing the lubricating oils with thickening agents
e.g. calcium grease, soda grease, aluminium grease etc.
8.9.3 Liquid Lubricants :
 These lubricants are used for lubrication of various parts of the engines. They are
classified as animal oils, vegetable oils and mineral oils.
 Animal oils are obtained from animal fats. The example of animal oils used as
lubricants are whale oil, tallow oil, lard oil etc. However, the use of these oil is avoided since
these gets oxidized and becomes gummy after use.
 Vegetable oils which can be used as lubricants are castor, linseed, olive and palm oils.
However, castor oil only produces good results since it has high viscosity and film strength
and its drawback is that it is oxidised and becomes gummy after use.
 Mineral oils are commonly used as lubricants for engine lubrication since they can
meet the required working conditions of high pressures and temperatures and speeds and can
meet the required properties of a good lubricant.
These are obtained from petroleum distillation. These lubricants are the mixture of
paraffins, naphthalene and hydro-carbons. These oils display wide range of viscosity.
These are oily and free from acids, therefore, these lubricants do not attack the working
components of the engine.
Some amount of vegetable oils is generally added to these lubricants in order to increase
their cleansing properties.
8.10 Classification of Lubricating Oils (SAE Rating) :
The classification of lubricating oils is normally based on their viscosity. The SAE
(Society of Automotive Engineers) method of assigning the numbers for gradation of oil is
commonly used. These are called mono grade oils.
Viscosity of an oil is measure of its resistance to flow. It has the units of Saybolt Universal
Seconds (SUS) which is the time required in seconds for a given quantity of oil to flow through
a capillary tube under specified test conditions.
Viscosity is also expressed in centipoise which is the unit for absolute viscosity.
Viscosity is usually expressed at two temperatures – 18C and 99C, these temperatures
are used as reference temperatures.
SAE has assigned a number to oils whose viscosity falls in certain range between the
reference temperatures of – 18C and 99C.
Table 8.10.1 : SAE classification of lubricating oils
Table 8.10.1 gives the classification of lubricating oils according to SAE. Meaning of
various numbers are as follows :
1.SAE 5 W, 10 W and 20 W grades are defined in terms of viscosity at – 18C.
These oils render starting of engine in cold weather easy.
2.SAE 20, 30, 40 and 50 grades are defined in terms of range of viscosity at 99C.
They represent the oils which work satisfactorily in normal and hot weather conditions.
It should be noted the SAE numbers are merely used for classification of lubricating oils
according to viscosity but they do not consider the factors like stability, oiliness etc.
8.10.1 Multigrade Oils :
With the advent of additives for viscosity index improvers, it is possible to develop an
oil with more than one viscosity at different temperatures.
For example an oil SAE 10 W/30 will have a viscosity equal to that of SAE 10 W at
–18C and a viscosity equal to that of SAE 30 grade at 99C, such type of oils are
called multigrade oils.
Advantages of multigrade oils are :

1.Provides ease of starting and short warming period, hence, extends battery life.
2.It caters for wider change of ambient temperatures.
3.Reduces oil consumption.
4.Reduces carbon deposits in combustion charge, therefore, decarbonization of engine is prolonged.
5.Protect the engine parts from rust, corrosion and wear due to their excellent property of oxidation
8.10.2 Service Rating of Lubricating Oils :
SAE rating is merely based on viscosity of oil and not quality of oil. Engine performance
can be improved by use of additives in lubricating oil.
Therefore, American Petroleum Institute (API) classified the oils based on their property
into three classes as Regular type, Premium type and Heavy Duty type.
Generally, regular type were straight mineral oils, premier type contained oxidation
inhibitors and heavy duty type oils contained oxidation inhibitors with detergent additives.
API further classified the oils for petrol (spark ignition engine with ‘S’ series) engine and
for diesel (Compression ignition engine with ‘C’ series) engines.
Petrol engine oils have 5 service ratings as SA, SB, SC, SD and SE, while, the diesel
engines have 4 service ratings as CA, CB, CC and CD.
Ratings A is for light duty service and severity of service increasing towards the rating
upto E.
Series CA and CB is for naturally aspirated diesel engines CC and CD is for supercharged
8.10.3 Lubricating Oils for Two Stroke Engines :
For two stroke engines using oil mixed petrol, the oil companies are marketing two types
of oils known as 2T oils meeting API TA specification and super 2T oil meeting API TC
specifications. API TA series oils are designed to minimise spark plug fouling, minimise
carbon deposits and maximum protection against corrosion. While API TC series oils have
additives which produce low ash contents.
Super 2T oil to API TC series also reduces the smoke and hydrocarbon emissions.
Government has decided to ban the lubricating oils of API TA series for two wheelers.

