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Journal of Research in Biology ISSN No: Print: 2231 –6280; Online: 2231- 6299

An International Scientific Research Journal

Original Research

Seasonal patterns of Myxobolus (Myxozoa : Myxosporea) infections in
Barbus callipterus Boulenger, 1907 (Cyprinidae) at Adamawa - Cameroon
Authors: ABSTRACT:
Journal of Research in Biology

Fonkwa Georges1,2, For a detail understanding of the seasonal patterns of Myxobolus infections
Efole Ewoukem Thomas1, so as to elaborate control strategies, 305 Barbus callipterus specimens were sampled
Tchuinkam Timoléon2, from May 2016 to May 2017 at Mapé River (Adamawa-Cameroon). After classical
Fomena Abraham3 and examination, the prevalence of infection was determined. Ten Myxobolus species
Tchoumboue Joseph1 were identified. Irrespective of the parasite species, fishes were more infected in the
dry season (74.93%) than the rainy season (69.72%) without significant difference.
Institution:
Seasons did not significantly influence on the prevalence of parasites in the sizes and
1. Laboratory of Ichthyology
and Applied Hydrobiology, sex of various fishes’ class. However, Myxobolus ngassami was predominantly
Faculty of Agronomy and prevalent in male fishes during the dry season in contrast to the females. Regardless
Agricultural Sciences, of the organ type and parasite species, the dry season was remarkably more favorable
University of Dschang, P.O. to the infection of organs. Mono and polyinfections occurred during the two seasons
Box 222, Dschang- and whatever the season, the prevalence of polyinfection’s categories dropped with
Cameroon. the increasing number of associated parasite species.
2. Laboratory of Biology and Keywords:
Applied Ecology, Vector Myxobolus, Prevalence, Season, Barbus callipterus, Mapé river, Cameroon.
Borne Parasitic and
Infectious Diseases Unit,
Faculty of Science,
University of Dschang P.O.
Box 67, Dschang-Cameroon.
3. Laboratory of General
Biology, Faculty of Science,
University of Yaoundé I, P.
O. Box 812, Yaoundé-
Cameroon.

Corresponding author:
Fonkwa Georges

Article Citation:
Fonkwa Georges, Efole Ewoukem Thomas, Tchuinkam Timoléon, Fomena Abraham
and Tchoumboue Joseph
Seasonal patterns of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infections in Barbus
callipterus Boulenger, 1907 (Cyprinidae) at Adamawa -Cameroon
Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424

Dates:
Received: 05 Jan 2018 Accepted: 01 Feb 2018 Published: 15 Feb 2018
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2413-2424 | JRB | 2018 | Vol 8 | No 1
Journal of Research in Biology
An International
Scientific Research Journal www.jresearchbiology.com
Fonkwa et al., 2018

