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Key Stage 4 Year 10 Date

:
Subject: CHEMISTRY
Name and Surname: Total Marks 100

Instructions

• Use black ink or ball-point pen.

• Fill in the box at the top of this page with your name.

• Answer all questions.

• Answer the questions in the spaces provided – there may be more space than you need.

Information

• The total mark for this paper is 100.

• The marks for each question are shown in brackets – use this as a guide as to how much time to spend on
each question.

Advice

• Read each question carefully before you start to answer it.

• Keep an eye on the time.

• Try to answer every question.

• Check your answers if you have time at the end.

Questions

Q1. Atoms contain three different types of particle.
These are electrons, neutrons and protons.
(a) Which one of the three particles has a negative charge?
(1)
..............................................................................................................................................

(b) Which one of the three particles has the smallest mass?
(1)
..............................................................................................................................................

(c) Use words from the box to complete the sentences below.
Each word may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

(i) Atoms are neutral because they contain equal numbers of
.................................................................... and ....................................................................
(1)

(ii) Isotopes are atoms with the same number of ....................................................................
but different numbers of .................................................................... in the nucleus.
(2)

(d) An atom of magnesium can be represented by the symbol
Use numbers to complete these statements about this atom.
(i) The atomic number of this atom is ................................
(1)
(ii) The mass number of this atom is ................................
(1)
(iii) The electronic configuration of this atom is ................................
(1)

(Total for question = 8 marks)

Q2. The diagram shows the electronic configurations of six different atoms.

(a) You may use the Periodic Table on page 2 to help you answer this question.
Answer each part by writing one of the letters A, B, C, D, E or F in the box provided.
You may use each letter once, more than once or not at all.
Give the letter that represents an atom

(6)

(b) Atoms of A and D combine to form a compound containing covalent bonds.
(i) Complete the sentence to describe a covalent bond.
(2)
A covalent bond is the electrostatic attraction between a pair of

........................................................................

and the ........................................................................ of two atoms.

(ii) Suggest, with reference to electronic configurations, the most likely formula of the compound
formed between atoms of A and D.
(1)
.............................................................................................................................................

(Total for question = 9 marks)

Q3. Neodymium is a metal used in powerful magnets.
(a) One stage in the extraction of neodymium from its ore is to heat neodymium fluoride with calcium.
The table shows the melting points of the substances in this stage of the extraction.

(i) Balance the equation for this reaction.

............ (Total for question = 8 marks) Q4..................... .........................................................Nd + ................................................................ ..............................................................................................Ca → ................................................................................................... Suggest the formula of neodymium oxide................ (1) ................ (iii) Suggest the most likely type of bonding present in neodymium fluoride............................................... She adds the mixture to water in a beaker and then carries out the three stages shown.................................................................................... .................................................................. with reference to the diagram.................... (1) ................................................................................................................ the temperature of the reaction mixture is 1100 °C............................................................................................................................................................................................................NdF3 + ............................................................................ The diagram shows the apparatus a student uses to separate a mixture of salt and sand.......................................................... .............................. (1) .CaF 2 (ii) At one point in this extraction................................ (4) ............................................................................... .... (b) The diagram shows the particles in neodymium Explain...... Which two substances are solids at this temperature? (1) .................................................................................... ............................ (iv) Neodymium reacts with oxygen to form neodymium oxide................................. why neodymium is malleable and a good conductor of electricity............................................................................................................... .. and .................................................................................................................................................. ............................................

................... (2) X .................................................................................. (d) What happens to the water in stage 3? (1) ........................................... 2 or 3................................................................. 1.................. ..............................................(a) Give the names of the pieces of apparatus labelled X and Y................................. is the salt collected? (1) ............................................................................ (Total for question = 7 marks) ................................................................................................................................................. 1.................... (b) (i) A liquid that dissolves substances is a (1) A solute B solution C solvent D suspension (ii) The clear liquid that forms in stage 1 is a (1) A solute B solution C solvent D suspension (c) (i) At which stage................................................................................................................. is the sand collected? (1) ............. 2 or 3........................................................................ (ii) At which stage........................ Y ...............................................................................