Section - II : Engine Cooling

8.11 Necessity of Cooling :

In case of I.C. engines, the energy input to the engine cylinder is by way of burning the
fuel with air. The percentage utilisation of this heat energy supplied to the engine is as
follows :
(i)30 % to 37 % of energy is used for conversion into useful work.
(ii)30 % to 35 % of energy is carried away by exhaust gases, depending upon the type of engine used.
(iii)10 % to 12 % of energy is lost by way of radiation, convection and conduction.
(iv)22 % to 30 % of energy of combustion flows from gases to cylinder walls and raises its
The heat energy which flows from gases to cylinder walls, amounting to 22 to 30 %, will
raise the temperature of piston and cylinder walls.
If no cooling is provided, the average temperature attained by cylinder and piston will
correspond to gas temperatures in the range of 1000C to 1500C which will cause the
overheating of engine components.
Though these high temperatures will give higher thermal efficiency and reduced friction
losses, however, such high temperature will damage the certain vital parts of the engine due to
their mechanical expansion and distortion caused by thermal stresses. Also, the cylinder
lubrication will be impossible at these high temperatures.
Therefore, it becomes necessary to provide cooling system to maintain the temperatures
within certain limits to obtain the maximum performance from the engine.
8.11.1 Effects of Overheating :
The high temperatures of the cylinder obtained are objectionable for the following
1.High temperatures would result in reduction in strength of various engine components such as
piston, cylinder head etc. The allowable temperature limit of the engine is about 250C.
2.The lubricating oil film will not be maintained at high temperatures beyond 200C. In actual
practice the oil will burn causing the wear and sticking of piston rings. The lubrication failure
may lead to engine seizure.
3.Excessive heating may cause preignition which may ultimately lead to loss of power, low efficiency
and detonation in case of S.I. engines.
4.Uneven expansion of piston in cylinder may result in seizure of piston.
From above practical considerations it is clear that cooling of engine cylinder is
necessary to limit the cylinder average temperature in the range of 160C to 250C.
This is only possible if the heat received by the cylinder walls from the gases is
transferred at the same rate from the cylinder walls to the cooling medium.
The temperature of cooling medium as water at exit should not be below 40C since at
low temperatures the engine starting would be difficult and the rate of corrosion of metals
would be high.
The exit temperature of water is not allowed to exceed 50C in case of static engines,
60–70C in case of medium sized engines, however, in case of automobile engines it may be
as high as 80 – 85C.
8.11.2 Effects of Overcooling :
Overcooling of the engine is also undesirable for its safe and smooth running. Various
effects of overcooling the engine are :
1.Low temperatures will cause starting problems of the engine since sufficient amount of fuel will
not be varpourised.
2.Sulphur content in fuel will form SO3 on combustion which combines with H2O vapour to form
H2SO4. This sulphuric acid condenses if cooled below its dew point temperature of 70C. It will
cause the corrosion of cylinder walls. Therefore, cylinder liner temperatures should not fall
below 70C to avoid formation of H2SO4.
3.Unvapourised fuel at low temperatures may leak past the piston rings. It causes crank case dilution.
It also affects the loss of power and fuel economy.
4.At low temperatures, the viscosity of lubricating oil increases. Therefore, it will increase the
frictional power.
8.11.3 Functions of Cooling System :
The function of cooling system are :
1.To absorb and dissipate heat to maintain average temperatures in the range of 160C to 250C for
maximum power, smooth running and operation of the engine.
2.To prevent the damage of vital engine components.
8.12 Types of Cooling System :
The cooling system for I.C. engines can broadly be classified as follows :
1.Direct cooling or air cooling in which heat from cylinder walls is directly transferred to
surrounding air.
2. Water cooling or indirect cooling in which the heat from cylinder walls is transferred to
surrounding air through water.
8.13 Air Cooling :
 Air cooling is usually employed for small capacity engines like scooters, motor cycles
or in aircraft applications where the weight of the system is main criteria or in some cases of
industrial applications.
 The air cooling is achieved by forcing the air over the cylinder and cylinder head.
 The heat transfer rates from the cylinder to air depend upon the velocity of air relative
to metal surfaces and the heat transfer coefficient between metal and air.
 Since the heat transfer coefficients are relatively low, the cylinder wall temperatures
achieved are higher for air cooled engines compared to water cooled engines.
 Since the wall temperatures are needed to be kept upto a limit of 250C for efficient
operation of the engines, it is necessary to increase the heat transfer rates either by increasing
the relative velocity of air or the surface area of metal exposed to surroundings or by both
methods as shown in Fig. 8.13.1(i).
 In case of two wheelers and aircrafts, the high air velocities resulting from their motion
is taken to advantage while in case of multicylinder air cooled engines used for cars the air
velocities are increased with the help of a fan driven by the engine crank-shaft.
8.13.1 Cooling Fins :
 In order to increase the surface area the fins are provided on metal surfaces exposed to
cooling air.
 Cooling fins are either cast integral with cylinder and cylinder head or they may be
fixed separately with the cylinder block.
 The various types of cooling fins are shown in Fig. 8.13.1(ii).
 The length, spacing and thickness of the fins are represented by l, s and t respectively.
 The heat transfer capacity of the system depends upon the temperature difference
between cylinder and the cross-section of the fin and its length.
 The heat is gradually dissipated from the root of the fin upto its tipand to the
surroundings air, due to this a temperature gradient exists along its length from the root to
the tip.
 At the tip of the fin the heat transfer capacity becomes minimum due to least
temperature difference, and hence it is less efficient. Therefore, the thickness at the tip can
be reduced due to decrease quantity of heat flowing at this point.
 It is found that the rectangular fins are less efficient and heavier compared to trapezoidal
or triangular fins.

