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Comparison of Liquified Petroleum Gas and

Gasoline as Fuel

I. Introduction:
This research paper introduces and defines the comparison of liquified
petroleum gas and gasoline as fuel for internal combustion engine. The internal
combustion engines which are the subject of this paper is spark- ignition engines
(sometimes called Otto engines). The common fuel for combustion engines are
diesel and gasoline but as the technology advances the use of LPG as fuel for
combustion engine is now widespread through the use of available conversion kit.

Gasoline, as used worldwide in the vast number of internal combustion

engines used in transport and industry, has a significant impact on the environment,

both in local effects and in global effects. Gasoline may also enter the environment

uncombusted, as liquid and as vapors, from leakage and handling during production,

transport and delivery, from storage tanks, from spills, etc. As an example of efforts

to control such leakage, many underground storage tanks are required to have

extensive measures in place to detect and prevent such leaks. Gasoline

contains benzene and other known carcinogens. Gasoline inhalation can produce an

intense high however the practice is thought to cause severe organ damage, including

mental retardation.

While on the other hand, there is another kind of fuels that is not familiar for

other people to used, and it is LPG. LPG or Liquefied petroleum gas, it also referred

to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used

as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is increasingly

used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an

effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel

it is often referred to as auto gas.

Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are propane butane and,

most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane. In the northern

hemisphere winter, the mixes contain more propane, while in summer, they contain

more butane. In the United States, mainly two grades of LPG are sold: commercial

propane and HD-5. These specifications are published by the Gas Processors

Association (GPA) and the American Society of Testing and Materials

(ASTM). Propane/butane blends are also listed in these specifications.

1.1Internal Combustion Engines

Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) are heating engines or work producing
devices that use air and fuel as the working fluid. As the name implies heat addition
is realized through the ignition (combustion) of the fuel-air mixture within the
cylinder itself. Although gas turbines are also classified as internal combustion
engines, the name usually applies to reciprocating piston-cylinder arrangements of
which there are two types, the spark-ignition and the compression-ignition engine.

There are different types of engine cycles as described (Pulkrabeck 2006) in
internal combustion engines. These are air-standard cycles; otto cycle; real air-fuel
engine cycle; diesel cycle etc. Through the course of the paper we will use only one
specific cycle (otto cycle) to use in two different operating fuels (Gasoline & LPG).

The Otto Cycle is a set of processes used by spark ignition internal
combustion engines (2-stroke or 4-stroke cycles). These engines first ingest a
mixture of fuel and air, then compresses it that cause it to react, thus effectively
adding heat through converting chemical energy into thermal energy, and exand
the combustion products. It will then eject the combustion products and replace
them with a new charge of fuel air

2 SPARK.IGNITION OR (SI) ENGINE An SI engine starts the combustion process in each cycle by use of a spark plug. .1. The spark plug gives a high-voltage electrical discharge between two electrodes which ignites the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber surrounding the plug.

primarily hydrocarbons. 1. the temperature of the air entering the intake system is controlled by mixing ambient air with air heated by contact with the exhaust manifold. 1-3a) or fuel-injection system (Fig.4 Gasoline Fuel Gasoline is a refined product of petroleum crude oil. using a carburetor (Fig.1.3 SPARK – IGNITION OPERATION In SI engines the air and fuel are usually mixed together in the intake system prior to entry to the engine cylinder. In automobile applications. Gasoline specifications and ingredients are usually determined by government and . The ratio of mass flow of air to mass flow of fuel must be held approximately constant at about 15 to ensure reliable combustion. The gasoline is derived from petroleum usually containing hundred of ingredients (150-1000 different compounds). It is usually contains 10% ethanol alcohol where it belongs to the different compounds stated. 1-3b). consisting of various ingredients.

