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Historical Evolution

• Great Man Theory
• Trait Theory
• Behavioural Theories
• Contingency Theories
• Transactional Theories
• Transformational Theories

Historical Evolution
Great Man Theory
The great man theory is a 19th-century idea according to
which history can be largely explained by the impact
of great men, or heroes; highly influential individuals
who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence,
wisdom or political skill used their power in a way that
had a decisive historical impact.
Trait Theory
Trait theories of leadership identify the specific
personality traits that distinguish leaders from non-
leaders. They are based on the premise that leaders are
'born, not made' (i.e., that leadership is largely innate,
rather than being developed through learning).

Historical Evolution
Behavioural Theories
The Behavioral Theory of Leadership. In response to the
early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to
research leadership as a set of behaviors. They evaluated
what successful leaders did, developed a taxonomy of
actions and identified broad patterns that indicated
different leadership styles.
Contingency Theories
A contingency theory is an organizational theory that
claims that there is no best way to organize a corporation,
to lead a company or to make decisions. Instead, the
optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon
the internal and external situation.

extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. organization and performance. Historical Evolution Transactional Theories Transactional leadership. . Bernard M. focuses on supervision. also known as managerial leadership. respect. transactional leadership is a style of leadership in which leaders promote compliance by followers through both rewards and punishments. Transformational Theories Transformational leaders garner trust. and admiration from their followers. Bass (1985).

• The Early Michigan Leadership Studies The studies identified two broad leadership styles – an employee orientation and a production orientation. They also identified three critical characteristics of effective leaders – task- oriented behavior. Important Studies • The Iowa Leadership Studies (School Children) Types of Leadership styles • The Ohio State Leadership Studies (1.9) The Ohio State University Leadership Study underscores two different behavioral views on leadership: people-oriented (consideration) and task-oriented (initiating structure). relationship-oriented behavior and participative leadership .

The Managerial Grid .

The Managerial Grid A two-dimensional grid of leadership behaviours based on concern for people vs. concern for production. .

. The grid is based on the behavioural dimensions “concern for people” and “concern for production” and it evaluates a leader’s use of these behaviours on a scale of 1 (which is low) to 9 (which is high).R. Mouton. The Managerial Grid The Managerial Grid was developed by R. Blake and Jane S.

Blake and Mouton concluded that managers perform best when they use a 9. Which is Team Management on the grid. . The Managerial Grid Although there are a total of 81 different categories of different behavioural styles on the grid.9 style.

.

. Country Club Management Concentrating work around peoples needs to create satisfying relationships and a friendly atmosphere.

Impoverished Management The minimum effort to get required work done to sustain organization membership. .

Task Management Arranging conditions of work so that human elements interfere to a minimal degree. .

.Middle-of-the-Road Management Acceptable organization performance is possible if you balance the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people.

Leader-Member Exchange Theory .

People are categorized into “in” groups and “out” groups •leaders spend more time “leading” members of the in- group . What is Leader-Member Exchange Theory •Leader-Member Exchange is a special relationship that focuses on a two-way relationship between supervisors and subordinates •leaders and their associates develop dyadic (two-person) relationships that affect the behaviour of both •leaders treat individual followers differently.

their exchanges define the followers role. Those who end up getting the attention of the leader form a special group while on the other hand. Low-exchange relationship. e. . Concept of LMX •As leader and follower interact over time. •The roles can be defined into two categories: High-exchange relationship. those who do not get the attention of the leader form another special in-group relationships with him or her.g.

After you have considered this. do you notice any differences the way the in and out-group member respond to the different leader- exchanges . Concept of LMX •Some examples of in-group can be seen in the classroom •Between instructors and students. •Between bosses and certain subordinates.

•They are more likely to get rewards. •Followers in the high LMX relationship are in the inner circle or –in group. •High LMX relationship is based on personality.Leader-member exchange theory is based on some type of characteristic of the follower. access to information and special treatment . and competency. compatibility.

•Has negative consequences for group members. •Leader-member exchange theory is based on some type of characteristic of the follower. •Low LMX relationship is based on opposite views of the high LMX. .Leader-member exchange theory is based on some type of characteristic of the follower. •Leaders often miss out on lost opportunities of not working more with out-group members.

