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L-9 Areas of Parallelograms and Triangles

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Question 1

**If each diagonal of a quadrilateral separates it into two triangles of equal area, then show that
**

the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

Ans.

**ar( ABD) = ar( BDC) and ar( ACB) = ar( ADC)
**

ar( ABD) + ar( BDC) = ar(Quad. ABCD)

2ar( ABD) = ar(Quad. ABCD)

ar( ABD) = ar(Quad. ABCD)

**Similarly ar( ADC) = ar(Quad. ABCD)
**

ar( ABD) = ar( ADC)

ABD and ADC are on the same base AD

Altitude from B of the ABD = altitude from C of the ADC

AD BC Similarly, AB DC

Quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram (opposite sides are parallel)

Question 2

**Prove that of all the parallelograms of the given sides, a rectangle has the greatest area.
**

Ans.

**ABCD is a rectangle and ABFE is a parallelogram, such that
**

AD = BC = AE = BF

Area of rectangle = base x altitude

= AB x AD

Area of parallelogram ABFC = base x altitude

= AB x EG

**In AGE, AE > EG (AE is the hypotenuse of right triangle)
**

But AD = AE

AD > EG

Hence, ar(rectangle ABCD) > ar (parallelogram ABFE)

Question 3

**In a parallelogram ABCD, AB = 20 cm. The altitude corresponding to the side AB and AD are
**

14 cm and 10 cm respectively. Find AD.

Ans.

Area of parallelogram = base x altitude

AB x BF = BC x DE

20 x 14 = BC x 10

BC = 28 cm

AD = BC (opposite sides of a parallelogram)

AD = 28 cm.

Question 4

**In a parallelogram PQRS, Take a point A on RS and join P and Q. In how many parts, the
**

parallelogram is divided? What are the shapes of these Parts? Divide the parallelogram into

two parts of equal area.

Ans.

**PQRS is a parallelogram. A is a point on SR
**

By joining A to P and Q, parallelogram is divided into three parts.

Each part is triangular in shape. Three triangles are PSA, PAQ and QAR.

The diagonals of a parallelogram divide it into two parts of equal area.

Question 5

**In the square ABCD of side 10 cm E and F are the mid points of AD and BC. Find the area of
**

APE.

Ans.

Since E and F are the mid points of AD and BC respectively

EF DC EP DC

In ADC, P is the mid point of AC and EP DC

Hence ar( APE) = 12.5 sq. cm.

Question 6

If E, F, G and H are respectively the mid points of the sides of a parallelogram ABCD, show

that ar(EFGH) = ar(ABCD).

Ans.

Join HF.

Since H and f are the mid points of Ad and BC respectively,

ABCD is a parallelogram

AEFD and EBCF are two parallelograms on the same base EF and between the same parallels. AD = BC and AD BC AH = BF and AH BF ABFH is a parallelogram Since parallelogram FHAB and FHE are on the same base and between the same parallels HF and AB. quadrilateral EBCF is also a parallelogram. Show that ABCD is a parallelogram. AD and BC. Ans. ar(AEFD) = ar(EBCF) Question 8 ABCD is a quadrilateral and BD is one of its diagonals as shown in the figure. Question 7 Show that line segment joining the mid points of a pair of opposite sides of a parallelogram. divides it into two equal parallelograms. Since ABCD is a parallelogram AB = DC and AB DC AE = DF and AE DF Quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram. Similarly. Find its area. .

units Hence area of parallelogram = 50sq. (I) . units Question 9 Prove that the area of a parallelogram is the product of any base of it and the corresponding altitude. Let ABCD be the parallelogram and BL the altitude corresponding to the side AB.) ABCD is a parallelogram Area of parallelogram = base x corresponding altitude = 5 x 10 = 50 sq. Question 10 Which of the following figures lie on the same base and between the same parallels? Write the common base and the two parallels. Parallelogram ABCD and rectangle ABLM are on the same base and between the same parallels AB and MC. Ans. the area of a parallelogram is the product of any base of it and the corresponding altitude. Diagonal BD intersects AB and CD such that CDB = ABD = 90o AB DC. and AB = DC = 5 units. Complete the rectangle ABLM. (One pair of sides of quadrilateral ABCD is equal and parallel. ar(ABCD) = ar(ABLM) ar(ABCD) = AB x BL (area of a rectangle = length x breadth) Hence.Ans.