and valve type and location. and ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials). including their application. motion. ignition. In this section they are described within the context of two basic engine types: piston-and-cylinder engines and rotary engines. also called the Wankel engine. cooling system. The rotary engine.environmental regulations. This force drives the piston away from the head of the cylinder and performs work. the gas pressure acts on the surfaces of a rotor. (Fuel – Testers 2009) Gasoline engines can be grouped into a number of types depending on several criteria. Specifications and test methods can be found in publications of SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers). or back- and-forth. method of fuel management. causing the rotor to turn and thus perform work. does not have conventional cylinders fitted with reciprocating pistons. piston-and-cylinder or rotor arrangement. strokes per cycle. Instead. . In a piston-and- cylinder engine the pressure produced by combustion of gasoline creates a force on the head of a piston that moves the length of the cylinder in a reciprocating.

The . The intake event occurs when the piston moves from TDC to BDC and the intake valve is open.6:1 1.com Figure 1. http://kids.4 ENGINE OPERATING CYCLE The majority of reciprocating engines operate on what is known as the four stroke cycle.4: Fuel-Injection System 1. Each cylinder requires four strokes of its piston two revolutions of the crankshaft to complete the sequence of events which produces one power stroke.The intake event is when the air-fuel mixture is introduced to fill the combustion chamber.britannica. The Lower Heating Value of the Gasoline is 43000 kilojoule per kilogram and the air fuel ratio is 14. First Stroke: Intake Stroke .

The intake valve remains open a few degrees of crankshaft rotation after BDC. movement of the piston toward BDC creates a low pressure in the cylinder. 3. Depending on engine design. Compressing the air-fuel mixture allows more energy to be released when the charge is ignited. Ambient atmospheric pressure forces the air-fuel mixture through the open intake valve into the cylinder to fill the low pressure area created by the piston movement. Proper combustion involves a short but finite time to . The intake valve then closes and the air-fuel mixture is sealed inside the cylinder. The charge is the volume of compressed air-fuel mixture trapped inside the combustion chamber ready for ignition. Second Stroke: Compression Stroke . Ignition (Combustion) . The cylinder continues to fill slightly past BDC as the air-fuel mixture continues to flow by its own inertia while the piston begins to change direction.When the piston reaches BDC. Intake and exhaust valves must be closed to ensure that the cylinder is sealed to provide compression.The ignition (combustion) event occurs when the charge is ignited and rapidly oxidized through a chemical reaction to release heat energy. the intake valve closes and the piston travels back to TDC with all valves closed. The combustion chamber is sealed to form the charge. This compresses the air-fuel mixture. Combustion is the rapid. raising both the pressure and temperature in the cylinder. oxidizing chemical reaction in which a fuel chemically combines with oxygen in the atmosphere and releases energy in the form of heat. 2.

Piston force and subsequent motion are transferred through the connecting rod to apply torque to the crankshaft. During the power Stroke. The spark at the spark plug initiates combustion at approximately 20° of crankshaft rotation before TDC (BTDC). 4. the size of the piston. spread a flame throughout the combustion chamber. Piston movement evacuates exhaust gases to the atmosphere. The torque applied initiates crankshaft rotation. The atmospheric oxygen and fuel vapor are consumed by a progressing flame front. both valves are closed. A flame front is the boundary wall that separates the charge from the combustion by-products. and inertia of the flywheel and other moving parts push the piston back to TDC. The flame front progresses across the combustion chamber until the entire charge has burned.The exhaust stroke is the final stroke and occurs when the exhaust valve is open and the intake valve is closed. forcing the exhaust gases out through the open exhaust valve. Third Stroke: Power Stroke .The high pressure created by the combustion process force the piston head away from the cylinder head. Fourth Stroke: Exhaust Stroke. The amount of torque produced is determined by the pressure on the piston. and the throw of the engine. 5. . As the piston reaches BDC during the power stroke combustion the exhaust valve opens.

