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SOCIOLOGICAL DISCOURSE
SCIENCE MAGAZINE IN THE FIELD OF SOCIAL SCIENCES

Year V, No. 10

Banja Luka, December 2015

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Sociološki diskurs, godina 5, broj 9 / oktobar 2015. 21-27
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Slavo Kukić naslov rada

CONTENTS

BOJAN MACUH
Using quality educational approaches to implement new skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

DANIJELA LAHE
Some sociological aspects of the prevention of domestic violence
and abuse of the elderly in Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

DRAGANA VILIĆ, VANJA NIŠIĆ
One look at the position of sociology of law in Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

IVAN ŠIJAKOVIĆ
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the experience
of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

MIRJANA ČEKO
Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

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Sociološki diskurs, godina 5, broj 9 / oktobar 2015. 21-27

4
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

Bojan Macuh1 Original research paper
Fakulty of FKPV UDC 316.722:316.647.5
Celje DOI 10.7251/SOCEN1510005M
Slovenija Accepted: 25.08.2015.

Using quality educational approaches to implement
new skills

Abstract

Everyone is involved into the process of education, but the approaches
and methods of each individual depend on the nature of their work,
needs, capabilities and abilities. The primary socialization has an in-
fluence on how much of skills and knowledge we bring into further life
which we then continuously upgrade and update.
I will carry out a survey using the survey method and statistical pro-
cessing of the data collected within the management staff from educa-
tional organizations.
New knowledge to the individual can also be provided through
Delores’ four pillars of education:
- Learn to know.
- Learn to be able to know.
- Learn to know how to live in the community and among others.
- Learning to be.
We educate ourselves all our live. Depending on our own skills, abil-
ities, support of primary and secondary environmental interdepend-
ence, of financial ability, will, Elan and needs to upgrade its own
knowledge, as well as those that occur in the workplace. Lifelong
Learning knows no age limit, not industries, is still only an aspiration
to something new, different. The society, based on Lifelong learning,
can provide a brighter future and better quality of life.

Key words: communication, teaching, knowledge, education, lifelong learning

1
Senior lecturer, Ma in Sociology, e-mail: bmacuh@gmail.com

5
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

Introduction

The time we live in is the time of a postmodern and multicultural soci-
ety that is constantly facing economic, cultural, political and technological
changes. There is an increasing amount of the knowledge which is constantly
developing. Considering that, in our education period we could accumulate
supplies, which could be afterwards exploited throughout life. An individual
has to deepen or enrich this first knowledge for their entire life or to know
how to adjust to the ever-changing world. Skills and competences can be de-
veloped throughout life, not only for one’s personal fulfilment and to be ac-
tively involved into society, but also to be successful in the world of work,
which is constantly changing. It is the matter of a lifelong learning, which
nowadays, irrespective to the age, cannot be avoided by anyone.

1. Learning and education

1.1 Learning

Through the whole our life, we learn. By learning we acquire knowledge
and skills, which enable us to achieve a better quality of our life, and to live
in accordance with our needs. In other words, one of human needs is also
the need to learn. Clearly, it is different in adulthood as it was in youth. In
adulthood, learning is focused on »managing the changes in a life cycle, on
family and work, as well as on a life style and points of view «2. It also focuses
on personal development.

1.2 Lifelong learning

Due to the ageing population, the concept of lifelong education is becom-
ing more and more important. It has also got a positive impact on economic
growth, social development, and especially on life quality of the elderly, or
the pensioners.
Lifelong learning no longer presents an aspect of education and training.
It has to become the leading principle of the supply and participation in a
complete continuum of learning contents. Everyone living in Europe should,
without exception, have equal opportunities to adjust to demands of social
2
Jelenc, Zoran. Strategija vseživljenjskosti učenja v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za šolstvo
in šport Republike Slovenije: Javni zavod Pedagoški inštitut, 2007.

6
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

and economic life and to actively participate by designing the European fu-
ture3.
If we consider learning in general, as stated by Brečko4, we do not only
learn in schools (institutionalised) where we are educated, but we do that
on a daily basis. Every day, we receive new pieces of information that have
to be classified, selected, interpreted, and extracted out a logical meaning.
We learn everywhere – at home, at workplace, in the company of friends,
through media, we even learn from our enemies. The former thoughts were
deduced from an interesting proverb, namely: »To live is to learn«. The world
is thus a big classroom where everyone is a learner and a teacher at the same
time. Considering adult learning, it is »an action by which persons who are
intellectually, physically, and socially mature, acquire new knowledge, skills
and behaviour« Jelenc5. Jelenc Krašovec6 says that an adult person can learn
until they reach a cognitive impairment, while adult learning is focused on
personal enrichment and harmony in life. Moreover, Jarvis7 emphasises that
learning is determined by a greater width in several dimensions: it is hap-
pening everywhere, it encompasses all the positions, circumstances and op-
portunities. The contents are intertwined. We also learn from each other, not
only under professional authorities. It has become a part of our life, it lasts
for the whole life. This is where the term lifelong learning originates from.
Illers8 states that learning is a triple process: cognitive, emotional and social.
Considering the cognitive process, it is about acquiring skills and knowledge,
while learning as an emotional process presents a psychological energy trans-
mitted by feelings, points of view and motivation, which will be discussed
later. Learning as a social process is defined as an interaction between an
individual and the environment.

1.3 Competences of quality and effectiveness of education

The working group of European Commission (Education in Europe up
to 2010) has determined eight (multifunctional and transdisciplinary) com-
petences that aim to improve quality and effectiveness as well as developing
skills for the knowledge society:
3
Komisije Evropske skupnosti. Data retrieved: http://linux.acs.si/memorandum/html/, 2000.
4
Brečko, Daniela. Kako se odrasli spreminjamo? Radovljica: Didatka, 1998.
5
Jelenc, Zoran. Terminologija izobraževanja odraslih. Ljubljana: Pedagoški inštitut pri Univerzi
v Ljubljani, 1991.
6
Jelenc Krašovec, Sabina. Strategija vseživljenjskosti učenja v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo
za šolstvo in šport Republike Slovenije: Javni zavod Pedagoški inštitut, 2007.
7
Jarvis, Peter. Globalisation, lifelong learning and the learning society: sociological perspectives.
London, New York: Routledge, 2007.
8
Illers, Knud. The three dimensions of learning. Frederiksberg: Roskilde University Press, 2004.

7
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

- Communication in the mother tongue, communication in a foreign lan-
guage/language of the environment, mathematical literacy and basic com-
petences in natural sciences and technology, digital competence, learning to
learn, personal and social competences, entrepreneurship, cultural awareness.
Regarding to all this, we need to be familiar with global goals of learning
to learn:
- Internal motivation and relevant emotional and motivational strategies
which stimulate learning;
- The ability to understand a narrow as well as a wider social context of
learning and relevant personal characteristics and social competences re-
quired for learning within a group;
- Relevant cognitive and learning strategies – cognitive strategies with ef-
fective methods and learning techniques; being able to develop the ability to
recognize their own style of comprehension and learning and to adjust them
to learning goals in different situations;
- Meta-cognitive strategies – orientation, planning, monitoring, evalua-
tion and reflection of one’s own learning9.
Every individual should gain key competences for the lifelong learning.
In a globalised society, sometimes it seems that we are losing the battle for
communicating in the mother tongue comparing to other, greater languages.
We have to be aware of the fact that communication in mother tongue is one
of the basic rights and obligations of each citizen in a relationship with other
language groups. It is important to bear in mind that, despite tendencies for a
complete sovereignty of the mother tongue, communication in a foreign lan-
guage is becoming more and more important. Everyone in the society needs
to be enabled to learn and to improve foreign language skills.

2. Education

2.1 Key competences of education

Lifelong learning is a key element of every generation in society, moreo-
ver, it is gaining an important role in the third and the fourth age. Following
contents present key competences of the lifelong learning.
Due to the influence of globalisation, the world in the third millenium is
characterised by quick and decisive changes in society, economy and interper-
sonal relationships. Europeans are already classified as some of the most edu-
9
Bezič, Tanja. Učenje učenja – ena od osmih ključnih kompetenc. Postojna, 2007.

8
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

cated inhabitants in the world, however, the United Europe has determined a
very important priority in the field of education and training. In 2010, Europe
became the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-designed economy in
the world, that will be capable of constant economic growth with a greater
number of better workplaces and a higher social cohesion10.
Within the aim of developing skills for the knowledge society (the im-
provement of literacy, knowledge base and skills, learning abilities), after
some years of coordination, in 2006, the European Union has accepted a ref-
erence framework of key competences of the lifelong learning as a recom-
mendation of European parliament and European Council. European refer-
ence framework of key competences determines eight key competences, im-
portant for one’s personal fulfilment, active citizenship, social cohesion and
employability. Detailed descriptions can be found in the attachment, namely
Official Journal of the European Union L 394/30.12. 2006 SL 11. Let’s consider
briefly the kinds of determined competences and their basic features.

1 Communication in the mother tongue
2 Communication in foreign languages
3 Mathematical competence and basic competences in science and technology
4 Digital literacy
5 Learning to learn
6 Social and civic competences
7 Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship
8 Cultural awareness and expression

Competences of the lifelong learning are important in all frames of educa-
tion and learning, for all generations – for the youth and the elderly.

2.2 Delores – the pillars of education and schooling

Education has to massively and effectively communicate an increasingly
high level of ever evolving knowledge. This has to include a directly applica-
ble knowledge required for the civilisation and its development. Education
and schooling has to – as it was the case in past – ensure »maps« of this
complicated world and, at the same time, be a compass which will help the
10
Ivšek, Milena. Vzgoja in izobraževanje (3). Ljubljana: Zavod RS za šolstvo, 2004.
11
Key Competemces for Lifelong Learning. European Reference Framework. Data retrieved:
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/l_394/l_39420061230en00100018.pdf

9
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

people to find the right way to the introduction of »four pillars of education
and schooling«, suggest Delores12.
»Four pillars« of education and schooling (presented in abstract) do not
refer to one part of life or one place only. Education and schooling are an
internal voyage, levels of which correspond to periods of a constant internal
maturation (ibid.)

2.3 Higher education for adults

In highly developed countries, the importance of higher education of
adults has been increasing. Although higher education of adults has been for
a long time treated separately and considered different from the traditional
higher education intended for a selected population of the young people, the
nature of the relationship between higher education, adults and society at
large is changing. Facing major social and technological changes, initial ed-
ucation and formal education are becoming a basis for further learning and
specialisation. Despite numerous obstacles, an increasing amount of adults
integrate in higher education whether occasionally or more frequently. A
higher rate of the adults involved into higher education is also connected to
broader factors resulting from demographic, social and technological devel-
opment13.
In Slovenia we distinguish public and concessed private independent
higher education institutions. According to the Slovenian Institute for Adult
Education14, 235 providers performed adult education within 4.041 educa-
tional programmes school year 2013/2014. Most of the education provid-
ers presented their education supplies within the overview last year already,
however 27 providers presented themselves for the first time. They record-
ed a decreased number of presented education providers and educational
programmes. Statistical data shows that the investments into education and
trainings have decreased during the past few years, moreover, there is a de-
crease of external forms of education and trainings for employees; basically
internal education and trainings are carried out, whereas the number of the
enrolment into education is decreasing, which has affected several education-
al organizations.
12
Delores, Jaques. Učenje - skriti zaklad: poročilo Mednarodne komisije izobraževanju za enain-
dvajseto stoletje. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za šolstvo in šport, 1996.
13
Mihevc, Bogomir, Jelenc, Zoran, Kump, Sonja, Podmenik, Darka, Zagmajster, Margerita.
Visokošolsko izobraževanje odraslih. Ljubljana: Andragoški center Slovenije, 1995.
14
Pregled ponudbe izobraževanja odraslih v Sloveniji 2013/2014. Andragoški zavod Slovenije.
Data retrieved: http://arhiv.acs.si/porocila/Pregled_IO_2013.pdf

10
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

In the past few years, the number of people’s universities and secondary
schools for adult education has decreased, and several secondary schools
have merged into secondary school centres. Furthermore, decreased number
of adult education and educational programs for adults.

3. Empirical part

3.1 Research purpose

Within this paper I want to determine the importance of education for the
knowledge, which should be upgraded on a daily basis throughout our life.
Based on the research I presented the importance of education among the
managerial employees and their co-workers in educational institutions.

3.2 Research hypotheses

Within the research I will, based on a questionnaire, support or disprove
the following hypotheses:
H1: I assume that many pedagogical workers and senior executives in the
field of education are involved into a continued education.
H2: I believe that, comparing to men, more women on leading positions
decide for the lifelong learning.
H3: I assume that only rare institutions finance a continued education for
their employees.
H4: I assume that a relationship and a family life is »deprived« due to the
continued education.

3.3 Research aim

The aim of this research is to find out whether education truly presents
the most important element of each individual, with the emphasis on the em-
ployees in education and schooling.

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

3.4 Methodology

3.4.1 Research method

In order to collect data I used a descriptive method of the empirical ped-
agogical research.

3.4.2 Research sample

The participants in this research were headmasters and headmistresses of
the kindergartens, primary and secondary schools (15 men and 24 women)
of the Pomurje region of the average age of 50,3 years. I inquired their attitude
towards their own education and the education of their co-workers.

3.4.3 Question analysis

The questionnaire included 11 open questions. Next, I present the analysis
of the respondents’ answers.

Figure 1: How many years of service in education and schooling have you com-
pleted so far?

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %
Up to 10 years Up to 14 years Up to 25 years More than 25
years

Source: Author’s own graphical display

12
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

Based on the results, it is evident that there are 64, 2 % of the respondents
who have been employed in education for more than 25 years, followed by 23,
1 % of these who have been employed up to 25 years, and 10,3 % of these who
have worked on that area up to 15 years. The answers presented relate to the
experience required for performing the pedagogical work.

Figure 2: Do you think senior executives in education should have at least a
university pedagogical degree?

Source: Author’s own graphical display

Among all the respondents, 82,1 % of them were of opinion that manag-
ing of an educational institution requires a university degree in pedagogical
programmes.
A university degree in pedagogical programmes is completely under-
standable and acceptable forAuthor's
Source: the fieldown
of work anddisplay
graphical management in presented
institutions.
Among all the respondents, 82,1 % of them were of opinion that managing of an
educational institution requires a university degree in pedagogical programmes.
A university degree in pedagogical programmes is completely understandable and
acceptable for the field of work and management in presented institutions.

Figure 5: Do you agree with the fact that employees, including managerial staff, in education
should constantly improve their knowledge and educate themselves?

13
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

Figure 3: Do you agree with the fact that employees, including managerial staff,
in education should constantly improve their knowledge and educate them-
selves?

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Other Yes No. I don’t think 
this is 
necessary

Source: Author’s own graphical display

All respondents (100 %) answered that a continuous education of peda-
gogical and managerial employees is self-evident. This is often a case in edu-
cational institutions, since curriculum is oriented in a way that the employees
Source: Author's own graphical display
have to individually educate at home, while group education takes part within
and outside the institutions.
All respondents (100 %) answered that a continuous education of pedagogical and
managerial employees is self-evident. This is often a case in educational institutions, since
Figure 4: Which additional skills do you lack at your workplace and believe
curriculum
that is upgraded?
should be oriented in a way that the employees have to individually educate at home,
while group education takes part within and outside the institutions.

