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WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY

Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Background of the study

Among the many forms of expression, fashion is a straightforward gauge of

one’s individuality. You are what you wear, but that is so much as the brand and price

tag as the way you carry yourself. In search of value for money, many Filipinos turn to

ukay-ukay stores or thrift shops for quality clothing at very affordable prices

(entrepreneur.com.ph, 2012).

Buying and selling of branded second hand clothes and apparels has become one

of the lucrative micro-businesses in the Philippines today because many Filipinos love to

enjoy these products which is sold on a price lower than the original price.

The term “ukay-ukay” is a Visayan term to dig-up and later it has been known to refer

to second hand clothes and apparels. These “ukay-ukay” products became one of the

most sought bargain items in the Philippines. They had provided entrepreneurial

undertakings to many Filipinos. This commercial network originated from the clothing

capital of Asia, Hong Kong Abueg (2010).

It could be recalled that “ukay-ukay” products entered the Philippine market as

shipments in the form of donations from charitable groups to aid refugees and calamity

victims. Later Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) saw its potentials as a business

endeavor thus; they learned to collect used clothing particularly those with known

brands and send it to the Philippines in” balikbayan” boxes. Consequently,

entrepreneurial friends and relatives would buy in bulk, and then sell by the piece to the

public Zerrudo(2013).
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

2

Associated to these “ukay-ukay” products are some issues and disadvantages

such as torn or stained clothes, shoes with no pairs, sizes which are hard to find and

many more. Moreso, from the perspective of the buyers, shopping for these products

could be tiring, thus, one needs patience and strength. On the other hand, the health of

traders and consumers is also at risk because products came from different places and

unknown owners. So, there’s a possibility that they’ll be able to get disease from the

“ukay-ukay” products.

As what researchers observed nowadays, “ukay-ukay” became the best bargain

phenomenon to hit the Philippines. It serves not only the CDE markets, but also budget

conscious, variety seeking AB customers who know that the stalls carry a wide range of

used goods and export overruns, including toys, linens, handbags, shoes and clothes.

Even the items are second hand, customers may prefer them to local markets because

of their brand names and perceived quality, and feel like winners after a successful

bargain hunt. Amidst the problems stated, some consumers continue to patronize these

goods.

This research was conducted to clarify the reasons and factors on why “ukay-

ukay” traders preferred to engage in the said business. This study also aimed to widen

the knowledge of all men about “Ukay-Ukay”. This also explained the meaning of “Ukay-

ukay” and its history. It also gave emphasizes on how competitive “ukay-ukay” as a

business and how it affects the local economy. This research also wanted to determine

the problems encountered by the “ukay-ukay” entrepreneurs and customers and the
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

3

benefits of the people from “ukay-ukay”. This is also to inform the people about its

advantages and disadvantages.

“Ukay-ukay” products are beneficial to both traders and consumers because of

its low price and good quality. Economically speaking, “ukay-ukay” boost the economy

of Janiuay for it gives employment and produce taxes that are essential to the local

government.

Review of Related Literature

The clothing industry is one of the leading businesses throughout the world. It is

never out of demands since it is one of the basic needs of human beings. Due to this

reason, the competition in the industry is really stiff from brand name, quality and cost

up to promotion. Competitors never let themselves left out when it comes to innovation

of their products. In so doing, their product would end up attractive and saleable to

consumers.

Economic difficulties pose challenges among consumers whose purchasing power

is becoming low. They have to recuperate with little money to provide basic needs like

food, clothing and shelter. Hence, they tend to look for low-priced clothes. Apparently,

clothing and garment stores that sell affordable yet with high quality products grow

almost anywhere like mushrooms in the market place.

