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UNIT 6 PRINCIPLE AND METHOD OF

MANUFACTURE OF
MOZZARELLA CHEESE
Structure
6.0 Objectives
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Method of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese from buffalo milk using starter
culture
6.3 Method of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese by direct acidification
6.4 Chemistry of “Stretch” of Mozzarella Cheese
6.5 Packaging
6.6 Defects in cheese
6.7 Use of milk of other species
6.8 Let us sum up
6.9 Key words
6.10 Some Useful Books
6.11 Answers to check your progress exercise

6.0 OBJECTIVE
After reading this unit we should be able to:
• understand the principle; of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese.
• know the classification of Mozzarella cheese.
• know the method of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese.
• understand the changes occurring during manufacture of Mozzarella cheese.
• know the packaging of Mozzarella cheese.
• be familiar with the use of milk of other species in manufacture of Mozzarella
cheese.

6.1 INTRODUCTION
The Mozzarella cheese was originally manufactured from high fat buffalo milk in
Italy. Now in European countries and U.S.A. it is also being made from cow milk.
It belongs to the cheese classified as “pasta filata” which involves the principle of
skillfully stretching the curd in hot water to get a smooth texture and grain in cheese.
It is a soft, white, unripened cheese which may be consumed shortly after manufacture.
Its melting and stretching characteristics are highly appreciated in the preparation of
Pizza where it is a key ingredient.
Production of Mozzarella cheese far exceeds that of all other cheeses of pasta-filata
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cheese because Mozzarella is an essential ingredient of pizza. Pizza, like Mozzarella,

75-0. thereby increasing the popularity of pizza in Europe. As a result.80 %.1:1) ↓ Rennet addition (1.1 ). and many countries. The pH of the brine solution is kept at 7. South America and Asia. stretched and moulded normally for proper body and texture development. Milk ↓ Filtration/Clarification ↓ Standardisation (3-4% fat) ↓ Pasteurisation (63°C / 30 min) ↓ Cooling (31°C) ↓ Starter addition (S. as evidenced by striking increase in U. After about 30 min the curd is set which is cut and allowed to stand in the whey for 10-15 min.8%) it is taken out and dried in a cold store.milk) ↓ 35 . American franchise restaurant chains have expanded aggressively in other countries. pizza was firmly established as a popular food with broad appeal in the U. After the cheese attains the desired level of salt (1.0-1. The curd is cooked gradually by increasing the temperature to 40-41 ° C in 30-35 min. The manufacturing steps are shown in flow diagram 6.5 g/100 l. now produce sizeable amounts of Mozzarella cheese.6-1. including Argentina. The cheese is then packaged and disposed off. 6.S. Australia.2 METHOD OF MANUFACTURE OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE FROM BUFFALO MILK USING CULTURE The basic manufacturing technology for Mozzarella cheeses is similar to that of Cheddar cheese with slight variation. bulgaricus (1:1) is added to milk at 31-35°C @ 2%. worldwide demand for Mozzarella has skyrocketed. At this stage the curd is immersed into the hot water (80-85 °C). until the middle of the twentieth century. More recently. Ireland. thermophilus and L.0 g / 100 lit. Mozzarella Cheese pizza restaurants in the U. After World War II. The starter culture containing S. which eventually became an omnipresent element of American culture. The standardized (4% fat) and pasteurized buffalo milk is put in cheese vat.6.S.originated in Italy and spread through communities of Italian immigrants in other Principle and Method of Manufacture of countries. in addition to the United States and Italy. By the mid-1970s. began to establish market outside the traditional ethnic communities. thermophilus and L.1. Along with the growth of pizza came an unprecedented increase in the demand for Mozzarella cheese. The cheese is then transferred to brine of 20% concentration at refrigeration temperature (8-10 °C) for salting. production of Mozzarella over the past 25 years (Fig 6. The development of fast food and franchise chain pizza restaurants further hastened the growth of pizza. bulgaricus . France. Brazil. The whey is drained and the curd is allowed to ripen to an acidity level of 0. After about 2-3 min the curd is kneaded.S. however. The moulded cheese is dipped into chilled water (5-10 °C) for cooling for 1-12 h. . The United Kingdom and New Zealand. After ripening for about 50 min the rennet is added @ 1. Canada.

