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# Title of Experiment : Balancing of Rotating Masses

Date of experiment : 29th March 2017

Submission date : 24th May 2017

In heavy industrial machines vibration could cause catastrophic failure. This is occur when there is no resulting turning moment along the axis.  To learn a simple. not only the magnitude of the unbalanced mass and its distance from the axis of rotation are to be determined. It is important for rotating bodies to avoid vibration. practical method of dynamic balancing that can be used in the field. THEORY: Balancing is a process of the redistribution of the mass in the system such that the reactions at the bearings are within the tolerable limits of the bearings. For a body to be completely balanced it must have two things : Static Balance: This simply means the insurance of mass distribution about the axis of rotation of the rotating mechanical part in the radial directions. Dynamic Balance: The mass distribution of the part is detected in all directions. but also its position in the axial (longitudinal) direction of the rotational part. without consideration of that distribution in the axial (longitudinal) direction.OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the causes of undesirable vibration of rotors  To understand the static and dynamic unbalance conditions of rotors. and not only about the central axis. It occurs when there is no resultant centrifugal force and the centre of gravity is on the axis of rotation. In the case of simple wheel. there is more to it. Vibration generate high level of noise when car wheel is become unbalance. and so. balancing simply involves moving the centre of gravity to the center of rotation but for complex bodies. .

disc drives. disc brakes. The unit under test is bolted to the platform and is rotated either with a belt-. the machine can determine how much and where to add weights to balance the part. As the part is rotated. fans. with suspension and bearings on top supporting a mounting platform. turbines. air-. the vibration in the suspension is detected with sensors and that information is used to determine the amount of unbalance in the part. propellers and pumps. The machine usually consists of two rigid pedestals. or end-drive. .Balancing Machine: It is a measuring tool used for balancing rotating machine parts such as rotors for electric motors. Along with phase information.

7. The mass consisted of two parts which screw together and are attached through the holes in discs. The calibration curve of amplitude against out of balance moment about the pivot axis is plotted. The discs can be unbalanced by attaching mass with it. The balanced mass attach with the rotor is made sure there was no other out from it. 9. 8. 4. The amplitude of the forced vibration of the cradle is read on the meter. . 3. 5. The measurement of amplitude of vibration is repeated for different values of mass radius product for the out of balance mass added to disc. The stroboscope is switched to “External”. The rotor is supported in its bearings and is driven by a DC motor through belt whose speed can be controlled. The motor is switched on and its speed is adjusted until the rotational frequency of the rotor is steady.EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: The apparatus provided for this experiment shown in Figure 1. The contractor unit is adjusted it just triggered the stroboscope when the cradle is at its maximum displacement. Figure 1 Cussons Balancing Machine Methods: 1. Four discs are attached with the shaft. 2. An out of balance mass is attached at a measured radius to disc 1. 6. The stroboscope is switched to “Internal”.

2 4.0 5.Result Table 1 : Mass (gm) Radius (r.1 1056 Amplitude vs.2 1.2 2. Unbalance Force 16 14 12 10 Internal 8 External Linear (Internal) 6 Linear (External) 4 2 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Graph 1: Amplitude against unbalance force for 66mm .1 14. Unbalance Force 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Internal External Linear (Internal) Linear (External) Graph 1: Amplitude against unbalance force for 44mm Amplitude vs. mm) Amplitude (dB) Mass x Radius (gm mm) Internal External 8 44 1.2 704 66 14.2 484 66 5.4 352 66 2.0 528 11 44 2.1 2.1 726 16 44 5.