1973) Petroleum fuels ignite and burn readily. and 20-50% total aromatics (0. Additives and blending agents are added to the hydrocarbon mixture to improve the performance and stability of gasoline. The carbon and hydrogen can combine in many ways and form many different molecular compounds. the overall balance of product demand. 1. (Oberte. These compounds include anti-knock agents. metal . The typical composition of gasoline hydrocarbons (% volume) is as follows: 4-8% alkanes. The composition of gasoline varies widely. additives.1. It varies from 83% to 87% carbon and 11% to 14% hydrogen by weight.5- 2.000 different hydrocarbon components. and the fuel product line generated from it developed along with the development of the IC engine. and the product specifications. the refinery processes available. Crude oil is made up almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen with some traces of other species.5% benzene). and blending agents. 2-5% alkenes. Crude oil was first discovered in Pennsylvania in 1859. 3- 7% cycloalkanes. One test of a crude oil sample identified over 25.1 Gasoline is a refined product of petroleum consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons. which is a mixture of many hydrocarbon components and is manufactured from crude petroleum. the gasoline and LPG are the fuel subjected to comparison. In this paper. 25-40% isoalkanes. The one composition requirement common to all petroleum fuels is that they consist entirely of hydrocarbon molecules (hydrogen and carbon) except for small amounts of impurities and/or additives. depending on the crude oils used.5. anti-oxidants.5 FUEL The main fuel for SI engines is gasoline. l-4% cycloalkenes. and produce a great deal of heat and power in relation to their weight.

upper- cylinder lubricants.1. anti-rust agents. Lane 1980).5.5. and dyes (IARC 1989. Table 1.1: Source: hindustanpetroleum.1 (b): Physical and Chemical Data .com Figure 1. Information regarding the property of gasoline is located in Table 1.5.com Figure 1.5. deactivators. detergents. lead scavengers.1 (a): Chemical Identity Source: hindustanpetroleum. anti-icing agents.

are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel.5. refer to Table 1. which has the same component atoms (four carbons and ten hydrogens) connected together in a slightly different way. Information regarding the identity of LPG. LPG is a fossil fuel closely linked to oil. which are in turn recovered from associated petroleum gas (APG). The rest is manufactured indirectly from petroleum (crude oil) drilled from the Earth in wells in the usual way. LPG is a mixture of two flammable but nontoxic gases called propane and butane. . About two thirds of the LPG people use is extracted directly from the Earth in the same way as ordinary natural gas. Liquefied gases are made from natural gas liquids (NGL). while butane molecules (C 4H10) have ten hydrogen atoms bonded to four carbon atoms. Both of these are hydrocarbons (their molecules are made from different combinations of hydrogen and carbon atoms): propane molecules (C3H8) have eight hydrogen atoms attached to three carbon atoms. LPG sometimes contains a variation of butane called isobutane.5.2 Liquefied Petroleum Gas also referred to as simply propane or butane. Chemically.5. Source: hindustanpetroleum.2.1 (b): Fire and Explosion Hazard Data 1.com Figure 1.

2 (a): Chemical Identity Source: haldiapetrochemicals.Table 1.5.5.com Figure 1.5.2 : Source: haldiapetrochemicals.5.2 (b): Physical and Chemical Data Source: haldiapetrochemicals.2 (c): Fire and Explosion Hazard Data .com Figure 1.com Figure 1.

lower maintenance costs. the precise chemical composition of many fuel additives and additive packages is proprietary to the manufacturer. Today. . and improve the overall performance and reliability of the fuel. typically at levels greater than 1.000 parts per million [ppm]) of alkyl lead. reduce impurities and harmful deposits. reduce exhaust emissions.1.000 ppm." Lead additives have been reduced or entirely phased out of most automotive gasoline formulations due to the environmental hazards associated with lead-containing exhaust emissions.6 FUEL ADDITIVES Fuel additives are intended to help improve fuel economy. the chemical composition of the additive may be more readily available. Where additives are approved for use or required by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards or military standards. unleaded automotive gasoline contains only a few ppm of lead. Common fuel additives include: Alkyl lead was a common gasoline additive until the late 1960s used to obtain higher octane ratings and reduce engine "knock. Different fuels may be formulated with different "packages" of fuel additives. As Leaded automotive gasoline typically contained one or more grams per liter (>1. Aviation gasoline (Avgas) continues to contain significant concentrations of alkyl lead. Additives may also be added to fuels during storage or at the time of fueling. Particular combinations and percent content of additives may be specified in a fuel's governing standard. Often.