Figure 6: Which additional skills do you lack at your workplace and believe that should be
upgraded?

Source: Author’s own graphical display

1411
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

The respondents answered which skills they personaly lack at their work-
place. Most of them need to acquire additional skills in the area of manage-
ment (33,4 %). Mangerial employees in educational institutions are pedagog-
ical workers who do not possess skills in management and therefore still need
to acquire them through practical work.

Figure 7: Are
Figure 5:you
Arecontinuing with your
you continuing withpost-graduate studies? studies?
your post-graduate

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Yes No I’m thinking  Other
about 
continuing it

Source: Author’s own graphical display

30,8 % of respondents are already engaged into post-graduate studies, or
have a purpose to do so in the future (20,6 %), while 44,2 % of respondents
Source: Author's own graphical display
are not interested in post-graduate studies.
Considering the need for
30,8 % of respondents are continuous education,
already engaged in the futurestudies,
into post-graduate there will be a
or have
an incresed
purpose number
to do so in of (20,6
the future that sort of education,
%), while or the upgrade
44,2 % of respondents ofinterested
are not the existing
in post-
one. This will not only include continuing with post-graduate studies, but
graduate studies.
also an increasing amount of individual self-education. Based on responses, I
Considering
found out that the need for continuous
managerial education,
staff mostly in the futuredegree
have a university there will be an incresed
in pedagogi-
cal field.
number of thatSince many
sort of of them
education, lack
or the managerial
upgrade skills, post-graduate
of the existing one. This will notstudies in
only include
that particular area could present a chalenge for them.
continuing with post-graduate studies, but also an increasing amount of individual self-
education. Based on responses, I found out that managerial staff mostly have a university
degree in pedagogical field. Since many of them lack managerial skills, post-graduate studies
in that particular area could present a chalenge for them.

Figure 8: If your answer was YES – Who finances or co-finances your continuous education?
15
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

Figure 6: If your answer was YES – Who finances or co-finances your contin-
uous education?

Source: Author’s own graphical display

Only the respondents whose response to the former question was YES an-
swered this question. More than a half (56,5 %) of the respondents cover the
expenses of their post-graduate studies by themselves. This is not surprising
Source:science
since Ministry of education, Author's and
own graphical display
sport does not cover study expenses
of employees in educational institutions. Conditions required to fill the post
Only the respondents whose response to the former question was YES answered this
of a manager in a kindergarden or a school are not linked to the education;
question. More than a half (56,5 %) of the respondents cover the expenses of their post-
the only condition is an attained education in a suitable (pedagogical) field.
graduate studies by themselves. This is not surprising since Ministry of education, science and
sport does
Figure not you
7: Do coversupport
study expenses of employees
continuous in educational
professional traininginstitutions. Conditions
of your employees?
required to fill the post of a manager in a kindergarden or a school are not linked to the
education; the only condition is an attained education in a suitable (pedagogical) field.
80%

Figure 9: Do70%
you support continuous professional training of your employees?
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Yes No I strongly I don’t find it 
support it necessary

14
Source: Author’s own graphical display

16

Source: Author's own graphical display
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

All the respondents support (75,6 %) or strongly support (24,4 %) the ed-
ucation of their employees. This is encouraging and completely understand-
able at the same time.
Without education, continuous updating and upgrading of acquired
knowledge it is practically impossible to educate young generations.

Figure 8: Do you think more men or more women continuously educate and
upgrade their skills?

80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Women Men I don’t know The same

Source: Author’s own graphical display

Based on results obtained before this survey (employees in educational
institutions), the new Source:
ones are not surprising
Author's as well.
own graphical Namely, 71,8 respond-
display
ents Based
believeonthat
results obtained before this survey (employees in in
continuous education is more common women, institutions),
educational and only
7,7 % of them think more men comparing to women continuously upgrade
the new ones are not surprising as well. Namely, 71,8 respondents believe that continuous
their education.
education is more common in women, and only 7,7 % of them think more men comparing to
women continuously upgrade their education.

Figure 11: Do you think a relationship/a family is »deprived« due to continued education of
one of the partners/parents?

17
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

Figure 9: Do you think a relationship/a family is »deprived« due to continued
education of one of the partners/parents?

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%
Other Yes No I don’t know Often

Source: Author’s own graphical display

Responses to this question were, as expected, pretty much diffused. For
some people, continuous education of one of the parents or a partner does
not present any troubles (25, 7 %), however 23,1 % there are some conse-
quences observed. Source:
It can be observed
Author's from the
own graphical results that over 50 % of the
display
respondents had doubts when answering this question. I personally believe
Responses to this question were, as expected, pretty much diffused. For some people,
education requires a lot of time and denials, consequently connected to fam-
continuous education of one of the parents or a partner does not present any troubles (25, 7
ily life as well.
%), however 23,1 % there are some consequences observed. It can be observed from the
Figure
results that 10:
over If50your
% offormer response had
the respondents wasdoubts
YES –when
Please determine
answering your affirma-
this question. I
tive response!
personally believe education requires a lot of time and denials, consequently connected to
family life as well.
30%
25%
Figure 12: If your former response was YES – Please determine your affirmative response!
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

17

Source: Author’s own graphical display

18
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

Based on the responses given by the respondents it can be observed that
they lack free time, even though it is even closely bound to other activities in
one’s life (29,8 %), they have less time for recreation (10,9 %) and less time for
children (8,2 %).
The problem of our free time does not only originate from our commit-
ments, but an equal distribution of it and its embedment into daily work
commitments. Free time presents a problem of a contemporary time, since
we increasingly lack it. Often we are unable to distribute it proportionally
regarding other commitments.

3.4.4 Interpretation of research hypotheses

I set the following hypotheses, which were interpreted based on results
obtained by a questionnaire:
H1: I assume that many pedagogical workers and senior executives in
the field of education are involved into a continued education.
Based on the survey results, it is evident that 100 % of pedagogical and
managerial employees in education educate or continuously educate them-
selves. Based on results obtained using a questionnaire, I can confirm H1.
H2: I believe that, comparing to men, more women on leading posi-
tions decide for the lifelong learning.
Within the survey it was observed that 71,8 % of women and only 7,7 % of
men are involved in continuous education. Also H2 can be confirmed based
on the data obtained.
H3: I assume that only rare institutions finance a continued education
for their employees.
Ministry of education, science and sport does not finance or co-finance
graduate or post-graduate study programmes of the employees in education
and schooling. Results obtained by a questionnaire showed that most of the
respondents (56,5 %) cover their study expenses by themselves . Based on
that, I can confirm H3.
H4: I assume that a relationship and a family life is »deprived« due to
continued education.
Pedagogical work is very demanding. It requires an individual to be a hu-
man as a whole. In case a pedagogical employee decides to continue with
studies, that does not only require denials on financial area, but also in a fami-
ly or a relationship. Interesting responses were introduced under »other« (5,1

19
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

%): - It depends on an individual and their relationship with their partner.
For study itself, a relationship is not deprived, quite the opposite. – It is the
matter of an agreement and mutual distribution of work among family mem-
bers. I believe education requires a lot of time and denials, consequently re-
lated to a family life. Based on the results obtained, I can confirm H4 as well.

4. Concluding remarks

Education is the basis for everything in an individual’s life. Considering
this, it is very important how we deal with it. Since people differ from each
other, the educational approaches are different as well.
By continuous education, learning and additional qualification, we ac-
quire new skills required in everyday professional performance as well as in
our life in general. For that purpose, teaching is of great importance, and we
have to be aware that not everyone is able to do it. A teaching profession and
working as a teacher is a mission. A high amount of quality staff is required,
while on the other hand, we need less those who only decided for a teaching
profession because it was their only chance when entering a university study
programme. Institutions that educate people in order to attain a teaching
profession, should ensure that. These should provide teachers with as many
trainings and upgrading of skills required in their work as possible.
Based on the data collected it is clear that number of women occupying
managing positions of education institutions prevailed over men. Women
still present the majority of employees in education and schooling. This can
however not be observed in leading positions, which are still more frequently
occupied by men rather than women.
Research findings showed that education and training are regular features
of education and schooling. Although survey only encompassed a little less
than 10 % of headmasters and headmistresses of schools in the Pomurje re-
gion (Slovenia) it was found out that managerial employees are constantly
educating and support the education of their co-workers within collectives at
the same time. Since more women than men are employed in education and
schooling, this affects many areas. Almost half of them continue or intend
to continue with a study programme, which is most likely to be financed by
themselves, noting in this regard that this should consensually be discussed
with a partner. By all means, supplementary education decreases the amount
of free time and other activities related to it and to family life and relationship.

20
Using quality educational approaches
Bojan Macuh to implement new skills

Managerial employees in schools support education of their co-workers,
as well as they provide its upgrade for themselves. Due to the increasing level
of skills and needs of learners, additional trainings are very much required.
The problem occurs because these activities affect a personal life of an in-
dividual at home, in their family, as well as considering spending their free
time, which however should not present an obstacle, since pedagogical work-
ers precisely should strive for continuous education and training.

Literature and sources

Literature

Bezič, Tanja. Učenje učenja – ena od osmih ključnih kompetenc. Postojna, 2007.
Brečko, Daniela. Kako se odrasli spreminjamo? Radovljica: Didatka, 1998.
Delores, Jaques. Učenje - skriti zaklad: poročilo Mednarodne komisije izo-
braževanju za enaindvajseto stoletje. Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za šolstvo in
šport, 1996.
Illers, Knud. The three dimensions of learning. Frederiksberg: Roskilde Uni-
versity Press, 2004.
Ivšek, Milena. Vzgoja in izobraževanje (3). Ljubljana: Zavod RS za šolstvo,
2004.
Jarvis, Peter. Globalisation, lifelong learning and the learning society: sociologi-
cal perspectives. London, New York: Routledge, 2007.
Jelenc, Zoran. Terminologija izobraževanja odraslih. Ljubljana: Pedagoški in-
štitut pri Univerzi v Ljubljani, 1991.
Jelenc, Zoran. Strategija vseživljenjskosti učenja v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Minis-
trstvo za šolstvo in šport Republike Slovenije: Javni zavod Pedagoški in-
štitut, 2007.
Jelenc Krašovec, Sabina. Strategija vseživljenjskosti učenja v Sloveniji. Ljublja-
na: Ministrstvo za šolstvo in šport Republike Slovenije: Javni zavod Peda-
goški inštitut, 2007.
Mihevc, Bogomir, Jelenc, Zoran, Kump, Sonja, Podmenik, Darka, Zagmajster,
Margerita. Visokošolsko izobraževanje odraslih. Ljubljana: Andragoški
center Slovenije, 1995.
Požarnik Marentič, Barica, Plut Pregelj, Leopoldina. Moč učnega pogovora -
Poti do znanja z razumevanjem. Ljubljana: DZS, 2009.
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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 5-22

Digital sources/Websites

Key Competemces for Lifelong Learning. European Reference Framework.
Data retrieved: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/
l_394/l_39420061230en00100018.pdf
Pregled ponudbe izobraževanja odraslih v Sloveniji 2013/2014. Andragoški
zavod Slovenije. Data retrieved: http://arhiv.acs.si/porocila/Pregled_
IO_2013.pdf
Komisije Evropske skupnosti. Data retrieved: http://linux.acs.si/memoran-
dum/html/, 2000.

22
Some sociological aspects of the prevention of domestic
Danijela Lahe violence and abuse of the elderly in Slovenia

Danijela Lahe1 Original research paper
University of Maribor UDC 316.346.32-053.9(497.4)
Faculty of Philosophy DOI 10.7251/SOCEN1510023L
Slovenia Accepted: 18.09.2015.

Some sociological aspects of the prevention of
domestic violence and abuse of the elderly in
Slovenia

Abstract

This paper addresses the issue of violence and abuse of older persons
which, due to an increased level of public sensitivity and continuing
reminders from governmental and non-governmental institutions, is
becoming a subject of increased attention. The author focus on do-
mestic violence and abuse and present and describe various ways of
prevention from violence and abuse of older persons from the aspects
of the legislation, human rights and the role of the Slovenian police.

Key words: family, the elderly, violence and abuse, preventive activities.

Introduction

Population of the elderly in the Western cultures is soaring, and conse-
quently opens more possibilities for the abuse of the elderly. Therefore, in the
two last decades this issue of violence and abuse is getting more and more
attention in the context of researching, policies and in practice. Also in Slove-
nia the problem of violenceand abuse seems to be more and more present and
worth to be paid attention to and researched by the media and wider public
policy. Reasons for that are permanent warning of the nongovernmental or-
ganisation to the problem of violence in family, statistical data which indicate
1
Assistant at the Department of Sociology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Maribor,
e: danijela.lahe@um.si

23
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 23-34

increasing trends of the violence in privacy, higher level of public sensibility
to this phenomenon, the regulation of the Criminal Law of the Republic of
Slovenia2, whichinArticle 191stipulates “domestic violence as a criminal of-
fense”and at last but not least important, adopting of the Law on Prevention
of violence in family3.
Behavioural norms of the postmodern society, among which unfortunate-
ly is also ageism, sexism, and reconciliation with violence in society, are im-
portant factors in formation of violence against the elderly. The elderly are
often described as weak, helpless, dependent, in short, less worth to be paid
attention to, from the state and their own family. Life quality of the elderly
certainly does not depend on merely material conditions, but for their health,
psychosocial wellbeing is of great importance safety and acceptance among
the family and wider social environment.
Violence against the elderly is very serious and unfortunately frequent
problem within the family, local community and care homes. Both genders
are exposed to it, healthy and unhealthy ones and all ethical and social groups.
Family violence includes all forms of violence used by the family members’
(e.g. adult children and other family members such as grandchildren, or-
spouses/partners of elders) superiority/predominance which endanger per-
son’s rights and integrity, leading to their suffering and harm. Nevertheless,
violent behaviour may also be a consequence of the demanding changes in
the society and its influences on family everyday life because of health and
old age, as well as changes of the roles within the family and new, sometimes
opposite mutual dependences. There might appear completely new challeng-
es which are often described as extensive demands confronted with limited
support capabilities4.
Violence against the elderly, which became of public interest much later
than other types of violence5, currently seem to be of interest of great number
2
Kazenski zakonik 1, Uradni list Republike Slovenije, št. 55/2008.
3
This is also the first law in the history of the Slovenes, which in Article 3 clearly defines the
different types of domestic violence. The Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence defines
violence as any use of physical, sexual, psychological and economic violence of one family
member against another family member or neglect of a family member, regardless of age, sex
or any other circumstance of the victim or perpetrator of violence (Zakon o preprečevanjunasil-
ja v družini,Uradni list RS, št.16/2008).
4
Šlajmer Japelj, Blažun Helena and Kokol Peter. (ur.). Breakingthetaboo: nasilje nad starejšimi
ženskami v družini: prepoznavanje in ukrepanje, Dunaj, Avstrija: Šlajmer InfoMedia, 2010.
5
In the eighties of the previous century attention was paid to the elderly, who experienced
violence within the family and outside it. Family violence against the elderly was first men-
tioned in the year 1975 in the British research reviews, named “granny battering” (A.A. Ba-
ker, GrannyBattering, Modern Geriatrics, Vol 5, no 8, 1975, p. 20-24; G.R. Burston, Do yourel-
derlypatient live in fearofbeingbattered? Modern Geriatrics, Vol 7, no 5, 1977, p. 54-55).

