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COMPONENT CODE 47

PARTS & SERVICE REF NO. AA00046C
DATE April 10, 2003
NEWS Page 1 of 9

This Parts and Service News supersedes the previous issue AA00046B dated June 6, 2000.
The previously issued Parts and Service News should be discarded.
SUBJECT: FIELD WELDING FOR ASSEMBLY OR REPAIR
PURPOSE: Special Welding Procedures For Field Assemblies
APPLICATION: All Komatsu Equipment
FAILURE CODE: 471099
DESCRIPTION:

When welding on Komatsu equipment, whether at initial field assembly or during normal maintenance
repairs, special procedures must be followed.

Due to the continuous program of research and development, periodic revisions may be made to this pub-
lication. It is recommended that customers contact their distributors for information on the latest revision.

The welding information contained in this Parts & Service News is general information that must be fol-
lowed unless otherwise specified in a detailed repair procedure provided on an engineering drawing or a
detailed specific repair procedure. Additional specific information, or detailed instructions can be
obtained through your local Komatsu Area Service Manager.

WELDER QUALIFICATION and TRAINING

The welding technique must be of the highest standard to produce the soundest weld possible. Only weld-
ers who have been trained and qualified for structural steel welding in all positions, in conformance with
the American Welding Society (AWS) D1.1 or (AWS) D14.3 only, are allowed to perform the welding.
The welding instructions for field assembly of Komatsu components are normally provided by engineer-
ing drawings. Additional detailed welding instructions for field repairs are provided in the field repair
manual SEB14001. A full understanding of the AWS standard welding symbols is necessary to perform
and inspect such field welds. Weld sizes specified on the drawings are intended to reflect minimum
requirements.

WELD PROCEDURES

Electric arc welding, either the semi-automatic “MIG” (GMAW), Flux Core (FCAW), or “Stick” elec-
trode welding (SMAW), are approved processes for field installation and maintenance welding. Welding
of highly stressed structural members such as castings, torque tubes, top and bottom plates on the frame
rails, and the curved intersection points of frames should be done with the specific detailed instructions
from Komatsu Product Service. See Annex A for repair procedures. These repair procedures are detailed
instructions for most high stressed structural members.

AA00046C

03 inch (0. 4. without excessive deformity. and must be completely removed before each pass in a multiple pass procedure. Each weld must have complete fusion between the base metal and weld metal added by the electrode. and slag inclusions. E8018-C1.Page 2 of 9 APPROVED CONSUMABLES GMAW LW102-15 or ER80S-D2 FCAW E70T-5. 7. All welds must be reasonably smooth. or E71T8-NI1 SMAW E7018-1. Slag is to be removed from all weld beads. 6. E71T-8. No cracks are permitted. and all craters filled. 3. or E8018-C3 WELD QUALITY REQUIREMENTS 1. Excessive convexity produces high residual stress in the throat of the weld. Excessive convexity in multi- pass fillet welds is not permitted. and is not permitted. It is also required that all slag is removed and tie in all areas. free from cracks. AA00046C . Large wash weld weaves should not be used when welding on truck frames.76 mm) on critical welds must be reworked by the application of welding an additional cover pass. The toe of a weld to a stressed member must have a smooth transition. When welding in the vertical position. Grind all welds where a weld crosses or intersects with another weld. It is important that this pass is blended with the existing weld. Properly applied multiple pass welding is the required procedure on truck frames. 2. 5. Each weld must be homogeneous with low porosity. always weld using the vertical up technique. Undercut in excess of 0.

The welding consumables are often supplied by Komatsu America Corp.Any moisture on the steel surfaces to be welded must be removed before attempting to make welds. Electrodes must be stored in sealed containers until needed and then must be kept in a warming oven at the work location until used.Any foreign substances (dirt. For field welding and repairs. drafts. reliable supplier. 3.Welding should not be done at temperatures below 50°F (10°C). torches. scale. Control of the welding area environment is essential for producing proper and sound welds. Low Ambient Temperature .Provision should be made to protect the weld area from a rapid cooling rate. five areas require attention and control. These materials offer themselves very well to welding during fabrication. and repair. or blowers should be avoided. paint. and PRECAUTIONS The steel used in the fabrication of all Komatsu equipment is of high strength low alloy (HSLA) material of different grades. Essentially. preheating of all welding joint work areas is required. with the new equipment as part of the field welding / assembly package. Other highly specialized welding consum- ables are available but have limited use on Komatsu structural components. AA00046C . rust. The standard dump body main plates are made from abrasion resistant materials. 2. At low temperature conditions. and carbon deposits from cut- tings) must be removed prior to doing any welding. Weld Cooling . should be procured from a local. Page 3 of 9 MATERIALS. the APPROVED consumables as detailed. Approval is required from your Komatsu Area Service Manager. 4. 1. Foreign Materials . All areas and surfaces to be welded should be cleaned with a grinder to insure that all foreign materials have been removed. especially when a shielding gas is being used as part of the welding process. insulating blankets.Air movement caused by wind. CONTROLS. See preheat and post heating requirements as detailed in Annex A. to prevent any moisture absorption which might affect the welds quality. Heat retardation may be accomplished through the use of heat lamps. Moisture . Air Movement . etc. 5.