. (II) Here two quadrilaterals ABCD and AEFD are on the same base AD and between the same parallels AD and BC.(II) Ans. Question 1 Ans. but not the same parallels. (I) Here two quadrilaterals ABCD and ADEF are on the same base AD.

Question 2 .

.Ans. Question 4 Ans. Question 3 Ans.

Question 5 .

Ans. .

.

Question 6 Ans. .

.

Question 8 In a quadrilateral ABCD.Question 7 Ans. Ans. M is the mid point of AC. . Prove that ar (ABMD) = ar (DMBC).

Since X and Y are the mid points of AD and BC respectively. say h cm. If X and Y are respectively. Area of trapezium ABYX = (AB + XY) h = (60 + 50) h = 55 h cm2 ar (DCYX) = ar (ABYX) Question 10 . ar (AMD) = ar (DMC) ar (ABM) + ar (AMD) = ar (BMC) ar (DMC) ar (ABMD) = ar (DMBC) Question 9 ABCD is a trapezium In which AB DC and DC = 40 cm and AB = 60 cm. Area of trapezium DCYX = (DC + XY) h = (40 + 50) h = 45 h cm2 XY = (AB +BP) = (AB + DC) = 50cm.Median BM divides ABC into twotriangles of equal area. ar (ABM) = ar (BMC) Median DM divides DAC into two triangles of equal area. the mid points of AD and BC. Trapezium DCYX and ABYX are of the same height. prove that ar (DCYX) = ar (XYBA). Ans.

... if a triangle on the same base as a parallelogram and they are between the same parallels then the area of the triangle is half that of the parallelogram. .. If area (DAYS)= 56 sq cm.(i) parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. Area (AYS) =area (||gm PQRS). Now. then what is the area of parallelogram PQRS? Ans.PQRS and ABRS are two parallelograms as shown and Y is any point on BR. Area (DAYS)=area (||gm ABRS).using (i) Area (||gm PQRS) =112 sq cm Question 11 Diagonals AC and BD of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect at O in such a way that ar (AOD) = ar (BOC).Area (parallelogram PQRS)= area (parallelogram ABRS).. .. Prove that ABCD is a trapezium.....

ABD and ABC have the same base AB and have equal areas. DCMN is a parallelogram. Altitude from D of ABD = Altitude from C of ABC DC AB. AD BC Hence. intersect at O. Question 13 . Draw DN AB and CM AB. ar (AOD) = ar (BOC) ar (AOD) + ar (AOB) = ar (BOC) + ar (AOB) ar (ABD) = ar (ABC) AB DN = AB CM DN = CM But.Ans. DN CM as DN and CM are perpendicular to AB. Question 12 If the diagonals AC. DC AB Hence. Ans. ar (AOD) = ar (BOC) ar (AOD) + ar (AOB) = ar (BOC) + ar (AOB) ar (ABD) = ar (ABC) Thus. Similarly. ABCD is a trapezium. So their corresponding altitudes must be equal. BD of a quadrilateral ABCD. and divide it into four triangles of equal area. Show that the quadrilateral is a parallelogram. quadrilateral ABCD is a parallelogram.

