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The Differences of Geothermal System

In Volcanic System and Non-Volcanic
System and Their Effect On Energy
Wildan Eka Andaya
Department of Geological Engineering, University of Pertamina

Indonesia is a beautiful country located in ring of fire area, therefore Indonesia has many active
volcanoes due to the subduction process between Indo-pacific plate with Eurasian plate. Because of
the many volcanoes Indonesia has then Indonesia has a lot potential benefits from it. One of which is
geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is a energy that utilizes heat originating from the earth to be
converted into steam that will drive turbines for power plants, but it can also be utilizes to other things
such as recreation area like hot spring and then food or beverages processing. Besides the volcanic
system, there is also a non-volcanic system. In usually geothermal in non-volcanic system has no
effect on volcanic activity and certainly has many differences on each side such as the components.
Keywords : geothermal energy, volcanic system, non-volcanic system

Indonesia has the largest geothermal potential in the world, we should learn more and use it
more for the common good and energy independence. If we want to make the most of it we have to do
an in-depth study and more data of the all aspects that affect to geothermal energy like the system of
geothermal. In this paper I will try to convey the various of geothermal system in Indonesia.

A geothermal system that associated with active volcano or inactive volcano that still has a
source of heat from magma and usually has a high temperature.

Kamojang field is located in the middle of Rakutak mountain and Guntur mountain. Rakutak
mount in the west and Guntur mount in the east. Has a height of 1500 above sea level with a length of
15 kilometers and a width of 4.5 meters. The geological structures found in the kamojang field are
faults, fold and stocky. There are two faults, normal faults and strike-slip faults. Normal faults has a
direction west to east and characterize pegunugan selatan faults. Then the strike-slip faults has a
direction southwest to northeast, west to east and northwest-southeast. The faults have been moving
since late oligocene-early Miocene and involved tertiary and quarterly rocks. Has a pattern from south
to north and is a young faults. It can be concluded that the faults are the results of a previous falts.
Fault developed in Quaternary generally as a controller for the growth of young volcanoes, especially
a trending fault system southwest-northeast which cuts the center of this region. On the ranks volcano,
two volcanoes of which are still active G. Papandayan (2622 m) and G. Guntur (2249 m). on the fold


The evolving structural geology are faults. The post caldera formation is not aligned the pre-caldera formation group. pyroclastic Mt. 3. northwest-southeast. At plio-plistocene volcanic activity re-occur followed by a series of early quarter until now in the center and north sheet are spread over the east-west strip. northwest west-east-northeast and north-south. lifting and erosion. Pre-caldera formation from which the oldest to youngest is Basalt Mt. The activity of magmatic of that time ended with intrusive of diorite quartz on late middle miocene on jampang formation. In general kamojang field composed of pre-caldera and post-caldera deposits. Basalt Dogdog. The factors that influence the direction difference are the different stages and the tectonic intensity. Gandapura. Cibatuipis. Southwest-northeast faults ( direction N600E ) is estimated to be the oldest fault in Kamojang field in the northern part of lake pangkalan is a normal fault with the southeast block is relatively down. stocky occurs mainly in aged rocks old. which control the permeability of Kamojang field. Cakramasigit and guntur. on rocks Neogen volcanoes such as the Beser Formation and Plio-Plistocene Volcanic Rock. and circular depressions. Kancing. Nortwest-southeast faults ( N1400E ) is the normal faults group with complicated faults. phorphiry andesite Mt. Sanggar. Cibeureum. It’s the normal fault with the western block is relatively down. pyroxene andesite Mt. In the southern part of the lake is strike-slip fault. As in other areas in the southern part of Java. among others on Jampang Formation and intrusive quartz diorite. 2. Based on the age of these faults can be passed down from old to young as follows ( Team Pokja Kamojang. magmatic activity occurs yielding to the volcano and ending by intrusive andesite crack at pliocene. Subduction occurring in the late oligocene-early/middle miocene resulting volcanic activity and andesite and followed by carbonate sedimentation in shallow marine. the tectonics of this region is on The Tertiary Period was strongly influenced by the subduction of the Indian Ocean Plate to under the Southeast Asian Plate. 2000) : 1. which is thought to be youngest fault. Northwest west-east-northeast faults ( N1100E ) is appears in the north sea section of Kamojang field. In some place like in sheet of Pangandaran sedimentation takes place on the submarine slope. gajah. After folding. Rakutak. North-south faults ( N150E ) is appears in eastern part of Kamojang field. basaltic andesite Legokpulus and Mt.has a direction west-northwest and northwest-southeast on Bentang formation and northwest- southeast on jampang formation. Katomas. andesite lava Mt. The direction of faults is southwest-northeast. 2 . pyroxene andesite Mt. This faults is normal fault with the south block is relatively down. Batususun. Basaltic andesite Mt. 4. Then post-caldera formation from which the oldest to youngest is Basaltic andesite Mt. andesite lava pasir Jawa and pyroxene andesite Mt. Putri. and Mt.