2. This technique helps (i) to eliminate variability of acid production by bacteria.fat were higher in pizza cheese made with phosphoric acid than those with hydrochloric and lactic acids. However the type of acid had no effect on fat recovery.6 at 4 °C with acetic. Calcium levels and recovery of solids. slow starters and other contaminants (iii) to have better control over pH variations and (iv) to reduce manufacturing times. lactic and hydrochloric acids resulted in satisfactory product.3 METHOD OF MANUFACTURE OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE BY DIRECT ACIDIFICATION The method of manufacture of Mozzarella cheese by direct acidification involves the lowering of pH by different acids. It has been reported that a 2 % milk acidified to pH 5. 80-85°C) ↓ Moulding ↓ Brining (20-22% chilled ) ↓ Packaging ↓ Storage Flow Diagram 6.1 Manufacturing Steps (Traditional Method) 6. Cheeses made with phosphoric and hydrochloric acids had lower moisture content and were firmer than cheese made with lactic acid.Cheese Cutting ↓ Cooking (42-44 °C) ↓ Pitching ↓ Draining ↓ Cheddaring (0.70% acidity) ↓ Milling ↓ Plasticising/stretching (under hot water . (ii) to avoid problems created by bacteriophages. Milk ↓ Filtration/Clarification ↓ Standardisation (3-4% fat) ↓ Pasteurisation (63°C/30 min) ↓ Chilling (4-8°C) ↓ 36 .not. The manufacturing steps are shown in Flow diagram 6.

coupled with attaining a critical curd pH at the time of stretching. which may stretch. insoluble minerals and some sugar. The key to producing pasta-filata cheese is to attain simultaneously the appropriate moisture content in the curd at the time of stretching and the level of casein-associated calcium that is necessary for the curd to stretch in hot water or brine.6. too little casein. Acidifying Principle and Method of Manufacture of (to pH 5. demineralization and dehydration.associated calcium results in complete loss of structure and stretch when the curd is worked in hot water. On the other hand.5-0. In the calcium rich environment of milk.0-3.4 CHEMISTRY OF “STRETCH” OF MOZZARELLA CHEESE The development of curd stretch is governed by the amount of calcium that is available for casein crosslinking.6 with 25-50% HCl @ Mozzarella Cheese 2. Total calcium content depends on the amount of calcium that is lost to the whey when acid is produced by the starter during cheese making. Therefore. on the other hand. stretchable consistency. Curd that contains too much casein-associated calcium will tear and fracture during stretching and fail to attain a plastic. Calcium distribution.75 g / 100 l milk ↓ Cutting ↓ Cooking (37-39°C) ↓ Draining ↓ Plasticising/stretching under hot water (80-85°C) ↓ Moulding ↓ Brining (20-22% chilled ) ↓ Packaging ↓ Storage 6. At a pH between 5. pliable and stringy and retain fat. generally below pH 5. leading to the formation of monocalcium paracaseinate. some of the calcium of the dicalcium paracaseinate gets dissolved. resulting from the development of acidity.2-5.4-5. milk) ↓ Heating (28-30°C) ↓ Rennet addition (0.4. the casein precipitates out of milk as dicalcium paracaseinate. entrapping fat. 37 . If acidification is excessive. This when heated to 54 °C or higher becomes smooth. The curd generally does not stretch above pH 5. controlled acidification. is governed by the curd pH at the time of stretching: a low pH favours calcium in the soluble state while a high pH favours calcium in the casein-associated state. but has difficulty in retaining fat. Both the total calcium content of curd and the distribution of total calcium between the casein associated and soluble states determine the amount of casein-associated calcium at the time of stretching. monocalcium paracaseinate will continue to lose calcium and form paracaseinate. are the key technological parameters for all pasta-filata cheeses.5 ml / l.2.

.............................. ....................... the higher the moisture content of the cheese................................................. ..................... ...............................................................................................Cheese Check Your Progress 1 1) What do you understand by the term........ .......................................................... ............ ............................ In general......... ........................................................................................................ .................................. ............................................................................................................................................................ Since Mozzarella cheese contains high moisture (about 50%) it is very susceptible to spoilage from yeasts and moulds and is usually packed with vacuum in polyethylene..........................5 PACKAGING The packaging of cheese is particularly important for the shelf life of the product........................................................... ............................ 4) What are the advantages of using direct acidification in manufacture of Mozzarella cheese? ..................................... 6) Describe the chemistry of stretching of Mozzarella cheese................ Vacuum packaging helped to reduce the increase of mould in packaged cheese ........................................................................................................ “ pasta filata”? ................................. 6............................ the more likely it is to spoil on storage.......................................................................................... 3) Name the main steps involved in the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese ........ .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ......................... 2) What are the most desired properties of Mozzarella cheese? .................. The basic requirements for the cheese packaging are (i) exclusion of oxygen to prevent mould growth and rancidity ..................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5) Give the optimum pH and temperature of acidification....................................... ................................. and (ii) retention of moisture to preserve the texture and avoid weight losses.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. It has been reported that the spoilage of Mozzarella is mainly caused by the mould growth because of high initial count and absence of natural inhibitors such as propionic 38 acid.........................................................

