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Research in ELT

Qulitative Research about Case Studies


Name : Ria Ulfa Handayani Muhu

Off.No : A1M215139

Faculty of Teacher Training and Education

Halu Oleo University




we in this opportunity to thank the people involved in the preparation of this paper. Therefore. This paper focuses on "The types of qualitative research". so I was able to finish it. this paper may be useful for us all 2 . PREFACE Thank God we pray to the presence of the Almighty God for blessing and gift of His grace so that we can prepare this paper just in time. I realize that this paper still far from perfection both of form and material preparation of the discussion. And criticism and constructive suggestions from readers so we expect to further improvement in the preparation of papers. Thus. encouragement from my friends. a lot of difficulties and obstacles experienced. But thanks to the support. In preparing this paper.

Data Collection procedures 7 D. Contents PREFACE 2 CHAPTER I 4 INTRODUCTION 4 A. Validity level Research Case Study 11 CHAPTER III 13 Conclusion 13 3 . Types of Data Analysis 9 E. Background 4 B. Use of the Case Study Theory in 7 C. Understanding Case Studies 6 B. Objective Discussion 4 CHAPTER II 6 DISCUSSION 6 A. Problem Formulation 4 C.

measures a case study. The case study is one strategy in a qualitative study. then a researcher must know what the ideal approach to the type of research. Case studies limited by time and activity. activity. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Problem Formulation 1. Objective Discussion 1. the validity of the study. To know procedure collection of data in the case studies 4. Creswell: A case study is a research strategy which included researchers investigated carefully a program. To know the theories used in the case study 3. According to John W. speakers explain the meaning of case studies. or group of individual. process. How procedure collection of data in the case study? 4. In this paper the authors will discuss Case Study Research (Design and Methods) . How to use the theory in the case study? 3. B. to find out the types of case study research 4 . and researchers collected detailed information using a variety of procedures collection of data based on a predetermined time. How is the validity of the research in the case study? C. What is a case study? 2. What are the types of case study? 5. To find a case study 2.As for the limitation in this paper to be more focused. Background In a study to determine what steps will be made later by a researcher to complete research. event. the types of data analysis.

5. to determine the level of validity of the research in case studies 5 .

event. Lisa M. But the terms of the nature of the research. activity. activity. "Research case or case study is an intensive research conducted detailed and in-depth to an organization. CHAPTER II DISCUSSION A. group. and researchers collected detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures based on a predetermined time. Case studies limited by time and activity. event. 6 . Creswell: A case study is a research strategy in which researchers investigated carefully a program. or group of individuals as well as case studies are researching the life of one or several communities. The Definition of Case Studies Case Study is one of the strategies in qualitative research. intense. Donald Ary says in his book "Introduction Research in Education Eight Edition "that a case study is a qualitative examination of a single individual. the case study only includes areas or subjects that are very limited. institution or certain symptoms. Thus. using a qualitative approach. or group of individual. detailed and in-depth and more focused as an effort to examine the problems or phenomena that are conteporer. Given in his book "The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods "revealed that "Acase study is a research approach in the which one or a few instances of a phenomenon are studied in depth. The cases are limited by time and activity. or institution. According to John W. an outline of definition of the case study is a research strategy where in researchers investigated carefully a program. process. organizations and individuals are used as the unit of analysis. more case studies deep. And case studies in the treasures of the methodology known as a study is comprehensive. event. and researchers collected detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures based on a predetermined time (Stake 1995). In review of its territory. process.

