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Analyze the ways in which British imperial policies between 1763 and 1776 intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule and their commitment to republican values. The 8–9 Essay x Contains a clear, well-developed thesis that addresses British imperial policies and colonials’ resistance to British rule AND their commitment to republican values. x Develops the thesis with substantial, relevant historical information on British imperial policies and colonial resistance to British rule AND commitment to republican values. x Provides effective analysis of how the imperial policies intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule AND their commitment to republican values; treatment may be somewhat uneven. x May contain minor errors that do not detract from the quality of the answer. x Is clearly organized and written. The 5–7 Essay x Contains a partially developed thesis that addresses British imperial policies and colonials’ resistance to British rule AND their commitment to republican values. x Supports the thesis with some relevant, historical information. x Provides some analysis of the impact of how the imperial policies intensified the colonials’ resistance and their commitment to republican values, but the treatment may be imbalanced and/or implicit. x May contain errors that do not seriously detract from the quality of the essay. x Has acceptable organization and writing. The 2–4 Essay x May paraphrase the question or contain a confused or unfocused thesis. x Provides few relevant facts, or lists facts with little or no application to the question. x May address only one or two of the three aspects of the question (imperial policies, colonials’ resistance, and commitment to republican values); with limited or no analysis. x May contain major errors. x May be poorly organized and/or written. The 0–1 Essay x Lacks a thesis or simply restates the question. x Demonstrates an incompetent or inappropriate response. x Has little or no understanding of the question. x Contains substantial errors. x Is poorly organized and/or written. The — Essay x Is completely off topic or blank.
© 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com.
All rights reserved. colonial agent to Parliament Refusal to obey New York assembly passes Quartering Act Repeal of Stamp Act © 2009 The College Board. 1766 . 1761. prime minister. Walpole. Enforcement of Navigation Laws. Paxton Boys. 1754 Ben Franklin. Navigation Acts. 1764—first law (Molasses Act. 1766 Declaratory Act. 1765 “No taxation without representation” Internal/external taxation Stamp Act riots (destruction of Thomas Hutchinson’s and Andrew Oliver’s houses and tar and feathering) Sons & Daughters of Liberty (spinning bees) Stamp Act Congress. use of writs of assistance Proclamation of 1763. Tensions during war—William Pitt promise to pay colonists angers British who think colonists are not paying enough. 1733) passed by Parliament to raise tax revenue for the British Crown.collegeboard. “Join or Die” Discord between British and colonial soldiers James Otis challenges writs in court. mercantilism. suspension of juries Currency Act. 1763 / Peace of Paris. admiralty or vice admiralty courts. 1765 (also called Mutiny Act) New York Suspending Act. King of England. differences on the meaning of a constitution Violence toward Indians. Virginia Resolves.com. nonimportation Patrick Henry. 1765. usually as introductory material. George III. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. 1764 Stamp Act. 1763 1763–1776 The need for revenue and cost of the Seven Years’ War caused shifts in British policy toward its colonies. 1764 Continued smuggling Quartering Act. George Grenville. abandonment of salutary neglect. salutary neglect French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War ) Treaty of Paris. “Give me liberty or death” speech Ben Franklin. Pontiac’s Rebellion Sugar Act. Colonial Resistance Albany Congress.AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet British Imperial Policies Pre-1763—may be used only in a proper context.
Quebec Act. repeal of all taxes except tea). 1773 First Continental Congress. Galloway Plan Urged colonies to organize militia for defensive purposes. Paul Revere print. established a small navy. asked king to repeal the noxious acts. 1767 Massachusetts Circular Letter. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. 1775 Second Continental Congress. 1768 Colonial Resistance John Dickinson—Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer. authorized an army and appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief. Gaspee incident. Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms. . Chancellor of the Exchequer Creation of the American Board of Customs Commissioners Paying royal governors from tax money Customs corruption.collegeboard. John Adams defends the soldiers. May. 1774 “The Association” “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” Suffolk Resolves. 1775 First acting national government. Belief that British are abolitionists. Regulators. Thomas Preston. Olive Branch Petition to King George III. “lobsterbacks”. 1767 (dismissal of some assemblies. Massachusetts Government Act. considered one of the Intolerable Acts.000 troops to Boston. Black and White both Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation. 1774: Boston Port Act. 1768 Sending 4. 1774 Fear about the spread of Catholicism. 1770. Liberty. Provincial congresses—colonial rival governments to royal government. 1773 Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts). 1769–1771 Carolinas disputes between colonial governments and backcountry settlers over governance and bandits Tea Act. Charles Townshend. Sam Adams nonimportation Committees of Correspondence Committees of Correspondence spread.com. John Hancock’s sloop. 1772 Boston Massacre. Crispus Attucks. Administration of Justice Act. 1775 © 2009 The College Board.AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet (continued) British Imperial Policies Townshend Acts. issued paper money to support the troops. issued Declaration of Independence. commander. Quartering Act Boston Tea Party. All rights reserved.