........................ (i) Use the information in the table to place the four metals in order of reactivity............................... A student observes the reaction of dilute hydrochloric acid with four metals................... She uses the same amount of metal in each case.............. (Total for question = 6 marks) Q6..................... The displayed formula of but-1-ene is .................................................... The table shows her observations.............................. (2) (ii) Give the names of the two products formed when magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid................... Product 2 ..................................................................... (b) Describe a test to show that dilute hydrochloric acid contains chloride ions.................................................................................Q5............................................................. HCl(aq).............. ........................ (2) ............................. Q.............. ............... (a) Dilute hydrochloric acid................................ This question is about hydrochloric acid....................... But-1-ene is a member of the homologous series of alkenes................................. P.............. ............................................................................................. Place the most reactive first................................. (2) Product 1 ........................... reacts with many metals.................. R and S..................

.....The saturated compound cyclobutane is an isomer of but-1-ene............................ (1) (iii) Describe a test that would distinguish between but-1-ene and cyclobutane............................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................... . .......... (1) ........................................................ ....................... .......... complete the two chemical equations to show the formula of the organic product........................ (3) ..................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... (2) ........................ (i) The reaction between but-1-ene and steam.... ................................................................................. The displayed formula of cyclobutane is (a) (i) State what is meant by the term isomers................................................................................................................................................. (ii) Draw the displayed formula of another isomer of but-1-ene.......................................................... (b) Using your knowledge of the reactions of ethene............................................................................................................................................

.......................... (1) (ii) Explain why hydrogen has a very low boiling point................................................................ It exists as simple molecules.... This question is about hydrogen (H2) and water......................... (a) Hydrogen is a gas at room temperature..................................................... ................................................................................................... (2) ............. neutrons and electrons in each of the three isotopes of hydrogen. (2) (Total for question = 9 marks) Q7......................................................................................................................... (i) Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the arrangement of the electrons in a hydrogen molecule................................................................................................................................. (b) The symbols for the three isotopes of hydrogen are (i) State what is meant by the term isotopes......................................................................... (ii) The polymerisation of but-1-ene................. (2) ..................... .................................................................................................................... (ii) Complete the table to show the number of protons................................. (3) ........................................................................... ............... ....................................................................................................................... .............................................................................................. .........................................

............................................ (1) ...................................................................................................................................... (2) .................................................................................. (2) ........................................................... .................................. (iv) Describe a physical test to show that the product is pure water....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .... heat energy is transferred to the surroundings............................................................................................................................. (Total for question = 15 marks) ......... ................................................. (iii) Describe a chemical test to show that the product is water............... (i) State the name given to a reaction in which heat energy is transferred to the surroundings.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................(c) When hydrogen burns in oxygen......................... (2) ............. ................................................................................................................................................ (ii) Write a chemical equation to represent the reaction that takes place when hydrogen burns in oxygen....................................... ...........................

............. The first one has been done for you................. ............. (v) Give the general formula of the homologous series that contains this compound............................ (2) C2H4 + ........ (5) (b) The formula CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 represents one of the compounds in crude oil............... (i) Balance the equation to show the complete combustion of ethene (C2H4)................ (1) .................. (2) (d) Ethanol can be manufactured by the hydration of ethene..............O2 → .................. (1) ...................... in both columns or in neither column........... (iv) Give the name of this compound.................................................................................... (1) (iii) Give the empirical formula of this compound......................... (ii) Give the displayed formula of this compound...................... (1) ..............Q8... The equation for this reaction is C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → C2H5OH(g) (i) Identify the catalyst and state the temperature used in this process................. Fractional distillation and cracking are important steps in processing crude oil............. (a) Place ticks ( ) in the columns to show which statements apply to each step.................................................... (i) Give the molecular formula of this compound.....................................CO2 + ..... You may place a tick in one column......................H2O (ii) Draw a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in an ethene molecule................................................... (c) The products of the complete combustion of hydrocarbons are carbon dioxide and water. (1) ................... Show only the outer electrons in each atom......................................................................................