or capacity to reduce friction of fuels. aviation fuels. . and diesel fuels. transfer. thereby reducing the buildup of static charges during mixing. reduce the smog-forming tendencies of exhaust gases. Biocides may be added to any type of fuel to kill microbes when their growth becomes a recurring problem. and suppress engine knock. aviation. Oxygenates are oxygen-containing hydrocarbons that are added to automotive gasoline to boost the octane rating.Anti-oxidants are primarily used to prevent gum formation in gasolines and aviation fuels. Metal deactivators prevent metal contaminants in any type of fuel from oxidizing with hydrocarbons and other compounds to form gums or precipitates. Corrosion inhibitors protect against corrosion during pipeline transfer and storage of fuels. Corrosion inhibitors are used primarily in gasoline. and shipment. Detergent additives are primarily found in diesel fuels and automotive gasoline. The increased oxygen content promotes more complete combustion. They have also been found to improve the lubricity. Common oxygenating additives are methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol. They also help keep fuel filters clean. Conductivity additives increase the electrical conductivity of gasolines. Detergent additives prevent the buildup of gum deposits in engines and extend fuel injector life. thereby reducing tailpipe emissions. and diesel fuels.

and/or elevated temperatures. including algae. Microbes.1. mineral scale. bacteria. This problem is addressed by using a metal deactivator additive. they can clog and form deposits on vital engine components such as filters and injectors. Sediment is a common contaminant of fuels and usually consists of rust. They can multiply and plug fuel filters with an odorous slime.7 FUEL IMPURITIES Refined petroleum fuels can contain a variety of undesirable impurities that originate from the crude oil. They are formed when the hydrocarbon molecules in stored fuels are oxidized or polymerized after exposure to air. or are introduced during shipment or storage. The most common fuel impurities are discussed below. . When gums precipitate from the fuel. carbon. sand. Minimizing water content and treating with a biocide additive will control microbial growth in fuel. develop during the refining process. Gums are high molecular weight compounds containing hydrogen. causing mild to severe engine performance problems. and other insoluble impurities. dirt. oxygen. To address this problem. Metals formed during certain refining processes can oxidize and contribute to the formation of filter clogging gums in any type of fuel. sunlight. and fungi feed on the fuel and use the water in the fuel for their oxygen supply. and usually sulfur and nitrogen. Anti-oxidant fuel additives can prevent the formation of gums. Microbial contamination occurs after fuels leave the refinery since the refining process sterilizes fuel. Some of the microbes can also produce corrosive acid byproducts.

or it may be present in containers before they are filled with fuel. Sulfur compounds can be corrosive to metals in fuel systems and are controlled by the total sulfur content limits found in the fuel specification. and injectors. Fuel can become contaminated with water during shipping and storage.fuels are filtered upon delivery into bulk and operating storage systems to remove as much sediment as possible before the fuel is delivered to the end user. Water is denser than fuel and can be removed as it collects at the bottom of a storage container. pumps. . Water is a very common fuel impurity. Water can condense from the fuel itself. may leak into fuel containers from the outside. Water in fuel may also contain other impurities that can cause corrosion problems and damage filters.