(i) Cylinder with cast fins (ii) Shape of fins

Fig. 8.13.1 : Types of fins

 The heat transfer rates can be increased by increasing the surface area i.e. by increasing
the number of fins. However, the increased number of fins will reduce the spacing between
them which results into decreased heat transfer rates due to interference of boundary layer.
 A spacing of 2.5 to 5 mm is usually kept for the fins of length 25 to 50 mm.
8.13.2 Baffles :
 The heat transfer rates from cylinder walls can also be increased considerably by
providing baffles which forces the air through the spacing between fins at high velocity.

Fig. 8.13.2 : Baffles

 The best heat transfer rates are obtained with negligible kinetic energy at entrance and
exit of air.
 The entry of air to baffles is rounded to keep the energy loss at entrance to minimum.
Various types of baffles are shown in Fig. 8.13.2(a), (b) and (c).
 The normal baffles are used for S.I. engines. In this type of baffles the kinetic energy
of air leaving the baffles is high.
 In order to reduce the exit K.E., the exit baffles are used in which the kinetic energy of
air is converted into pressure energy during the flow of air in exit pipe. This also reduces the
pressure losses. Short baffles are used for C.I. engine shown in Fig. 8.13.2(c).
8.13.3 Advantages of Air Cooling System :
1.It is light in weight and simple in design due to absence of water jackets, radiator, coolant and
piping connections.
2.It is almost maintenance free.
3.No antifreeze solution is required and can operate at low temperatures.
4.No problem of coolant leakage, corrosion and clogging of radiators etc.
5.The system is cheap.
6.Installation is easy.
8.13.4 Disadvantages and Limitations of Air Cooling System :
1. Heat transfer rates are less due to low heat transfer coefficient of air. Therefore, this system can
only be used for low capacity engines.
2.Cooling is not uniform. It may cause the distortion of cylinder.
3. Cylinder wall temperatures are high.
4.If fan is used to improve heat transfer rates to lower the cylinder wall temperatures, 5 to 10 % of
power is lost to run the fan.
5.Specific fuel consumption is high.
6.System is noisy.
7.It limits the use of compression ratio.
8.It's use is limited to scooters and motor cycles due to exposure of cylinder to air stream.
8.14 Water Cooling :
 This type of cooling is employed for medium and large sized engines and in case of
 The system consists of a water jacket enclosing the cylinder and cylinder head.
 The water jacket is connected to a heat exchanger or to a radiator (in case of
automobile engines).
 The water from radiator flows to the water jacket where it picks up heat from cylinder
walls and returns to the radiator.
 The hot water reaching to radiator is cooled by transferring heat to surrounding air and
the cooled water is again circulated to the engine water jackets.
8.14.1 Types of Water Cooling Systems :
Following are the types of water cooling system :
(i)Thermo-syphon cooling
(ii)Pump assisted thermo-syphon cooling
(iii)Cooling with thermostatic regulator
(iv)Pressurized water cooling
(v)Evaporative cooling
8.14.2 Thermo-Syphon Cooling :
 Fig. 8.14.1 shows the schematic arrangement of an engine cooled on thermo-syphon
 The system is so designed that the water may circulate naturally because of the density
difference of hot water and cold water.
Fig. 8.14.1 : Thermo-syphon cooling