Typical of these clothing outlets are “ukay-ukay” stalls which keep even the

budget-challenged fashionistas. The term “ukay-ukay” is derived from the Filipino hukay,

which means to dig up. “Ukay-ukay”, synonymous with “wagwag”, which is the act of

dusting off a piece of clothing by taking hold of one end and snapping it in the air.
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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“Wagwag” is an Ilokano term synonymous with segunda mano (SM) or second hand,

which unwittingly gives the stuff an air of elegance because SM stands for shoe mart,

the foremost Philippine retail chain. Apparently, “ukay-ukay” started as a popular trade

at the turn of the century. The term became vogue in Baguio City and later everywhere

in the country and became a by-word even among fashionistas. Rummaging became

popular that there come an array of suggested guides on the art of rummaging. For

example, Ramirez wrote an article on tips and tricks of “ukay-ukay” in 2010. On the

other hand, Constantino (2009) wrote an article on recessionistas’ insider tips on how to

score in an “ukay-ukay”. Rummaging through a big pile of smelly used clothing became

an art. Many Filipinos now get used to shopping at “ukay-ukay” stores all over the

Philippines. This is not just a country-wide phenomenon, nor an Asian one, but a global

trend competing with traditional department stores, boutiques and shopping malls

everywhere on this planet. In fact, even these conventional stores selling only brand-

new clothing, shoes and accessories are carried away by the crowd-drawing power of

“ukay-ukay” marketing scheme that dumped the items in one place and put up a big

“SALE” sign. After deliberately messing up, tossing up and mixing up all the clothes

together, they make it look like an “ukay-ukay” giving an impression (often wrongly)

that the items being sold there are cheap. One can CVCITC Research Journal, 1(2):

2014; ISSN: 2362-9029 3 see this kind of selling even in shopping malls in big cities in

the Philippines. However, the things one finds at real “ukay-ukay” stalls along dusty side

streets and often crowded alleys can be surprising. In “ukay-ukay” stalls, one can find

expensive imported items like Armani pants, Louis Vitton bags, Charles Jordan shoes,
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Burberry bags, Levis jeans and Nike shoes – all genuine, original brands at 1% of their

real prices. For example, an original Armani costing Php 20,000 would only cost for Php

200 at the “ukay-ukay”. More often than not, one can find these items slightly used by

their former owners. A customer can get lucky in getting these big bargains only if he

mastered more or less how to deal with the” ukay-ukay” store keepers who sell these

items and have no idea of how much they really cost before they were dumped there.

For example, an office worker in Davao City, an occasional “ukay-ukay” found genuine

leather shoes he liked (fitted on his feet) and decided to buy. The price quoted to him

first was Php 750. Bargaining that it was too much for second-hand shoes, the store

keeper said his last price at Php 450, “take it or leave it.” The office worker told the

keeper that he only have Php 200 in his wallet and said goodbye. At his surprise, he was

held back by the final offer. Php 200 was fine and the item was sold. It was found out

later by the office worker that the original price of the shoes was Php 6,500. Hence,

bargaining is a skill that would do well with the “ukay-ukay” customer . When this kind

of clothing store first appeared in the market, it was not so much noticed by consumers

and there were only a few number of this clothing store. As time went by, together with

lifestyle of Filipinos, “ukay-ukay” became numerous anywhere in the country. As a

matter of fact, Bench, Bonjour de corps and a lot more are readily available in “ukay-

ukay” stores in a high demand. This is just a proof that “ukay-ukay” somehow meets the

standards of Filipinos when it comes to clothing. People who patronize “ukay-ukay” have

varied reasons and belong to various social classes. Most patrons belong to the low and

middle classes whose reason is affordability. On the other hand, some patrons belong to
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

6

the high class whose reasons are originality, uniqueness and quality. These are the

factors that justify the booming of “ukay-ukay” business nationwide. Some may not yet

be aware but the growth of “ukay-ukay” really seemed to be indispensable especially

now that most Filipinos experience economic downfall and low purchasing power. Aptly,

consumers would definitely search for products like clothes that are affordable that

meets somehow their standards ( Valdez, J.A.P., B.R.L. Acosta & B.V. Ramos (2014).

There’s more to “ukay-ukay” than the democratization of fashion. The industry

that sprouted out of second hand clothes generates millions in income for sellers, and

saves millions more for the people who buy from them. In a thesis titled Economics of

Secondhand Retail Trade: An Analysis of the Market for “ukay-ukay” by Luisito Abueg,

the history of the “ukay-ukay”, the policies that govern the underground industry, and

what it all implies for the Philippines as s struggling economy are painstakingly discussed

and dissected.

According to Abueg, the market for secondhand garments flourished from its

considered capital, Baguio City, province of Benguet despite a law that prohibits the

wholesale of second hand clothes. Although Republic Act number 4653 (ratified July

1966) has been enacted, there is no clear implementation of this law (e.g., confiscation

and/or burning of such imported commodities). He said that “ukay-ukay” is a very

affordable source of fashionable yet durable clothing material for those with relatively

low incomes.

