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Fluke Calibration

Web Seminar Series
Principles and practical tips
about temperature, humidity, electrical,
flow, pressure, and RF calibration

How to Create an Infrared
Thermometer Uncertainty
Budget
© 2018 Fluke Corporation
Today’s Web Seminar

How to Create an Infrared Thermometer
Uncertainty Budget

March 14, 2018

This webinar will give you a good foundation for estimating infrared
thermometer calibration uncertainty. You'll learn how to calculate each
of the uncertainties listed in ASTM E2847 for infrared calibration,
including uncertainties related to the thermal radiation source as well
as the infrared thermometer. We'll provide a complete analysis for one
temperature point as an example.
Your Presenter

Frank Liebmann
• B.S. Electrical Engineering University of Utah
• 14 years with Fluke/Hart Scientific
– Temperature Metrologist
– Laboratory QA Manager
– Sr. Design Engineer
– Radiation Thermometry Engineer
• Chairman ASTM Subcommittee E20.02 on Radiation Thermometry
• frank.liebmann@flukecal.com
• Phone: 801.763.1700
3
Outline

• BIPM and Practical Work
• Source Uncertainties
• Infrared Thermometer Uncertainties
• Example Uncertainty Budget
Outline

• BIPM and Practical Work
• Source Uncertainties
• Infrared Thermometer Uncertainties
• Example Uncertainty Budget
Simplified Uncertainty Budget

• BIPM document: “CCT-WG5 on Radiation Thermometry; Uncertainty
Budgets for Calibration of Radiation Thermometers below the Silver
Point” (CCT-WG508-03)
• BIPM structure very complete
• Many insignificant uncertainties that are difficult to determine for IR
thermometers
• BIPM – “This document is limited in scope to those thermometers whose
signal is proportional to the detector photocurrent. This precludes
thermometers that read directly in temperature.”
• Simplified structure – ASTM E2847: “Standard Practice for Calibration
and Accuracy Verification of Wideband Infrared Thermometers”
Source Uncertainties

ASTM BIPM
Calibration temperature Calibration temperature
Blackbody Emissivity, Isothermal
Source emissivity
Blackbody Emissivity, Non-Isothermal
Reflected ambient radiation Reflected ambient radiation
Source heat exchange Cavity bottom heat exchange
Convection
Ambient conditions
Ambient Conditions
Source uniformity Cavity bottom uniformity
IR Thermometer Uncertainties

ASTM BIPM
Size-of-Source effect Size-of-Source effect
Ambient temperature
Ambient temperature
Reference temperature
Atmospheric absorption Atmospheric absorption
Noise
Noise Gain ratios
Non-linearity
Display Resolution NA
Examples

• Mathematics based on:
– TG22
– ASTM E2758
• All calculations done for the 8 – 14 µm band
• All calculations done for a calibration temperature of 100 °C
• THESE ARE EXAMPLES ONLY
• NOT CALCULATIONS FOR A SPECIFIC CALIBRATION
Traceability Schemes

• Scheme I
– Contact traceability
• Scheme II
– Radiometric traceability
Measurement Equation

S Tmeas   S TS 


1   instr 
S TW   S Td 
 instr


 S   instr 
S TS   S TW 
 instr
Source Emissivity Uncertainty

S Tmeas   S TS 


1   instr  S T   S T 
 instr
W d

   instr  S T   S T 
 S
 instr
S W

1 S Tmeas 

1
S TS   S TW 
 S  instr
S Tmeas 
Tmeas  S
2 U  Tmeas   U  S   U  S 
 S S Tmeas 
T
Reflected Temp Uncertainty

S Tmeas   S TS 


1   instr  S T   S T 
 instr
W d

   instr  S T   S T 
 S
 instr
S W

1 S Tmeas  1   instr  S   instr 1   S
  
S TW   instr  instr  instr
S TW 
Tmeas S Tmeas  T
2 U REFL Tmeas   U TW   U TW 
T S TW  S Tmeas 
T
Atmospheric Uncertainty

U ATM S 
U ATM Tmeas   S Tmeas 
1
 S Tmeas   S
 
 T 
SH 8 – 14 µm Band Calculations

T T
S(T) ∂S/∂T
(°C) (K)