INTRODUCTION Fish sampling and identification of Myxosporeans
Myxosporeans are mainly fish parasites species
(Fomena et al., 2010; Eiras et al., 2010). Their Fishes were harvested monthly from fishermen
pathogenic effects entail the depression of fish growth during the study period i.e. May 2016 to May 2017.
(Longshaw et al., 2010), reproduction (Obiekezie and They were captured both at the day and night using fish
Okaeme, 1990) and the massive fish deaths (Gbankoto nets and fishing canes. On the field, specimens were
et al., 2001; Feist and Longshaw, 2005). Lom and immediately stored at 10% formalin solution and
Diková (2006) reported that among about 2180 transported to the laboratory for examination. Overall
Myxosporeans species (62 genera) composing the world 305 fish samples (159 males against 146 females) were
of Myxosporeans fauna, the genus Myxobolus Bütschli, caught. The standard lengths ranged from 52 to 110 mm
1882 was numerically the most abundant with 31% of with an average of 94.66 mm. Fishes were categorized
species. into 3 class sizes of 20 mm amplitude each. The modal
In Africa, researches emphasize more on class i.e. [70 - 90] represented 64.92% of sampled
Myxosporeans systematic than its seasonal dynamics fishes.
(Folefack, 2010; Abakar, 2006). This is questionable Amid the laboratory phase, identification and
because, the water physico-chemical characteristics examination of fishes were done as per Stiassny et al.
variation resulting from the seasonal change may lead to (2007) and Abakar (2006) respectively. Consequently,
the disruption of host/parasite equilibrium causing fish standard and total lengths were estimated to the nearest
stress and deaths (Bilong and Jeannette, 2004). The millimeter utilizing a slide caliper of stainless brand and
objective of the study was to assess the seasonal the sex decided after dissection. External organs (fins,
patterns of Myxobolus infections in an economical and skin, scales and eyes) and internal organs (gills, spleen,
dietary fish namely B. callipterus in order to boost its kidneys, intestines, gall bladder, stomach and gonads)
production. were analyzed with naked eyes and after that with Motic
stereoscopic microscope at 10X to search for the
MATERIALS AND METHODS macroscopic cysts. Three smears of kidneys, spleen and
Study Area gonads were made (anterior, medium and posterior
Fishes were captured at the MAPE River in a region) and were analyzed at a total magnification of
village named MGBADJI (6°00’- 6°20’NL and 11°20’- 1000X with a light microscope keeping in mind the end
11°40’ EL). The latter belongs to Bankim subdivision, goal to identify spores. Cysts were crushed amongst
Adamawa – Cameroon Region. The average altitude is slide and cover glass in a drop of distilled water and
about 724m above the sea level while the soil is a their contents were identified with the light microscope
mixture of clay and sand. The climate is of tropical at 1000X. After fixation of spores with methanol, they
Soudano-guinean type with a long rainy season running were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa and snapped
from March to November and a short dry season from with digital camera (Canon Ixus mark). Myxosporeans
November to March. The annual average temperature is species were distinguished by Lom and Arthur (1989).
about 23°C whereas the rainfall ranges between 1500 Parasitological parameter studied
and 2000 mm (Olivry, 1986). The prevalence (Pr) of infection conveyed in
percentage was the proportion between the quantity of
fish's species infected by a given parasite species and
2414 Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424
Fonkwa et al., 2018

the number examined (Bush et al., 1997). Parasites Whatever the season, no principal parasite was
were qualified as principal (Pr > 50 %), intermediate (10 recorded. Myxobolus pharyngeus appeared only during
% ≤ Pr ≤ 50 %) and scarce (Pr < 10 %) (Valtonen et al., a single season. On the one hand, during the rainy
1997). season, prevalences were significantly higher (X2 =
Statistical analysis 58.14; P < 0.001) with M. pseudodispar and lower in
The comparison of prevalences was performed M. muelleri. On the other hand, M. ngassami was the
2
by the Chi-square (X ) test. The significance level was most prevalent during the dry season (X2 = 68.46; P <
P < 0.05 and the Graph Pad Prism 5 software was used 0.001) while M. pharyngeus was absent. The sole
for analysis. parasite species showing seasonal significant variation
of prevalence was Myxobolus mapei. The latter being
RESULTS more prevalent (X2 = 4.00; P < 0.05) in the dry season
The results are illustrated on Table 1 and than in the rainy season.
Figures 1 to 7. Prevalence of infection as a function of class size and
Seasonal prevalence of Myxosporeans species seasons
The myxosporeans fauna recorded (Figure 1) The prevalence of infection as a function of
was composed of 10 Myxobolus species. The seasonal class size and seasons (Figure 3) shows that fishes were
prevalence of Myxosporeans species (Figure 2 ) reveals infected in all the three class sizes during the dry and
that, irrespective of the parasite species, fishes were rainy seasons. Whatever the class size, the prevalence
more infected in the dry season than in the rainy season, did not differ between seasons (P > 0.05). Whether in
2
however without significant difference (X = 0.77; P = the rainy season or the dry season, the higher prevalence
0.380). During the rainy season three parasite species was recorded in the class 90-110 mm, however without
were intermediate against five during the dry season. any significant difference (X2 = 1.40; P = 0.237).