The amount of fuel consumed plays an equally important role.S. Fuel consumption varies by fuel type and technology for each application. GHG emissions by fossil fuel combustion and from other sources. while LPG combustion represents only 1. since diesel (compression) engines are generally more efficient than spark-ignition engines. its share of GHG emissions is smaller than its share of energy supply. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion represent 79% of total emissions. For example. .05% of total U.S. though they play a minor role in affecting climate change as compared to carbon dioxide.S. In general. because lighter hydrocarbons consist of fewer carbon atoms per molecule.. emissions. The Greenhouse Gas (GHG) footprint of LPG is relatively small compared to gasoline fuel in terms of total emissions and emissions per unit of energy consumed.) Small amounts of methane and nitrous oxide are also emitted during combustion. While it is a good indicator. Because of LPG’s relatively low GHG emission rate. carbon content represents only part of the CO2 emissions equation. (Further details for estimating CO2 emissions are provided in the Methodology section. Figure 4 shows the relative contribution to total U. In the U. some of the CO2 emissions disadvantage of diesel compared to other fuels is offset. methane and nitrous oxide together represent less than 1% of the total CO2-equivalent emissions from stationary combustion sources (Climate Leaders 2004). The carbon content for twelve common fuels is shown in (Table 3). lighter hydrocarbons release less carbon dioxide during combustion than heaver hydrocarbons. The mass of carbon dioxide released per Btu of fuel – the “carbon content” – is a good first-order indicator of the CO2 emissions comparison between fuels.

its share of energy-related CO2 emissions is 1. energy supply and 36.53% of the U. in 2005.2% of the U.S. Coal. energy supply.S.S. Although LPG contributes 1. . the highest emitting major fuel.4% of energy-related CO2. represents 28.32%. Figure 5 illustrates the relative contribution to total energy related CO2 emissions for the U.

0007072 𝑚3 𝑃1 𝑉1 (100)(0. 2.5 liter) 𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 0. From Table 1 .0000822 𝑉1 = 0.0007072) 𝑚𝑚 = = 𝑅𝑇1 (0.287)(333) 𝑚𝑚 = 0.000740 𝑘𝑔 State 1: 𝑇1 = 60℃ ≈ 333𝐾 .PROBLEMS: For LPG Thermodynamic Analysis: (Four cylinder.000625 + 0. From Table 1 𝑃1 = 100𝑘𝑝𝑎 .

State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic: 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (100𝑘𝑝𝑎)(14)1.35−1 𝑇4 = 𝑇3 ( ) = (4251) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 14 𝑻𝟒 = 𝟏𝟔𝟖𝟖𝑲 ≈ 𝟏𝟒𝟏𝟓℃ 1 𝑘 1 1.35 𝑃4 = 𝑃3 ( ) = (17864. 𝟔𝟕 𝒌𝑷𝒂 . 𝟗 𝒌𝑷𝒂 𝑇2 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(14)1.35 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐𝟓.821)(𝑇3 − 839) 𝑻𝟑 = 𝟒𝟐𝟓𝟏𝑲 ≈ 𝟑𝟗𝟕𝟖℃ 𝑇3 4251 𝑃3 = 𝑃2 ( ) = (3525.9) ( ) 𝑇2 839 𝑷𝟑 = 𝟏𝟕𝟖𝟔𝟒.84) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 14 𝑷𝟒 = 𝟓𝟎𝟔.0) = (15.6 + 1)(0. 𝟖𝟒 𝒌𝑷𝒂 State 4: Power stroke 3-4 is isentropic: 1 𝑘−1 1 1.35−1 = 𝟖𝟑𝟗𝑲 𝑻𝟐 = 𝟓𝟔𝟔℃ State 3: Using equation for the heat added during one cycle: 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝐸𝑐 = (𝐴𝐹 + 1)𝑐𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 ) (46500)(1.

𝟑% . 𝑇1 333 𝐸𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜 = 1 − ( ) = 1 − ( ) 𝑇2 839 𝑬𝒐𝒕𝒕𝒐 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟎𝟑 ≈ 𝟔𝟎.