” or “country party. Common Sense—idea of republicanism.Oppositionists. First and Second Continental Congresses x “No taxation without representation” x John Wilkes. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. 1775 Colonial Resistance Green Mountain Boys-Fort Ticonderoga Minutemen. elected for their superior talents. and incorruptibility. Declaration of Independence. “commonwealthmen.” “Radical Whigs. and Bunker Hill. the language of the pamphlet x “Declaration of Independence”—Thomas Jefferson. x For most republicans.com. wisdom.Distrust of standing armies x Colonial experience of self-government—Stamp Act Congress. House of Burgesses. ideal government would delicately balance interests of different classes to prevent any one group from gaining power.” 1768 x Power of the purse—often used by colonial assemblies to keep royal governors in line. . Mayflower Compact.collegeboard. Concord. x New state constitutions—democratic features x Articles of Confederation x Shays’ Rebellion x Constitution x Bill of Rights © 2009 The College Board.Virtual representation versus direct representation . All rights reserved. January 1776. . “massacre at St. Post-1776—may only be used in a proper context. July 1776 Commitment to Republican Values x Republicanism in the colonies—New England town meetings.John Locke and the “social contract” . Common Sense.God-given liberty . George’s Fields.AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Fact Sheet (continued) British Imperial Policies Battles of Lexington.Assemblies exercised similar power to Parliament.” John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon . x Thomas Paine. John Hancock x Republican mothers or wives x Presumed that government would be entrusted to capable leaders.Written constitution . Fundamental Orders of Connecticut x Ideas of the Enlightenment and republicanism .
collegeboard.com. . Visit the College Board on the Web: www.© 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved.
collegeboard. .com.© 2009 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. All rights reserved.
collegeboard. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.com. All rights reserved.© 2009 The College Board. .
© 2009 The College Board. . All rights reserved.collegeboard.com. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.
© 2009 The College Board.com. All rights reserved. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. .collegeboard.
© 2009 The College Board.com. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. .collegeboard. All rights reserved.
.com. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.© 2009 The College Board. All rights reserved.
.com. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. All rights reserved.collegeboard.© 2009 The College Board.
Sample: 2A Score: 9 This essay is a superb response. keeping it in the middle score category. Sample: 2B Score: 6 This well-organized response provides good general information on British imperial policy and republican values (Stamp. . but this does not diminish its analytical strength. The essay contains an error when it asserts that the Olive Branch Petition requested independence. and it only vaguely addresses republican values. Visit the College Board on the Web: www. Quebec Act. the topic of the second paragraph. All rights reserved.collegeboard.AP® UNITED STATES HISTORY 2009 SCORING COMMENTARY Question 2 Overview This question asked students to analyze the ways in which British imperial policies between 1763 and 1776 intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule and their commitment to republican values. The essay conflates colonial resistance and republican values. Its breadth of information—Walpole. The discussion of colonial resistance is implicit (“colonists became fed up and rallied . lack of representation in British legislature. © 2009 The College Board. and it treats all three aspects of the question. using evidence in a highly sophisticated and effective manner. Sons of Liberty). Sample: 2C Score: 4 This essay begins with a thesis citing mercantilism but does not connect it to taxation. . Its analysis of republican values is quite strong. It provides a few relevant facts (mercantilism. and rebelled” and the Stamp Act “fueled the desire to secede”). . Tea Act. though imbalanced. “taxation without representation”.com. Sugar. Enlightenment—is outstanding. and Quartering acts. Writs of Assistance. citizens’ participation in politics).
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