LMX Theory .

Situational Leadership .

Overview • Directive and Supportive Behavior • Leadership Variables • Situational Leadership II Model .

Directive & Supportive Behavior .

Directive/Task Behavior Involves: wClearly Telling People • What to Do • How to Do It • Where to Do It • When to Do It wAnd Then Closely Supervising Their Performance .

Supportive/Relationship Behavior Involves: w Listening to People w Providing Support and Encouraging Their Efforts w Facilitating Their Involvement in w Problem Solving and Decision Making .

Leadership Variables .

Leadership Variables • Follower • Boss • Associates/Peers • Organization • Job Demands • Time .

Interim Summary •Directive/Supportive Behavior •Leadership Variables .

Situational Leadership Model .

(High) THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES S High Supportive and High Directive and U Low Directive High Supportive P Behavior Behavior P O R T I V E S3 S2 B E S4 S1 H A V I O Low Supportive and High Directive and R Low Directive Low Supportive Behavior Behavior (Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) HIGH MODERATE LOW D4 D3 D2 D1 DEVELOPED DEVELOPING DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) 8 .

Subordinate’s Development Level • Competence: Task. Knowledge and Skills • Commitment: Motivation and Confidence 9 .

“Reluctant Contributor” • D4 .“Disillusioned Learner” • D3 .“Enthusiastic Beginner” • D2 . Levels of Development • D1 .“Peak Performer” 15 .

Levels of Development D1 Low Competence. High Commitment “Enthusiastic Beginner” .

Levels of Development D2 Some Competence. Low Commitment “Disillusioned Learner” .

Levels of Development D3 Moderate to High Competence. Variable Commitment “Reluctant Contributor” .

High Commitment “Peak Performer” . Levels of Development D4 High Competence.

High Commitment “Peak Performer” 15 .Low Competence.Some Competence. Low Commitment “Disillusioned Learner” • D3 . High Commitment “Enthusiastic Beginner” • D2 . Levels of Development • D1 . Variable Commitment “Reluctant Contributor” • D4 .Moderate to High Competence.High Competence.

Development Level is Task Specific! .

(High) THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES S High Supportive and High Directive and U Low Directive High Supportive P Behavior Behavior P O R T I V E S3 S2 B E S4 S1 H A V I O Low Supportive and High Directive and R Low Directive Low Supportive Behavior Behavior (Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) HIGH MODERATE LOW D4 D3 D2 D1 DEVELOPED DEVELOPING 18 DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) .

Directing • High Directive. Low Supportive • Leader Defines Roles of Followers • Problem Solving and Decision Making Initiated by the Leader • One-way Communication 19 .

(High) THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES S High Supportive and High Directive and U Low Directive High Supportive P Behavior Behavior P O R T I V E S3 S2 B E S4 S1 H A V I O Low Supportive and High Directive and R Low Directive Low Supportive Behavior Behavior (Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) HIGH MODERATE LOW D4 D3 D2 D1 DEVELOPED DEVELOPING 20 DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) .

Ideas. and Opinions • Two-way Communication • Control Over Decision Making Remains With the Leader 21 . High Supportive • Leader Now Attempts to Hear Followers Suggestions. Coaching • High Directive.

(High) THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES S High Supportive and High Directive and U Low Directive High Supportive P Behavior Behavior P O R T I V E S3 S2 B E S4 S1 H A V I O Low Supportive and High Directive and R Low Directive Low Supportive Behavior Behavior (Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) HIGH MODERATE LOW D4 D3 D2 D1 DEVELOPED DEVELOPING 22 DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) .

Low Directive • Focus of Control Shifts to Follower • Leader Actively Listens • Follower Has Ability and Knowledge to Do the Task 23 . Supporting • High Supportive.

(High) THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES S High Supportive and High Directive and U Low Directive High Supportive P Behavior Behavior P O R T I V E S3 S2 B E S4 S1 H A V I O Low Supportive and High Directive and R Low Directive Low Supportive Behavior Behavior (Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) HIGH MODERATE LOW D4 D3 D2 D1 DEVELOPED DEVELOPING 24 DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) .