287)(333) 𝑚𝑚 = 0.6)1.35−1 = 𝟕𝟎𝟕𝑲 𝑻𝟐 = 𝟒𝟑𝟒℃ State 3: Using equation for the heat added during one cycle: 𝑄𝐻𝑉 𝐸𝑐 = (𝐴𝐹 + 1)𝑐𝑣 (𝑇3 − 𝑇2 ) .000625 + 0.35 = 𝟏𝟖𝟐𝟔 𝒌𝑷𝒂 𝑇2 = 𝑇1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘−1 = (333𝐾)(8. From Table 1 State 2: The compression stroke 1-2 is isentropic: 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 (𝑟𝑐 )𝑘 = (100𝑘𝑝𝑎)(8.0007072) 𝑚𝑚 = = 𝑅𝑇1 (0. 2.000740 𝑘𝑔 State 1: 𝑇1 = 60℃ ≈ 333𝐾 .6)1.0007072 𝑚3 𝑃1 𝑉1 (100)(0.0000822 𝑉1 = 0.5 liter) 𝑉1 = 𝑉𝑑 + 𝑉𝑐 = 0.For Gasoline Thermodynamic Analysis: (Four cylinder. From Table 1 𝑃1 = 100𝑘𝑝𝑎 .

𝟕𝟖 𝒌𝑷𝒂 𝑇1 333 𝐸𝑜𝑡𝑡𝑜 = 1 − ( ) = 1 − ( ) 𝑇2 707 𝑬𝒐𝒕𝒕𝒐 = 𝟎.6 + 1)(0.3) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 8.6 𝑷𝟒 = 𝟓𝟕𝟒.6 𝑻𝟒 = 𝟏𝟗𝟏𝟑.821)(𝑇3 − 707) 𝑻𝟑 = 𝟒𝟎𝟔𝟒.35 𝑃4 = 𝑃3 ( ) = (10497. 𝟗% The result of the Thermodynamic Analysis for LPG and Gasoline (see Fig. 𝟒 ℃ For Constant Volume: 𝑇3 4064.1) . (43000)(1.4 𝑃3 = 𝑃2 ( ) = (1826) ( ) 𝑇2 707 𝑷𝟑 = 𝟏𝟎𝟒𝟗𝟕.4) ( ) 𝑟𝑐 8. 𝟑 𝒌𝑷𝒂 State 4: Power stroke 3-4 is isentropic: 1 𝑘−1 1 1. 𝟗 ℃ 1 𝑘 1 1.35−1 𝑇4 = 𝑇3 ( ) = (4064. 𝟓𝟐𝟖𝟗𝟗 ≈ 𝟓𝟐. 𝟒 𝑲 ≈ 𝟑𝟕𝟗𝟏.0) = (14. 𝟗 𝑲 ≈ 𝟏𝟔𝟒𝟎.

To further understand the difference of LPG and Gasoline in temperature (see Fig.78 kPa Thermal Efficiency %E 60.497. Pulkrabek entitled Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine (Second Edition) as the basis for our computations for each fuel namely the LPG and Gasoline.3). other given values and the problem can be found at Pulkrabek’s book.3 kPa P4 506.9% (FIG. 1) These equations were gathered from the book of Willard W.864.4K T4 1415oC or 1688K 1640. This analyzation will also help us in defining the benefits of each fuel used in our cycle.84 kPa 10.4oC or 4064.3% 52. These data will help us to understand the effect of different fuels in our cycle. Constant values. .9oC or 1913.2) and in pressure (see Fig.67 kPa 574.9 kPa 1826 kPa P3 17.9K Pressure P1 100 kPa 100 kPa P2 3525. The result of the analysis shows big difference in the temperature and pressure. LPG GASOLINE Temperature T1 60oC or 333K 60oC or 333K T2 566oC or 839K 434oC or 707K T3 3978oC or 4251K 3791.

The dominance of petroleum products in the United States and the world economy creates the conditions for distributing large amounts of these toxins into populated areas and ecosystems around the globe. LPG is reported to have 60 percent less carbon monoxide. In large concentrations. including humans. it is friendly to the environment). Compared to diesel. which are dangerous by themselves and can react with the environment to produce secondary poisonous chemicals. 90 percent less nitrogen oxides. Environmental Factors: In terms of the environmental factors LPG is considered “green” (i. Petroleum-derived contaminants constitute one of the most prevalent sources of environmental degradation in the industrialized world. 85 percent less hydrocarbons. LPG is claimed to have 75 percent less carbon monoxide.e. 70 percent less ozone-forming potential. and 90 percent less particulates. Petroleum also contains trace amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. and 10 percent less carbon dioxide. This analysis is done to further learn about the advantages and disadvantages of each fuel in the otto cycle and also their thermal efficiency. 87 percent less ozone-forming potential. 40 percent less nitrogen oxides. On the other hand.. Compared to gasoline. . the hydrocarbon molecules that make up crude oil and petroleum products are highly toxic to many organisms.