 The system consists of a radiator having upper and lower tanks connected to upper and
lower water jackets of the cylinder respectively through pipes.
 The hot water in the jacket rises and flows into the upper tank due to lower density
compared to cold water and the cold water from radiator flows to lower water jacket to
replace the hot water.
 From upper tank the water travels down the radiator tubes across which the cool air
passes drawn by the fan driven by the engine crankshaft.
 In order to increase the rate of heat transfer, the surface area of the radiator exposed to
the air blast is provided with fins.
System is suitable for low capacity engines only.

Drawbacks of the thermo-syphon system :

1.Radiator needs to be kept above engine cylinder level for flow of water to the engine under gravity
for its efficient functioning.
2.Circulation of water is established only when engine becomes hot.
3.Not suitable for heavy duty engines where very high heat transfer rates are required.
4.Water level in radiator should be kept higher than delivery pipe, otherwise, circulation of water
may cease causing excessive temperature rise of cooling water with steam formation. It causes
formation of steam pockets, unequal heat flow and overheating of engine components.
5.Temperature of cooling water should not be allowed to exceed beyond 80C in this system.
8.14.3 Pump Assisted Thermo-Syphon Cooling (Forced Circulation Method) :
 The drawbacks encountered with thermo-syphon system are overcome by introducing
a pump of centrifugal type to assist the water circulation in the water jackets.
 The pump is belt driven by the engine. Introduction of pump ensures the positive
circulation of water under all operating conditions. (Refer Fig. 8.14.2)

Fig. 8.14.2 : Forced circulation method

 Since the cooling of the engine is independent of temperature difference of hot and cold
water, it may result into over cooling of the engine which affects the thermal efficiency of
the engine and its working. This is the disadvantage by working with this type of system.
8.14.4 Cooling with Thermostatic Regulator : (GTU - May 2016)
 In case of pump circulation method the operation of the pump is governed by starting
and stopping of the engine.
 As the pump starts, it will start circulating the cold water to water jackets surrounding
the cylinder and it absorbs heat at a faster rate from cylinder walls due to large temperature
differential. As a result the engine takes longer time to warm up to the desired level of
temperature particularly in cold weather. To overcome this difficulty a thermostat is
incorporated in the discharge line of the block to the radiator.

Thermostat :

 A thermostat is shown in Fig. 8.14.3. It consists of bellows usually made of copper or

bronze and sealed at both ends.
 The bellows are filled partially by a volatile liquid having low boiling point like ether.
 When the engine is started, the temperature of water is low, the valve is closed and
prevents the flow of water to the radiator. As such the water in the cylinder water jackets is
available for absorbing heat from the cylinder walls.
 The engine would take less time to warm up. However, when the temperature of water
exceeds the boiling point of the volatile liquid filled in bellows due to heating by jacketed
water, the bellows will expand in axial direction due to expansion of liquid in bellows.
 The expansion of bellows will allow the valve to lift from its seat gradually and allows
the water to flow thereby establishing the circulation of cooling water into the system.