1983) 3 .geological map of kamojang field (Kamojang.hydrogeological of kamojang field (Sudarman.FIGURE 1 . FIGURE 2 . 2000).

While the geological structure of the series of fault (step of fault) more dominant control in Kamojang East Block (Kamah. Hot dry rock geothermal system 4. The Kamojang reservoir is controlled by contact formation and geological structures. Hochstein and Browne ( 2000 ) there are various geothermal system that is 1.mati kamojang crater (Fadillah et al. 2003).. kereta api crater (Fadillah. Radiogenik geothermal system 5.hujan crater (Fadillah et al. Kamojang field is high entalpy geothermal field with > 2200C temperature.. Contact lateral formation and unconformity are more dominant in controlling the reservoir the middle part (Central Block) although can not be ruled out influence setting the rim structures whose step separates the middle block from the Western Block Kamojang. Figure 7. Heat sweep geothermal system 4 .2003 ). According to Lund ( 2007 ) . Manifestasi Geothermal manifestation in kamojang field are affected by hydrothermal gradient and hydrothermal alteration. Figure 6. & Gumilar.mudpool (Fadillah et al.Reservoir kamojang Kamojang reservoir has two feed zone there are first feed zone on 700-800 m and then second feed zone on 100-600 m. Sedimentary basin geothermal system 3. the production of first feed zone is 12-65ton/hour @WHP 15Ksc and 30- 80ton/hour @WHP 15Ksc to second feed zone ( Kamah. 2013) Figure 5.. 2013) Non-volcanic system A geothermal that are not associated with volcanoes and usually has a low temperature.. 2013) Figure 4. 2013) Figure 3. Nugraha. Geopressure geothermal system 2. cibuliran crater (Fadillah et 2013) al.

2008) 5 ... Figure 8.. 2008) FIGURE 11 – Geopressured (Lund et dry rock (Lund. & Mortensen. 2008) Figure 10.radiogenic (Lund et al. Bloomquist.sedimentary basin (Lund et al. 2008) Figure 9. 2008) Figure 12. Bjelm. heat sweep (Lund et al.