It could be recalled that “ukay-ukay” products entered the Philippine market as

shipments in the form of donations from charitable groups to aid refugees and calamity
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

7

victims. Later Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) saw its potentials as a business

endeavor thus; they learned to collect used clothing particularly those with known

brands and send it to the Philippines in balikbayan boxes. Consequently, entrepreneurial

friends and relatives would buy in bulk, and then sell by the piece to the public Zerrudo

(2013).

Former President Macapagal-Arroyo banned the entry and sale of “ukay-ukay”

items in the market. This created discontent among its patrons, who look at “ukay-ukay”

goods as the most affordable in the market. Without doubt, secondhand clothing and

garments retail and trade have become a part of the domestic market. Abueg said the

government’s main objective to protect local markets and industries has been set into

law when Republic Act 4653 banned the importation, sale, and retail of “ukay-ukay”

goods. Evidently, with the transformation of secondhand clothing and garments retail

and trade into what it is today a solid, constantly growing industry the government has

since opted to control and vindicate the market activities of “ukay-ukay”, for instance, by

imposing taxes.

In September 2010, lawmakers went up in arms against the renewed proposal of

the Bureau of Customs (BoC) to tax “ukay-ukay” stores in Baguio City, Metro Manila and

most parts of the country. Mr. Province Rep. Maximo Dalog and Baguio City Rep.

Bernardo Vergara insisted that it will be the poor people who will be burdened by the

proposed tax measure. They asserted that the imposition of new tax measure is

contrary to the campaign promise of President Benigno Aquino III that he will not allow

such move but will instead urge the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) to intensify tax
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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collection. According to Rep. Dalog, the “ukay-ukay” trade is a thriving business in the

country because the prices of these goods are very cheap. He said that taxing “ukay-

ukay” will kill the business because of the consequent increase in their prices.

However, Silverio,Alleco (2011) said that Filipinos everywhere protested against

the ban, saying that it is anti-poor on so many levels. Those who sold “ukay-ukay”

decried that many will lose their jobs and main sources of income – those who man the

stores, who sort out the clothes, those who are into the transport of goods. Those who

buy clothes from “ukay-ukay” cried out against the threat of losing a much cheaper,

alternative provider of their wardrobe needs.

A research conducted by Locsin (2007) in particular in her paper – Fashioning a

Culture through Baguio City’s “ukay-ukay” had highlighted her observations on the trend

about “ukay-ukay” industry in Baguio. According to her “these products are articles on

sale; which are randomly mixed up regardless of size, color, type and style in huge piles

along sidewalk stalls. Buyers dig into the piles from all sides in a ‘contest’ to choose the

‘best’ item, adjudged by the keen eye for its relative newness, lack of damage or stains,

and its fashion appeal. However, a research entitled factors associated with the

patronage of “ukay-ukay” products in Davao city shows that respondents were more

influenced by the product’s affordability which is within their budget. Traditional store is

more favorable to them because they can negotiate for a lower price unlike in malls

wherein prices are fixed.

According to the study of Garovillas (2009) entitled “Retailing Management”,

“ukay-ukay” nowadays is fashionable with durable material for those with relatively low
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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incomes. Even the items are second-hand; consumers may still prefer them because

they feel like winners after a successful bargain hunt. Products are relatively

homogenous with the new garments and accessories.

A research study conducted by the students of Cagayan Valley Computer and

Information Technology College, Inc stated that “ukay-ukay”, as art of rummaging

second-hand stuffs, is wide-spread in the Philippines: a very trending act of shopping

that made a strong impact on the textile and clothing industry. The tremendous growth

of this business phenomenon is observed in Santiago City. It effected changes on the

shopping practices, lifestyle of the masses, and supplemented the existence of the

textile clothing industry. The presence of such business activity in the city gained

attention from the different sectors – “ukay-ukay” entrepreneurs, consumers, franchised

clothing traders and government. The competitiveness and viability of the “ukay-ukay”

business in the long run is an important concern. The study found out that “ukay-ukay”

is not as preferred as department stores and other stores, but could be competitive

based on the (a) consumers’ evaluation of the stuffs as passing the criteria on durability,

prestige, originality and uniqueness, low pricing, and desiring to continue patronizing the

”ukay-ukay” stores, (b) entrepreneurs’ perceptions on its profitability and long-term

viability, high prospects of continuing their business in the next 5 years and becoming

more knowledgeable while engaging in the business. The entrepreneurs’ leading

problems are unsteady sale and the customers’ difficulty in rummaging while their needs

include increasing their capitalization and making their stalls more spacious and
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

10

comfortable. The problems encountered by customers of the “ukay-ukay” business do

not significantly affect the economic benefits they derive.