........................................................................................................................ of ethene needed and the volume...................................................... (ii) A 20 mol sample of ethanol was produced using this reaction..... in dm3................................ ... Deduce the amount............................................... mol Volume of ethene Volume = .......................... (2) Catalyst .............................................................. in moles........................................................................ ................................ ....................................... dm3 (Total for Question = 19 marks) .. (3) Amount of ethene ...... Temperature .................................... that this amount of ethene would occupy at room temperature and pressure....... Assume that all of the ethene is converted into ethanol and that the molar volume of ethene is 24 dm3 at rtp.....................

............................................................................................................................................................................................................. (2) ..................................... ...... The diagram shows the structure of a decane molecule............................................ ................................................................................. (ii) Use the diagram to state two changes that occur during the formation of poly(ethene).................... (a) (i) Explain why decane is described as a hydrocarbon............................................... (2) ................................ C2H4........ ................................................................................. ................. ......................................... (4) ............................................................................................................................................................................................. are produced during the cracking of eicosane...................................... (b) Decane and ethene.............................................. .......................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................... C20H42 Ethene is used to make poly(ethene)....................................................................... (c) Explain why cracking is an important process in the oil industry...................................................................................................................................................................... (1) ...... (ii) Give the molecular formula for decane......... Decane is a hydrocarbon found in crude oil........................................................................................................................................................ ......................................Q9................................................................ (i) What is the name given to this type of polymerisation? (1) .........................................................................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................... .................................................. ..................................................................................................... This apparatus is used to electrolyse a concentrated solution of sodium chloride................................................................................................................................ .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................ (ii) Suggest why the volume of chlorine collected is less than expected........................................................................................................................................................................................................... (1) ........................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................. .... (1) .............................. (a) The ionic half-equations for the reactions at the electrodes are (i) State how these ionic half-equations show that equal volumes of the two gases should be collected.................................................................................................................................................... ..................................... ..................................................................... .................... (Total for Question = 10 marks) Q10............................................................................................ ........

................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. (1) .................................. (1) ...................................................................................... (iii) How is hydrogen chloride gas converted into hydrochloric acid? (1) ................................................ HCl(g).............................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................... (2) (c) (i) State why chlorine is sometimes added to water supplies............................... ..................................... (Total for question = 9 marks) ............... (iii) A sample of the solution near to the negative electrode is tested with phenolphthalein indicator................... Write a chemical equation to show the formation of hydrogen chloride from hydrogen and chlorine........................................................................................................................ (ii) Chlorine is used to manufacture hydrogen chloride gas........................................................................................................ (2) ...................................... ................................. ..................................................... (b) The table shows two methods of testing for chlorine........................................ Complete the table by giving the observation made in each test........................................................................................................................................................................ Explain why the phenolphthalein turns pink....................................... ........................................................................

.

Parts (b)(i) and (ii) were well answered by the majority although there is still some confusion concerning the terms solute and solvent. In (d)(i) and (ii) 12 and 24 were almost always used as answers. many others thought it was a thermometer. However. and simply stating that delocalised electrons carry the charge. The electronic configuration was very often correct. with a handful choosing neutron as the particle with a negative charge. some candidates just explained what malleable meant without any explanation. In (iii) most correctly gave ionic but significant numbers suggested covalent and occasionally metallic. but several errors were seen. Q3. The vast majority could balance the equation in (a)(i) and gave both correct answers in (ii) although some omitted fluoride in both names. 'Nonmetals' was a frequent answer given in place of 'electrons'. Most candidates gave. Q4. which was the case. As the first questions in this paper were targeted at the lowest grades. Part (a) was generally answered well with many candidates scoring all six marks. a correct formula of A2D or its acceptable alternative H2O. with fewer candidates giving incorrect references to the type of particles or bonding present in a metal. Q2. Part (iv) was correctly answered by just over half of candidates. Part (b) required explanations for the malleability and conductivity of neodymium metal. Parts (a) and (b) were invariably correct. especially in the selection of particles for isotopes. Weaker candidates suggested incorrect formulae such as NdO2 or NdO and others used Nb or Ne as the symbol for neodymium although Nd was given in the question. it was pleasing to see an improvement on this type of question from previous years.Examiner's Report Q1. Although it provided a good distribution of marks. Part (b)(i) proved to be more challenging than expected. high scores in this question were expected from almost all candidates. although a few seemed reluctant to choose the same particle as the answer to both parts. Common mistakes made were in not mentioning layers or the equivalent. Almost none chose elements or molecules as their answers in (c). where some candidates did not seem to appreciate that a covalent bond is the attraction between a (shared/bonding) pair of electrons and the nuclei of the two atoms involved. in (b)(ii). In part (a) almost all recognised Y as a Bunsen burner and although a large majority identified X as a stirring rod. In (d) almost all correctly responded with a . although sometimes the wrong way round. Parts (c)(i) and (ii) were answered correctly by the large majority of candidates.