24
Some sociological aspects of the prevention of domestic
Danijela Lahe violence and abuse of the elderly in Slovenia

of researchers. Finally, current data are of exceptional value for each state
which is willing to deal with this problem. At this point, it is sensible to warn
about limitations on researching of this phenomenon. Experts around the
world give different definition of the old age, what makes difficult gaining of
the comparable empirical data. Second limitation is, not precise and clear ter-
minology regarding violence and abuse researching on the elderly. Different
terminology brings a lot of definitions, varying from study to study so much
that their results are not comparable. Next problem is use of different meth-
ods of data gaining. Most researches were carried out on the basis of records
already reported abuse to the competent state institutions, or there were only
assumptions about possible abuses of the individuals (doctors, social work-
ers, or randomly chosen people).
The report, which was issued in June 2011, the World Health Organiza-
tion6 states that each year, 2.7 % (4 million) of persons aged 60 years or more,
are victims of physical violence, 19.4 % (29 million) experienced psychologi-
cal violence, 3.8 % (6 million) financial violence, and 0.7 % (1 million) sexual
violence. It is worth pointing out that the publicly known information about
violence against older people is just the tip of the iceberg7. Problems behind
the ”four walls”, since neither the elderly themselves do not want to go public.

Definition of the violence and abuse of the elderly

It is sensible to mention in the very beginning that in the Slovene literature
there are many examples where there is not possible to draw clear, undoubted
border between violence and abuse. However, between these two concepts
there are some essential differences. Violence is considered as any act against
another person and against the will of that person. So, violence against the
elderly includes all forms of behaviour (spoken or acted) by the person who
takes advantage of his/her superiority, and there does not have to be a rela-
tionship between a perpetrator and a victim8. According to the United Na-
tions definition9 abuse is a “single or repeated act, or inadequate behaviour,
6
WHO,2011 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs357/en/.
7
National Center ofElderAbuse (NCEA), 2015 http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/ncearoot/Main_Site/
index.aspx.
8
Barbara Oražem in Ksenija Ramovš, Odločen »ne« nasilju in zlorabam, V Starič, M. (Ur.),
Praktični vodnik za upokojence: pravice, možnosti, priložnosti, Ljubljana, Založba Maks Viktor,
2004, str. 90-91.
9
United Nations, Abuse of older persons: recognizing and responding to abuse of older persons
in a global context – Report of the Secretary General, Economicand Social Council. UN E/
CN.5/2002/PC/2, 2002, p. 4.

25
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 23-34

happening in any relationship based on trust, which harms an old person and
put her/him in danger”. So, what makes difference between the violence and
abuse is a personal relationship between the victim and perpetrator, when act
is being repeated.
Regarding variety of unwanted behaviours and their similar if not the
same meaning, we decided to use both expressions - violence and abuse.
After the review of the foreign experts’ contributions dealing with this
issue around the world, it is evident that different terminology is used in the
countries using the same language. In the USA and Great Britain, most often
expressions are: “abuse”, “mistreatment”, “neglect”, “abandonment”, less of-
ten “misuse”, “maltreatment”. It is interesting that in the literature in English,
most often expression is »violence«, when they speak about general/common
family violence (“domestic violence”). In Germany and Austria are mostly of-
ten used expressions “Gewalt”, “Missbrauch” and “Misshandlung”.
To prevent violence, it is necessary to recognise it, therefore, short de-
scriptions of the commonest typical forms of violence and abuse in family the
elderly are confronted with10, will be given.
Physical abuse: it means usage of physical force on an old person, which
may cause physical injuries, pains or defects.Psychical or mental abuse: caus-
ing of suffering, emotional suffering or sadness. Moreover, dealing with the
elderly like they are children, as well as prohibition of their contacts with fam-
ily and friends, ignoring them or forcing them to be isolated from the social
life, are all examples of psychical abuse. Negligence: rejection or unfulfilling
any kind of obligations to the elderly, someone has to do for an old person.
There are active and passive forms of negligence. Passive negligence means
unintentional lack of care and help, caused by lack of knowledge or informa-
tion. In the case of active negligence it is carried out intentionally/conscious-
ly. Financial or material abuse: is a form of illegal or irregular usage/exploita-
tion of the old person’s savings, possession or property: turning cheque into
cash without permission, signature forging, theft of money or possession,
signing of the document under the force or by playing trick on an old person
(for example contract or will), rejection of the right to supervise own prop-
erty, fraud, abuse of the position of the protector, caretaker or lawyer. Sexual
10
The National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998, The national elder abuse incidence study, Wash-
ingtonhttp://aoa.gov/AoA_Programs/Elder_Rights/Elder_Abuse/docs/ABuseReport_Full.
pdf; WHO, The Toronto declaration on the global prevention of elder abuse, 2002 http://www.
who.int/ageing/projects/elder_abuse/alc_toronto_declaration_en.pdf; Manfred Lachs and
Karl Pillemer, Elder abuse. Lancet 364(9441), 2004, p. 1263-1272; Garre-Olmo, et al., Preva-
lence and risk factors of suspected elder abuse subtypes in people aged 75 and older, Journal of The
American Geriatrics Society, Vol 57, no 5, 2009, p. 815-822.

26
Some sociological aspects of the prevention of domestic
Danijela Lahe violence and abuse of the elderly in Slovenia

abuse: it is an unwilling sexual act with an older person without their consent.
Here is also included unwilling touching, forced nakedness and photo taking.
Some authors11 also talk about: Self negligence: it is a form of abuse when an
old person neglect them self, thus putting in danger his/her health and life.
Medical abuse: this is a kind of abuse, when an old person is prescribed drugs
which are not urgently needed (opiats, sedatives) or is unreasonable rejected
further adequate therapy (too old for the certain treatment). Medical abuse
of the elderly are also considered aggressive testing which can put in danger
dying old people.
Beside all mentioned violence and abuses, it is significant that more types
of abuse happen at the same time, they are intertwined and intensified (for
example: exploitation, limitations, and at the end violence). The elderly are,
beside the mentioned violence, encountered with other negative phenome-
na: discrimination, human rights and freedom violation, inaccessibility of life
supplies and other services.
Beside the forms of abuses, it is also important to recognise risk factors
which can lead to family violence. Regardless if the risk factors are conse-
quence of the influence of environment, psych-physical or cultural and so-
cio-economic influence, risk factors are present in family relationships (inti-
mate, welfare, caring) where the elderly live at relatives’ home or care homes.
Both these solutions, unfortunately, do not offer real home to the elderly. In-
stead of expected understanding, safety, shelter and warmth, they often en-
counter coldness, misunderstanding and bad relationships, conflicts12.
Abuse is reality for many old people; however, a lot of them do not want
to admit openly that abusing is present and will be present in institutions and
also in private, family surroundings.

Forms of help to the (potential) victims of violence and abuse

People abused within the family regularly need support in the form of
protection, consultancy or treatment. Even so perfect consultancy and treat-
ment programmes cannot help the change of the cultural values and norms
11
Bridget, Penhale and Jonathan, Parker, Elder abuse and older men: towards and understand-
ing. COE-Strasbourg, 1999; Metka, Pentek, Nasilje, zloraba in starejšiljudje. V: Nasilje, zloraba
in starejšiljudje. Otočec, Gerontološko društvo Slovenije, 2000; Vinko, Razboršek, Oblike zlo-
rabljanja starejših ljudi, Kakovostna starost, Vol 5, no 1-2, 2002, p. 31-35.
12
Simona Hvalič Touzery in Polona Felicijan, Dogaja se njej in dogaja se mnogim: ne bi se
smelo: raziskava o zlorabi starih ljudi v Sloveniji, Kakovostna starost, Vol 7, no 1, 2004, p. 12-20.

27
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 23-34

which are in favour of violence and abuse within the family. Before we really
count on significant decrease of violence within the family, significant chang-
es must happen in the society13: firstly, norms which give legitimacy and uplift
violence in society and family should be eliminated, and stress which causes
violence should be decreased to minimum. It is also of urgent importance to
decrease socially isolated family and patriarchal direction of the society.
Who do we have to turn to if we want to come out of the vicious circle
of silence in Slovenia? On the state level those are institutions which have
important role in treatment of criminal offenses and violence: courts (district
and regional), public prosecutor, police, centres for social work and health
institutions. There are also nongovernmental organisations dealing with vic-
tims of offenses, violence and different distress: Centres for the victims of
offenses, Institute Papilot, SOS telephone for women and children - violence
victims, Society for non violent communication, Consultancy office for wom-
en, Legal information centre, Society for help in mental distress and Karitas.
Unfortunately, access to different forms of help is not regionally evenly dis-
tributed.

Prevention of violence and abuse of the elderly

The Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence14 was the first law in Slove-
nia, which clearly defines the different types of domestic violence. The Act
devotes special attention to the issue of violence against older people, in ad-
dition to children and persons with disabilities who are most vulnerable. The
Law defines and imposes the duty of every individual to report violence and
provide assistance to victims of violence. The adoption of this law gives two
clear messages to the whole society: first, that no form of violence is not ac-
ceptable, secondly, that the family and all family members deserve a law that
will protect them against violence happening within four wall15.
On the basis of Article 11 of the Law on Prevention of Domestic Violence,
in 2009 was also adopted Resolution about National Program on Prevention
of Family Violence 2009 – 201416. This strategic document defines goals,
13
Hester, Henderson, Domestic Violence andChildAbuse, Sourcebook, Detroit, Omnigraphics,
2010.
14
Zakon o preprečevanjunasilja v družini, 2008. Uradni list RS, št.16/2008.
15
Ministrstvo za delo, družino, socialne zadeve in enake možnosti, 2008
http://www.mddsz.gov.si.
16
Resolucija o nacionalnem programu preprečevanja nasilja v družini 2009-2014, 2009
http://zakonodaja.gov.si.

28
Some sociological aspects of the prevention of domestic
Danijela Lahe violence and abuse of the elderly in Slovenia

measures and key policy carriers for prevention and decrease of the fami-
ly violence in the Republic Slovenia in the period from 2009 to 2014. Basic
goals of the document are to link different measures and to ensure efficient
carrying out of the activities for diminishing of family violence on the level
of recognition as well as prevention. Document gives numerous strategies for
family violence prevention.
Slovenia has also adopted a strategy for quality aging and solidarity and
good intergenerational relations for the period from 2011 to 2015, in response
to the impact of aging and European requirements to provide solidarity and
cooperation between generations. The purpose of the strategic documents is
to continue the policies of previous strategies - to align and integrate the work
of the competent authorities so as to increase cooperation and the quality of
human relations between the generations and to ensure the elderly quality
aging17.
Violent behaviour cause great harm not only to an individual confronted
with it, but also to a wider society, as it undermines healthy substances of the
basic human values and leaves long lasting effects. Therefore, it is necessary
to consider prevention of violence against the elderly holistically, where the
key role has a partnership between the participants. In the current practice,
cooperation between the different organs of the state (Centre for Social Work
(CSW), consultancy services at schools, police, prosecutor, health services)
and nongovernmental sector has been enabled.
At the international level, policy-makers and field workers expressed con-
cern about this issue and merged with a view to improve understanding of
violence against the elderly and methods needed to prevent violence. The
EUROPEAN project, which also included Slovenia, aims to develop a Euro-
pean reference framework for the prevention of violence against the elderly.
The project team formed three types of violence prevention, each focusingon
aspecific target group18: 1. Primary protection includes actions aimed at pre-
venting violence against older people. The target group consists ofolder peo-
ple who are not exposed to violence, butmay face it in the future. 2.Secondary
prevention involves actions that are focused on the identification and detec-
tion of violence against older people in the early stages, before it becomes
detected. The main objective is to stop the violence and prevents deteriora-
tion. The target group consists of the elderly whoare experiencing the early
stages of a violent situation. Tertiary prevention involves programs aimed at
17
Strategija za kakovostno staranje, solidarnost in sožitje generacij v Sloveniji za obdobje 2011 do
2015, Delovno gradivo za pomoč ožjim delovnim skupinam, Ljubljana: interno gradivo, 2011.
18
EUROPEAN, Nasilje nad starejšimi v Evropi, Povzetek: Ozadje in stališče projekta
EUROPEAN, 2010, p.18-19.

29
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 23-34

improving the lives of victims of violence against older people by reducing
the severity of the abuse and applying of the tools that prevent them from be-
coming repeated victims of domestic violence in the future. The target group
consists of older people who are victims of violence.
Project group concluded, that the effective combating of violence against
the elderly requires recognition that violence as a private matter is a public
ones19.
An important role in the prevention of violence against the elderly is cer-
tainly the police. According to the Ombudsman’s point of view20 police is
obliged to act efficiently and decisively when carrying out entrusted assign-
ments regarding prevention and treatment of the family violence. Slovene
police, according to the Police Law21 have to pay special attention to quality
of work regarding prevention and discovering of the most severe offenses,
among which is family violence. In the year 2003, police were given full au-
thority to protect the victim, so that a perpetrator is forbidden to enter the flat
for two days and court can prolong this period to 10 days22
In spite of all authorisations, police are aware that they by themselves can-
not solve family violence problem efficiently and in long term. They are only
able to calm down situation temporarily, prevent current danger; their meas-
ures cannot ensure long-lasting safety to the victims of violence. In this cases
police miss cooperation with other institutions which are able to participate
»at once and now«, and professionals who can give support to the victims at
the moment when they need it, who can observe situation and interfere when
it is needed23.
Police throughout their practical work found out that the Slovene society
as a whole is rather tolerant to family violence and therefore do not act in
favour of the family victims24. Family is still rather closed cell, and family in
which there is violence it is even more closed, as family privacy is traditional-
ly untouchable. That is one of the fields with most prejudices and stereotypes,
also including professionals dealing with these issues. On the other side,
those professional who deal with family violence, estimate that police attitude
to violence has recently been changing in positive direction. However, it must
19
More oftherecommendations on thepreventionof violence and abuse against the elderly
EUROPEAN, Nasilje nad starejšimi v Evropi, Povzetek: Ozadje in stališče projekta EUROPEAN,
2010, p.22-28.
20
Varuh človekovih pravic: Letno poročilo, 2002. http://www.varuh-rs.si.
21
Zakon o policiji, 2003. Uradni list RS, št. 110/2003.
22
Ibid.
23
Ministrstvo za notranje zadeve, 2014. http://www.mnz.gov.si/.
24
Ibid.