AB DC and DC = 40 cm and AB = 60 cm. X is the mid point of AD Hence XY = 50 cm. In BYP and CYD BYP = CYD (vertically opposite angles) DCY = PBY (alternate angles) BY = CY (given) BYP CYD (ASA) DY = YP and DC = BP Y is the mid point of DP Also. Diagonals of a parallelogram divide it into two triangles of equal area. If X and Y are.ABCD is a trapezium in which. Through O. the mid points of AD and BC. ar (ABC) = ar(ACD) . Show that PQ divides the parallelogram into two parts of equal area that is ar (APQB) = ar (PQCD). Join DY and produce it to meet AB produced at P. Ans. Question 14 The diagonals of a parallelogram ABCD intersect at point O. Ans. a line is drawn to intersect AD at P and BC at Q. prove that XY = 50 cm. respectively.

.5 cm.(i) AOP COQ (ASA) ar (AOP) = ar (COQ)… (ii) From (i) and (ii) ar (ABQO) + ar (COQ) = ar (CDPO) + ar (AOP) ar (ABQP) = ar (PQCD) Question 15 ABCD is a parallelogram of area 900 sq. Question 16 The figure shows two parallelograms ABCD and ABEF. ar (ABQO) + ar (COQ) = ar (CDPO) + ar (AOP) . 900 = AB 18. AP is drawn perpendicular to BC and AQ is perpendicular to DC.75 cm.5 cm. Area of parallelogram ABCD = BC AP 900 = BC 24 BC = 37. If AP = 24 cm and AQ = 18.. cm. Prove that Area of ADF = area of BCE. BC = 37. cm. Hence.. Also. Area of parallelogram = base corresponding altitude.75 AB = 48 cm. Ans. Calculate (i) AB (ii) BC (iii) area of ABC. AB = 48 cm. area of ABC = 450 sq.

EBC and parallelogram ABCD are on the same base BC and between the same parallels AD and BC. Calculate (i) area of parallelogram ABCD (ii) area of parallelogram BCFE. ar (BCE) = ar (ABCD) ar (ADF) = ar (BCE) Question 17 ABCD and BCEF are parallelograms. Parallelogram ABCD and parallelogram ABEF are on the same base AB and between the same parallels AB and FC. ar (ABCD) = ar (ABEF) Now ar (ADF) = ar (ABEF) (Same base AB and between the same parallels AB and FE) Similarly. ar (ABCD) = 2 480= 960 sq.Ans. cm Parallelogram ABCD and BCEF are on the same base BC and between the same parallels AF and BC. cm. ar (ABCD) = 2 ar (EBC) Hence. cm Question 1 . Ans. ar (ABCD) = ar (BCEF) = 960 sq. If area of triangle EBC = 480 sq.

.Ans. Question 2 Ans.

Question 4 .Question 3 Ans.

Ans. . Question 5 Ans.

Question 6 .

. Question 7 Ans.Ans.

.Question 8 Ans.

Question 9 .

Ans. . Question 10 Ans.

.Question 11 Ans.

.Question 12 Ans.

Show that ar (ABE) = ar (ACF). Parallelograms BCFX and BCYE are on the same base BC and between same parallels BC and EF. such that BE AC and CF AB Proof: since YE BC and BE CY BCYE is a parallelogram.Question 13 XY is a line parallel to the side BC of a ABC. BE AC and CF AB meets XY at E and F respectively. Similarly. ar (BCYE) = ar (BCFX) …(i) ar (ABE) = ar (BCYE) …(ii) ( on same base and between same parallels) . BCFX is a parallelogram. Given: ABC. Ans.

Triangles ABQ and PBQ are on the same base BQ and between the same parallels AP and BQ.Similarly ar (ACF) = ar (BCFX) …(iii) From (i). triangles BCQ and BRQ are on the same base BQ and between the same parallels BQ and CR. Ans. (ii) and (iii) Hence ar (ABE) = ar (ACF) Question 14 In the figure AP BQ CR. ar (ABQ) = ar (PBQ) …(ii) Similarly. . Prove that ar (AQC) = ar (PBR). ar (BCQ) = ar (BRQ) …(i) Adding (i) and (ii) ar (ABQ) + ar (BCQ) = ar (PBQ) + ar (BRQ) ar (AQC) = ar (PBR) Question 15 A point D is taken on the side BC of a ABC such that BD = 2DC. Ans. Prove that ar (ABD) = 2 ar (ADC).