A B C D E

F G H I J

A : Myxobolus tchadanayei Abakar et al., 2006 (x 1500); B : Myxobolus mapei Fonkwa et al., 2017 (x 1200);
C : Myxobolus muelleri Bütschli, 1882 (x 1500); D : Myxobolus ellipsoides Thélohan, 1982 (x 1500);
E : Myxobolus pseudodispar Gorbunova, 1936 (x 1500); F : Myxobolus pharyngeus Parker et al., 1971 (x 1500);
G : Myxobolus tchoumbouei Fonkwa et al., 2017 (x 1000); H : Myxobolus umidus Carriero et al., 2013 (x 1500);
I : Myxobolus sessabai Lekeufack et al., 2017 (x 1500); J : Myxobolus ngassami Lekeufack et al., 2017 (x 1500)

Figure 1. Spores micrographs of Myxobolus species studied

Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424 2415
Fonkwa et al., 2018

90

80

70

60 Rainy season Dry season
Prevalence (%)
Prevalence (%)

50

40

30

20

10

0

Total
M. mapei

M. muelleri

M. umidus

M. sessabai
M.ellipsoides

M. ngassami
M. pharyngeus
M. tchadanayei

M. pseudodispar

M. tchoumbouei

Parasite species

Figure 2. Seasonal prevalence of Myxosporeans species

150

Rainy season Dry season

100
(%)
Prevalence (%)
Prevalence

50

0
[50 - 70] ]70 - 90] ]90 - 110]
Class size (mm)

Figure 3. Prevalence of infection as a function of class size and seasons

2416 Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424
Fonkwa et al., 2018

Seasonal prevalence of parasite species as a function of seasons (Figure 5) illustrates that, organs were
of class size infected during both the dry and the rainy seasons.
The seasonal prevalence of parasite species as a According to the seasonality of infections, organs are
function of class size is illustrated on Figure 4. It grouped into three categories: those infected only in the
appears that, in term of species number, whatever the rainy season (gills), the dry season (fins) and those
class size, parasite species occurred more in the rainy infected during the two seasons (operculum, skin,
season apart from the class size 50-70 mm, where 8 kidney and liver). Regardless of the organ type, the dry
species were recorded both in the dry and the rainy season was remarkably (P < 0.05) more favorable for
seasons. During the dry season, the higher prevalence organ infection. Although kidneys were the most
(P < 0.05) was noticed for Myxobolus ngassami in the infected organs during both the rainy (X2 = 308.60; P <
class [90 - 110] while in the rainy season the higher 0.001) and the dry seasons (X2 = 392.20; P < 0.001), no
(P < 0.05) prevalence (M. pseudodispar) was observed significant difference of prevalence was observed.
in the class 70 - 90 mm. In this latter class, Myxobolus Prevalence of parasite species as a function of organs
ngassami was the sole parasite exhibiting a very and seasons
2
significant (X = 8.55; P < 0.01) variation of prevalence As shown on Figure 6, the prevalence of
between the two seasons. Moreover, it was more parasite species fluctuated according to seasons and
prevalent in the dry season than in the rainy season. organs. Fins and gills were infected only during a single
Prevalence of parasite species as a function of host’s season by one parasite species. Kidneys were the only
sex and seasons organs where intermediate species were found contrary
The prevalence of parasite species as a function to other organs harboring scarce parasite species. In the
of host’s sex and seasons (Table 1) shows that operculum, the two seasons were not only favorable to
independently of the parasite species, male fishes were the occurrence of Myxobolus mapei but also, its
more infected in the rainy season than the dry season prevalences were the highest (P < 0.05) compared to
2
(X = 0.06; P = 0.812) contrary to females mostly those of other parasite species. In the kidneys, apart
infected during the dry season (X2 = 0.01; P = 0.909). from M. pharyngeus, all parasite species appeared
2
Whether in the rainy season (X = 0.30; P = 0.586) or during both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence
2
dry season (X = 0.05; P = 0.822), the prevalence did of Myxobolus ngassami in the kidneys was about twice
not vary significantly between males and females. higher in the dry season than in the rainy season
When parasite species are taken into account, it (X2 = 7.82; P < 0.01). Meanwhile, M. pseudodispar
appears that in both males and females, M. ngassami exhibited the higher prevalence (P > 0.05) during the
was the only parasite exhibiting a significant difference rainy season.
(P < 0.05) in prevalence between the two seasons. Seasonal prevalence of mono and polyinfections
Moreover, it was more present in male fishes during the The seasonal prevalence of mono and
dry season contrary to the females. No matter the season polyinfections is summarized on Figure 7. It appears
and the fish’s sex, the prevalence fluctuated very that during both the dry and the rainy seasons, fishes
significantly (P < 0.001) between parasite species. were infected by a single parasite species
Percentage of infected organs as a function of (monoinfection) and more than one species
seasons (polyinfection). The monoinfections were more frequent
The percentage of infected organs as a function during the rainy season than the dry season (X2 = 0.79;

Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424 2417
2418
Prevalence (%)
Prevalence (%)

10
15

10
15

00
55
(%)
PrevalencePrevalences Prevalences M. tchadanayei
M. tchadanayei Prevalences
Prevalences (%)(%) (%)
Prevalences
Prevalences (%) (%) Prevalence
Prevalences(%) (%) (%)
5
10
15

000
5
10
15

5
10
15

5
10
15
10
15
20

000
5
M.