30
Some sociological aspects of the prevention of domestic
Danijela Lahe violence and abuse of the elderly in Slovenia

be said that the Slovene police have done great job and improved its position
in this field in comparison with other institutions. However, a special role of
our ombudsman in protection of the elderly must be mentioned as well.
Also The European Union recognizes and respects the right to life in dig-
nity and independence and to participate in social and cultural life25. The ob-
jective of the Charter is not to replace, but to complement and support the
charters and other measures which have already been established in some
countries of the European Union. The purpose of the Charter is also to in-
crease awareness, and draw attention to the rights of the growing number of
older people26.

Conclusion

Violence against the elderly is becoming increasingly recognized as a ma-
jor social problem, which will undoubtedly rise with the population growth.
Even though violence and abuse against the elderly has had a long tradi-
tion in the society, has been only recently recognised. In the Western coun-
tries it was mentioned not before mid eighties of the previous century, before
it had been regarded as a taboo topic. Even nowadays violence is a hidden act
and therefore it is very difficult to discover it. Main problem is that the core
of happening, as it is case in most abuses, happens between the four walls
and is in great deal hidden from the public eye/control. To expose one act,
which happens within the intimate area, as a public matter, is a problem part-
ly because of the family rights advocates, who protect family’s privacy against
state intervention, and partly because it is against deeply rooted belief that the
family provides warm, safe environment for the individual.
At the same time it is necessary to continuously develop preventive social
activities at the elderly associations and other nongovernmental organisa-
tions, which unite older citizens. Meetings at intergenerational programs for
quality aging are excellent possibility for the elderly to speak in confidence
about their dark sides of life. Each state which has an intention to deal with
this problem successfully should apply holistic approach to the problem of
violence and abuse of the elderly, and in-depth analysis and interpretation of
the actual data should be carried out. Regarding research of this phenome-
25
Listina Evropske unije o temeljnih pravicah (2010/C 83/02). http://eurlex.europa.eu/
LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2010:083:0389:0403:sl:PDF.
26
EUROPEAN, Nasilje nad starejšimi v Evropi, Povzetek: Ozadje in stališče projekta
EUROPEAN, 2010. http://www.preventelderabuse.eu/doc/293pdf.

31
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 23-34

non it is also meaningful to point out that there are some limitations which
make data comparison impossible. Therefore, preparation of a unique ques-
tionnaire with comparable scales for testing of violence and abuse sensitivity,
presuming that it contains all types of violence and abuse of the elderly, would
be of great help at least in the area of the European Union.
To ensure dignified and quality life to the elderly in a democratic state,
first of all, the human rights have to be respected as well as the state’s sen-
sitivity to the violence and abuse has to be increased. In each society where
violence and abuse of the elderly are matter of their value system and are con-
sidered as something taken for granted, unavoidable and not as a problem, it
is of utmost importance to raise social awareness that violence and abuse are
not acceptable or excusable behaviours and the tolerance to these phenomena
has to be null and void27.

REFERENCES

Baker, A.A., GrannyBattering,Modern Geriatrics, Vol 5, no 8, 1975.
Breakingthetaboo: nasilje nad starejšimi ženskami v družini: prepoznavanje
in ukrepanje, Šlajmer Japelj, M., Blažun, H., Kokol, P. (ur.). InfoMedia, Dunaj,
Avstrija, 2010.
Burston, G.R., Do yourelderlypatient live in fearofbeingbattered? Modern
Geriatrics, Vol 7, no 5, 1977.
EUROPEAN, Nasilje nad starejšimi v Evropi, Povzetek: Ozadje in stališče
projekta EUROPEAN, 2010.http://www.preventelderabuse.eu/doc/293pdf
(30.5.2015).
Garre-Olmo, Josep., Planas-Pujol, Xenia, López-Pousa, Secundino, Juvin-
ya, Dolors, Vilà, Antoni, Vilalta-Franch, Joan, Frailty and Dependence in Gi-
rona Study Group, Prevalence and risk factors of suspected elder abuse subtypes
in people aged 75 and older, Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, Vol 57,
no 5, 2009.
Henderson, Hester,Domestic Violence andChildAbuse,Sourcebook, Detroit,
Omnigraphics, 2010.
Hvalič Touzery, Simona. in Felicijan, Polona, Dogaja se njej in dogaja se
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starost, Vol 7, no 1, 2004.
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Danijela Lahe, Nekateri sociološki vidiki nasilja in zlorabe nad starejšimi ljudmi v družinskih,
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Kazenski zakonik 1, Uradni list Republike Slovenije, št. 55/2008.
Lachs, Manfred and Pillemer, Karl,Elder abuse. Lancet 364(9441), 2004.
Lahe, Danijela, Nekateri sociološki vidiki nasilja in zlorabe nad starejšimi
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ncearoot/Main_Site/index.aspx (15.9.2015).
Oražem, Barbara in Ramovš, Ksenija, Odločen »ne« nasilju in zlorabam, V
Starič, M. (Ur.), Praktični vodnik za upokojence: pravice, možnosti, priložnosti,
Ljubljana: Založba Maks Viktor, 2004.
Penhale, Bridget. in Parker, Jonathan, Elder abuse and older men: towards
and understanding. COE-Strasbourg, 1999.
Pentek, Metka, Nasilje, zloraba in starejšiljudje. V: Nasilje, zloraba in stare-
jšiljudje. Otočec: GerontološkodruštvoSlovenije, 2000.
Razboršek, Vinko, Oblike zlorabljanja starejših ljudi,Kakovostna starost,
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2014,2009. http://zakonodaja.gov.si (02.09.2011).
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ji za obdobje 2011 do 2015. Delovno gradivo za pomoč ožjim delovnim
skupinam.2011. Ljubljana: interno gradivo.
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der_Abuse/docs/ABuseReport_Full.pdf. (29.4.2015).
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Zakon o preprečevanjunasilja v družini, 2008. Uradni list RS, št.16/2008.
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(3.2.2015).

34
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

Dragana Vilić1 Review article
University of Banja Luka UDC 316.334.4(470)
Faculty of Economics DOI 10.7251/SOCEN1510035V
Banja Luka Accepted: 10th of Septembar, 2015
Vanja Nišić2
Banja Luka

One look at the position of sociology of law in
Russia

Abstract

As a sociological discipline that studies the role and place of law
in society, sociology of law was created in the mid 19th century.
This discipline studies the conditions and circumstances that lead
to the constitution of law and the legal system in one country, then
the legal activity in society, and the consequences of all forms of
legal action in society. From the mid-20th century in sociology
have been removed numerous concerns about the social role of
law, from this period the law is being studied as a normative phe-
nomenon. The paper analyzes the situation of sociology of law, its
historical development and institutionalization in Russia, as well
as topical issues of Russian theorists. Citing the Russian theoreti-
cians who dealt with legal and sociological topics, in this paper we
analyze the issues and problems that were in the process of institu-
tionalization of sociology of law in Russia at the end of the XX and
the early XXI century. In this paper we provide a brief overview
of sociology of law in some countries of the former Yugoslavia as
a possible comparison with the state of sociology of law in Russia.

Keywords: law, sociology, sociology of law, society, science, Russia.

1
Doctor of Sociology, Faculty of Economics, University of Banja Luka,
e-mail: dragana.vilic@efbl.org
2
Master of sociology, email: vanjanisic@gmail.com

35
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

Introductions

As a result of the development of sociology as a science and the expan-
sion of its research subject, there were constituted more special and individ-
ual studies that explore specific social fields, including sociology of law. This
micro-sociological discipline was developed in the mid 19th century in the
context of political sociology as a special sociology, and studies the place and
role of law in society, the content of legal norms, the way they are applied.3
Sociology of law studies the conditions and circumstances that lead to the
constitution of law and the legal system in a country, then a legal activity in
one country (theoretical and practical), and the consequences of all forms of
legal action in society.4 On the one hand, it studies the social side of law, the
influence of various social factors (economic, political, cultural) on the law
and its key aspects (the concept of law, the origin of law, the character of legal
norms, etc.), and on the other hand, the way the law influences the society
(man, the structure of society and the trends in society).5 The physiognomy
of the sociology of law has been affected by certain tendencies in the devel-
opment of legal theories: the legal theory (“social rights”) by which the legal
order of society differs from state law (except the state, there are other social
forces that create the law - churches, corporations, etc.) and “control theory”
3
Before the advent of sociology of law the only theoretical framework for explaining the law
was in the field of philosophy of law (most often, those were the legal theories). Even in the
ancient times, in the works of Greek philosophers we found efforts to bring the law in a par-
ticular relationship with the society/state (sophists, Herodotus, Plutarch, Tacitus, Aristotle).
In the theories of the social contract in the 17th century we find the roots of the sociology
of law, as well as in the theoretical approach of Montesquieu in the 18th century, which puts
laws in relation to social facts. The impetus for the development of the sociology of law from
the beginning to the middle of the 19th century gave the criminological research by French
and Italian researchers, as well as the insights of the German historical school of law and the
empirical body of legal history and legal etiology of this period. Ivan Šijaković and Dragana
Vilić, Sociology for lawyers, Banja Luka: Association of Sociologists Banja Luka, 2013, p. 305.
4
Sociological analysis of law is based on three basic theoretical principles: the first relates to
the nature of law observed from a sociological perspective (the law is experiential phenomena
and all the characteristics of law are arising from the specificity of human nature and life in
the community); second principle relates to the structure of law observed from a sociological
perspective (law is broader than the legal rules, it can not be reduced to the rank of norms, laws
and other general and individual acts, but in addition to them, equal elements in the structure
of law are social factors of law - social relations, certain values, etc.; and the third principle
concerns the law as experiential, complex and development unit. Saša Bovan, Sociology of law,
in: Milovan Mitrović and Saša Bovan, Fundamentals of sociology and sociology of law, Belgrade:
Official Jornal, 2009., p. 230 – 231.
5
Saša Bovan, The Same.

36
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

developed in the US (E.A. Ross) by which the law is one of the techniques of
social control. The conditions for the development of the sociology of law as a
systematic and methodological constituted discipline were created at the end
of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in the European region
(Durkheim, Weber, Ehrlich, Digi, Gurvich) and the American region (Ross,
Holmes, etc.).6
Since the mid-20th century the law is studied as a normative phenomenon
(in the application on the social facts of social life exerts its specificity, as well
as problems), with which were removed many doubts in the sociology of law
in connection with the social role of law.7
The most important characteristic of the sociology of law after the Second
World War is a wide and comprehensive institutionalization (establishment
of committees, institutes, departments, sections and magazines in this field).8
Significant progress of the sociology of law in the world, especially in the
Anglo-Saxon linguistic, social and theoretical space was created in the pre-
vious three decades. The subject of study and research is constantly expand-
ing - it includes new problems, issues, phenomena and activities which can
be classified in the field of law and its relationship with other elements of
society. This sociological discipline is increasingly included in the structure
of the legal system, it studies its inner fact, follows some of its parts through
the prism of social relations, it directs its attention to the practice of law, legal
events, as well as the consequences of legal decisions.9 Thus, in the modern
period, its case focuses on six key issues: the origin of law, the concept of
law, the functions of law, the creation of law, the application of law, the legal
profession, and it is noticeable the differentiation within this discipline in
accordance with specific areas of law (sociology of criminal law, sociology of
civil rights, etc.). Although the division of theoretical and empirical research,
is not expressed as in the previous period, in contemporary sociology of law
it still survives.10
6
Saša Bovan, The Same, p. 253.
7
Sociology of law, Aleksandar Molnar, The Dictionary of Sociology, Belgrade: Institute for Text-
books, 2007, p. 558.
8
Saša Bovan, Sociology of Law, in: Milovan Mitrović and Saša Bovan, Fundamentals of sociol-
ogy and sociology of law, Belgrade: Official Jornal, 2009, p. 258.
9
Ivan Šijaković and Dragana Vilić, Sociology for lawyers, Banja Luka: Association of Sociolo-
gists Banja Luka, 2013, p. 335.
10
There are a number of circumstances that hinder the development of sociology of law in
the future (slight closing of the sociology of law at the national frameworks, lack of a sufficient
number of sociologists in this field, the existence of distrust towards this discipline in the ac-
ademic community, etc.). Saša Bovan, Sociology of Law, in: Milovan Mitrović and Saša Bovan,
Fundamentals of Sociology and Sociology of Law, Belgrade: Official Jornal, 2009, p. 258 – 259.

37
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

In the Balkans a significant contribution to the sociology of law gave Val-
tazar Bogišić, guided by the basic postulates of historical-legal school, and
Sreten Vukosavljević, who in his study compared the customs and the positive
law.11 In the former Yugoslavia, between the two world wars, several teachers
at the Faculty of Law in Belgrade (Jovan Đorđević, Radomir Lukić, Božidar
Marković) gave a contribution to the sociology of law, whose main feature
was the development of the theory of social law modeled on the French orien-
tation in the sociology of law without relevant empirical research. The post-
war period in this area was not fruitful for the development of this discipline,
and only with the empirical studies of self-management law and the judicial
system conducted in the seventies and the eighties of the last century have
been noticed the attempts of restoring this discipline. These efforts have not
given a great contribution in terms of rehabilitation of sociology of law in
this area. The subject of Sociology of Law, whose status is the “election” ex-
isted from 1935 on the Faculty of Law in Belgrade, where was founded the
Department of Sociology and the Society for legal philosophy and sociology.
The work of this Society was restored after the sixties, and the work of the
Yugoslav Association for Theory, Sociology and Philosophy of Law began in
the 1996 in Belgrade, and after the 2000 its work was very quiet. As at the
institutional level, the literature in the field of sociology of law in this area is
scarce. Contribution to the development of sociology of law gave the Serbian
Academy of Sciences and Arts and the Yugoslav Academy of Arts and Scienc-
es - they have published a number of papers relevant to this area.12 The period
after the Second World War was marked in the Serbian (and the Yugoslav)
law by leaving the tradition of legal meetings with the developed European
cultures - the interruption with the democratic legal culture of Europe. This
was caused by ideological and political reasons - self-sufficiency and “close-
ness” of the self-governing socialist legal culture. In this semicentennial peri-
od is not possible to clearly identify the works in the field of sociology of law,
as they are often blurred with the legal-theoretical analysis or the legal-phil-
osophical content. Even today in the legal and cultural space in Serbia and in
the former Yugoslavia it is not developed the scientific production in the field
of sociology of law.13 While in some European legal cultures sociology of law
11
Aleksandar Molnar, Society and rights, Book 2, Novi Sad: visio mundi, 1994.
12
Saša Bovan, Fundamentals of Sociology of Law, Belgrade: Faculty of Law, University of Bel-
grade, 2015.
13
Rudolf Legradić, professor at Belgrade, Skopje and Zagreb University, published the first
post-war textbook the Sociology of Law (University book, Belgrade, 1965). Тhе Book of Pro-
fessor Ljubomir Tadić Object of Legal Sciences of the current academician (Institute of Social
Sciences, Belgrade, 1966), expresses the author’s sensibility to the modern legal sociological
jurisprudence and prominent representatives of the European legal - sociological thought. Two
decades later, at the same time is published the work of Slovenian authors Igličar A. Introduc-