Some candidates confused this test with that for chlorine. Occasionally confusion between the terms isomers and isotopes was evident. The meaning of the term isomers is quite frequently asked so it was disappointing that not more candidates gained both marks in (a)(i) as they used the term chemical/general/empirical formula instead of molecular formula. although some who used overlapping or touching circles failed to place the two electrons in the area of overlap. These circles need not be included in a dot-and- cross diagram and candidates are strongly advised not to include them. instead of hydrogen. Some just added hydrogen atoms and others gave structures with the double bond still present. the test for chloride ions was generally well known. Many candidates found part (a)(ii) difficult with large numbers of them confusing intermolecular forces with covalent bonds. Incorrect responses often used bromine in the presence of UV light but some students did give a very full answer including explaining that the alkane and bromine mixture would not change unless UV light was used. so there were a significant number of 'bleaches litmus paper' given as answers. Q5. as a product of the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. often with the C=C bond on the right instead of on the left as shown in the question.reference to the water evaporating but some just said the water is being heated. In (ii) a common mistake was again leaving the double bond in the structure which lost both marks. Other common errors were drawing carbon atoms with too few or too many bonds. The solution was already acidic so it was unnecessary to add nitric acid. In (i) it was common to see incorrect bond linkages such as C-H-O whilst some just added an –O and others added H2O on to a carbon atom on the end of the molecule. Part (b) required the candidates to predict the structure of the product of (i) the reaction between but-1- ene and steam and (ii) the polymerisation of but-1-ene. It might be useful for these candidates to consider what happens in a kettle: when water . since the structure shown could not be regarded as a near miss. Q6. Others did not show continuation bonds going through the brackets. or where the two circles touched. however this was not penalised. which was not an acceptable answer to the question. Part (a) was generally well answered with the most common mistake being to quote water. In (a)(i). In part (b). Some either left out the n after the brackets or placed it in front of the brackets. In (a)(iii) many candidates could describe the test using bromine water to distinguish between but-1-ene and cyclobutane but a common error was to omit to give the result with cyclobutane. Drawing another isomer of but-1-ene in part (ii) proved challenging with many just re-drawing the formula of but-1-ene but showing it differently. the dot-and-cross diagram for the hydrogen molecule was drawn well by the vast majority of candidates. Q7.