The inspections can include any of the methods listed below. operator records with equipment settings and test results are normally recorded. craters. This information is valuable when personnel or job conditions change. Visual Inspection . All assembly welds and weld repairs that are deemed unacceptable by the inspector must be corrected at no additional cost to Komatsu. No exceptions will be made. This procedure provides a permanent visual record. etc. but does not produce a permanent record except by nor- mal photography. Magnetic Particle Inspection .Similar to dye penetrant inspection. All weld repairs are also subject to additional inspection. Without this documentation. After the weld has been made it can be inspected by a number of non-destructive evaluation tech- niques. Records Komatsu requires record keeping of all welding work. 4. but is more expensive than most other inspection techniques. AA00046C . during. This process does not provide a permanent record except by nor- mal photography. with backer bars installed. The process is relatively inexpensive. The photographs must be clear and close enough to show the weld joint preparation complete.Page 4 of 9 WELD INSPECTION All welding repairs are subject to inspection by a Komatsu appointed inspector or laboratory to insure quality. The service and warranty departments of Komatsu must be provided with inspection reports and photographs of the weld area before. 2.This is a popular method of examining weld discontinuities. This process uses a black (ultraviolet) light for increased efficiency and accuracy.This is the process of looking for potential defects such as undersized welds that can be checked with weld gauges for. Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection . These photos easily identify if the required preheating and post heating have been done with a three inch circumference around the weld repair area. Dye Penetrant Inspection .This process provides a view of the weld and base materials but it is highly spe- cialized. and undercuts. X-Ray Inspection . 1.This process requires special equipment that is usually more costly than the dye penetrant inspections. Ultrasonic Inspection . 5. Komatsu will not cover any weld repair claim made under warranty. With some equipment printed data is available of the test providing a permanent record. 3. just prior to welding. Specialized equipment and operator certification is required. surface cracks. 6. surface porosity. Also. and after the repair.This is an easily applied process which indicates cracks or surface con- ditions.

When the weld is complete. which must be followed for all repair and rework of major load carrying members on Komatsu equipment.25 inch (6 mm) to allow the installation of a backup strip. 1. see attached. Backup strips are required for all cracks that have gone through the parent material and cannot be welded from both sides. The depth of the V (or U shaped) joint will be deter- mined by the depth of the crack. immediately (before the weldment cools) post heat the entire weld area to 300°F (150°C). no backup strip is required as long as complete weld penetration is achieved.5 mm). 13. paint. The SMAW (Stick) welding rod must be used within four hours after being removed from a new sealed container or from a 125°F (52°C) min- imum drying oven. The width to depth ratio should be approximately 1. All welding should be done at an ambient temperature of 50°F (10°C) or above. Inspect repaired areas (for surface defects) using magnetic particle or dye penetrant inspection proce- dures. and then allow it to cool slowly. Any rod that exceeds this exposure time must be redried for one hour at 800°F (427°C) before being used. and any other foreign materials likely to contaminate the weld. All spot welding also requires preheating and post heating. Grind all butt-welded repairs smooth using 36 or finer grit grinding material. 2. If a weld repair allows access to both sides of the plate. Preheat the entire weld joint area until the surrounding surface area reaches 300°F (150°C) at a distance of 3 inches (76 mm) from all areas to be welded.06 inch (1. All cracks through the parent material will require a slightly wider root opening than the original. The repair or rework area must be protected from wind and moisture during the entire procedure. Documentation must support this repair. If the repair work is to done outside additional precautions must be taken to protect the weld repair pro- cess from outside elements. Fill gouges with weld and grind all surfaces smooth to avoid defects in the new weld. grease. AA00046C . 10. 3. Air arc the entire crack leaving a V-shape joint. remove all defects by grinding to a maximum depth of 0. 11. All grinding marks should be parallel to the direction of primary stress if possible (and if known). After air arcing and inspections (Steps 3 & 4) all areas cut by the air arc should be cleaned thoroughly with a grinder to remove all possible carbon deposits and dye penetrant. and any other foreign materials. 9. Keep all weld starts and stops to a minimum. Use dye penetrant to ensure the cracks are completely removed. Page 5 of 9 ANNEX A The following are general repair procedures. If backup strips are not used. rust. Grind all surfaces to be welded so they are free of slag.25:1 and never less than 1:1. Even if the area is over 300°F (150°C) heat must be applied to maintain this tempera- ture for 15 minutes. Larger defects must be removed as per the above mentioned procedures. Photographs of surface condition are required by the service and warranty departments of Komatsu. 5. Hammer peen the toes of repair fillet welds as detailed in Annex B. If surface defects are found. All welds are to be made with approved consumables only. the surface profile on both sides must be ground smooth with no undercut. 4. usually . 14. Clean and grind the entire repair area to remove all rust. 12. In some cases this might require wrapping with insulation blankets. 8. 7. oils. 6.