It may also blister excessively on pizza. where it originated. bitter taste and abnormal texture. After brining the cheese should be dried briefly and wrapped in parchment. fibrous consistency will tend to form more stable bubbles and be more prone to blister formation than cheese that is less fibrous and elastic when melted. Such cheese may melt to a very tough and elastic consistency that is overly chewy. but rancid or unclean flavours can occur if poor-quality milk is used. sticky and prone to matting. other flavour notes are readily detected at low intensities and are generally considered defects. Textural defects are particularly problematical in pizza cheese because the quality of pizza cheese is defined largely by shredding and melting properties. black patches. The resulting cheese shreds may be deformed in shape. Mozzarella Cheese Irregular shaped Mozzarella cheese is generally packaged in flexible roll films. thermoformable packets or shrinkable pouches like cryovac. pizza cheese with an abnormally firm body due to low moisture or fat content may also take longer to shred and shatter and form fines during shredding. 6.S. low calcium content. such cheese may flow excessively (soupy) and lack stretch. Excessive release of free oil results in unattractive greasy pools of oil at the surface of the pizza. discolouration. Pizza cheese with a soft body due to high fat or moisture content.6 DEFECTS IN CHEESE A smooth surface with a perfect sheen is the desired quality in good Mozzarella cheese. or excessive proteolysis may gum up the shredding equipment and take longer to process through the equipment. putrid smell. Because the flavour is very mild. polyethylene or cellophane pouches followed by storage at refrigeration temperature. Non -enzymatic browning reactions involving reducing sugars (lactose or galactose) and amine groups (mostly from peptides and amino acids) may occur readily at the blister site and may give rise to brown or in extreme cases. Some of the defects reported in Mozzarella cheese are poor meltability. widespread skin formation and scorching at the melted cheese surface. The technology has hence been modified for cow milk and is being used widely all over Europe and U. Traditional fresh Mozzarella and low moisture Mozzarella produced as string cheese or pizza cheese should have a very delicate flavour originating exclusively from the lactic fermentation by the starter culture. the milk that finds its 39 . Mozzarella loaves are wrapped with multiplayer heat shrink bags of vinyledene chloride such as cryovac S type. Either excessive or inadequate release of free oil from pizza cheese during melting represents important defect for pizza cheese. The bags are evacuated and heat shrunk to give a desirable tightness.7 USE OF MILK OF OTHER SPECIES Mozzarella cheese was traditionally manufactured from buffalo milk in Italy. The most common flavour defects in cheeses are bitterness and high acid (sour). elasticity and chewiness. Cheese that melts to a tough. At the other extreme.but with sliced Mozzarella a high vacuum of 29 inches must be maintained for effective Principle and Method of Manufacture of control. saran or vacuum packed in cryovac. 6. whereas inadequate free oil release can lead to poor meltability. Blisters occur when stable bubbles are formed at the cheese surface during baking. When melted. Under Indian conditions. resulting in dehydration and the formation of a dried skin at the top pf the bubble.A.

. 6.. .............................................. Its melting and stretching characteristics are highly appreciated in the preparation of 40 Pizza where it is a key ingredient.................... the milk that he produces is generally a mixture of a large quantity from one species of animal mixed with smaller quantities from other species....................................... ...................... The mixed milk should contain a fat content of 3 % to result in satisfactory product.. An average Indian farmer keeps buffalo....................... The buffalo milk curd was always firmer and stronger than cow milk curd of the same solid content.............. ............................................ crumbly. melting and baking characteristics and eating quality of the cheese on Pizza was adjudged to be very good........................................................................A............................ the major share being buffalo milk and the rest........................................................................... It has been reported that blending of buffalo and goat milk in 1:1 ratio results in good product........................ 2) Name the most suitable packaging materials for Mozzarella cheese................................................. it is also being made from cow milk.......................................................................................................................................................... cow and goat milk.. .............................................................................................. Thus..................................... as it results in hard........................ is unsuitable for making hard cheeses.............................. .... grating............................. ........ It is a soft........................................................... Now in European countries and U..... ....... ............................. coarse and brittle body and texture defects............................ blending these two milks would result in a Mozzarella cheese of most desirable characteristics...........................................Cheese way to the processing sector is of the mixed type.............. 4) Describe the relative merits of different type of milk used for Mozzarella cheese........... ................................. white..................... The organoleptic qualities................................. whereas goat milk curd being soft.......................... .......... Goat milk had a shorter rennet coagulation time than in cow milk Check Your Progress 2 1) What is the basic requirement of packaging of Mozzarella cheese? ................... It belongs to the cheese classified as “pasta filata” which involves the principle of skillfully stretching the curd in hot water to get a smooth texture and grain in cheese..........S......... .......... essential to study the effect of blending of two milk systems.................................................... ............. It is thus.......... cow and goat for different agricultural purposes and hence..................................................... As such buffalo milk is unsuitable for the manufacture of Cheddar type and soft cheeses............................ unripened cheese which may be consumed shortly after manufacture.................8 LET US SUM UP The Mozzarella cheese was originally manufactured from high fat buffalo milk in Italy............. 3) Give the most common defects found in Mozzarella cheese..... The rennet coagulation was faster in buffalo milk due to much faster rate of secondary action with high calcium................