0 00
50
100
150
mapei
M. mapei
M. tchadanayei M. tchadanayei
M. tchadanayei
M. tchadanayei M.tchadanayei
M. tchadanayei M. muelleri
M. muelleri
M. mapei
M. mapei
M. mapei mapei
M.M.mapei
M. mapei M.
M. ellipsoides
ellipsoidesM. muelleri
M. muelleri muelleri
M. M. muelleri M. muelleri
Dry s eas on
Dry season

Dry season
M. muelleri

Dry season
Rainy s eas on
Class
Rainy season

Rainy season

Rainy season
M. pseudodispar
M. pseudodispar
M. ellipsoides
M. ellipsoides M. ellipsoides
M. ellipsoides M. ellipsoides Parasite
Parasite
Class [50

M. ellipsoides

Class
M. pseudodispar M.
M. pharyngeus
M. pseudodispar
pseudodispar
M.pharyngeus
[50 -- 70]

M. pseudodispar M. pseudodispar
70]

Parasite
Parasite
Parasite

Parasite

Parasite
M. pseudodispar
species
species

]90
Rainy
Rainy

M. pharyngeus
M. pharyngeus M. M. pharyngeus
M. pharyngeus
tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei
pharyngeus
Class [50 - 70]

Class [50 - 70]

Class [50 - 70]
Class [50-70]

Class ]70 - 90]
Class]70 - 90]

M. M. pharyngeus

Class [50 - 70]

species
species
sseas

species
Parasite spe cie s

Parasitespecies
species
Rainy season

species
Class ]90 - 110]
Parasite species

- 110]
eason

M. tchoumbouei
on

M. tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei M.M. umidus
umidus
M.tchoumbouei

Parasite spe cie s
M. tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei
umidus
M.M. umidus M. M. umidus
M. umidus
umidus
M.M.umidus sessabai
M. sessabai
Dry
Dry

sessabai
M. M. sessabai M. sessabai
M. sessabai
sessabai
M.M. sessabai M. ngassami
M. ngassami
sseas
Dryseason

ngassami M. ngassami
M. ngassami
eason

M. M. ngassami
on

ngassami
M.M. ngassami

Figure 4. Seasonal prevalence of parasite species as a function of class size (mm)

Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424
Fonkwa et al., 2018
Fonkwa et al., 2018

Table 1. Prevalence of parasite species as a function of host’s sex and seasons

Males Females
2
S. No Parasite species Seasons X P Seasons X2 P
Rainy Dry Rainy Dry
79* 80* 63* 83*
1 M. tchadanayei 8.86 2. 50 3.01 0.083 9.52 7.23 0.25 0.617
2 M. mapei 6.33 11.25 1.20 0.274 4.76 13.25 2.98 0.084
3 M. muelleri 0.00 0. 00 - - 1.59 1.20 0.04 0.844
4 M. ellipsoides 5.06 2. 50 0.72 0.396 6.35 1.20 2.87 0.091
5 M. pseudodispar 20.25 10.00 2.38 0.123 14.29 12.05 0.16 0.691
6 M. pharyngeus 2.53 0. 00 2.05 0.152 0.00 0.00 - -
7 M. tchoumbouei 12.66 12.50 0.00 0.980 9.52 9.64 0.00 0.981
8 M. umidus 11.39 15.00 0.45 0.502 12.70 12.05 0.01 0.906
9 M. sessabai 2.53 3. 75 0.19 0.660 1.59 4.82 1.13 0.288
10 M. ngassami 5.06 16.25 5.21 < 0.05 3.17 13.25 4.49 < 0.05
Total 50.63 48.78 0.06 0.812 46.03 46.99 0.01 0.909
X2 37.17 41.52 23.49 30.61
P < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0. 001
*: number of examined fishes; -: no value; P : error probability