The explanation of isotopes in (b)(i) was answered well and precisely by the better candidates. reacting the liquid with a reactive metal such as sodium and. not into hydrogen and oxygen. The most common error was in the number of neutrons. asked for in parts (iii) and (iv). but a more common way to lose both marks was to give the formula of water as H2O2. the mark for 'little energy is required to break the bonds' cannot be awarded. Many answers lacked structure and contained much irrelevant information about. for the chemical test. but still some candidates decide to choose. most candidates realised that it is an exothermic reaction in which heat energy is transferred to the surroundings. A typical response was 'Isotopes are elements with the same atomic number but different mass numbers'. there was a lot of confusion between cracking and fractional distillation. The chemical and physical tests for water.2. but few were then able to take the next step and state that the monomer molecules joined together to make a chain. with a few stating that there were twelve atoms of hydrogen present. Others decided to mention both the covalent bonds and the intermolecular forces/bonds in their answer. such as the wrong number of carbon and/or hydrogen atoms shown.boils it turns into water vapour. In part (c). Q9. Q8. adding universal indicator or litmus. but many did not refer to 'atoms' in their answer. However. Such responses failed to score the first of the two marks available. In (c)(i). some candidates described a hydrocarbon as a mixture of hydrogen and carbon and others incorrectly referred to the hydrogen and carbon present as being molecules rather than atoms. with the numbers 1. The equation in (c)(ii) produced the usual errors of monatomic hydrogen and oxygen. and a minority came up with other suggestions such as redox. However. The definition of a hydrocarbon was well known. Since. The molecular formula of decane was almost always given correctly. and often then failed to state clearly which of the two were overcome/broken when hydrogen boils. Most realised that the one of the bonds in the double bond breaks. The ethene diagram in (c)(ii) was generally well done. although this was usually described less accurately as 'the double bond breaks'. with the commonest answers being in (b)(iii) (where there seemed to be a reluctance to give the same answer as in (b)(i)). with few errors seen. for example. so little energy is required to break the bonds'. very few failed to score at least one or two marks and there were many fully correct descriptions of the importance of cracking. with only a small minority failing to mention that only hydrogen and carbon are present. . Part (b)(ii) proved to be an easy three marks for most. Parts (a) and (b) were well answered. for the physical test. and with some ambiguous answers (such as puntane and bentane in (b)(iv)). with many describing the latter and the usefulness of the fractions obtained.3 being seen far too often. A typical answer along these lines was 'Hydrogen is covalently bonded with weak intermolecular bonds. how cracking is achieved. have been set frequently. although some thought it was endothermic. Almost everyone knew that the type of polymerisation was addition but many could not completely describe how the polymer was formed. in this answer. Q10. it is not clear which bonds are being referred to. Part (d) was well answered.

or killing bacteria (or alternatives such as pathogens or microorganisms). and there were many incorrect or irrelevant statements seen. because the sodium hydroxide would be formed in the left-hand tube. including green and purple. The expectation was a reference to sterilisation or disinfecting. including 'both equations have 2 electrons' and 'there is a 2 in H2 and Cl2'. or in sodium chloride solution. In part (b). the reaction of chlorine with water. In (a) (ii). The equation in (c) (ii) was almost always correct. or from those who thought solid iodine might be formed. the result of the reaction with potassium chloride solution was less well known. while in (c) (ii) a small minority of answers referred to cooling or condensing rather than to water. and also the formation of a white precipitate. most knew the final colour in the litmus (ideally white. the commonest wrong answers in (i) being 'to clean it'. 'to remove impurities' and 'to purify it'. but not with sodium hydroxide. a reference to a black or grey solid. although some answers referred to the gas escaping. Part (a) caused the most problems. most realised that chlorine was partially soluble in water. . with a few referring to only one of the formation of hydroxide ions and the solution being alkaline. one molecule of each gas forms' and 'there are equal volumes because the number of moles of each gas is the same'. Many scores of 2 in (a) (iii) were seen. and candidates often found it hard to express what they were trying to say in (a) (i). but colourless and bleached were also accepted). was also accepted. a small minority of candidates thought that the pink colour indicated acidity. with a range of unacceptable colours appearing. Part (c) was generally well answered. Examples of acceptable answers included 'when 2 electrons are used.This question was about chlorine and its formation in the laboratory by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution. although some did not go further than red. The expectation was brown (or an intermediate colour such as orange or yellow).

. Q2.Mark Scheme Q1.

. (Total for question = 9 marks) Q3.

(Total for question = 8 marks) .

.Q4. (Total for question = 7 marks) Q5.

(Total for question = 6 marks) Q6. .

.

(Total for question = 9 marks) Q7. .

.

(Total for question = 15 marks) .

Q8. .

.

Q9. .

.Q10.