Delegating
• Low Supportive, Low Directive
• Leader Discusses Problems With Followers
• Seeks Joint Agreement on Problem
Definitions
• Decision Making Is Handled by the
Subordinate
• They “Run Their Own Show”

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(High) THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES
S High Supportive and High Directive and
U Low Directive High Supportive
P Behavior Behavior
P
O
R
T
I
V
E
S3 S2
B
E S4 S1
H
A
V
I
O Low Supportive and High Directive and
R Low Directive Low Supportive
Behavior Behavior

(Low) DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High)

HIGH MODERATE LOW
D4 D3 D2 D1
DEVELOPED DEVELOPING
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DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S)

What Happens If We Have a
Mismatch of Leadership Style
With Development Level?

Increasing Follower Development Level § Tell Them What You Want Them to Do § Show Them What You Want Them to Do § Let Them Try .There Is Some Risk § Observe Performance .Focus on the Positive § Manage the Consequences .

Five Step to Training Winners § Tell Them What You Want to Do § Show Them What You Want to Do § Let Them Try – There is Some Risk § Observe Performance – Focus on the Positive § Manage the Consequences .

. The Leader’s Goal Build Your Follower’s Development Level So You Can Start Using Less Time-consuming Styles (S3 and S4) and Still Get High Quality Results.

.Situational Leadership is not something you do “TO” people but something you do “WITH” people.

" -. SUMMARY § Directive and Supportive Behavior § Leadership Variables § Situational Leadership II Model "Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work.Thomas Edison .

Path-Goal Theory © 2005 Prentice-Hall 10-55 .

Path-Goal Theory • Leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the direction and support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the organization • Acceptable. Motivational © 2005 Prentice-Hall 10-56 .

Path-Goal Theory • Directive leader • Supportive leader • Participative leader • Achievement-oriented leader © 2005 Prentice-Hall 10-57 .

Path-Goal Theory © 2005 Prentice-Hall 10-58 .

Leadership Transformational Leadership .

Overview v Transformational Leadership (TL) Perspective v A Model of Transformational Leadership v Transformational Leadership Factors v Full Range of Leadership Model v The Additive Effects of TL v Other Transformational Leadership Perspectives v How Does Transformational Approach Work? .

TL is a process that: – changes and transforms individuals – frequently incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership • Influence .TL involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them . Transformational Leadership Description • Process .

and long-term goals – includes assessing followers’ motives. ethics.TL – is concerned with emotions. and treating them as full human beings • Encompassing approach – TL – describes a wide range of leadership influence • Specific: one-to-one with followers • Broad: whole organizations or entire cultures – follower(s) and leader are inextricably bound together in the transformation process . satisfying their needs. values. standards. Transformational Leadership Description • Core elements .

Types of Leadership Defined James McGregor Burns (1978) vTransformational Leadership – Emphasized the difference between sources of authority – includes raising the level of morality in others § Two types of leadership – Transactional – contractual management – Transformational (transforming) – “occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality” (1978) – Pseudotransformational – personalized leadership .

Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978) Focuses on the Process of exchanges engaging with others Focuses on the that occur to create a connection that leader’s between leaders increases own interests and their followers motivation and morality in rather than the both the leader and the interests of their follower followers TRANSACTIONAL TRANSFORMATIONAL PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL .

that occur … between leaders and their followers vThe exchange dimension is so common that you can observe it at all walks of life.Surpass goals = promotion. .Turn in assignments = grade. exchanges . TRANSACTIONAL .Sell more cars = bonus. Focuses on the . Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978) .No new taxes = votes.

exploitive. power- than the interests of oriented. Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978) v Leaders who are Focuses on the – transforming but in a negative leader’s way own interests rather – self-consumed. with warped moral values their followers v includes leaders like § Adolph Hitler § Saddam Hussein PSEUDOTRANSFORMATIONAL .

Process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation Mohandas Gandhi – raised the hopes and morality in both the and demands of millions of his people leader and the follower and in the process was changed himself TRANSFORMATIONAL . Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978) vLeader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential.

Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978) vLeader is attentive to the needs and motives of followers and tries to help followers reach their fullest potential.A manager attempts that increases to change his/her company’s motivation corporate values to reflect a more and morality in both the humane standard of fairness & leader and the follower justice – In the process both manager & followers may emerge with a stronger & higher set of moral values TRANSFORMATIONAL . Process of engaging with others to create a connection Org. example .

and results in the person being treated as a leader (Weber.A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few. is of divine origin. 1976) – Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers . 1947) • Charismatic Leadership Theory (House. Transformational Leadership & Charisma Definition • Charisma .

Theory of Charismatic Leadership (House. 1976) .

tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization • Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards & de- emphasizing extrinsic rewards • Throughout process leaders – Express high expectations for followers – help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self- efficacy . 1993) Later Studies • Charismatic Leadership – – Transforms follower’s self-concepts. Theory of Charismatic Leadership (Shamir. House. & Arthur.

It included: • More attention to follower’s rather than leaders’ needs • Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive • Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum – Extended House’s work by: – Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma – Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL . Model of Transformational Leadership Bass (1985) • Transformational Leadership Model – Expanded and refined version of work done by Burns and House.

Model of Transformational Leadership Bass (1985) TL motivates followers beyond the expected by: ❶ raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals ❷ transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization ❸ addressing higher-level needs .

Transformational Leadership Factors Leaders who exhibit TL: ❶ have a strong set of internal values & ideals ❷ are effective in motivating followers to support greater good over self-interest .

Full Range of Leadership Model .

Transformational Leadership Factors The 4 “I”s Idealized Influence Charisma vDescribes leaders who act as strong role models for followers – followers identify with leaders and emulate them v Leader’s have high standards of ethical and moral conduct – followers deeply respect & trust L’s – L’s provide a vision and sense of mission .

team spirit promoted . Transformational Leadership Factors The 4 “I”s Inspirational Motivation v Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers – inspiring followers through motivation to commitment and engagement in shared vision of the organization – L’s use symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest.

Transformational Leadership Factors The 4 “I”s Intellectual Stimulation v Stimulates followers to be creative and innovative v Challenge their own beliefs and values those of leader and organization v Leader supports followers to – try new approaches – develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues .

Transformational Leadership Factors The 4 “I”s Individualized Consideration v Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the needs of followers vLeader’s act as coaches and advisors encouraging self-actualization .

Transactional Leadership Factors Transactional Leaders – v Leaders do not individualize the needs of subordinates nor focus on their personal development v Exchange things of value with subordinates to further both’s agendas .

Transactional Leadership Factors Contingent Reward v The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards Management by Exception v Leadership that involves corrective criticism.Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations § Passive .Intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen . negative feedback. and negative reinforcement – Two forms § Active .

let-things-ride approach v Refers to a leader who – abdicates responsibility – delays decisions – gives no feedback. and – makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs . Nonleadership Factor Laissez-Faire v The absence of leadership v A hands-off.

Additive Effect of Transformational Leadership .

Other Transformational Perspectives Bennis & Nanus (1985) • Four Leader Strategies in Transforming Organizations ❶ Clear vision of organization’s future state ❷ TL’s social architect of organization ❸ Create trust by making their position known and standing by it ❹ Creatively deploy themselves through positive self- regard .

2002) • Model consists of 5 fundamental practices – Enable leaders to get extraordinary things accomplished ❶ Model the Way – Exemplary leaders set a personal example for others by their own behavior ❷ Inspire a Shared Vision – Effective leaders inspire visions that challenge others to transcend the status quo to do something for others . Other Transformational Perspectives Kouzes & Pozner (1987.

& improve ❹ Enable Others to Act – Leaders create environments where people can feel good about their work & how it contributes to greater community ❺ Encourage the Heart – Leaders use authentic celebrations & rituals to show appreciation & encouragement to others . take risks. Other Transformational Perspectives Kouzes & Pozner (1987. 2002) • Model consists of 5 fundamental practices ❸ Challenge the Process – Leaders are like pioneers – are willing to innovate. grow.