P = 0.374) contrary to polyinfections (X2 = 0.72; combinations. No matter the season, their frequencies
P = 0.397). Whatever the season, four categories of dropped very significantly (P < 0.001) with the
polyinfections were recorded namely bi, tri, tetra and increasing number of combined parasite species.
pentaspecific i.e. respectively 2 to 5 parasite species

80
Rainy season Dry season
organs
infected organs

60
ofofinfected

40
Percentage
Percentage

20

0
Gills
Fins

Kidneys

Total
Operculum

Skin

Liver

Target organs

Figure 5. Percentage of infected organs as a function of seasons

Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424 2419
0
5
0
5
M. mapei M. mapei
M. mapei M. mapei

Dry
(%)

Dry
M. tchadanayei Prevalences (%)
Prevalences

Rainy
Rainy
10
15
Prevalences (%)

10
15
M. muelleri M. muelleri
M. muelleri M. muelleri

Dryseason
M. mapei

Dryseason
000 0
555 5
10 10
15 15

season
Rainyseason
season
Rainyseason
tchadanayei

season
M. tchadanayei
M.

season
M. ellipsoides M. ellipsoides
M. ellipsoides M. ellipsoides M. tchadanayei
M. muelleri
Prevalence (%)
Prevalence (%) mapei Prevalences (%)

Class

Dry season
M. mapei
M.

2420
00
1
Prevalence
Prevalence (%)
(%)

Class
M. pseudodispar Prevalences (%)

Rainy season
Dry

M. pseudodispar
Dry

M. pseudodispar (%)
Prevalence (%)
Prevalence
Rainy

M. pseudodispar

Parasite
1
2
3
Rainy

M. mapei

00
5
10
15
Rainy

Class[50

Parasite
M. ellipsoides

Class[50

0
5
10
15

00
1
2
[50
Dry

muelleri
M. muelleri
M.
Rainy

M. pharyngeus pharyngeus
M. M. tchoumbouei
Dryseason
season

M. pharyngeus
season

M. tchadanayei

- -70]
Class
pharyngeus

[50- -70]
season

muelleri
season

M. pseudodispar M.tchadanayei
M.
season

M.tchadanayei
M.

70]

Parasitespecies
Parasitespecies
ellipsoides

Parasite
species
M. tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei
M. ellipsoides
M.
M. tchoumbouei M. tchoumbouei M. mapei
M. pharyngeus M. tchoumbouei
M. mapei M. ellipsoides
Class
Class
Class

70][50 - 70]
pseudodispar
M. pseudodispar
M.
M. umidus

species species
umidus

Parasite
umidus
M. M.

Parasite

Liver
[50

Parasite
pseudodispar
Class

M. umidus M.M. muelleri
[50

umidus

Liver
M. tchoumbouei M.muelleri
M. M. pseudodispar
season Dry season

Parasite
M. pharyngeus
[50-[50

Dry season
seasonRainy season

M. pharyngeus

Parasite species
M. sessabai
-- 70]

Skin
Rainy season
70]

M. sessabai
70]

sessabai
sessabai
M.M.

Skin
ellipsoides

Parasite species
sessabai

species
species
M.M.pharyngeus

species
M. umidus ellipsoides
M.M.

Parasite
- 70]

tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei
M.

species
M. ngassami M. ngassami

Parasite species

Parasite species
M. ngassami M. ngassami M. pseudodispar
M. ngassami
Operculum

M. sessabai M. pseudodispar M. tchoumbouei
Operculum

Parasite
umidus
M. umidus
M.

Parasite species
ngassami M. pharyngeus
ngassami
M. M. M. pharyngeus
Class [50 - 70]

sessabai
M.M.umidus
Class [50 - 70]

Prevalences (%) sessabai
speciesspecies
Prevalence (%)
Prevalence (%)
M. sessabai
M.

Parasite species
M. tchoumbouei

10
15

M. sessabai

00
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
58
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
M. tchoumbouei
M. ngassami
M. ngassami
tchadanayei M. ngassami
Dry

M.M. tchadanayei M. umidus
M. ngassami
M. umidus
Rainy
Dryseason

mapei
M.M.mapei M. sessabai
s eas on

M. sessabai
Rainyseason
s eas on

(%) muelleri
M.M.muelleri M. ngassami
Prevalence(%)
Prevalence M. ngassami
Dry season

0
1
Rainy season

ellipsoides
M.M. ellipsoides

M.
pseudodispar
M. M. pseudodispar Prevalence (%)
Prevalence (%)
Class 0
1

Parasite
pharyngeus
pharyngeus
M.M.