As you can see in the data even though you only have 9.500 pesos when using LPG Table 2 shows the difference of gasoline and LPG when it comes to cost estimate.875 per year.3L/100 KM Approximate kilometer per year 25000 KM 25000 KM Cost of fuels 45 pesos per liter 25 pesos per liter Total fuel cost per year 111.9L/100 KM 12.Cost Efficiency: Table 2: Fuels Gasoline LPG Liters per 100 KM 9. approximately 84.9L/100KM in gasoline at first you will see that it is more efficient to use than the LPG that have 12.000 pesos or higher. yes it is costly at first but as you can see to the tabulated data you’ll notice that after a year you cost less for . Some of the people doubt converting to LPG because of the cost of conversion. but they don’t need to doubt. Converting your gasoline car to LPG it can cost you more like.3L/100KM.375 pesos per year 76. but in the long run you’ll realize that LPG is more cost efficient than gasoline with a total fuel cost of 76.875 pesos per year Annual savings = 34.

damages would happen to the engine compared to the same period for Diesel or Petrol engines.000 kj/kg compare to LPG which has 46.4 percent discrepancy. there is no reason why natural gas engines should have less torque or power than petrol engines. I think LPG could be better than NG(compressed) duo to its lubricity characteristics. Conclusion: When we talked about fuel consumption the gasoline is the more favorable than LPG.000 that you spend in converting to LPG will get back to you after 3 years or less. however experiments indicate that after a period of 2-4 years. Gasoline has a lesser heating value of 43. But if you use turbo-charging.500 pesos when you used LPG. And that 84. OK. The temperatures of LPG are also higher than gasoline because LPG has higher heating value and compression ratio that have a high effect on the temperatures and pressure. it have a 2. although LPG liquid injection engines can actually have higher torque and power than petrol engines. And when it comes to emission I’ll .about 34.6 kWh/m3) It is important to make an engine on a gas consumption basis. natural gas engines have less torque or power. if so.1kWh/m3) than natural gas (10. About power density if you are talking about an atmospheric engine.500 kj/kg and also because LPG has a higher calorific value (26. In terms of efficiency it is favorable of the LPG which has 60 percent efficiency compare to gasoline that only have 52 percent.

1. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. http://www.  "Autogas".  “Fuel characteristics”. (2016).php  http://www.go for LPG because just like what I’ve said on the environmental effects the LPG has lesser chemicals exhaust like carbon dioxide.energy.pdf  https://www. Retrieved 2013-07-10. NRMA Motoring Blog.hindustanpetroleum.net  "LPG vs.com *www. Retrieved 2013-07-12. The Greenfuel Company. Petrol".com/.  Kakar.elcogas. 2017. "A Global Way Forward: Creating a Sustainable Growing Autogas Market".gov/fuels/fuel_comparison_chart.  Internal-Combustion Engine.inquirer. Propane Education & Research Council. Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia.de/datserv/CO2-spez/index_e.inmotioncars.com/images/pdf/LPG.volker-quaschning. Sunil. Inc.propane-generators.com/documents/pdf/MSDSGasoline.afdc. . References:  http://www. 1p. Retrieved on February 8. Petro” * www.pdf  http://www. Copyright 1995-2017 US Carburetion.haldiapetrochemicals. Retrieved 2011-01-22.pdf  “LPG vs.

UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST CALOOCAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CRUZ.2018 .FEBRUARY. 20131144837 10. ARVIN JANSEN O.