How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work? v Focus of Transformational Leadership v Strengths v Criticisms v Application .

and • TLs stimulate change by carry out significant becoming strong role models for followers changes in organizations • TLs commonly create a vision • TLs require leaders to become social architects • TLs build trust & foster collaboration . develop. Transformational Leadership Focus of Transformational Leaders Overall Scope • TLs empower and nurture • Describes how leaders followers can initiate.

including a large body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs in major firms. • Intuitive appeal. • Expansive leadership view. Strengths • Broadly researched. TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models. values. • Emphasizes follower. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership. TL emphasizes followers’ needs. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them. • Effectiveness. . and morals. TL has been widely researched. • Process-focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.

Criticisms • Lacks conceptual clarity – Dimensions are not clearly delimited – Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership • Measurement questioned – Validity of MLQ not fully established – Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational model • TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught • TL is elitist and antidemocratic • Suffers from heroic leadership bias • TL is based primarily on qualitative data • Has the potential to be abused .

decision-making groups. quality initiatives. and individual concerns • Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization • Able to positively impact a firm’s performance • May be used as a tool in recruitment. and training development • Can be used to improve team development. Application • Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals. and reorganizations • The MLQ helps leaders to target areas of leadership improvement . innovations. promotion. inspiration. selection.

Charismatic Leadership “May the force be with you” .

and charismatic. who maintained that societies could be identified in terms of one of three types of authority systems: traditional. . legal-rational. Max Weber • The most important early research on charismatic leadership was completed by Max Weber.

Traditional Authority System • The traditions and unwritten laws of the society dictate who has authority and how this authority can be used. .

.Legal-Rational Authority System • Authority derives from society’s belief in the laws that govern it.

Charismatic Authority System • Authority stems from the society’s belief in the exemplary characteristics of the leader. .

Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership • James McGregor Burns’s Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership – focused on the differences between power versus leadership and charismatic versus non-charismatic leadership .

Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Cont. – believed that leadership could take one of two forms: transactional leadership or transformational leadership – maintained that power and leadership were two distinct entities .

Common Characteristics of Charismatic and Transformational Leadership • Vision • Rhetorical skills • Image and trust building • Personalized leadership .

Follower Characteristics • Identification with the Leader and the Vision • Heightened Emotional Levels • Willing Subordination to the Leader • Feelings of Empowerment .

Situational Characteristics • Crises • Task Interdependence • Innovation • More Receptive to Change • Organizational Downsizing .

etc. Bass’s Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership • Transformational leaders possess charismatic-leader characteristics (vision. rhetorical skills. Instead. nor are they able to develop strong emotional bonds with followers or inspire followers to do more than they thought they could. • Transactional leaders do not possess these leader characteristics. transactional leaders motivate followers by setting goals and promising rewards for desired performance.). .

almost magical talents – 2. Radical vision – 4. Followers – 5. Validation of leader through repeated success . Extraordinary. Crisis situation – 3. Perspectives on Charisma • The Sociological Approach – 1.

Guidelines for Transformational
Leadership

✿ Articulate a clear and appealing vision.
✿ Explain how the vision can be attained.
✿ Act confident and optimistic.
✿ Express confidence in followers.
✿ Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key
values.
✿ Lead by example.
✿ Empower people to achieve the vision.

Perspectives on Charisma
• The Psychoanalytic Approach
– Intense attraction
– Regression
• Transference
• Projection

What does this say for the followers and for positive
leaders?

Perspectives on Charisma
• The Political Approach
• Types of charismatic leaders:
– Charismatic giants
– Charismatic luminaries
– Charismatic failures
– Charismatic aspirants

Perspectives on Charisma • Charismatic leaders increase their power: – Cultural myths – Public address – Concentric circles .

Perspectives on Charisma • The Behavioral Approach – Leader behaviors – Leader-follower relations – The situation .

Personal Power . Possess a vision that is unique. counter-normative way – 3. but attainable – 2. Act in an unconventional. Perspectives on Charisma • The Attribution Approach – 1. Personal commitment & risk – 4. Confidence & expertise – 5.

Perspectives on Charisma • The Communication Approach – Relationship builders – Visionaries – Influence agents .

Perspectives on Charisma • The Dark Side • Differences in: – Power – Vision – Relationship to followers – Communication – Ethics & Morals .

The Dark Side at Work • Failures of vision • Misarticulation of goals • Poor management .