Fig. 8.14.3 : Thermostat

 Fig. 8.14.4 shows the schematic diagram of a thermo-syphon system of water

cooling with pump and a thermostat.
 The cold water from lower tank of radiator is pumped to water jackets of the cylinder
of the engine.
 The heated water from cylinder is passed to upper tank of the radiator with a thermostat
installed in between.
 The thermostat controls the temperature of water as explained above.
 Hot water flows down the radiator tubes under gravity to lower tank. During its flow it
transfers heat to incoming air drawn by the fan mounted on the engine and driven by belt.
 Radiator tubes are made of copper and brass because of their high thermal conductivity.
Fig. 8.14.4 : Thermo-syphon system with pump and thermostat

8.14.5 Pressurized Water Cooling :

 It is well known that the boiling temperature of water increases with the increase in
pressure. This fact is used to cool the heavy duty engines and the method is known as
pressurized water cooling.
 This system allows to keep the temperature of water above 100C and it results into
satisfactory operation of engine and in improved thermal efficiency.
 The schematic diagram of pressurized water cooling is shown in Fig. 8.14.5. The
pressure in the system is built up by means of special type of radiator cap in the range of 1.5
to 2 bar pressure.
 As the pressure is built up, the volume of water increases with the increase in
temperature and it allows the temperature to exceed beyond 100C without formation of
steam due to existing high pressure in the system.
 If the pressure in the radiator falls below the atmospheric pressure due to cooling of
water when the engine is stopped, the radiator tubes will cripple and the radiator will be
 To avoid the formation of vacuum, an additional vacuum valve is provided.
 When the pressure in the radiator falls below atmospheric pressure, the air from
surroundings enter through a side valve and prevents the drop of pressure below atmospheric
in the radiator.
Fig. 8.14.5 : Radiator cap for pressure cooling
 The advantage of pressurized water cooling is that the engine can run more efficiently
with high coolant temperatures and without the loss of water vapours and antifreeze mixture
to surroundings.
8.14.6 Evaporative Cooling : (Refer Fig. 8.14.6)
 This type of cooling system is used for industrial engine applications.
 The cooling water in this system is allowed to be heated upto 100C with formation of
 During the process of steam formation it also absorbs latent heat of vaporisation apart
from its sensible heat and due to this fact the requirement of cooling water for this type of
system is considerably reduced.

Fig. 8.14.6 : Evaporative cooling

 The steam formed in the cooling circuit is flashed off to a separate heat exchanger where
it is condensed. The same condensate is sent to the cooling system as make up water.
 This cooling system is not very efficient.
8.15 Comparison of Air Cooling and Water Cooling Methods :
Their relative merits and demerits are as follows :
8.15.1 Advantages of Air Cooling System :
(i)There is no danger from water freezing at low temperatures.
(ii)Absence of radiator minimises the problem of maintenance.
(iii)Engine warms up quickly unlike water cooled engines.
(iv)No problem of scaling of water in jackets.
(v)Specific fuel consumption is lower than that of water cooled engines, hence thermal efficiency is
(vi)The design of engine becomes easier as no water jacket is required.
(vii)The weight to power ratio is less compared to water cooled engines.
(viii)Installation of engine is easier.
(ix)Gives better performance at high altitudes and in very cold atmospheres.
8.15.2 Disadvantages of Air Cooling System :
(i)Air cooling is not sufficient for high capacity engines.
(ii)Regulation of cylinder temperatures with fins are not possible.
(iii)Fins amplify the engine noise, therefore, air cooled engines are more noiser than water cooled
(iv)Volumetric efficiency of engine is lower.
8.15.3 Advantages of Water Cooling :
(i)System design is compact with appreciably lower front area.
(ii)Since the rate of heat transfer are high, the system is very useful for heavy duty diesel engines.
(iii)More even cooling is achieved.
(iv)Volumetric efficiency of the engine is high.
(v)Unlike air cooled engines which have to be located at the front of the vehicle to take advantage of
relative motion of air for cooling, the water cooled engines can be installed anywhere in the
8.15.4 Disadvantages of Water Cooling :
(i)The requirement of radiator, pump and other connections increases the weight of the engine.
(ii)System fails if adequate water is not circulated. It may damage engine parts.
(iii)Engine performance is related to climatic conditions.
(iv)Starting of engine is difficult in cold weather conditions and at high altitudes.
(v)Scale formation in water jackets reduces heat transfer rates and cooling is affected.
(vi)Cost and maintenance of system is high.
(vii)Specific fuel consumption is high.
8.15.5 Comparison Between Air Cooling and Water Cooling :
8.16 Additives :
 In case of marine engines the water is not suitable due to its low boiling point and high
freezing point.
 The water is also not suitable for high altitude applications since the water freezes at
0C temperatures. To overcome these difficulties the additives are used to improve the
operation of engine under all conditions.
 Ethelene glycol is a suitable additive. It is used with water in proportion of 30% of
ethelene glycol and 70% of water under pressure. It can give operating temperatures as
coolant upto 150C and the freezing point of this mixture is about – 15C. Apart from this,
the high operating temperatures allows to reduce the size of radiator.
 The other advantage of using additives is that it gives better and uniform cooling,
permits the use of high compression ratios and results in better thermal efficiency.
 Other antifreeze solutions used for cold starting are wood alcohol, denatured alcohol,
calcium and magnesium chlorides, glycerine and propylene glycol.