23 0.0076966 0.000119945 296.15

100 0.0202920 0.000206805 373.15
Outline

• BIPM and Practical Work
• Source Uncertainties
• Infrared Thermometer Uncertainties
• Example Uncertainty Budget
U1 Calibration temperature
• Two components for a calibrator
• Calibration uncertainty
– Based on Certificate of Calibration
• Drift
– Based on historical data (control chart)

Uncertainty
Component
(K)
Calibration Uncertainty 0.207
Drift 0.170
U1 (k=2) 0.268
U2 Source emissivity

• Source calibrated by contact calibration (Scheme I)
– U(ε) > 0.015
• Calibrator with radiometric calibration (Scheme II)
– Should still be considered due to variations in spectral bandwidth
– λTS ≈ λIRT
U2 Source emissivity
U2 Source emissivity

• Average Emissivity 8 – 14 μm
– 0.950
• Average Emissivity 7.5 – 14 μm
– 0.952
• Use U(ε) = 0.002
U2 Source emissivity

• U(ε) = 0.002
• For 100 °C : U4(T) = 0.12 K
U2 Source emissivity
• TS = 100 °C, TW = 23 °C, εINSTR = 0.95
• U(εS) = 0.002
• S(TS) = 0.0202920, S(TW) = 0.0076966
• ∂S(Tmeas)/ ∂T = 0.000206805

S Tmeas 
1 
1
S TS   S TW   1 0.0202920  0.0076966   0.013258
 S  instr 0.95

S Tmeas 
 S
U T
2  meas  
S Tmeas 
U  S  
0.013258
0.002  0.128 K
0.000206805
T
U2 Scheme I Calibration

• TS = 100 °C, TW = 23 °C, εINSTR = 0.95
• U(εS) = 0.015
• S(TS) = 0.0202920, S(TW) = 0.0076966
• ∂S(Tmeas)/ ∂T = 0.000206805

S Tmeas 
1 
1
S TS   S TW   1 0.0202920  0.0076966   0.013258
 S  instr 0.95

S Tmeas 
 S
U T
2  meas  
S Tmeas 
U  S  
0.013258
0.015  0.962 K
0.000206805
T
U3 Reflected ambient radiation

• U(TREFL) = 1 °C
• For 100 °C: U6(T) = 0.03 °C
U3 Reflected ambient radiation
• TS = 100 °C, TW = 23 °C, εINSTR = εS = 0.95
• U(TW) = 1.0 K
• Values from previous chart circled blue
• ∂S(TW)/ ∂T = 0.000119945
• ∂S(Tmeas)/ ∂T = 0.000206805

S Tmeas  1   S 1  0.95
1    0.052632
S TW   instr 0.95

2 S TW 
S Tmeas  T
U REFL Tmeas   U TW   0.052632
0.000119945
1.0  0.031K
S TW  S Tmeas  0.000206805
T
U4 Source heat exchange

• Scheme I – Large Concern
• Scheme II – Small Concern
U4 Source heat exchange (Cavity)

For a cavity:
• ε – emissivity
• σ – SB Constant (5.670400 x 10-8 Wm-2K-4)
• Ti – source temperature
• Ta – ambient temperature
• d – thickness (from control sensor)
• K – thermal conductivity 2
• r – radius of source 
Tb   tot Ti 4 T
a
4
 d r
 
K L
• L – depth of cavity
U4 Source heat exchange (Flat Plate)
Stephan-Boltzmann Law

  T 4
Combine with Kirchhoff and Emissivity

   S TS4  TAMB
4

HEAT OUT HEAT IN

Heat Flow (Control Sensor to Surface)
d
T  
k
Combining Power and Heat

T   S T  T K
4 4 d
S AMB
U4 Source heat exchange

4181 Example
• Temperature 100 °C (373.15 K)
• Ambient Temperature 23 °C (296.15 K)
• d – distance from sensor to surface (6.35 mm)
• K – thermal conductivity (Brass - 109 Wm-1K-1)
• εS – 0.95
• σ – SB Constant (5.670400 x 10-8 Wm-2K-4)

T   S TS4  TAMB 
4 d
K
T  0.95  5.6704e  8 2 4  373.154  296.154 K 4
W 0.00635m
 0.0367 K
m K W
109
mK
This gives the temperature drop
U4 Source heat exchange

• We calibrated out the temperature drop by a Scheme II calibration
• There is still some uncertainty
• ΔT = 0.0367 K
• We expect no more than a 10% swing in power (we can observe this)
U(ρ) / ρ = 0.10 = U4(T) / ΔT = 0.10
• U4(T) = 0.004 K