and ear protection PROCEDURE: 1. The weld must have a smooth profile and the toe must have a good transition to the parent mate- rial (no overlap) before the grinding operation is performed. 2. Adequate air supply 3. Refer to Figure 2. Adequate lighting 4. Refer to Figure 1. face. The depth of the indentation must be between 0.0 TOE GRINDING WITH A ROTARY BURR: EQUIPMENT: 1.Page 6 of 9 ANNEX B 1. Visual inspection/acceptance is to be done after peening with the appropriate radius and depth gauge.19 inch (5 mm) in width. Protective clothing.6 mm to 0.02 to 0. and ear protection. High speed rotary air tool (15. 3. gloves. AA00046C .50 inch diameter with . Grinding the weld face and toe area is permitted to correct unacceptable conditions. NOTE: Peening shall only be performed after weld acceptance by visual inspection. Protective clothing. includes eye.03 inch (0. PROCEDURE: 1. 2. Grinding the weld face and toe area is permitted to correct unacceptable conditions. includes eye.25 inch (6 mm) diameter spherical tip bit 5. Adequate air supply 4.31 inch (8 mm) in width. Tungsten carbide rotary burr . The toe of the weld should serve as a guide for the burr tool resulting in the material removed being approximately equally divided between the base material and the weld metal face to the specified depth and not exceed . 2. The weld must have a smooth profile and the toe must have a good transition to the parent mate- rial (no overlap) before the peening operation is performed. This will normally require approximately four passes of the peening tool with the pressure of near full operator weight being applied. Visual inspection/acceptance to be done after grinding with the appropriate radius and depth gauge. The toe of the weld should serve as a guide for the peening tool resulting in the area of deforma- tion being approximately equally divided between the base material and the weld metal face to the specified depth and not to exceed .0 TOE HAMMER PEENING: EQUIPMENT: 1.000 rpm) 2.8 mm). gloves. Hand held pneumatic hammer 2.50 inch spherical tip 3.000-20. face. . Adequate lighting 5. The hammer tool should be held at approximately one half the included angle between the weld face and the parent material and perpendicular to the direction of travel.

TOE HAMMER PEENING PROCEDURE AA00046C . FIGURE 1. The axis of the tool should be maintained at about 45° to the parent plate and inclined at about 45° to the direction of travel. smooth and free of all traces of undercut or slag.0 mm).030 to . The depth of the grinding must be between .8 mm to 1. Page 7 of 9 3. The final surface should be clean.040 inch (0.

Page 8 of 9 FIGURE 2. TOE GRINDING WITH A ROTARY BURR PROCEDURE AA00046C .

3-94/D1. Cleveland. D14. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation. Page 9 of 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY American Welding Society Bulletin No. R. Ohio Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding Lincoln Electric Company. Cleveland. Author AA00046C . F.1 *Specification for Welding Earthmoving and Construction Equipment Metals and How to Weld Them James F. Coe. Ohio American Welding Society Welding Handbook British Standard BS5135 Metal Arc Welding of Carbon and Carbon-Manganese Steels Welding Steels Without Hydrogen Cracking The Welding Institute.