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Advanced CAD/CAM systems for garment design

and simulation



2 419


Tatjana Spahiu Erald Piperi

Universiteti Politeknik i Tiranës Universiteti Politeknik i Tiranës


All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate, Available from: Tatjana Spahiu
letting you access and read them immediately. Retrieved on: 23 January 2016
20 November 2014, Tirana, ALBANIA

Advanced CAD/CAM systems for garment design and simulation

T. Spahiu1, E. Shehi1 and E. Piperi2

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Textile and Fashion Department in Polytechnic University of Tirana

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Production and Management in Polytechnic University of

Keywords: CAD systems, clothing design, virtual fit, 3D body model, 3D body scanning.

Garment designing is the first stage on garment production. The advancements of 3D
technology and computer graphics have changed the way of garment designing. Before garment
designing has been made by hand using sketches drawn in paper or draping fabric on a dress
form. But now fashion designers use software tools to express their ideas. Using computer
systems give them the possibility to make two-dimensional and three-dimensional product
illustration and visualizations, also testing the fit in one environment. There are several CAD
systems for garment visualization introduced in the clothing industry. Using 3D virtual
mannequin has mostly replaced the use of physical mannequin in the fashion industry.
In this paper we are going to provide a short review on CAD systems used by fashion
designer. We have done a garment simulation process using software for virtual design
Marvelous Designer and the avatar used is imported from 3D body scanning system Konica
Minolta VIVID 910. This is an easy, accurate and feasible way to design garments for consumers
seeking personal fit garment.

1 Introduction

CAD/CAM systems are used in various fields of application. Their main scope is
increasing productivity of the designer, improving quality of the design. Now, a lot of CAD
programs make possible the creation of three-dimensional models, which can be viewed in
different directions [1].
The process of creating garments includes different steps. The first step of garment
production is designing. Before garment designing has been made by hand using sketches drawn
in paper or draping fabric on a dress form.
In the classic technology of clothing design using industrial system, the basic patterns are
designed for bodies that make up the dimensional typology model for a given population. The
widespread use in the clothing industry of CAD systems to design patterns along with database

20 November 2014, Tirana, ALBANIA

resulting from 3D scanning technology of the human body, are perquisites to extend virtual
modeling of the dimensional correspondence body-dress in the work of finalizing the 2D patterns
after the concrete body dimensions [2].
Fashion being a huge field, computer-aided garment design has grown into an industry of
its own, as evidenced by myriad companies producing garment CAD products; spanning the five
inhabited continents such as AGE Technologies, AMSSystems, Browzwear,
CADTERNSCustom Clothing Inc., Fashion CAD, Fashion Matters, Gemini CAD, GRAFIS,
Investronica Systems, Marvelous Designer, Mechanix, OptiTex, Pad Systems, Pattern Works
Int’I, and others provide a variety of tools focusing on 2D pattern creation and/or 3D draping for
garment design [3].

2 From 2D to 3D CAD systems in garment designing

The importance of fashion in human history cannot be ignored. The garment industry has
influenced countless lives and cultures with its notions of which styles and concepts become
popular. Furthermore, fashion today is certainly a matter of taste -- a mechanism for expressing
an individual's sense of self with a certain flair [4].
Introducing anthropometry (studying and collecting human variability in faces and
bodies) in computer graphics made possible the creation of a parametric model defined as a
linear combination of templates [5].
In general, clothing CAD systems usually involve one or more of five key processes
which are: 2D pattern design, pattern prepositioning, e virtual sewing process (also called virtual
try-on), drape simulation and design modification in 2D or 3D [6]. The base of the 3D garment
digital technology is the 3D body measurement [7]. With the advance of 3D scanning techniques,
the individualized human body can easily captured and modeled with a mesh model [8].
The 3D pattern design system ( PDS), developed for 3D pattern designing, originates
from the shape of the body. It is possible to apply not only a standard mannequin within the
system, but also models selected or created by the user. Thus, more suitable body measurements
can be applied for made-to-measure garments [9].

2.1 Virtual garment creation and simulation

Research into virtual garments began to gain momentum during the 1980s, when the film
industry became interested in 3D computer generated images [10]. Since then, different systems
for 3D visual garment simulation have been developed form different perspectives and with
various objectives [11]. In the field of computer graphics, the first applications for mechanical
clothing simulation appeared in 1987 with the work of Terzopoulos [12]. The so called virtual-
try-on solutions have gained importance in the last few years in different areas of the fashion
industry [13]. Virtual prototyping is a technique in the process of garment development that
involves application of computer aided design intended for garments development and virtual
prototyping of them [14]. When the virtual prototyping is accurate the garment fit to the body
model reflects and combines characteristics of the garment style, garment pattern design, virtual
body model and mechanical properties of textiles [15].