38
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

was developed, in our region it was more than half of a century repressed and
marginalized - even in the post-socialist period it does not have the scientific
and analytical desirability, and it is distant from the basics of law: legislation,
law enforcement, adjudication by the law, imprisonment, corruption, privat-
ization process and the like.14
In this region there are translations of the key works of the sociology of
law authors: Renner, Durkheim, Weber, Duguit, Pashukanis, Gurvitch, and
the like.15
In the academic legal area of Yugoslavia dominated the integralistic views
on the law, where there was a disciplinary and discursive openness and con-
nection between sociology and law.
In Bosnia and Herzegovina, after the breakup of Yugoslavia, normative
pattern of (re)construction becomes dominant in terms of identity of law,
which resulted in the loss of the status of the science of law in the academic
area of ​​BiH. Doctoral thesis “Specific methods in the methodology of law and
the creation of law” of the Vjekoslav Miličić, defended in 1990 at the Univer-
sity of Sarajevo was one of the last integral works. However, today in BiH, as
Samir Forić notes, we can not “talk about the existence of scientific commu-
nication between the law and sociology as integralism is no longer topical,

tion to the Sociology of Law (Ljubljana, 1986) and the work of Serbian author M. Petrović
The Term of the Legal Sociology in the “Book of the Theory of Law” (III, Belgrade, 1987). The
developments after the collapse of Yugoslavia, in Belgrade are published books of sociologists
and lawyee A. Molnar, two volumes, the Sociery and the rights - History of socio-legal classical
theories (1994) in which is covered the Sociology of Law in France, Russia / Soviet Union,
England, USA, Scandinavia, Germany and Austria as well as some “attempts of constitution of
sociology of law in Yugoslavia”, and the book by Montenegrin Dragan K. Vukčević Socio-legal
thought in Russia (Experience of the XX century) (Novi Sad, Cetinje, 1994). Professor Jugoslav
Stanković published the book Fundamentals of sociology of law (Part I, 1996), which appears
from the “Constitution of Serbia as the legal state” at the Faculty of Law in Belgrade, the second
part of this book appeared in 1998, and the third in 2000. The work of Professor Lukić On the
concept of sociology of Law was published in the Archives of Legal and Social Sciences in 1941,
which deals with the subject matter, the method of sociology of law, sociological methods in
legal sciences and “ability for sociology of law to provide the laws of legal development,” pulled
from oblivion professor Basta in Transformations of the idea of law. ​​ See in: Radivoj Stepanov
and Ana Nešić, „Sociology of law in the legal culture of Serbia“, One Hundred Years of Sociol-
ogy in Serbia - Special edition of the journal Sociological Review: Journal Serbian Sociological
Association (Slobodan Antonić), Vol. XLVI (2012), no. 3-4, Belgrade: Serbian Sociological As-
sociation, 2012, p. 1009 – 1012.
14
See more in: Radivoj Stepanov and Ana Nešić, „Sociology of law in the legal culture of
Serbia“, One Hundred Years of Sociology in Serbia - Special edition of the journal Sociological
Review: Journal Serbian Sociological Association (Slobodan Antonić), Vol. XLVI (2012), no.
3-4, Belgrade: Serbian Sociological Association, 2012, p. 1012 – 1013.
15
Saša Bovan, Saša Bovan, Sociology of Law, in: Milovan Mitrović and Saša Bovan, Fundamen-
tals of Sociology and Sociology of Law, Belgrade: Official Jornal, 2009, p. 261.

39
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

neither it is the part of the identity of the law, nor the sociology of law as a me-
diating communication between them is sufficiently developed and affirmed
to take over this function. Consequently, there is no, as is evident, the com-
munication between the sociologists and lawyers on important socio-legal
questions in the specific socio-legal context of BiH.”16 This sociologist points
to the epistemological attachment of contemporary sociological approach to
law in Bosnia and Herzegovina, that is sociological - legal approach to the
current constitutional and legal status of “constituent people” and “Others”,
with the ruling legal paradigm of dogmatic law in the sense that just law,
through its operations, is trained to be able to give a true solution to some so-
cial problems.17 The study entitled “Citizens in collectivist ideology: socio-le-
gal analysis of the situation of ˈOthersˈ in Bosnia and Herzegovina”, from the
authors Admira Sitnić and Amila Ždralović published in 2013, represents
the first scientific socio-legal study in which the constitutional category of
“others” in BiH is treated as a sociological category, where are identified the
problems of this constitutional category in BiH - their constitutional position,
the consequences of their exclusion or limitation in terms of participation in
political decision making processes, as well as their current position in the
government; and analyzing the possibility to establish a common interest and
give them collective rights.18
With education reform that was given by the Bologna Process Sociology
of Law at the law schools in some states of the former Yugoslavia (Croatia,
Slovenia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Republic of Srpska) is being taught with
the general sociology, with which its status is improved.19
Sociology of Law in the Russian social sciences is a young scientific disci-
pline, which emphasizes that without sociological analysis of legal problems
is difficult to analyze the current challenges and trends in the development
of the legal system as well as its role in the complex social relationships. It
explores the social relationships that are formed in the process of formation
of legal acts and reveals the problems of formation and development of the
legal system and the different directions of the struggle for the rule of law. An
16
Samir Forić, „Sociology of law and the problem of closing the legal normative discourse“,
Sociological discourse, Banja Luka: Association of sociologists Banja Luka, year 4, No. 7, 2014,
p. 54.
17
Samir Forić, Same.
18
Admira Sitnić and Amila Ždralović, Citizens in collectivist ideology: socio-legal analysis of
the situation of “Others” in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo: Center for Political Studies, 2013.
19
Topics in the field of sociology of law which are taught in these schools, are mainly related
to: a sociological approach to law, legal institutions and legal practice, law and social change,
the law, justice and power, the law and politics, human rights, the sociology of law and related
disciplines in the modern tendencies in the sociology of law and so on.

40
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

important segment of Russian sociology of law are case studies that actually
represent a symbiosis of sociology and law. The analysis of social phenomena
in jurisprudence is aimed at the specific sociological (empirical) research and
apparitions on the benefits and efficiency of results. Sociology of Law has one
systematic approach in analyzing the current issues of state and law in Rus-
sian society. Actuality of sociology of law coincides with changes in the legal
system of the Russian Federation, following the disappearance of the USSR.
In this period comes to a number of changes of the state and social structures,
when starting the intentions of the legal reform and the application of the
rule of law in the Russian society. Changing attitudes and ideas of people in
all spheres of public life, parting with the old ideals and increasing the deep-
ening of sociological views on society, also contributed to the development of
sociology of law in Russia.
Sociological research of law aims to analyze the social functions of law and
the complex processes of implementation of legal norms in daily behavior,
and to analyze the relationship of law towards the political system and various
social phenomena. Russian representatives of sociology of law in their works,
analysis and discussions, pay attention to the following topics: standards and
principles in legal relations in the Russian law, the role and importance of so-
ciology of law, the relationship between legal and moral awareness, analysis of
European trends in the field of sociology of law, etc. The aim of this paper is to
analyze the situation of sociology of law in Russia and to present the current
issues of Russian sociologists of law.
Given that in the sociological discourse in our area attention is not
(enough) focused on the sociological analysis of the legal problems of Rus-
sian sociologists, we decided that in this paper we provide the most important
segments of Russian sociology of law, indicating the circumstances in Russian
society for which this discipline is gaining in importance in and outside the
academic community (changing the legal system, changes in state and social
structures, changes in all spheres of life, the deepening of sociological views
on society, etc.), but taking into consideration the characteristics of the legal
culture20 of the Russian society.
20
»Law and Sociology met and found in a legal culture of society, there are overlapping and
complimenting themselves. Legal culture is far older notion than political culture. Much less
legal culture is donated the science (and other) attention than the political culture. Legal cul-
ture is, in the words of a German V. A. Rosenbaum, a way that shows the set of legal values,
skills and behaviors that enable the functioning of the legal and social order and give the shape
and substance to legal processes. The legal culture is not ˈlegal ideologyˈ, people may differ ac-
cording to ideological affinities and set courses, but to share a common legal culture.« Radivoj
Stepanov and Ana Nešić, „Sociology of law in the legal culture of Serbia“, One Hundred Years
of Sociology in Serbia - Special edition of the journal Sociological Review: Journal Serbian

41
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

Historical development of sociology of law in Russia

In their discourse on the Law the Russian sociologists questioned the con-
nection with the place of other sciences in this field, which has launched a
variety of discussions and opened many questions such as: Why does the law
regulate the behavior of individuals? What is the extent of its power of influ-
ence on individuals and on society? How does the law regulate the behavior
of individuals in the society? What are the conditions of efficiency or ineffi-
ciency of the law? These questions have suggested that the law should be seen
from the domain of other sciences because their formulation goes beyond
the law and are looking for clues from other sciences. A significant issue that
arose at the beginning of the institutionalization of Russian sociology of law
is its relationship to other sciences, especially towards the theory of law and
philosophy of law.
Among the first authors who have dealt with the relationship of sociology
and law in Russia in the late 19th and the early 20th century, was Sergei Muro-
motcev 21 who insisted that the law must be regarded as a social phenomenon.
He represented the attitude that positive law can be considered successful and
develop only if it is observed in the synthesis with sociology. He believed that
the theory of law is basically the sociological discipline and that the sociolog-
ical study of law should be implemented as a specific scientific discipline. The
first theorists of the Russian sociological school of law were Nikolaj Karejev22,
Bogdan Kistjakovski23, Maksim Kovalevski24, Nikolaj Korkunov25 and Pavel
Novgorodcev26. These theorists have contributed significantly to the develop-

Sociological Association (Slobodan Antonić), Vol. XLVI (2012), no. 3 - 4, Belgrade: Serbian
Sociological Association, 2012, p. 1001 – 1002.
21
Серге́й Андре́евич Му́ромцев (1850-1910), Определение и основное разделение права,
Москвa, 1879 (переиздание — С. Петербург, 2004)
22
Кареев Николай Иванович (1850-1931), Основы русской социологии: Социологические
исследования, (переиздание — С. Петербург., 1995).
23
Кистяковский Богдан Александрович  (1868-1920), Право как социальное явление:
Социологические исследования, Москва, (переиздание - 1990).
24
Макси́м Макси́мович Ковале́вский (1851-1916), Социология. 2 тома (глава „Социоло-
гия и право“) Спб. 1910.
25
Николай Михайлович Коркуно́в (1853-1904), Лекции по энциклопедии права, читан-
ные проф. СПБ. университета Н. М. Коркуновым в 1879/80 акад. году. — С. Петербург:
лит. Пазовского, 1880.
26
Новгородцев Павел Иванович (1866-1924), Введение в философию права: Кризис со-
временного правосознания, РАН, Ин-т государства и права, М.:  Наука, (переиздание -
1997).

42
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

ment of the rule of sociological thought and gave great attention to the meth-
odological issues, such as determinism in the social sciences, the role and
importance of the rule of law, the issue of education through the categories of
sociology and law, and the like. Since then, the value of sociological theory of
law comes to the fore and had more support from scientists, institutions and
academia, which contributed to its further development..
Mihail Kapustin27 advocated a position that operation of law in society
affects the creation of favorable conditions for human life. Creation of favora-
ble conditions he saw through the reconciliation of the principle of equality
and freedom. By following Kapustin, Gorovotsov argued that the law protects
the fundamental interests of all members of society, regardless of their status
and class. A similar position also followed Evgenij Spektorski28 in his book
Christianity and culture by referring about the legal behavior of individuals
in terms of spiritual values such as responsibility, justice, compassion, and
the like. Also, Boris Čičerin29 who was an expert in the field of philosophy
and sociology of law, was an opponent of naturalism in the jurisprudence, no
matter what the subject was topical in the West. Čičerin held that freedom
becomes the only law when it is recognized by law and that the establishment
of the law belongs to the state. Boris Višeslavcev30 investigated the role of law
as a social tool for establishing relations. According to him, the law can not be
the supreme leader of life, because the law is only the abstract norm. A signifi-
cant contribution to the development of the sociology of law was given by the
Russian explorer Vladimir Solovljev31. His research focused on the relation-
ship between the law and morality in society, as well as the question of what
is the role of law in human life. In his opinion, the highest task of law in the
country should be the achievement of moral progress in society and to help
spread the morality among the people. A similar view was represented by
Pavel Novgorodcev32, claiming that the society and the individuals are linked
to legal standards and a high level of moral standards, because moral unites
people in a spirit of solidarity and unity. In the development of the sociology
27
Михаил Николаевич Капустин (1828—1899), История права, Ч. 1.-Ярославль: Тип.
Губ. земск. управы, 1872.
28
Евгений Васильевич Спекторский (1875-1951), Государство. С. Петербург., 1918.
29
Чичерин Борис Николаевич (1828—1904), Опыты по истории русского права, Мо-
сква, 1858.
30
Бори́с Петро́вич Вышесла́вцев  (1877—1954), Гаранти и прав гражданина, Москва,
1917.
31
Влади́мир Серге́евич Соловьёв (1853-1900), Метафизика и положительная наука,
Москва, 1887.
32
Новгородцев Павел Иванович (1866-1924), Введение в философию права: Кризис совре-
менного правосознания, РАН, Ин-т государства и права, М.: Наука, (переиздание-1997).

43
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

of law takes an important place and Lav Petražickij33. The fundamentals of
the law and its development in society Petražickij sees in the psychology of
the personality. He points out that the psychological experience are the main
drivers of the interaction of individuals and social groups in the society of the
psychic experiences. They are the center of social activity of people, or, as he
argues that emotions determine the behavior of the person with the outside
world. Petražickij paid special attention to the interpretation of legal norms
and advocated the view that the rule of law appears as the unity between the
obligations and requirements. Thus, one can say that Petražickij conveyed
individual psychological point of view from the general sociology and social
sciences in the sociology of law.
Great attention Russian law theorists (the initials of the sociology of law)
dedicated to the role of government in society. They emphasized the need for
a stable country and a strong government for the development of Russian
society, as seen from all aspects. But looking at the historical conditions of
Russia the psychology of people, the development of culture, traditions and
customs, they realized the complexity of the implementation issues of build-
ing a stable state and government. Vladimir Soloviev explored the construc-
tive role of the state in development of society. He argued that without a stable
state is not possible the cultural progress of society. He pointed to the limita-
tions and obstacles that the government has when it comes to human behav-
ior, the spiritual motives and interests of individuals. He also drew attention
to the great importance of separation of powers into legislative, executive and
judicial branches, as well as a coherent functioning of these governments to-
wards the same goal - the general welfare of Russian society.
During the Soviet and post-Soviet period, the sociology of law has had a
specific and difficult path of development. Jevgenij Pašukanis34 in the book,
General Theory of Law and Marxism’ points out the view that the law is the
right mechanism for determining the material relations between people. In
the 20s of the last century it was thought that it is better to avoid the socio-
logical approach in analyzing the law. This is the period in which the changes
occur, such as the specific role of commodity-money relations in the devel-
opment of socialist society, weakening the analysis of legal norms and formal
sources of law, raising the revolutionary consciousness and the domination
33
Петражицкий Лев Иосифович (1867–1931), Права добросовестного владельца на до-
ходы с точек зрения догмы и политики гражданского права, С. Петербург: Типография
М.  М.  Стасюлевича, 1897; Очерки философии права. Вып. 1. Основы психологической
теории права. Обзор и критика современных воззрений на существо права, С. Петер-
бург: Типография Ю. Н. Эрлих, 1900.
34
Евгений Брониславович Пашуканис (1891- 1937), Учение о государстве и праве, 1932.