Food Trade Press. Starter culture is added to the cheese milk to Mozzarella Cheese acidify the milk. Process Cheese Manufacture. A. Fuquay J. London. Academic Press. London. At this stage the curd is immersed into the hot water.. Vol. II J&H.. kneaded. cow and goat milk.10 SOME USEFUL BOOKS Davis J. Blister : Blisters occur when stable bubble is formed at the cheese surface during baking. F. Non-enzymatic browning : Browning resulting from the reaction of reducing sugars (lactose/ galactose) with amino groups mostly from the peptides and amino acids. the major share being buffalo milk and the rest. Cheese. Under Indian conditions. FV Kosikowski and Associates. 6. 1965. Roginski. New York. . The curds and whey are then stirred and usually heated to promote acid production by the starter and the expulsion of whey from the curd. The most common flavour defects in cheeses are bitterness and high acid (sour). Moulded : The hot kneaded cud is shaped into different forms. Davis. other flavour notes are readily detected at low intensities and are generally considered defects. Traditional fresh Mozzarella and low moisture Mozzarella produced as string cheese or pizza cheese should have a very delicate flavour originating exclusively from the lactic fermentation by the starter culture. Vol. Rennet is added to coagulate the milk.. 6.9 KEY WORDS Pasta filata : The term ‘pasta-filata’ is derived from an Italian phrase that literally means ‘spun paste’ or ‘stretched curd’. Stretching : The hot curd is stretched and spun in the form of string.. Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods 2nd edn.W. G. stretched and moulded. G 1965. and Fox. Because the flavour is very mild.The basic manufacturing technology for Mozzarella cheeses is similar to that of Principle and Method of Manufacture of Cheddar cheese with slight variation. F. During manufacture of Mozzarella cheese the curd is immersed in hot water and kneaded and stretched. London. The moulded cheese is dipped into chilled water and then transferred to brine. Kosikowski. I J&H Churchill Ltd. the coagulum is cut into particles to initiate syneresis. Cheese.. 1973. J. 2003. . P. After the cheese attains the desired level of salt it is taken out and packaged for disposal. An imprint of Elsevier Sciences. It has been reported that blending of buffalo and goat milk in 1:1 ratio results in good product. Churchill Ltd. New York. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. 1982. H. Meyer. The whey is drained and the curd is allowed to ripen. Next. the milk that finds its way to the processing sector is of the mixed type. but rancid or unclean flavours can occur if poor-quality milk is used. . Brine : Salt solution used for salting of the curd is called brine. I. 41 Vol.

Controlled acidification. Cutting of curd. iv. (ii) to avoid problems created by bacteriophages.Cheese Scott. Heating and stirring of curd – whey mixture. 3. retention of moisture to preserve the texture and avoid weight losses. v. Inc. i. exclusion of oxygen to prevent mould growth and rancidity . iii. Brining and packaging. iv. iv. viii. Addition of starter culture. Melting and stretching 3. 6. 2. Precipitation of dicalcium paracaseinate. discolouration.. 2nd Edn. R. Kneading and stretching in hot water. 5. Buffalo milk. Essex.11 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Check Your Progress 1 1. (i) to eliminate variability of acid production by bacteria. thermoformable packets or shrinkable pouches like cryovac ii. W. ii. Partition of total calcium into casein associated calcium and soluble calcium. Mixed milk . Addition of rennet. 2. pH 5. 4.6 at 4 °C 6. 1952. 4. i. Cheese. Standardization and pasteurization of milk. Orange Judd Pub Corp. iii putrid smell. England. Formation of monocalcium paracaseinate Check Your Progress 2 1. L. i. vi. poor meltability. New York. Vanslyke. ii. bitter taste and v.V. vii. Applied Science Publishers Ltd. i. ii. Modified cow milk 42 iii. abnormal texture. iii. 1981 Cheesmaking Practice. ix.L. multiplayer heat shrink bags of vinyledene chloride such as cryovac S type. and Price. flexible roll films. ii. i. Consolidation of curd and acidification. i. Drainage of whey. slow starters and other contaminants (iii) to have better control over pH variations and (iv) to reduce manufacturing times.. demineralization and dehydration. ii. Stretchable and pliable curd when immersed in hot water and kneaded.