Section - I : Engine Lubrication

 The method of reducing friction by introducing a substance calledlubricant between

mating parts is called lubrication.
 Objective of lubrication are to prevent metal to metal contact between mating parts,
reduce wear and tear, provide sealing between piston rings and cylinder walls, avoid
corrosion and reduce vibrations.
 Components of I.C. engines to be lubricated are piston and cylinder, small and big
end bearings, main crank shaft bearing, camshaft and its bearings and valve mechanism.
 Types of lubricants are solid lubricant, semi-liquid lubricants and liquid lubricants.
 Requirement of an ideal lubricant are : form an oil film between mating parts, leave
no carbon residue on burning, reduce wear and tear, cleanse, should not have low sulphur,
low cost and low tendency to oxidation.
 Additives are compounds added to lubricating oils to promote the desired properties of
a lubricant.
 Types of lubrication system are :
1.Mist lubrication system
2.Wet sump lubrication system
(i)Splash system
(ii)Splash and pressure feed system
(iii)Fully pressure feed system
3.Dry sump lubrication system
 Oil pump is needed to circulate the lubricant under pressure to various parts of the
 Some of the lubricants in use are :
(a)Solid lubricants : graphite, soap stone, molybdenum and milk stones.
(b)Semi-solid lubricants : calcium grease, soda grease, aluminium grease.
(c)Liquid lubricants :
(i)Animal oils - whale oil, tallow oil, lard oil etc.
(ii)Vegetable oils - castor, linseed, olive and palm oils.
(iii)Mineral oils.
 Classification of oils is normally based on viscosity of oil.
SAE has assigned 5 W/10 W/5 W grades which gives the increasing range of viscosity at –
18C. These oils render starting of engine in cold weather easy. SAE 20/30/40/50 grades are
defined in terms of increasing viscosity at 99C. These oil work satisfactorily in normal and
hot weather.
 Multigrade oils use additives for viscosity index improvers which can work with more
than one viscosity at different temperatures e.g. SAE 10 W/30.
 Service rating of oils for petrol engines is SA, SB, SC, SD and SE and for diesel
engines it is CA, CB, CC and CD.Rating A is for light duty services and severity of services
increases from A to E.
 Lubricating oils for two stroke engines have specifications as API TA (2T oil) and
API TC (Super 2T oil) series.