44
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

of authoritarian judgments. Conflicts of opinions in the field of philosophy,
law, sociology and other related sciences of this period quickly turned into a
political fight, even in the political persecution of opponents.
The process that took place in Russian society after the socialist revolu-
tion, has significantly influenced the institutionalization of sociology of law.
In the twenties of the twentieth century in academic circles was considered
that it is better to avoid a sociological approach to the analysis of legal phe-
nomena. To this attitude contributed the construction of a socialist society
and the atmosphere that prevailed in society at that time. Arguments in the
field of sociology and law at that time challenged (and slowed down) the de-
velopment of the sociology of law. In the thirties of the twentieth century, in-
cluding the development of law and sociology of law has become a subject of
political struggle of the government and academic circles. What significantly
influenced the development of sociology of law is the transition process of
Russian society during this period. The reorientation of law and fundamental
change in the approach to the study of law slowed the development of the
sociology of law.35
Since the mid 50-ies of the XX century, the changes in science are start-
ing to move in a positive direction. Scientists are beginning to realize that it
is essential the sociological approach to law, the rule of law and the role of
justice in society. The need for a sociological analysis of the legal issues and
problems was pointed out by Mihael Karejev, Stepan Kečekijana and Andrej
Piontkovski. During the 60s and the 70s studying the law in the field of so-
ciological analysis received a big boost by the official academic institutions
and scientists. At the Fifth International Congress of Sociology, held in 1962,
sociologists and lawyers have launched an initiative to establish a sociology
of law as an independent scientific discipline, and discussed the issue of the
content and methods of sociology of law. This proposal was adopted, after
which was founded the sociology of law research committee, which operated
within the international Sociological Association. Topics such as theoretical
issues of sociology of law and social mechanism of rights came into focus of
the discourse of Russian scientists and theorists. A situation at that time in
political and legal terms of the then Soviet society did not affect negatively
the further development of the sociology of law, contributing to support and
developing the new constructive ideas in this field.
The previous period gave a positive impetus for further development of
the sociology of law and in the second half of the 80s of the XX century. In the
35
More about that see in: Николай Сергеевич Тимашев,Что такое социология права?,
Москва, 2004.

45
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

second half of the 80s of the twentieth century in this period of Soviet society
in Soviet society have occurred many discussions that were related to prob-
lems associated with the problems in the theory and practice of law which
positively influenced the development of the sociology of law. Many works
that were related to these topics have been translated into foreign languages
and much attention has been given to the theoretical and practical analysis
of these topics. In academic circles, the prevailing opinion is that without a
detailed sociological and legal analysis is not possible to provide a theoretical
basis for the implementation of the political reform of Russian society, the
so-called. “Perestroika”. This attitude of Russian scientists contributed to even
greater affirmation of sociology of law.
From its inception until today, sociology of law was encountering a lot of
resistance from the state, political and academic circles. However, such a step
is necessary in order to ask many questions, and to be sought for appropriate
responses, and therefore to justify the scientific and social contribution of the
sociology of law as an independent scientific discipline. In the modern Rus-
sian society sociology of law is dealing with many topics, such as strengthen-
ing the rule of law, guarantees of constitutional rights and freedoms, the ef-
fectiveness of the law in society and the like. These and many other questions
from the very beginning of the development of sociology of law, and to this
day have found themselves in the discourse of Russian theorists.

Current topics of Russian theorists of sociology of law

Topics that attract the attention of today’s Russian scientists, theoreti-
cians and analysts are: sociology of law as a science; Sociology of Law at the
turn from 20th to 21st century; sociology of law in terms of the Soviet and
post-Soviet development of the society; American school of sociology of law;
sociology of Justice; legal behavior of individuals; Sociology of the legal ar-
rangements; Sociology of Law and other legal doctrines. Through these top-
ics were raised various questions, such as: the concept of sociology of law as
a science; Sociological research and development of legal science; the ratio
of the sociology of law and legal theory; directions and trends of sociology
of law in Russia; objective and subjective conditions for the development of
sociology of law in Russia at the turn from 20th to 21st century; the role of
law in regulating human behavior; legal awareness in the public and its role
in the Russian state; specificity of Justice as a sociological category; specificity

46
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Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

of legal organizations in Russia, as well as other issues in this area that have
been found in the discourse of Russian theorists.
As a scientific discipline, sociology of law in modern Russia focused on
issues such as the effectiveness of the legislation, the machinery of justice, the
problems of formation of sense of justice in society, implementing the legal
socialization and the like. The development of modern sociological approach
to law in Russia, means putting aside the legal positivism that was dominant
until the end of the 80s of the 20th century. In contrast, the sociology of law
is investigating certain legal acts and regulations, taking into account all the
social legislation, including moral values, customs, public opinion, etc. Also,
it is asked the questions and the efficacy of the laws and regulations, the major
social functions of the law, the analysis of the public opinion and justice in so-
ciety, the role of legal institutions and the like. The subject of sociology of law
includes research of social factors relating to the law and the system of social
factors that interacts with the legal phenomena and processes, as well as the
question of mechanisms of their interactions. On this basis there is a need for
the formation of sociology of law, and there was a need for discourse on this
subject to which answered many Russian theoreticians.
In the modern development of Russian society without a detailed analysis
of sociological laws, it is difficult to give a theoretical basis of law, as well as
the impact on the reform of the political system in the Russian society, ac-
cording to Russian theorists. Objectives should be focused towards strength-
ening the rule of law, guaranteed constitutional rights and freedoms, as well
as to know and to observe clear differences between the judicial, legislative
and executive authorities.
According to Valentina Lapaeva Russian sociology of law includes general
issues of sociology of law, followed by the directions and approaches to the
sociological study of law, as well as topical issues of modern sociology of law.
This theorist argues that sociology of law can be best develop in the context
of the study of the formation and the action of the law in society36. Based on
her theoretical analysis, it is raised the issue of whether the development of
sociology of law in the context of general sociology is possible? On the basis
of theoretical concepts Lapaeva concludes that for the development of the so-
ciology of law as an independent scientific discipline are conditional the three
things: first, the subject matter and the methods of discipline must be aligned
with the object and the method of sociology as a general science; Secondly, it
is necessary to formulate a sociological concept of law; thirdly, that the con-
ceptual provisions on the subject of sociology of law, as well as the sociologi-
36
Валентина Лапаева В. В. Социология права: в поисках новой парадигмы , Москва: „Го-
сударство и право“. 1992. N 7. с. 20.

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

cal discipline, must be implemented in the empirical research.37 According to
Vladik Nersesjancu subject of sociology of law is the law as a form of expres-
sion, protection and realization of the interests of the law and social interests
consistent with the principle of formal equality.38 On this basis, methods of
sociology of law as a legal discipline is the study and knowledge of the law in
the context of social relationships and social values from the perspective of
the principle of formal equality.39 We see that this author classifies the Sociol-
ogy of Law into the legal and not into the sociological discipline.
One of the important topics in the process of institutionalization of con-
temporary sociology of law is the question of the role of justice in the society,
then the constitution of the special micro-disciplines of the sociology of law
such as sociology of the offenses, as well as the topics of probation, problems
of legal conflicts, Orthodoxy and the sociology of law and methodological
procedures in the modern sociology of law. To these topics have Russian the-
orists devoted considerable attention40. As a component of social conscious-
ness, justice is its specific structural formation, or moral component of the law.
It represents a reflection of social relations that requires control and maintain
of social relationships that are not only required by law. Legal awareness of in-
dividuals is coming to the fore not only in the direct relation with the law and
legal norms, but also in different social categories (economy, business, social
relations, communication, culture). The realization of the interests of individ-
uals affected by the rule of law, legal rights and responsibilities is one of the
most important specifics of Justice. Based on the category of “social justice” is
evaluated the interaction and behavior of individuals in society as a legitimate
or illegitimate. Category of justice is in constant scientific and research focus
within the framework of Russian sociology of law. Its size and presence varies
with changes taking place in society. Among the most important functions of
legal consciousness is a cognitive function, which implies knowledge of the
social and legal life. This function of justice is about the manifestation of the
37
Лапаева Валентина Викторовна, Конкретно-социологические исследования в праве,
Москва, 1992, стр. 15. Also, Of Lapaev’s attitudes of contemporary sociology of law problems
seen in her textbooks: Социология правa, Москва, 2000 и Российская социология права,
Москва, 2005.
38
More about that see in: Вла́дик Сумба́тович Нерсеся́нц, Философия права. Москва.,
1997; Вла́дик Сумба́тович Нерсеся́нц, Общая теория права и государства. Москва, 1999,
с.40.
39
Вла́дик Сумба́тович Нерсеся́нц, Общая теория права и государства. Москва, 1999,
с. 42.
40
See: Касьянов В. Владимир, Нечипуренко В.Николай, Социология права. Ростов н/Д:
Феникс, 2001., zatim, Лапаева Валентина Викторовна Социология права, Moskva:Под. ред.
акад. РАН В.С. Нерсесянца, 2000. as and Облап. Т.С. Социологијя права, Краснодар: Гасу-
дарственый универзитет, 2003.

48
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

social environment in certain social relationships and about how these rela-
tionships are regulated. Another important feature of justice that is observed
in the Russian sociology of law is the view of the world, which, in fact, shows
how certain social phenomena that are concentrated in certain social pro-
cesses, such as the relationship between the individual and society, commu-
nication between the nations, the problem of war and peace, reflect the social
phenomena and trends. In Russia, these issues are particularly important (in
addition to the sociology of law) in the field of social psychology, economics,
sociology and political science.
Observing justice and legal consciousness as a specific phenomenon of
social life from the perspective of a sociological perspective it is clear that
we are constantly in the field of sociology of law. In order to be implement-
ed the necessary economic, political and moral requirements, they have
to pass through the prism of legal awareness in order to get its final shape.
Condition of justice in society is a process of thinking and understanding
of various social phenomena, it also reflects the needs of social development
which, in turn, is a prerequisite of control of individual behavior. What is
also important to note is that justice has a significant impact on individuals
when making decisions in their everyday interaction. During the transition
of Russian society in the 90s of the twentieth century should be considered
aspects relating to the state of justice in the reforming society. Examining the
development of legal awareness is actually an important factor affecting the
development of relations in the society, as well as the legislation of individual
behavior in different areas of society.
Russian theorists of sociology of law in their discourse raised the question
of the role of legal organizations in society. The rule of law in any society
largely depends on the social role of the overall legal organizations. Problems
such as law enforcement, sanctioning of the inappropriate behavior of indi-
viduals and the operation of the system of social control is largely dependent
on the efficient operation of the legal organization. Also among the most im-
portant issues in the discourse of contemporary Russian theorists is the ques-
tion: what is the scientific and social contribution to the institutionalization
of sociology of law in the Russian academic circles? As a scientific discipline
it contributes to the study of the interaction between law and society, thus
contributing to solving problems that Russian society is facing in its tran-
sition process. The interest of Russian theorists for discourse in the field of
sociology of law has contributed to its development and institutionalization,
and it is still possible to analyze the numerous problems facing Russian soci-
ety. The different spheres of social life are directly related to social relations
including factors such as economic, political, moral and legal. Observation

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 35-55

of society from socio-legal perspective means analyzing all these factors that
affect individuals and society. On the basis of this approach can be analyzed
and the strengthening of democratic institutions and improve the methods of
legal regulation of social relations in order to meet the needs of individuals
and society, which contributes to the social good and therefore a wider space
for the development of the sociology of law.

Modern perspectives of sociology of law in Russia

In the modern Russian society are still current issues that accompany
the sociology of law from its inception until today. Today are analyzed the
attitudes of the original theorists of the Russian sociological school of law
as Korkunova, Kovalevski, Muromtsev, Kistjakovski, Karejev and the others
who spoke about the problem of the development of the sociological concept
of law, dilemmas of development of the sociological approach in the field of
criminal law of Russian lawyers, as well as the ideas of the unity of law and
legal relationships which contributed to the revival of the interest in social
issues when it comes to the sociology of law in the 60’s and the 70’s of the 20th
century, as well as the question of the period of stagnation but also the entire
institutionalization of this discipline from inception to the present. After a
period of ups and downs, sociology of law has been introduced as a separate
subject in many universities in Russia and thus strengthened its position as a
scientific discipline. Topics covered by it in the first decade of the 21st century
are: the effectiveness of social rights, the rule of socialization, history of the
sociology of law, sociology of law as a science, methods and techniques of so-
ciological research of the law, it also includes theoretical and empirical basis
of knowledge of the law. Today in Russia is raised the question of sociology
of law in relation with other sciences which indicates that there are still some
controversy regarding this topic.
In modern conditions the extension of directions of scientific research led
to the emergence of new scientific issues in the sociology of law. The link
between sociology and law gives the possibility to analyze the connection
of sociology to law, then the social functions of law, and to analyze the pro-
cess of transformation of the legal norms in terms of social behavior at all
levels, from individuals, through groups and collectives. The orientation of
the sociology of law to the study of the social function of the law stipulates
questions such as: What are the social sources of law? What are the social
conditions of legal relations? Is the effectiveness of laws and institutions at an
50
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

adequate level when it comes to regulating the social behavior of individuals
and social structures as a subject of sociological legal research. Also, in this
study, attention will be given to new areas in the sociology of law and other
legal disciplines, the demarcation of sociology of law and criminology, as well
as the analysis of the environmental protection law, the analysis of the rela-
tionship of socio-legal research and legal practice, as well as the setting up
of social practice as a basis for theoretical work in the field of jurisprudence.
By historical observing the emergence and development of sociology of law
theorists in Russia in modern conditions are trying to avoid old problems and
to keep pace with new themes, issues and analysis in favor of resolving the
existing problems. Accordingly, efforts have been made for the introduction
of new methodologies and research methods, as well as the introduction of
broader theoretical approaches (structural-functional, socio-psychological,
logical and semantic) in the process of socio legal research. Highlighted are
the advantages of a sociological approach to law such as the extension of the
domain of research of the subjective law, enriching the methodological basis
for the study of legal phenomena and the like. Topics in the focus of interest of
Russian sociology of law are: the role of law in the system of social functions;
mechanisms of action of the law; the Objectives of the legal system in the
organization of society; creating and maintaining law and order in society;
the impact of laws on social relations; sociological characteristics of the law;
strengthening social relationships through legislation; fostering a sense of le-
gal responsibility and motivation in society; Factors of legal activities of citi-
zens; disfunctions of social institutions; interaction of social processes; defor-
mation of informal social structures; violation of social norms; punishment
of offenders and the like.41 All these issues contribute to the development of
the sociology of law and legal sociological analysis of social trends and pro-
cesses. Based on the preliminary review of current issues in Russian sociology
of law, it can be concluded that the most important issues in this discipline
are relating to the general principles of construction and operation of the law
and legal development of Russian society. In addition, emphasis is placed on
theoretical and methodological foundations of sociology of law; basic con-
cepts of sociology of law; the subject matter of sociology of law; methods of
sociological research in the field of sociology of law and the current problems
of sociology of law in Russia.