A study by Muthiani, Matiru, and Bii (2012) was conducted in Kenya to examine

the pathogenic microbial levels in second-hand undergarments such as panties, bras,

socks, and towels. It compared the effectiveness of disinfection methods in reducing

microbial load in undergarments using culture and biochemical tests. Several bacteria

such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Methicillin Sensitive

Staphylococcus Aureus, and fungi including Trychophytonmentagrophytes, and other

more were isolated from these unwashed clothing. These pathogenic bacteria and fungi

still remain in these clothes even after disinfecting.

Another study was conducted by Kabadil, Smith, and Gomez (2013) to 67

volunteer medical students of American University of the Caribbean School of Medicine

who had their laboratory coats swabbed during their time in Anatomy Laboratory class.

Their samples were collected prior to the laboratory activity and another at the end of it.

The researchers then found out those potential pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus,

Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia faecalis were present on the laboratory coats of

those students, with a significant difference between the results of the pre-swabbing

and post-swabbing. These findings indicate that laboratory garments worn in the

Anatomy Laboratory setting were not sterile after exposure and thus harbor potentially

pathogenic microorganisms. Hence, proper timely laundering of laboratory clothing is

recommended Kabadil, Smith and Gomez, et. al, (2013).
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Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Methodology

The study employed the qualitative data through case studies. De Marrais, K.

and Dapan, S. (2004) stated that case study research can involve the close examination

of people, topics, issues, or programs. It was further stated that case studies seek to

answer focused question by producing in-depth description and interpretations over a

relatively short period of time. Further, the researcher develops category, themes, and

sub-themes from the responses of the key informants. Further, the gathered data were

transcribe, coded, interpreted, and analyzed. The methodology used in the study was a

face to face interview with the respondents. In order to record the interview, an audio

tape was used.

The respondents of the presents study were the three (3) sellers and two (2)

consumers of “ukay-ukay” in the public market at the municipality of Janiuay, who are

patronizing the “ukay- ukay” product. Each respondent was interviewed using the

researcher made interview guide. They selected through purposive sampling based on

the inclusion criteria such as those patronizing the “ukay- ukay” product.

The researchers established the informed consent from the participants.

Likewise, the researchers observed ethical consideration in conducting the in-depth

interview with the patronizers.
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
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SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Figure 1: Site of Janiuay Public Market - Janiuay Iloilo

The data needed in this study were gathered through face-to-face interview,

audio tape recording and document analysis. According to Med (2003), interviewing

involves asking questions and getting answers from participants in a study. Interviewing

has a variety of forms including: individual, face-to-face interviews and face-to-face

group interviewing.

After collecting the data, the researchers analyzed and interpreted them by

means of transcribing, coding, and developing themes. Transcribing, it is the process of

converting audio or video data text for analysis. The researchers transcribed all the data

gathered from face-to-face interview, document analysis, and audio tape recording.

Coding, it is the process of reviewing notes and discussing common themes. The

researchers identified the commonalities/ similarities among the data gathered. Themes,

describe the pattern/ phenomenon as a result. It will serve as a basis to understand

deeply the result of the study being conducted among patronizers of “ukay-ukay”.
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

13

Findings and Interpretation

An emergent theme among the traders and consumers of “ukay-ukay” in the

municipality of Janiuay is reported in this section. The identified themes and categories

were well discussed. Data generated from the research questions were further

presented in this section of paper.

Affordability and Quality

Affordability and quality were the emerging topic revealed based on the

transcribed data from the interview. Various social classes who patronize “ukay-ukay”

had their valid reasons. Economic difficulties pose challenges among consumers whose

purchasing power is becoming low. They have to recuperate with little money to provide

basic needs like food, clothing and shelter. Hence, they tend to look for low-priced

clothes. Apparently, clothing and garment stores that sell affordable yet with high

quality products grow almost anywhere like mushrooms in the market place.