CQ PD meets AB at Q. BD = 2DC Let E be the mid point of BD. To prove: ar (ABD) = ar (ADC) Draw AL BC Proof: ar (ABD) = BD AL ar (ADC) = DC AL But BD = DC ar (ABD) = ar (ADC) Question 17 In triangle ABC. D is the mid point of AB. P is any point on BC. Ans. . Show that ar (BPQ) = ar (ABC). Let AD be one of the medians of ABC. BE = ED = DC Since AE and AD are medians of ABD and AEC respectively ar (ABD) = 2ar (AED) and ar (ADC) = ar (AED) ar (ABD) = 2ar (ADC) Question 16 Show that the median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of equal area.In ABC.

Given: ABC in which D is the mid point of AB. ar (PDC) = ar (PDQ) ar (BCD) = ar (ABC) (median divides a triangle into two triangles of equal area) ar (BPD) + ar (PDC) = ar (ABC) ar (BPD) + ar (PDQ) = ar (ABC) Hence ar (BPQ) = ar (ABC) ( BPD + PDQ = BPQ) Question 18 Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AB DC intersect each other at O. Proof: CD is a median of the ABC ar (BCD) = ar (DAC) PDC and PDQ are on the same base PD and between the same parallels PD and CQ. Prove that: ar (AOD) = ar (BOC).Ans.PD CQ Construction: Join C to D and Q to P. .

Ans. Ans.ar (ABO) ar (AOD) = ar (BOC) Question 19 ABCDE is a pentagon.ar (ABO) = ar (ABC) . . since ABC and ACF are on the same base AC and between the same parallels AC and BF ar (ABC) = ar (ACF) Question 20 Prove that the diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two triangles of equal area. Since ABD and ABC are on the same base AB and between the same parallels AB and DC ar (ABD) = ar (ABC) ar (ABD) . A line through B is parallel to AC meets DC produced at F. Show that ar (ABC) = ar (ACF). Ans. AC BF.

In the GBC. if its area is 20 cm2. Ans. such that GD = 3 cm and BC = 4 cm. Ans.Given: A parallelogram ABCD. ar (ABC) = ar (CDA) (congruent figures have equal areas) Question 21 In a parallelogram ABCD. To prove: ar (ABC) = ar (CDA) In ABC and ADC. BC = 4cm and GD = 3cm Area of GBC = base altitude = 4 3 = 6 cm2 . if AB = 5 cm. Question 22 G is the centroid of the ABC. find the area of the ABC and the distance between the sides AB and CD. AB = CD (opposite sides of a parallelogram) BC = DA (opposite sides of a parallelogram) AC = CA (common) ABC CDA (SSS) Hence. Area of the parallelogram = 20 cm2 Area of the ABC = = 10 cm2 AB = 5 cm Area of the ABC = base altitude 10 = 5 h h = 4 cm. Find the area of the ABC.

ABC and PBC are on the same base BC and between the same parallels BC and AP. Proof: BCQP is a parallelogram with diagonal PC. and Through C draw CQ BP intersecting BP produced at Q. ar (BCP) = ar (BCQP) Again BCAD is also a parallelogram with diagonal AB ar (ABC) = ar (ADBC) Since parallelogram BCQP and parallelogram BCAD are on the same base BC and between the same parallels BC and DQ. To Prove: ar (ABC) = ar (PBC) Construction. Ans. draw BD CA intersecting PA produced at D.Now area of the ABC = 3 area of GBC = 3 6 = 18 cm2 Hence area of ABC = 18 cm2 Question 23 Prove that the triangles between the same parallels and on the same base are equal in area. ar (BCQP) = ar (BCAD) ar (BCQP) = ar (BCAD) ar (BCP) = ar (ABC) Hence ar (ABC) = ar (BCP) . Through B.

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