41
More about that see in: Бори́с Льво́вич Васи́льев, Юридическая психология, СПб.: Пи-
тер, 2009; Юрий Иванович Гревцов, Очерки теории и социологии права, СПб: ПИВС,
1996; Геннадий Васильевич Мальцев Социальные основания права, Москва: Норма, 2007;
Александр Васильевич Малько,Субочев Виталий Викторович, Гарантии осуществле-
ния законных интересов, Москва: Правоведение, No 6, 2007. с. 138 - 148.

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Conclusion

Sociology of law in Russia (former USSR) from its inception until today,
faced with many challenges. Through its process of development and insti-
tutionalization has undergone many ups and downs, acceptance and rejec-
tion of both the Russian scientists, as well as the other academic and official
institutions of the country. The transition process in Russia (in two periods
during the twentieth century) took off on the entire society, individuals, and
the development of the sociology of law which at one point resulted in the
stagnation of the sociology of law. All events in the Russian state and social
systems have sought adequate explanation of a sociology of law which as a
young scientific discipline has sought to offer adequate answers to current
issues and problems.
Historically speaking, as a scientific discipline, sociology of law has stim-
ulated the interest of many Russian scientists, academics and lawyers. During
the twenties of the last century, its development and acceptance as an inde-
pendent scientific discipline has progressed quite slow and has generally met
with the refusal by Russian scientists in the field of law by listing a number
of arguments against it. It did not lead to its complete abolition, although
the period of its stagnation lasted several decades. Since the mid-fifties it is
coming to positive changes for the sociology of law as it becomes accepted
and supported by scientists and academics in Russia. This resulted in its rise
in the future. In the process of its institutionalization have been raised many
questions such as: the concept of sociology of law as a science? Its relation to-
wards the other sciences? The relationship of sociology and law? Sociological
research and development of legal science? Directions and trends of sociolo-
gy of law in Russia and the like.
In the modern period, sociology of law has been introduced to many uni-
versities which has strengthened its position in Russia. Today, are still inter-
esting some old topics and issues that are of interest for research, comparison
and review, but there was also a significant expansion of scientific views and
themes in research, which were imposed by the new world flows (especially
globalization) and trends in the sociology of law, as well as developments in
contemporary Russian society - in the legal, political, economic and social
spheres.
As we have seen in the example of Russia and Serbia (and generally in the
area of the former Yugoslavia), indeed, the coalition of sociology and law is
implemented in the legal culture of one society. In the Serbian (and in the
52
One look at the position of sociology
Dragana Vilić et al. of law in Russia

Yugoslav) law, the period right after the World War II marked the break with
the European democratic legal culture, caused by ideological and political
considerations. While in some European legal cultures sociology of law was
developing in our area it was more than half of a century repressed and mar-
ginalized - even in the post-socialist period it does not have the scientific
and analytical desirability of, and it is distant from the basics of law: legisla-
tion, law enforcement, adjudication by the laws , imprisonment, corruption,
privatization process and the like.42 In the academic legal area of Yugoslavia
dominated integralistic views on the law, where there was a disciplinary and
discursive openness and connection between the sociology and law. After the
breakup of Yugoslavia, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the integral-
ism is no longer relevant.43 Although the introduction of sociology of law
at some faculties in the former Yugoslavia has improved its position, it still
does not have a prominent place in the corpus of sociological disciplines and
sciences in general.

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56
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Ivan Šijaković Original scientific paper
University of Banja Luka UDC 005.336.3(497.6)
Faculty of Political Science DOI 10.7251/SOCEN1510057S
Accepted: 12.10.2015.

The role of motivation in the organizational
behavior - the experience of the companies in
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract

This paper analyzes the role and the importance of motivation in
private companies and other business entities in Bosnia and Her-
zegovina. The paper is based on research conducted by question-
naire in companies in the largest cities of BiH. Analysis of the re-
sults collected by the questionnaires on a sample of 1,239 respond-
ents, shows that employees are aware of the importance and role
of the motivation, they realize that it affects the job satisfaction,
that it builds good interpersonal relations, that encourages loyalty
to companies and businesses and they expect from managers and
leaders to continuously improve the forms and methods of the em-
ployee motivation.

Keywords: motivation, organizational behavior, loyalty to the company, inter-
personal relations, de-motivation, incentives and types of motivation.

Introduction

Man’s work, conduct and any other activities are significantly conditioned
by the degree of his motivation, regardless of whether the origin of the mo-
tive is internal (impulse within man, the individual) or external (incentive by
the external influences). Modern companies and other business entities pay
great attention to improving the form, manner, technique and instruments of

57
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

the employee motivation. Science and experience have shown that employ-
ees who are well motivated show more wishes, desires, creativity, innovation,
greater company loyalty and increased satisfaction in their work. Good em-
ployee motivation creates a good business climate, strengthen relationships
and builds a good and sustainable organizational behavior. Numerous studies
in developed countries and large companies show that motivation is a key
component of the organizational behavior and the organizational behavior
is the main pillar of business dynamism, good enterprise management and
successful and rapid organizational changes and the adaptation to the new
business conditions and market requirements.
The study of the role and the importance of employee motivation is par-
ticularly interesting and important in companies in the countries that are in
a period of transition from one social system to another. Characteristic and
a good example of such research are companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
We will in this paper focus on private enterprises in BiH and analyze the
situation and characteristics of motivation and its impact on organizational
behavior of employees who are not in the position of manager or leader. We
decided to look at the motivation exclusively in private companies because
they are created in three specific ways: First, by the privatization of former
socially-owned and state-owned enterprises; Second, the establishment of
businesses by citizens of BiH as a green field investment, and third, the pri-
vate companies that have been established by foreign entities or companies,
by purchase of former state (social) enterprises and green field investments.
Companies created through these three forms have their own peculiarities in
terms of organization of work, mode of management, the status of employees,
attitude towards the environment, vision, mission and ultimate intentions of
their founders. Therefore, we believe that it is important to investigate the
perception of the role and the importance of employee motivation in these
companies on a specific group, such as employees who are not in managerial
positions.

1. The Importance of Motivation

Motivation is the driving force, internal energy and the engine of human
needs. The needs are the basis, the foundation of the development of the man
and society. They are the core strength of each generation, from their devel-
opment depends directly the quality of society and the ability of the individ-
ual in society. Needs can be met, unrealized, suppressed or compensated by
58
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

another (usually enforced) necessity. Needs and motives are not synonymous,
but two different mental, and physical activities of the each individual. They
exhibit synchronously and mutually encourage, cause, stop, start, develope,
stagnate and disappear. What will happen to the man’s (individual, group and
societal) needs, depends on the degree of motivation that drives helps and in-
fluences those needs to be accomplished. Without the good motivation, many
needs will remain unfulfilled or will be only partially realized. It is always
raised the question - “what motivates someone to work, learn, create, launch-
es something, gives ideas or continuously achieve success”? That is why we
talk about the great importance of motivation in a person’s work, business,
creation and success.
Motivation is “the amount of energy and strength” that a person has dur-
ing his activities. This is a “concern for the achievement of the set goals” that
affect the man’s activity, attention and “the overall cognitive activity”.1 That
motivation is the driver of wishes and needs to achieve something, confirms
the view by Nazari and Guilan, who say that motivation is the “driving force
with which people achieve their goals. In fact, it is a combination of effort plus
the desire to achieve a goal that leads to a conscious decision to act “through
continuous mental and / or physical effort,” in order to achieve the pre-set
objectives “.2 Motivation is “the force that directs behavior” and creates a ten-
dency for an actor to “achieve something, to reach the goal that was previ-
ously set for himself.”3 Motivation is the internal driving force of physical and
psychological resources of individuals who are focused on overcoming the
shortcomings and the elimination of obstacles towards the realization of the
set goal, the satisfaction of a need.
In these few preceding paragraphs and the definitions of motivation we
see that dominates its psychological dimension. Here the motivation is seen
as the driving force, receptor, guideline and the router of human behavior
and performance. Sociological observation of motivation means that the mo-
tivation is viewed as a part of human interaction, man’s relationship to other
people, groups and communities. Here we observe the motivation of indi-
viduals and groups that their activities are directed towards mutual, joint,
coordinated, but also competitive, achieving of a different goal and meeting
1
David Yun Dai; Robert J. Sternberg, Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition: Integrative Per-
spectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development, Mahwah, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates, 2004. p.39.
2
Atefeh Nazari and Abdollahi-Guilani, Mohammad, Motivation and Attitude towards Learn-
ing English: A Case Study of Rasht Islamic Azad University, Modern Journal of Language Teach-
ing Methods. Volume: 5. Issue: 4 December 1, 2015.p.585.
3
Manzoor, Quratul-Ain, Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational Effectiveness,
Business Management and Strategy, Vol. 3, No. 1 , January, 2012.

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

the individual and collective needs. Motivation seen from the economic point
of view means “skill that helps people to focus their thoughts and energy to
work and to work so that they are as efficient as possible.”4 Motivation is pri-
marily cognitive, contemplative and emotional dimension of every person,
and that is why it is a bit mystical, hidden, secretive, and variable component
of human behavior and performance.

1.1. The forms and levels of motivation

It should be noted that any discussion of the importance of motivation
in the activities of individuals and groups implies the inclusion of the three
main elements of this process: motive as a cognitive impulse; motivation as
a process of converting motives in action and the motivator as an actor who
runs, stimulates, provokes, and focuses the motivation as a process that takes
place continuously, reaching goals, perform tasks and meets the needs.
According to the place of origin and / or initiator, motivation can be di-
vided into internal (intrinsic) and external (extrinsic). Internal motivation
means that the individual gets from the inside, from their cognitive and phys-
ical habit motive (impulse) to start up their strength, knowledge, abilities and
skills to meet a perceived, conscious, clear and manifested need, to achieve
some success, to reach the set target. Internal motivation can be characterized
as a self-motivation, because it comes from a combination of desire and ener-
gy that one feels and that turns into striving to meet the needs, interest to be
reached and to get to the set objective. Internal motivation is the behavior for
which “there is no apparent reward except the activity itself ”5 and where there
is no clear external factors that drive the activity.
Internal motivation has several levels of manifestation. The first is the level
of the existential motivation, motivation of survival that drives the process
of meeting the basic needs (food, clothing, housing, reproduction). The sec-
ond level is the motivation of socialization, which includes ways and means
of inclusion in the environment and the survival in the environment. The
third level includes creative, innovative and development motivation, which
is characterized by individual’s effort to be educated, to work, to create and
improve themselves and their environment. The fourth level is the motivation
of achievement, which includes success in career, influence and power, con-
4
Saul W. Gellerman, Motivation in the Real World: The Art of Getting Extra Effort from Every-
one-Including Yourself, New York: Dutton, 1992. pp. 3-7
5
Judy Cameron; W. David Pierce, Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy,
Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2002.

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The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

stantly setting new goals, the detection and confirmation. The fifth level is the
motivation of satisfaction, which includes enjoying in material and spiritual
works, objects and activities. Gellerman points to two groups of important
internal motives that drive human action, creation, labor and business, those
are the motives of economic existence or survival (safety, security, dependen-
cy) and motives of comfort and compliance.6 Internal motivation is a person-
al motive and creative power of the individual, or may represent a failure of
that power, or its transformation into a destructive activity.
Extrinsic motivation occurs when an individual or group is encouraged by
the external actors to work towards achieving a goal, the satisfaction of needs,
realization of tasks, using their own resources, energy and capabilities. The
external motivator can be an individual, group, system, or some other actor
and the subject. Extrinsic motivation is the each motivational process that
comes from outside the individual and where the individual is the subject of
motivation. The individual is sometimes aware of the motives that an external
player starts, but sometimes is not able to obtain the internal incentive for
motivational activity.
Extrinsic motivation has different forms and levels of manifestation. Most
often it is the working motivation that drives people to work more, to educate,
to respect the rules, procedures, practices, laws and norms. Then there is the
competitive motivation that is encouraged by the external actors (managers,
coaches, teachers, leaders) in order for individuals and / or groups to achieve
better results. We are also talking about motivation of proof or drawing atten-
tion with which the external actor motivates individuals to serve as an exam-
ple to others, or landmark. The following forms of extrinsic motivation would
be the motivation of loyalty, where the external actor requires, encourages or
expects the loyalty from individuals to some group, collective, or leader, the
manager. This motivation is a prerequisite for building a collective identity
and sense of belonging to a group (business, labor, professional, political, re-
ligious).
In this paper, we will pay attention to motivation and motivators in busi-
ness subjects and try to look at their performance, participation and impor-
tance in creating a favorable (sometimes awkward) organizational climate,
organizational culture and organizational behavior.

6
Saul W. Gellerman, above cited work. Here we will not intentionally mention the famous
Moslow’s (Abraham Moslow) “theory of the hierarchy of motives” (needs), because we believe
that it is limited, closed and dysfunctional and in particular, Moslow made no distinction be-
tween the motives and needs

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

2. Motivation and organizational behavior

Previously said about the importance and the role of motivation in the
work and activities of individuals and groups shows that motivation is a sig-
nificant factor in the overall behavior of people in a collective, space, envi-
ronment, and that it is an indispensable instrument to build relationships,
to achieve good results and efficient operations in modern conditions. Good
motivation helps employees and managers to be constantly aware of the qual-
ity and relevance of their work, that they can use the necessary resources, that
they are familiar with the effects of their work and that they expect recog-
nition and benefits from their increased efforts and commitment to the job.
There are a number of techniques, tactics and strategies of motivation that
are used in modern companies and businesses in order for employees to be
permanently motivated to work better and more efficiently. Most people ex-
pect to be motivated (self-motivated and / or motivated from the outside), in
order to get satisfaction for their work and effort. In addition to the motiva-
tion being a driving force for greater effort and desire for achieving the goals,
it is already, in itself, a kind of recognition of actors and individuals for their
activity. Therefore, motivators, managers and leaders as motivators, are a very
important element in every organization, and organizational structure. “The
real motivation is the key to effective leadership, and leadership is the key to
effective motivation.”7 All this together makes a good prerequisite for the de-
velopment of desired organizational behavior as a key element of the effective
work and business. So, motivation is one of the most important factors of
organizational behavior, in addition to organizational design, organizational
changes, conflict management, team management and stress management.
Why? Because motivation participates in all of these areas of organizational
behavior.
Organizational behavior will be briefly defined as a set of opinions, atti-
tudes, values, procedures and activities of people (all employees) in an or-
ganization. Thus, organizational behavior are individuals (personality traits,
perceptions, values, attitudes and organizational learning) groups (members,
leadership, power, interaction, conflicts) and organizational structure of a
business entity. Organizational behavior as an event, and the operation pro-
cess can be viewed in two ways: first, as the behavior of people within the
organization and, secondly, as the behavior of the organization in its imme-
7
Richard C. Maddock; Richard L. Fulton, Motivation, Emotions, and Leadership: The Silent
Side of Management, Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 1998. p. 7.