“Sa ukay-ukay makabakal barato na kag manamie ang quality. Halimbawa, mga

studyante hindi ka afford brand new nga tag 200 plus gya sa ukay-ukay

makabakal sanda blouse nga tag 50 or 35 asta sa 10 pesos dun ran namie pa

ang tsura na.”

(In “ukay-ukay” you can purchase affordable and high quality of clothing. For

example, students can’t afford a brand new shirt which costs ₱200 or more, but here

they can buy a blouse for ₱ 50.00 or ₱ 35.00. Even clothes that cost ₱10.00 were still in

good quality.)
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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In connection with this, the needs for clothing were answer through the

emerging of “ukay-ukay”, thus:

“Ang ukay-ukay maka benipisyo gid sa tawo, parehas kanakun kay estudyante

pa lang ako kag ang budget ko tight gid katama. Madamo abi ang garastuhan

kag ang budget nga pangbakal gamit pareho sang bayo, mga short, dilargo kag

tapos kis-a sapatos madalahig kabayad sa eskwelahan te para maka less gaukay-

ukay ako kay namie man ang quality sang branded.”

(“Ukay-ukay” is beneficial to the people, like me as a student having a less

budget, and a lot of expenses. The money that was intended for buying things such as

shirts, shorts, pants and shoes was used for school fees. So for less expenses I used to

buy in “ukay-ukay” for it also has a good quality.)

Typical of these clothing outlets are “ukay-ukay” stalls which keep even the

budget-challenged fashionistas. Though the items are second hand, customers may

prefer them to local markets because of their brand names and perceived quality, and

feel like winners after a successful bargain hunt. Amidst the problems stated, some

consumers continue to patronize these goods.

Affordability and quality are some of the factors why Filipinos of all status

patronize the “ukay-ukay” products. The “ukay-ukay” markets provide various branded

products that are sold cheaper than its actual price.
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Besides the foregoing contentions, the respondents under study affirmed that

the “ukay-ukay” products is of great help to augment their expenses in financing their

clothing needs.

This is just a proof that “ukay-ukay” somehow meets the standards of Filipinos

when it comes to clothing. People who patronize “ukay-ukay” have varied reasons and

belong to various social classes. Most patrons belong to the low and middle classes

whose reason is affordability. On the other hand, some patrons belong to the high class

whose reasons are originality, uniqueness and quality. These are the factors that justify

the booming of “ukay-ukay” business nationwide. Some may not yet be aware but the

growth of “ukay-ukay” really seemed to be indispensable especially now that most

Filipinos experience economic downfall and low purchasing power. Aptly, consumers

would definitely search for products like clothes that are affordable that meets somehow

their standards, Valdez, J.A.P., B.R.L. Acosta & B.V. Ramos (2014).

Beneficialness and Accessibility

“Beneficialness and Accessibility” is the persistent theme based on the answers

of the patrons during the conduct of the in-depth interview. These patrons of “ukay-

ukay” products, preferred staying and selling in their municipalities rather than going to

other municipalities in order to lessen their expenditures. This decision made the local

economy of Janiuay to improve as well as the other business sectors in the town.

In connection to this, Former President Macapagal-Arroyo banned the entry and

sale of “ukay-ukay” items in the market. This created discontent among its patrons, who
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

16

look at “ukay-ukay” goods as the most affordable in the market. Without doubt,

secondhand clothing and garments retail and trade have become a part of the domestic

market. Abueg said the government’s main objective to protect local markets and

industries has been set into law when Republic Act 4653 banned the importation, sale,

and retail of “ukay-ukay” goods. Evidently, with the transformation of secondhand

clothing and garments retail and trade into what it is today a solid, constantly growing

industry the government has since opted to control and vindicate the market activities of

“ukay-ukay”, for instance, by imposing taxes.

“Mas prefer ko gya magbaligya sa Janiuay kay gya ko gauli mo, lapit lang kag isa

pa kun layo ang ulian mo magasto sa pamasahi. Sang una naga brobolante man

ako asta nga nag settle down gya sa Janiuay.”