because case studies involving the collection of data are "rich" to build in-depth description of a case. the community and the environment. 1. followed by a description of the school. As long as the issue of a case is still developing. and people or units social. 2. the theory can not be used in this case study. Aggregation is the process of abstracting the 7 . and classify the data into units that can be managed. 3. processes. so it can be completed by the deadline and the resources available. can adjust the data collected by the problem and research environments. According to Creswell a theory of shaping the direction of the study (Mc Cormick. The study begins with the definition of "non-readers". C. The study continues with a look at the ability and inability to read the students will predict failures and successes of students in reading and writing. Later studies continue to explore the experience of a 81/2-year-old student. Creswell express a qualitative case study examples of Stake (1995) on the reform at Harper School depicting a descriptive case studies and issue-oriented. B. Data Collection procedures The data collection the case study can be taken from a variety of sources of information. Cases can be chosen by the researchers to make the objects. This study begins by presenting the issue of "school reform". 1994). organize. programs. Data: There are several techniques in data collection. The Use of Theory in the Case Study Qualitative case studies to apply the theory in a different way. Data analysis: after the collected data researchers can begin to aggregate. The measure and complexity of the object to be plausible case studies. interviews and documentation analysis. It is closely related to internal and external factors. Researcher as research instrument. environments. but more used in a case of study is observation. and then proceed to the theoretical basis for the study "framed" in an interactive theory. Selection of cases: in the selection of cases should be done aiming (purposive) and not randomly AT. and can collect different data simultaneously.

Data can be organized in chronological order. The report is expected to bring the reader into the situation of a person or group life case. physical device or cultural namely technology equipment. case studies. materials tabulations. reports an event. tools or instruments. a narrative. while the collection of data and after all the data is collected or after completion and field. direct observation. works of art etc. agendas. a list of names. 5. c. making it easier for readers to understand all the important information. interviews usually open-ended type. participant observation and f. Further Yin suggested that the benefit of the six sources of such evidence can be maximized when three more Yin suggested that the benefit of the six sources of such evidence can be maximized when the following three principles are followed. calendars etc. memoranda. and describe a phenomenon or social unity in a clear. easy to read. ● Maintaining the circuit proof. 8 . e. category or inserted into the data tipologi. And according to Yin revealed that there are six forms of data collection in the case studies are: a. documents. 4. archival footage which consists of service records. personal records such as diaries. assessments. studies. proposals.specific things become common things in order to find a common pattern study notes. articles. such as note. Analisis since researchers in the field. Writing the report: the report should be written in a conversational. New data collection requires the researcher to return to the field and might have to create a new category and the new data can not be grouped into categories that already exist. Repair (refinement): although all the data has been collected. documentation consisting of letters. namely: ● Using evidence multi sumber ● Creating basic data case studies. maps. clippings. d. the case study approach should be improved or reinforcement (reinforcement) new data on the categories that have been found. survey data. b.

Multiple Case Study Research (Collective or multiple case study) is a case study using a number of high profile cases. Examples of single instrumental case study entitled 'Traffic Congestion in Kendari. indicates the use of the term case studies. Examples of in-depth case study given the title "Traffic congestion cross in Kendari new market area" shows the integration between the case study locations. This matrix contains four types of data are: interviews. thus showing the complexity of the case. but rather the specificity and uniqueness. Examples of plural case study is' Traffic Congestion in Kendari. 9 . Case Study: Region New Market'. observation. D. The submission of data through this matrix is intended to see the depth and the many forms of data collection. While Asmussen & Creswell displays of data collection through the matrix source of information for readers. 1. Case Study: Region Wuwa-Wua and New Market. c) Plural Case Study case studies. This shows that both the tool that is the center of all the qualitative research tradition that require additional attention from researchers. the administration's line. documents and audio-visual material for columns and specific forms of information such as students. The in-depth case study In-depth case study (intrinsic case study) is a case study conducted with regard to the first and last time researching on a particular case. This is done not with the intention to place such cases represent from another case. b) Case Study Research Instrumental Case Study Research Instrumental (Instrumental Case Study) is a case study performed by researching the case to provide in-depth understanding or explaining back a process of generalization. Types of Data Analysis a) Case Study Research Depth Case Study Research Depth (Intrinsic case study) is a case study conducted with a view to the first data last time researching on a particular case. More Creswell revealed that interviews and observations is a data collection tool that is widely used by various studies. The use of a matrix will be useful when applied in an information .