T   S T  T K   K
4 4 d d
S AMB
U5 Ambient conditions

• Ambient temperature will change surface temperature
• Additional convection will occur if forced air is in the area of the
calibrator

T   S T  T K
4 4 d
S AMB

T d 3
 4 S TAMB
TAMB K
U5 Ambient conditions

• TAMB = 23 °C [U(TAMB) = 1 °C ]

T d 3
 4 S TAMB
TAMB K
T W 0.00635m
 4  0.95  5.6704e  8 2 4 296.153
TAMB m K 109 W
mK
T
 0.000326
TAMB
T
U 5 T   U TAMB   1K  0.000326  0.000326 K
TAMB
U6 Source uniformity

• The IR thermometer measures a circular shaped area. The uniformity
should be considered at least the spot size (FOV) on the calibration
surface

I T V

niformity Spec
iameter
U6 Source uniformity

• IR thermometer D:S, 12:1
• Measuring distance: 280 mm
• Spot size
– 280 mm / 12 = 24 mm
• 4181 uniformity specification
– 50 mm: ±0.1 K at 35 °C; ±0.25 K at 200 °C
– 125 mm: ±0.1 K at 35 °C; ±0.5 K at 200 °C
• 24 mm < 50 mm
– ∴ use the 50 mm spec (interpolate)
– ±0.16 K (rectangular distribution)
• U6 = 0.185 K
Outline

• BIPM and Practical Work
• Source Uncertainties
• Infrared Thermometer Uncertainties
• Example Uncertainty Budget
U7 Size-of-Source effect

• Change IR Thermometer measuring distance by ±10% and observe change in
readout
• For a measuring distance of 280 mm
– Move between 250 and 310 mm
• Testing showed a ± 0.05 K change on the display (rectangular distribution)
• U7 = 0.058 K
U8 Ambient temperature

• We control the ambient temperature in our lab to have U(TAMB) = 1.0 K
• Testing showed ΔTMEAS/ΔTAMB = 0.05 at 100 °C
• U8(T) = 0.05 °C
U9 Atmospheric absorption

• ASTM E2758 (BIPM)
• Measuring Distance < 1 m
• UATM / S = 0.0002
• Values from previous chart circled blue
• ∂S(Tmeas)/ ∂T = 0.000206805
• S(Tmeas) = 0.0202920
U ATM S 
U ATM 100C   S Tmeas  
1 1
0.0002 * 0.0202920  0.020 K
 S Tmeas   S 0.000206805
 
 T 

ASTM E2758
U10 Noise

• Repeatability study shown to be 0.1 °C at 100 °C
– (k = 2)
• We take 1 measurement for the calibration
• U10 = 0.10 K
U11 Display Resolution

• Typical Resolution: 0.1 °C
• Rectangular Distribution: ±0.05 K
• Expanded Uncertainty (k=2): 0.058
Outline

• BIPM and Practical Work
• Source Uncertainties
• Infrared Thermometer Uncertainties
• Example Uncertainty Budget
Simplified Uncertainty Budget
IR Thermometer Model X12, 100 °C

Value
Uncertainty Desig.
(K)

Source
Calibration temperature U1 0.268
Source emissivity U2 0.128
Reflected ambient radiation U3 0.031
Source heat exchange U4 0.004
Ambient conditions U5 0.000
Source uniformity U6 0.185

IR Thermometer
Size-of-Source effect U7 0.058
Ambient temperature U8 0.050
Atmospheric absorption U9 0.020
Noise U10 0.100
Display Resolution U11 0.058

Combined Expanded Uncertainty (k=2) 0.378
2018 Temperature
Calibration Classes
Instructor-led Training
• Advanced Topics in Temperature Metrology, Sep 17-19
• Infrared Calibration, Sep 20-21
• Practical Temperature Calibration, Nov 12-14
• Installation and Training Supplemental Services
(courses scheduled on-demand)
Future web seminars

Temperature Calibration seminars coming soon:
• Understanding Uncertainties Associated with Dry-block
Calibrators, March 28 (presented in English)
• How to do a System Calibration for an RTD and Readout,
April 11 (presented in Spanish)
• Automating Temperature Sensor Calibration, April 25
(presented in English)

For the latest schedule visit
http://us.flukecal.com/training/web-seminars/current-schedule

Our seminar topics cover principles and practical tips about electrical, flow, pressure,
RF and temperature calibration
Thank you

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