Gills
Gills
[50 - 70]

Parasite species
Parasitespecies
Kidney
Kidneys

species

tchadanayei
tchoumbouei

Parasite species
tchoumbouei
M. M.

Figure 6. Prevalence of parasite species as a function of organs and seasons
M.tchadanayei
Parasite species
Fins
Fins

umidus
M.M.umidus
M. tchoumbouei
M. tchoumbouei

Parasite species
Parasite species

sessabai
M.M.sessabai

ngassami
M.M.ngassami

Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424
Fonkwa et al., 2018
Fonkwa et al., 2018

50

45

40
Rainy season Dry season
35
Prevalence (%)

30

25

20

15

10

5

0
Monoinfections

Polyinfections

Bispecific

Pentaspecific
Trispecific

Tetraspecific
Mono
Mono and
and polyinfections
polyinfections

Figure 7. Seasonal prevalence of mono and polyinfections

DISCUSSION melanotheron in Bénin was higher in the dry season. In
Irrespective of the parasite species, the the fishes Ctenopoma petherici, Clarias pachynema and
prevalence of infection did not differ between seasons. Hepsetus odoe from the river Sangé (Cameroon),
This may be due to the insignificant variation of water Folefack and Fomena (2013) showed that Myxobolus
physico-chemical characteristics with the seasons. sp2 occurred mostly during the dry season whereas M.
Based on season, parasites were grouped into three petrocephali, M. nkamensis and M. gariepinus were
categories: those occurring mostly during the dry season more frequent in the rainy season. Abakar (2006)
(category A), the rainy season (category B) and those asserted that, in the river Chari (Chad), Myxobolus
occurring without seasonality (category C). The results brachysporus and M. camerounensis were more present
of category (A) parasites were explained by Obiekezie in Oreochromis niloticus during the dry season than the
and Okaeme (1990). In fact, those authors thought that rainy season. The explanation being the pollution of
during the dry season, the high temperature of water and Chari river by factories installed in Moundou and Sarh
mud can encourage the infection with myxosporeans. (Chad towns). The pollution was significant during the
According to Uspenskaya (1995), when myxospores dry season because of the intensive water evaporation
sink in water, they undergo aging and maturation in the and this could negatively affect the actinospores. This
mud or sludge in order to parasitize new hosts. pollution is also noticed in Mapé river because
Gbankoto et al. (2001) indicated that the prevalence of neighboring population dump refuse in the water and
Myxobolus sp. and Myxobolus zillii which are gills use nitrated fertilizers for agriculture. As for the
parasites for Tilapia zillii and Sarotherodon category B parasites, Abakar (2006) claimed that

Journal of Research in Biology (2018) 8(1): 2413-2424 2421
Fonkwa et al., 2018

Sarotherodon galilaeus and O. niloticus were more two seasons were favorable to the mono and
infected during the rainy season in Chad. His polyinfections and whatever the season, the prevalences
explanation was based on Lausanne (1988) literature. of polyinfection categories dropped with the increasing
So, during the rainy season, flood water dissolves soil number of associated parasite species. This observation
minerals and organic matters accumulated during the may be due to the interspecific competition between
dry season. This will encourage the growth of planktons parasite species. The higher the number of associated
and algae which serve as food for fishes. Actinospores species, the higher the intensity of interspecific
being stuck on this food, fishes get infected by competition due to resources shortage and thus lower
consuming them. The case of category (C) is similar to the prevalence.
that noticed by Bilong and Jeannette (2004) and Abakar
(2006). According to them, some myxosporeans species CONCLUSION
are present in the fishes throughout the year; others The seasonal patterns of Myxobolus infections
appear once in a year whereas some exhibit two or three in Barbus callipterus were affected by the parasite
peaks of infection each year (Blazer et al., 2003). species, the host’s sex, class size and the target organ.
Oligochaetes being intermediate hosts in myxosporeans The recorded data are useful for elaborating control
life cycle (Markiw and Wolf, 1983) the seasonal strategies.
variation of parasitism by myxosporeans could be due to
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