Masaingi fault by NE-SW trending controlled the manifestation of this field. Donggala Regency.d. Central Sulawesi with height range of 200 – 1500 meters above sea level. n.d. The rocks unit of Merana field are consists of green schist rocks unit (TrS). the total prospect of this field is about 6 km2 and the geothermal potention is 40MW. 6 . n.) Pulu-Pakuli Geothermal prospect The located in Pulu-Pakuli village of Donggala Regency. This field has a low resistivity and high anomaly occurred in the west Pakuli hot water with 4.non-volcanic geothermal system in Indonesia (Indral. granite (Tgr). The subsurface geothermal temperatures are estimated about 1240C – 1800C and the geothermal potention is 40Mwe. limestone rock unit (Qgp) and alluvium (Qal).Geothermal system non-volcanic in sulawesi indonesia Figure 13. Pakuli faults by NE-SW trending controlled the surface manifestation. this field is composed of green schist (Trs).) Merana geothermal prospect The located is in Marana area. phiylite (Km).d. n.) (Indral. The geophysical data show that the geothermal system in this field is covered by low to medium resistivity zones indicatinghot fluid reservoir located at deep narrow zones along fault zone. granite gneiss (Trgn). gneiss granite rock (Trg). granite rock unit (Tg). Central Sulawesi. Hot water with bicarbonate water type has temperature range between 50oc – 90oc present as thermal water manifestation inmerana manisfetasi in merana (Indral. Hot water with bicarbonate water type and normal pH has temperature range between 800C – 900C. Figure 14 – hotwater Figure14.6 km2 total prospect area. sedimentary rock unit (Qts). The subsurface geothermal temperatures are estimated about 1540C – 2370C. collovium (Qcl) and alluvium deposits (Qa).

This field is covered by metamorphic rocks such as gneiss. Figure 16. hot water in perkemahan mangolo (Indral. lava dome of Plio-plestocen age.d. schist. limestone. and alluvium. There are many manifestations like hot water. subsurface temperatures are 103. (SiO2 Conductive cooling). travertine.manifestation in pulu Figure 15.manifestation in pakuli (Indral. Maseppe and Alakuang faults are controlled the manifestations in this field by N-S trending. n.) n.d. South Sulawesi. lake deposit and alluvium.910C. n. Figure 17.50C – 96.280C – 125.) 7 . Hot water with bicarbonate water type normal pH and has temperatures range between 400C – 500C and the subsurface temperature is 1700C. and altered rocks. Hot water with chloride- bicarbonate water type and normal pH has temperatures range between 40. Hot water with chloride -bicarbonate water type. normal pH and temperatures is 680C. n. volcanic rocks of Tertiary- Quatenary age. the geothermal prospect is 100Mwe Figure 18. South Sulawesi.d. Maseppe prospect The located in Sidendreng-Rappang water in goa-mangolo (Indral. clay stone and limestone. South East Sulawesi. Mangolo prospect The located in Kolaka regency. this field is covered by metamorphic rock and this area relatively closed to Palu-Koro fault by NW-SW trending.) (Indral. Regency of North Luwu. Heat source is considered to be intrusive rocks that are associated.) Parara prospect The located in Sabbang district. The sub surface geothermal temperature in average is 1980C.d. This field is covered by sedimentary rocks of Walanae Formation consists of sandstone. The total prospect is about 5 km2 and the geothermal potention is 8-21Mwe.50C.

Furthemore it can also as a recreation place. generators power plants Medium Enthalpy 100-2000C direct use. 8 . but we must know not all non- volcanic system has low enthalpy. generators power plants Low Enthalpy 50-1000C direct use According of the table from Badan Geologi KESDM about classification about temperature we can conclude that the high enthalpy and medium enthalpy can be used for power plants and direct use like gardening. fishery and food processing. The geothermal system with volcanic system is more benefits. While at low enthalpy can only for direct use. so our knowledge is still little in this sector.Conclusion High Enthalpy >2200C direct use. There are still many areas with non-volcanic system that have not been touched by researcher and has not been explored completely. farms.

Potensi of Non-Volcanic Hosted Geothermal Resource in Sulawesi Indonesia. Bjelm. Indral. (2008). & Gumilar.. (1983). No Title. & Mortensen. Lund. J.). 140–147. A. (2013).. G. 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. W. Sudarman. (n. West java geothermal update. A. K..References Fadillah.. 9 . J. A. P. T. Bloomquist. Kamojang.. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2010. L. (2000). Characteristics. 31(1). No Title.a Nordic perspective. Episodes. Nugraha. development and utilization of geothermal resources . T.d. 1–8.