Section - II : Engine Cooling

 Out of the total energy input of the fuel, only 30 to 37% is converted into useful work.
Remainder of it carried away by cooling medium (22 to 30%), in the exhaust gases
(30-35%) and about 12% is lost by way of radiation, conduction and convection.
 If no cooling is provided, the high temperatures existing in the combustion chamber
leads to lubrication failure, distortion of parts due to thermal stresses, pre-ignition, power
loss, efficiency loss and detonation.
 Basic cooling systems are of two types :
(a) Direct or air cooling
(b) Indirect or water cooling
 Air cooling is used for small capacity and aircraft engines due to weight criteria. Air is
forced over the cylinder and to increase the heat transfer rates, fins are provided.
 Types of water cooling used for medium and high capacity engines :
(i)Thermo-syphon cooling
(ii) Pump assisted thermo-syphon cooling
(iii)Cooling with thermostatic regulator
(iv)Pressurized water cooling.
(v)Evaporative cooling.
 The basic system of thermo-syphon water cooling consists of a radiator with large
number of fins through which the water is circulated to water jackets of the cylinder for
cooling. Air is circulated over the radiator by a fan.
 In pump assisted thermo-syphon cooling, in addition to above, a pump is used for
circulation of water.
 An additional thermostat is provided in the discharge line of cylinder block of pump
assisted thermo-syphon system calledcooling with thermostatic regulator.
 It allows warm up of engine in a shorter duration of time.
 Pressurized water cooling system works under pressure in the range of 1.5 to 2 bar
and allows cooling water temperature to exceed beyond 100C. It improves engine
 Evaporative cooling is used for industrial engine applications in which the steam
formation of cooling water is allowed. Steam formed is condensed in a condenser and its
condensate is recirculated into cooling system.
 Additives are used for marine and high altitude applications e.g. 30% of ethelene glycol
is used as additive with 70% water.
[ Note : For answers refer the section numbers indicated in bracket. ]

Section I : Engine Lubrication

Theory :

Q. 1What do you understand by lubrication ? Why it is needed ? Enumerate the various components of I.C.
engine needed to be lubricated.[Sections 8.1, 8.1.1 and 8.1.2]

Q. 2Write short note on functions of lubricating systems. [Section 8.1.1]

Q. 3Discuss the various requirements of an ideal lubricant. [Section 8.2]

Q. 4What are additives used in lubrication system ? Name few of them.[Section 8.3]

Q. 5Write a short note on lubrication system used in heavy diesel engines.[Section 8.6.3]

Q. 6Differentiate between wet sump lubrication and dry sump lubrication.[Section 8.7.1]

Q. 7Enlist the function of lubrication system used in I.C. engines and explain any one type of lubrication system
used in I.C. Engines. [Sections 8.1.1 and 8.7]

Q. 8What are the methods employed for lubrication of I.C. engines ? Discuss the method used for lubrication
of 2-stroke petrol engines. Enumerate its advantages and disadvantages. [Sections 8.4 and 8.5]

Q. 9Discuss the splash system of lubrication for 4-stroke engines with a neat sketch. Why this system is not
considered as positive lubrication system ? [Section 8.6.1]

Q. 10Discuss the wet sump method of lubrication for I.C. engines. [Section 8.6]

Q. 11Give a neat sketch of pressure lubrication system and explain its working.[Section 8.6.3]
Section II : Engine Cooling

Q. 12What is the necessity for cooling of I. C. engines ? Describe a water cooling system of an automobile
engine. [Sections 8.11 and 8.14]

Q. 13Why cooling is required in I. C. engines ? What would happen if the engine is overcooled ? [Sections
8.11 and 8.11.2]

Q. 14Write short note on various methods used for water circulation around the engine cylinder and cylinder
head for water cooling system.[Sections 8.12 and 8.14.1]

Q. 15Discuss the working of aircooled engines. What are fins ? Discuss the shape and sizes of fins and their
relative merits ? [Sections 8.13 and 8.13.1]

Q. 16Why baffles are used for aircooled engines ? [Section 8.13.2]

Q. 17With the help of schematic diagram, explain the function of thermostat in the cooling system. [Section
Q. 18What are the advantages and limitations of air cooling system used in I.C. engines? [Sections 8.13.3
and 8.13.4]

Q. 19Bring out a comparison between air cooling system and water cooling system in I.C.engines. [Section

Q. 20What are the advantages of pressurized water cooling ? Discuss the working of such a system. [Section

Q. 21What is evaporative cooling ? Where it is used ? [Section 8.14.6]

Q. 22Why the antifreeze solutions are used ? Name such a solution. [Section 8.16]
8.17 University Questions and Answers :

May 2016

Q. 1Explain with neat sketch splash lubrication system. (Section 8.6.1)(7 Marks)

Q. 2Explain with neat sketch the working of a thermostat cooling system.(Section 8.14.4)(7 Marks)