The adjusting button for the rotor speed is too sensitive and with a small rotation of hand can cause the speed to increase drastically. one must observe the scale perpendicularly to get accurate amplitude readings. Next. This will lead to machine errors that will a little bit affect the experiment. Last human error is the observer determine the amplitude with the wrong contractor unit. the unbalance moment increase as the amplitude increase. Human errors are the example of errors that cannot be avoided. First machine error is the machine is old and can possibly have function failures. this machine will always endure the vibration from the unbalance loads. the observer must be good at adjusting the button with steady hand and handling it with patient. the machine lifespan will also affect by the number of times that the machine has been used. This may also due to the increasing out of balance mass nor the vibrational forces acting on the rotor. the observer’s eye is not perpendicular to the stroboscope scale when reading the amplitude. As the time goes. Moreover. To avoid this from happening. vibration can cause machine efficiency to be low and shorten its lifespan. the machine is old so does its stroboscope light. To avoid it from happening. so we can run this experiment smoothly. they should replace the old machine with the new version that have feature like digital scale. On top of that. There are certain amount of errors that need to be discuss and consider to explain whether the results are relevant to the way we conduct the experiment. does not have steady hand can be an error when adjusting the speed of the motor. They should aware of the contractor unit before taking the amplitude readings. First human error is the observer’s eye is not perpendicular to the plane scale. This can affect the final result of the experiment as the amplitude is needed to plot the calibration curve or graph. To avoid this from happening. For instance. This can cause the readings of amplitude to be inaccurate because the scale has more than one scale measurement unit. the observer cannot determine whether the number . It will make it more difficult to adjust the speed when the observer does not handle it steadily and can cause the amplitude to be incorrect.Discussion As we can see on the Graph 1 and Graph 2. Next error is vibration of the rotor can cause the machine to slip a little bit on the table. New machine will possibly increase the chance to get more accurate readings. Next. the machine should be attached and fixed on the table so it does not slip. If the light does not function well. To resolve this issue.

The system rotates without requiring the application of any external force or couple. Last machine error is the rotor have friction when it rotates. Dynamic balancing . without the application of any braking force. This would result in discomfort to the driver and damage to the engine. the vibration parts will wear quickly and reduce the lifespan of the machine. The friction can cause the speed of the rotor to be a little bit slower than it should be and again this error can affect the result of this experiment. Why is balancing of rotating parts necessary for high speed engines? If the rotating parts are not balanced. It has no tendency to rotate due to the force of gravity.A rotating system of mass is in dynamic balance when the rotation does not produce any resultant centrifugal force or couple. We should put some oil on the rotor before starting the experiment to avoid the friction from disturbing the rotation of the rotor. Static balancing – Static balance occurs when the centre of gravity of an object is on the axis of rotation. 1. It is very important for a rotating machine to be balanced and large unbalance magnitude is not desirable. then the vibrations caused by the parts will be too much. The object can therefore remain stationary. 2.on the rotor can be static or not. counterbalancing weights must be added. it will create vibration. This will also affect the amplitude readings for the experiment. The vibration is definitely not wanted as there will be energy waste and will greatly affect the efficiency of the machine and thus energy cost. Balancing is one of the most critical process in case of rotating machine. . with the axis horizontal. Other than that. other than that required to support its weight. This is because when a rotating machine is unbalanced. Based on your experimental results explain clearly the terms ‘static balancing’ and ‘dynamic balancing’. to avoid the stress upon the bearings caused by the centrifugal couple. Balancing is nothing but removing the unbalance mass from your rotor. There are a few causes that lead to unbalance of rotating machinery. If a system is initially unbalanced. State the necessary conditions to achieve them.

CONCLUSION The discs of the rotor are balanced. How the different out of balanced masses rotating in different planes are balanced. the shape of the rotating parts can also affect the balancing. Different out of balanced masses rotating in different planes are balanced when the resultant force and the resultant couple both are zero. An unbalanced rotating machine will create a lot of consequences such as shorter lifespan. The periodic nature of these forces is commonly experienced as vibration. Other than that. energy consumption and failure of parts. For instance. When an unbalanced system is rotating. or the instantaneous linear forces may exceed the limits of the bearing. periodic linear and/or torsional forces are generated which are perpendicular to the axis of rotation. Shafts with unbalanced masses can be bent by the forces and experience fatigue failure. There are few reasons to an unbalanced rotating machine. a bearing may be subjected to perpendicular torsion forces that would not occur in a nominally balanced system. . 3. Such excessive forces will cause failure in bearings in short time periods. 4. reducing the service life of these parts. These off-axis vibration forces may exceed the design limits of individual machine elements. Discuss how a single revolving out of balanced mass effects on the rotor bearing. They are mainly due to uneven distribution of mass either of the material itself or the whole assembly.