20 November 2014, Tirana, ALBANIA

Many pattern makers use 3D garment simulation to test their pattern blocks and basic
shapes while they are drafting the pattern, to make sure that the balance and slopes of the
garment are correct [16]. Clothing virtual characters entails three problems: designing the clothes
(tailoring), placing them on the character (dressing), and making them look physically [17].

3 Methodology

In this paper we have taken the 3D data captured from 3D laser scanning system Konica
Minolta VIVID 910, implemented for full body scanning. All the procedure and steps for body
scan are not part of this work, but they are explained deeply in another work made by authors.
An inspection of 3D data scans for any inconvenience or error remained from scans, was
performed in another software. This software used for data inspection and manipulation is
Geomagic Studio [18].
After creating a watertight 3D body model, we can import them in a designer software.
For 3D pattern design we have used Marvelous Designer 3. This software is used in fashion
industry for creating garments from conception meaning the pattern designing to the garment
visualization and simulation in the 3D avatar. Positioning the imported 3D body (avatar) with the
coordinate system of the 3D window is the previous step. The process of designing is done on
2D window over the figurine of the personalized avatar. All these procedure are shown in the
workflow diagram in Fig. 1.

3D body scanning and advance costum garment design workflow

(KONICA Minolta VIVID 910)

3D scans and
Fuse and
creation of Perform
Calibration of Is the texture Clean up data save 3D
Scanning process

Hardware setup different point No merge/align

the system needed? from scanning object
clouds of scans

Scan the texture

Data manipulation
(Geomagic Studio)

Perform Export the

Inspection of advance cleaned 3D
data scans clean-up body
Marvelous Designer

Positioning World
the Creating 2D Synchroniz Creating of coordinate Perform
advance Export dxf
Import the 3D body scan coordinate patterns ation on virtual Gizmo for
analyze pattern
as AVATAR system for geometry the 3D sewing for pattern
(Stress Map) configuration
garment window patterns assembly

Fig. 1 Workflow from 3D body scanning to custom garment design

20 November 2014, Tirana, ALBANIA

3.2 3D garment design and testing garment fit

In the garment industry the process of garment designing relies on designer’s skills and
experience. After finishing the garment design, it should be constructed. Generally, this process
is done in 2D using CAD software. Often there are many problems between the designer and the
pattern makers, the reason is the process of translating or reading the garment design. Nowadays,
using the new technology of 3D designing has helped in problem solving, arising from
misunderstanding during this important phase of garment production. For testing the garment fit
in the scanned body we have imported the 3D model taken from 3D body scanning in the
Marvelous Designer software [19], as is showed in Fig. 2.
The 3D models or avatars can be parametric or 3D body models taken from 3D body
scanning. Parametric models are part of the software’s library.

Fig. 2 Importing 3D body as Avatar for 3D garment design

Designing of the patterns is done on pattern window over the 2D view of the body model.
During the designing process, can be used different tools for pattern designing, as polygon,
rectangle, circle, etc. By activating synchronization command, which is the first step to drape
patterns on the 3D model, will bring all the patterns designed on the 3D Avatar Window. The
patterns are placed around the 3D virtual body. For simulating the garment fit on the virtual body
we choose the virtual sewing of all the 2D patterns. This means defining seaming lines on the
borders of the patterns. They are polygon edges, that are to be joined during the initial garment
construction process. Using the simulation tool all the patterns will be draped on the body. The
3D garment simulation can be viewed in different positions and can be rotated 360 o. We can see
how well the garments fits by changing the rendering style to “Pressure” texture surfaces view.
This stress map shows the exert on the fabric, which shows in different color and number on the
garment. By choosing different type of fabric, we can assess the garment fit. The main steps
followed for 3D garment design in the personalized 3D body model or avatar are shown in Fig. 3.

20 November 2014, Tirana, ALBANIA

Fig. 3 Example of virtual garment creation and testing garment fit

4 Conclusions

The new techniques of virtual-try-on, called virtual prototyping are becoming more and
more useable in fashion industry. These new 3D techniques has a lot of advantages such as fast
time, allowing consumers use their own 3D model to virtually design and try on clothing. Using
the new technologies has made easier the development of individualized garments.
Using 3D body scanning technology is a new trend in fashion industry for custom
garment design. The 3D model of the human body is captured and using software, part of the 3D
scanning systems, the critical measurement of the digital image can be integrated to a pattern
alternation system. These technology is helping the process of garment designing, by speeding
up process of garment design. 3D environment helps designer to check quickly the problems
related to fabric draping on the 3D avatar and assessing the garment fit. these helps in shortening
the time between pattern changes which are reflected on the 3D window.


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