(I preferred selling in Janiuay because this is where I reside. If I choose to sell in

farther places, it will cost higher fare. I was once a merchant until I decided to settle

down here.)

Patrons often choose to buy and sell “ukay-ukay” in the municipality of Janiuay

to provide the citizens and the government the benefits of having cheap preferences

and tax revenue. In addition, patrons contributed in the boosting of the local economy

and lessen their expenses in trading.

“Mas gusto ko mag stay di kay hindi ka magastuhan pamasahi pakadto kag puli.

Kun magkita 1,000 sa bolantehan, magasto eh. Plete mo pa kan an mo pa, pila

nalang bilin kun diri kalng mag stay, ang sa 150 dala dun pagkaon.”
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(I preferred to selling here so it will not cost higher fare. If you are earning

₱1000 and you are spending for you fare and food, you will only earn less than you

supposed to earn. In here, your ₱150 is enough with food already in it.)

Despite challenges and harsh conditions, they remained committed and

dedicated to their municipalities. The income they earn and the money they can save

can be used in other needs like food and education. They remained faithful to their

locality just as they have faith in God. Further, consumers and traders lived

harmoniously and shared their blessings.

Issues and problems

“Issues and problems” are the recurrent theme arises during the conduct of the

interview with the patrons. Like any other business, the “ukay-ukay” business also has

its disadvantages that may hinder its helpful benefits. This remarkably notable in the

conditions concerning the business industry.

This result is contrary to the findings conducted under case study. The key

informants stressed that:

“Ang reject namon di may gisi. Kun reject na sinako na baligya namon my jan

man nga pinanid. Pareho bi sa karnehan; mabakal sanda 20 pesos taw an

namun na 10 kabilog. Balie tag dos(2) pesos baligya namun kay gina trapo da

man lang mo.”
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
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(Shirts considered as “reject” are being sold as rags. For instance, the meet

vendors, they are buying 10 pieces for ₱20.00,thus one piece cost ₱2.00.)

The respondents under study just simply look at the bright side and not at the

bad side of the business. They are often optimistic in the usefulness of a product before

they disposed it. Traders tend to gain their loss by re-selling those with damaged but

are still useful products. After all, consumers are satisfied by the quality and price they

spent in an “ukay-ukay” product.

Accordingly, people are poor not just because of lack of economic resources to

satisfy basic needs, but also because they live in a social, economic, and political system

which do not provide equality of opportunities among its citizens. The “ukay-ukay”

business intends to provide the basis for the patrons of a fine quality yet affordable

products.

“Mga gisi-gisi nga ran matimingan nga mabuol namun gina baligya pa man

namun ah, pwede pa ran mahimo da nga trapo ukon doormat. Sinako run dan

mag tingbanay nga baklahanay tag 200 kada sako.”

(Those products with damages can still be sold as rags or doormats. Combining

them together, you can come up with several sacks which can be sold for 200 pesos per

sack.)
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SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
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Summary of findings

The local economy of Janiuay was affected by the “Affordability and Quality” of

“ukay-ukay” products. Because of its low price and good quality, patrons preferred

“ukay-ukay” rather than local brands. Accessibility on the market place was one of the

factor why they chose to buy (consumers) and sell (traders) in the municipality of

Janiuay. Hence, people of the said locality benefited in “ukay-ukay”. The patrons should

also take note of the different “Issues and Problems” regarding “ukay-ukay” products.

Thus, to prevent further loss of profits, traders are still selling products with damages

as rags and doormats.

Conclusion

The impact of “ukay-ukay” in the local economy of Janiuay has a great effect to

both traders and consumers. Everyone has their access to high quality yet affordable

products. This has become a trend-shopping district for low, middle and high earning

classes. People preferred to buy in “ukay-ukay” rather than buying in expensive

boutiques or malls. The clothing, fashion, and household needs of every individual can

be catered by “ukay-ukay”. The municipality of Janiuay became well known to provide

the consumers their needs and wants. Because of it’s affordability and accessibility,

consumers preferred buying in Janiuay. For traders, it is convenient to sell in this

municipality to lessen their expenses and the fact, Janiuay is the center of the 3rd district

which means to make it more popular to the people. This can help to improve the local

economy of Janiuay trough the taxes impaired for the “ukay-ukay” products. Even
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SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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damaged ukay-ukay products can be useful to the traders and consumers; for traders

they can somehow gain their loss of capital and for the consumers they can still use it as

rags.