10 . but someday he might be able to construct a theory. In general. organ. according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is as follows: 1 a: belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing * the intrinsic worth of a gem * * the intrinsic brightness of a star * b: being or Relating to a semiconductor in the which the concentration of charge carriers is characteristic of the material itself instead of the content of any impurities it contains 2 a: originating or due to causes within a body. the researchers intend to indicate the presence of something unique that can be learned from the case.At first. Each case may indicate something of the same or different. In other words. if the request is to be the only one in the world. This case study is the development of a case study instrumental. Said intrinsic itself. his research may not have intended to construct a theory of his research. may explain the absence of a common thread between them. the case is positioned as a means (instrument) to demonstrate in-depth explanation and understanding of something other than the usual described. The case study instrumental instrumental case study (instrumental case study) is a case study performed by researching the case to provide in-depth understanding or explaining back a process of generalization. which is different from the explanations obtained from other objects. or part * an intrinsic metabolic disease * b: the originating and included wholly within an organ or part * *intrinsic muscles an understanding of the intrinsic above shows that the in-depth case study intended to explore the fundamental thing (essence) which causes the occurrence or existence of a case. Plural case study Case study plural (collectiveor mutiple case study)is a case study using a number of high profile cases. to explain the general characteristics. 3. Through the cases studied. using a lot of cases. But when assessed jointly or collectively. 2. researchers in-depth case study is intended to examine or explore the fundamental things that was behind the case. The assumption of many use cases is that the cases used in the plural case study may individually can not describe the general characteristics.

Triangulation help researchers to examine the validity of the data through checking and comparing the data. Validity level Research Case Study Stake (1995) states that a case study requires extensive verification through triangulation and member check. so that the reader will gain a thorough understanding of the depth of the issue based on studies conducted on each article. In the book. Further Stake "offer" triangulation of Denzin (1970) distinguishes four kinds Tringulasi as examination techniques that make use of data sources. researchers. Stake suggest triangulation information namely seeking centralization of information relating directly to the "data conditions" in developing a case study. Further Stake provide a "checklist criticism" to report case studies and divide it into 20 criteria for judging a good case study report as follows: • Whether the report is easy to read? • Whether the report is right in general. and even be able to fix a theory by showing the facts and evidence that more. Stake (2005) show examples of a collective case study research is pointing to the books collection of articles that discuss an issue together. Stake recommend researchers to conduct checks to members who are involved in this case study and represent their peers to react in terms of their own views and situation of the data that has been organized by the researcher. E. For the member check. themes or issues)? • What issues should be seriously developed and scientifically? • Is there case is best defined? • Is there a story in a presentation? • Do readers to enter from some experience which represent? • Are quotations used effectively? 11 . the editors must be able to demonstrate a common thread of each article. The cases in the plural has been a case study because it is perceived that by understanding them collectively. theory and methodology. that every sentence contribute to the overall report? • Does the report have a conceptual structure (for example. can improve the understanding of things.

indexes usedeffectively? • Is the report well edited? • Do readers are advised to make a statement either through or under interpretation? • Is adequate attention has been paid to various contexts? • Is the raw data that will eventually be shown? • Is the chosen data sources and the number is sufficient? • Do observations and interpretations that appear to have been triangulated? • What is the role and perspectives of researchers appear well? • What is the "nature" intended audience will be revealed? • Is devoted to all aspects of empathy? • Is the author's personal intent studied? • Do these reports appear or risk to the individual? 12 . instruments. figures.• Do headings. attachments.

The case studies in general seeks to describe individual differences or variations of a "unique" of a problem. activity. context and holistically. or group of individual. The case studies to be useful if someone / researcher wants to understand an issue or situation with a very deep and where people can identify cases that is rich with information. program. more appropriate case study for research relating to how or why. A case can be a person. detail. event. and researchers collected detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures based on a predetermined time. Therefore it can be said that in general. critical incident / or a community with a unique attempt to describe the units with depth. CHAPTER III Conclusion The case study is a research strategy in which researchers investigated carefully a program. process. rich in the sense that a large problem can be learned from some of the examples of this phenomena and are usually in the form of a question. event. Case studies limited by time and activity. 13 .