The study showed that the ukay-ukay business have the impact in the local

economy of Janiuay.

Recommendations

Government officials, through the Department of Trade and Industry, Bureau of

Internal Revenue and Bureau of Customs personnel and staff, should review their

policies and guidelines in administering the “ukay-ukay” business industry. Security

measures should be established to ensure that the business traders follow their duties

and obligation to the government and to the citizens. DTI should make sure that traders

are not overlapping the consumers rights, the BIR should make sure that taxes are

being paid on the time and are not that high for traders not to loss more of their profit,

and the BoC, to ensure that products entering the country are all been taxed and that

they are not receiving under the table transactions. We also recommend to abolish the

R.A. 4653 (An Act To Safeguard The Health Of The People And Maintain The Dignity Of

The Nation By Declaring It A National Policy To Prohibit The Commercial Importation Of

Textile Articles Commonly Known As Used Clothing And Rags.) because even there is a

law, Filipinos are still importing products from other countries.

To the traders of “ukay-ukay” products, it is recommended that they make sure

they all attend to their consumers’ needs without compromising theirs. Making sure of
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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their respected places clean and convenient to the consumers. We also recommend that

the ukay-ukay traders or store owners must be careful because they might be sued even

if the government isn’t very active with regard to this law.

To the consumers, they should also take concern for the trader’s profit. “Ukay-

ukay” does not mean very cheap so they should not demand for lower price. For those

buying in wet public market they should not complain of very hot surroundings, noise

and smelly odor of products. They should also rewashed the products they bought to

secure their health.
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SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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References

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of the Market for Ukay-ukay. Philippine Journal of Development (2005),

Number 59, Volume XXXII 13 January 2013.

Retrieved from: http://dirp4.pids.gov.ph/ris/pjd/pidspjd05-1ukay.pdf

Constantino , B. &Panutat,L.(2009). How to score in an ukay-ukay:

Recessionistas’insider tips

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the-ukay-recessionistas-reveal-how-to-score-in-an-ukay-ukay

Garovillas. (2009). Retailing Management 7th Edition Michael Levy and Barton

Weitz McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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Management-Michael-Levy/dp/0077494199

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/05/MSRJ-Spring-2013-Potential-pathogen-transmission-on-medical-

student- anatomy-laboratory-clothing.pdf

Locsin, R. (2007). Fashioning a Culture through Baguio City’s Ukay-Ukay.

Paper from the Conference “INTER: A European Cultural Studies
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Conference in Sweden”, organised by the Advanced Cultural Studies

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Muthiani, Matiru, and Bii (2012).Potential skin pathogens on second hand

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Ramirez, J. (2009). The A-Z of Baguio “ukay” Shopping, Philippine Daily Inquirer

First Posted 21:15:00 04/23/2009

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ukay-in-baguio-city/

R.A. 4653 (1996).An act to safeguard the health of the people maintain the

dignity of the nation by declaring it a national policy to prohibit the

commercial importation of textile articles commonly known as used

clothing and rags.

Retrieved from :http://www.chanrobles.com/republicacts/republicactno

4653.html#.WAbc49SLTDc

Silverio, I. (2011)The Economics of Ukay-Ukay

Retrieved from :http://bulatlat.com/main/2011/04/18/the-economics-of-

ukay-ukay/
WEST VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Janiuay Campus
SCHOOL OF TEACHER EDUCATION
Janiuay, Iloilo

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Valdez, J.A.P., B.R.L. Acosta & B.V. Ramos (2014).Competitiveness, viability,

economic benefits anddifficulties of the ukay-ukay business

Retrieved from :http://www.academia.edu/9665726/competitiveness

viability_economic_benefits_and_difficulties_of_the_ukay-ukay_business

Zerrudo,M.R. (2013). Ukay-ukay, imported surplus: The skirt of globalization.

Sunstar-Lifestyle. 17 July, 2013

Retrieved from :http://www.sunstar.com.ph/cagayan-de-oro /lifestyle

/2013/06/29/ukay-ukay-importedsurplus-skirt-globalization-289941