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The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

diate environment.8 Also, organizational behavior is the theoretical and em-
pirical, academic discipline whose task is to study the forms and principles of
conduct of employees in order to create conditions for the improvement of
performance and efficiency of the organization.
Knowing the characteristics and principles of the organizational behavior
“helps managers to identify the problems, to reveal their causes, to find ways
of solving them,” and to understand the complexity of relationships, needs
and values within the organization and in its environment. Organizational
Behavior provides tools for managers, leaders and employees in firms and
companies to find and interpret “why people behave in a certain way” or “why
a group or individual is more valuable, more motivated and more efficient
than the others”9, how and why some organizations are more flexible, more
abundant and easier than others accept the changes.

3. Motivation in companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In BiH there is not enough relevant research on the motivation of employ-
ees, as well as on the characteristics of organizational behavior, organizational
culture and organizational changes. However, we can observe the three levels
where there is interest in the topic of motivation in enterprises in BiH. The
first level refers to studies that follow a different theme and then indirectly
touch the topic of motivation. For instance, in an analysis of “the limitations
of business in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” the author mentions that managers
and owners are motivated to make changes in enterprises and prelocation
of resources, better chances for success in the market, by rationalizing costs
and inadequacy of existing capacity. The author notes that “the motivation
is associated with the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and fears of the
company.”10 Hasić further notes that the motivation of employees in com-
panies in BiH is very low and that conditions and low productivity, which is
then reflected in low wages compared to the “standards of Western countries.”
Also, there are several master’s theses at business schools that have for the
subject of research took the problem of strategies of motivation and motiva-
tion influence on productivity and employee satisfaction.
8
John B. Miner, Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2002. p. 7.
9
Ronald R. Sims, Managing Organizational Behavior, Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 2002.
pp. 3-7
10
Duljko Hasić, Analysis of the limitations of operations in Bosnia and Herzegovina Economic
Review, 52 (5-6) 667-691 2001.

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

The second level of interest in the problems of motivation in companies
and employee motivation refers to the conferences, round tables discussing
the possibilities of doing business, implementation of quality systems, spread-
ing the entrepreneurial climate and the development of small and medium
enterprises. As part of these discussions is mentioned the role and the impor-
tance of employee motivation, especially the role of managers and leaders as
the motivators.
The third level of interest in the issues and problems related to motivation
is linked to companies that implement some of the strategies of motivation
and development of the organizational behavior with the aim of raising pro-
ductivity and creating a sense of satisfaction among the workers. This applies
particularly to banks, insurance companies and agencies, as well as some rep-
resentatives of successful foreign companies. These businesses apply instru-
ments of motivation, mostly intangible (awards, praise, travel, promotion and
going to the further education), in order to develop a corporate identity of
employees and job satisfaction and the business climate.

4. Methodological approach to research

Scope and Purpose of the Research

In this paper we set the subject of research in the form of a question:
whether and to what extent is present the motivation of employees in private
companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina? The issue can be further operational-
ized in the form of additional questions: whether the employed in enterprises
are aware of the need of application of motivation as an instrument to cre-
ate good interpersonal relations, increase job satisfaction and productivity?
What forms of motivation respondents perceive as the most important? Are
they aware of the role of a leader and manager as a motivator for creating a
good business climate and business organization?
The aim of this study was to show whether there is an awareness among
employees (not managers) about the need for development of motivation in
private enterprises in BiH, that is, the goal is extended to the description of
the state of motivation (as an important part of the organizational behavior)
in private enterprises in BiH.

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The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Hypotheses

H1. We start from the basic assumption that employees in private enter-
prises in BiH are aware of the role and importance of motivation as a factor of
development of organizational behavior and creating the good organizational
culture and business climate.
H2. Employees prefer material forms of motivation.
H3. Good motivation affects the increased company loyalty and better in-
terpersonal relationships.
H4. Employees in private companies in BiH expect that managers and
leaders pay more attention to staff motivation.

Sample

Our research relies on a questionnaire which was implemented in the cit-
ies of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Gradiška, Prijedor, Banja Luka, Doboj, Bijelji-
na, Trebinje, Tuzla, Zenica, Mostar and Sarajevo). The questionnaire consist-
ed of employees in private companies that are not in the position of manager.
On the pitch was sent 1500 questionnaires and after the test we received 1239
copies of valid questionnaires.
The questionnaire covered enterprises of different types, from small,
through medium and to the large enterprises. Also, the survey covers enter-
prises in the manufacturing and services activity, whether their owners are
BiH citizens or foreigners.
Processing of data obtained by questionnaire was carried out by the soft-
ware statistical program SPSS.

Analysis of results

With the research we wanted to find out if the motivation is an important
part of the organizational culture and organizational behavior of employees
in companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. We were interested in how employ-
ees who are not managers, understand the motivation, if they understand it,
what they think who needs to develop and maintain good employee moti-
vation and whether the motivation is an important factor in interpersonal
relationships, organizational climate and organizational behavior in private
enterprises in BiH.

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Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

1. The importance of employee motivation

When asked the question “whether the employee motivation is important
to business enterprises?”, the majority of respondents (54%) believe that it is
“very important”, while 8% believe that motivation is “not at all important”
for the company’s operations. Between these two borders are the views of
borders are the views of other subjects (Table 1). Understanding of the motivation of the
other subjects (Table 1). Understanding of the motivation of the employees
employees indicates the presence of their awareness of the driving force of motives for business,
indicates the presence of their awareness of the driving force of motives for
the quality
business, the of quality
work, attitude towards
of work, work and
attitude work. work
towards This isand
especially
work.important if one bears in
This is espe-
mind that the survey covers private companies where managers and
cially important if one bears in mind that the survey covers private companies owners do not show, so
where
often,managers
a willingnessand owners workers
to motivate do not show, soand
to better often,
morea productive
willingness to motivate
work, but, primarily, use
workers to better and more productive work, but, primarily, use instruments
instruments as threats and punishments in terms of wage cuts or dismissal. Good motivation
ascreates
threatssatisfaction
and punishments in terms and
among employees, of wage
thus cuts or dismissal.
motivation should Good motiva- part of
be an important
tion creates satisfaction among employees, and thus motivation
modern ways of management and an important instrument of work by contemporary should be anmanagers
important
in BiH. part of modern ways of management and an important instrument
of work by contemporary managers in BiH.
Table 1. Importance of motivation for the enterprise business
Table 1. Importance of motivation for the enterprise business

Is employee motivation important to business enterprises?
Valid Cumulative
Frequency Percent
Percent Percent
Valid It is very important 675 54.0 54.4 54.4
It is important, but 327 26.2 26.4 80.8
not decisive
It is not always 139 11.1 11.2 92.0
important
Not at all important 98 7.9 8.0 100.0
Total 1239 100,0 100.0

If we observe the respondents’ perception of the importance of motiva-
tion by gender, we see
If we observe that two-thirds
the respondents' of men
perception think
of the the motivation
importance is “very
of motivation by gender, we
important”, while it is prone to one-third of women (Table 1a). This is surpris-
see that two-thirds of men think the motivation is "very important", while it is prone to one-
ing to researchers,
third because
of women (Table 1a).the spontaneous
This expectation
is surprising was that
to researchers, women
because are
the spontaneous
more sensible and pay more attention to motivation. Women see motivation
expectation was that women are more sensible and pay more attention to motivation. Women
as “an important, but not decisive,” as much as it “is not always important,”
see motivation as "an important, but not decisive," as much as it "is not always important,"
indicating their specific attitude towards work and employment, perhaps as
indicating their specific attitude towards work and employment, perhaps as only one segment of
only one segment of the life and work. The reasons for such an attitude among
the life and work. The reasons for such an attitude among employed women can be different:
66understanding job as a priori necessary and indispensable way to raise funds for existence;
dedication to work regardless of the additional factors that make the job easier; the importance
of employment as social promotion regardless of the quality of work and weight of work;
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

employed women can be different: understanding job as a priori necessary
and indispensable way to raise funds for existence; dedication to work re-
gardless of the additional factors that make the job easier; the importance of
employment as social promotion regardless of the quality of work and weight
ofarea; collegiality and tolerance toward women as a general attitude of employees, which may
work; tolerance of women as a fundamental characteristic and forms of
represent a form of motivation and the like.
cultural heritage in the studied area; collegiality and tolerance toward women
On the other hand, men motivation perceive as a decisive factor in business and labor,
as a general attitude of employees, which may represent a form of motivation
because it provides an additional incentive for working and professional confirmation.
and the like.
Motivation for men evokes competitive spirit, a willingness to further engagement, facilitation
On the other hand, men motivation perceive as a decisive factor in busi-
of the filing of major work efforts and the favorable expectations of future work.
ness and labor, because it provides an additional incentive for working and
professional confirmation. Motivation for men evokes competitive spirit, a
willingness to further engagement, facilitation of the filing of major work ef-
forts and the favorable expectations of future work.
Table 1a. Gender of the respondents and motivation
Table 1a. Gender of the respondents and motivation

Gender of respondents
Is employee motivation important to business enterprises?
female male Total
It is very important
36.5% 63.5% 100.0%
It is important, but not decisive
57.6% 42.4% 100.0%
It is not always important
57.1% 42.9% 100.0%
Not at all important
80.0% 20.0% 100.0%
Total Count 516 723 1239
% 42.4% 57.6% 100.0%

Looking at the motivation of employees in companies in BiH through the
Looking at the motivation of employees in companies in BiH through the prism of age,
prism of age, we see that the youngest (under 25 years of age) and the oldest
we see that the youngest (under 25 years of age) and the oldest age (56-65 years of age) do not
age (56-65 years of age) do not experience motivation as “very important” for
experience motivation as "very important" for the operations of companies (Table 1b). For the
the operations of companies (Table 1b). For the youngest, we can say that they
youngest, we can say that they are just beginning to understand the importance and seriousness
are just beginning to understand the importance and seriousness of work and
of work and business, and that they are able to change jobs, and even place of work and housing,
business, and that they are able to change jobs, and even place of work and
if they do not like it. We assume that the oldest group of respondents are considering how to
housing, if they do not like it. We assume that the oldest group of respond-
finalize their work and professional career so that motivation does not take up much space in
ents are considering how to finalize their work and professional career so that
their overall perception of the job. Of course, a lot of work experience directed them to the
motivation does not take up much space in their overall perception of the job.
Of course, a lot of work experience directed them to the routine conduct of
business, so that additional motivation does not drive them to work more nor

67
Sociological discourse,
routine conduct yearso 5,
of business, thatnumber
additional10 / December
motivation 2015
does not drive them to work more 57-81
nor to have higher expectation of work. That, in particular, suggests the fact that from all the
to have higher
respondents whoexpectation
supported the viewof that
work. That, in"isparticular,
the motivation suggests
not at all important," thefrom
are 40% fact that
fromthisall
agethe respondents
group. whomembers
On the other hand, supported the view
of the younger that the
generation motivation
(26-35 years old) and“is not
at allmiddle
important, ” are
generation 40% from
of employees thisyears
(36-45 age old)
group. On the other
see motivation hand,
as "very members
important" or of
the younger generation
"important, but not decisive"(26-35 years old)
in the percentage that isand middle
around 60% (the generation of employees
sum of both attitudes).
For them, motivation represents a significant driving force for better engagement in business,
(36-45 years old) see motivation as “very important” or “important, but not
for a greater commitment to work and a better opportunity for career advancement. Better
decisive” in the percentage that is around 60% (the sum of both attitudes). For
motivation represents a style and the way of life of young people in the modern world, so we can
them, motivation represents a significant driving force for better engagement
conclude that this is also the case with young people in BiH.
in business, for a greater commitment to work and a better opportunity for
career advancement. Better motivation represents a style and the way of life
of young people in the modern world, so we can conclude that this is also the
case with young people in BiH.
Table 1b. Motivation and age

Table 1b. Motivation and age
Age
Is employee motivation important to
Younger
business enterprises?
than 25 26-35 36-45 46-55 56-65 Total
It is very important
10.3% 39.7% 23.5% 10.3% 16.2% 100.0%
It is important, but not decisive
.0% 24.2% 36.4% 24.2% 15.2% 100.0%
It is not always important
14.3% 28.6% 14.3% 42.9% .0% 100.0%
Not at all important
.0% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 40.0% 100.0%
Total Count 89 406 317 229 198 1239
% 7.2% 32.8% 25.6% 18.4% 16.0% 100.0%

By crossing the respondents’ perceptions of the importance of motivation
with theirByeducational level, weperceptions
crossing the respondents' see thatofrespondents
the importance ofwith a university,
motivation with their mas-
ter, master’s and doctoral levels of education experience motivationlevels
educational level, we see that respondents with a university, master, master's and doctoral as more
significant forexperience
of education business, than asthe
motivation respondents
more with secondary
significant for business, or higher
than the respondents with level

of education (Table 1c). It is interesting that all respondents with a degree of
Master (10 respondents) and all respondents with a PhD (10 respondents)
supported only the view that the motivation is “very important” for the good
company’s operations and employee satisfaction. We can assume that this
group of respondents understands better than the most the importance of
employee motivation as from the individual point of view, as well as from
the standpoint of the company or business entity. The greatest dispersion of
attitudes we see in respondents who have a four year college degree. Among
other things, that group participates with 35.7% among those respondents
who support the view that the motivation “is not always important” for the
company’s operations (Table 1c). It is particularly significant that respondents

68
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

with secondary education do not perceive motivation as an important ele-
ment of business and labor. Specifically, in the group that supports the view
that the motivation is “not at all important” 70% are employees with second-
ary education. The reasons may be the fact that their jobs are of routine char-
acter, without creation and innovation that could be awarded with additional
motivation, that they did not have the opportunity to experience the benefits
of a motivational process by the manager or the owner of the company or that
they are aware that their work can not be more interesting and substantial by
using any kind of motivation.
Table 1c. Motivation and education level
Obrazovni nivo
Is employee motivation
higher or Bachelor graduate
important to business
vocational (three-year (Faculty of speciali
enterprises?
High School High Schools college) four years) st master master Pd.D Total
It is very important
13.2% 22.1% 17.6% 27.9% 1.5% 14.7 1.5% 1.5% 100.0%
It is important, but not
decisive 21.2% 24.2% 6.1% 27.3% 3.0% 18.2 .0% .0% 100.0%
It is not always important
28.6% 28.6% .0% 35.7% 7.1% .0% .0% .0% 100.0%
Not at all important
70.0% 20.0% .0% 10.0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 100.0%
Total 268 287 139 337 30 158 10 10 1239

21.6% 23.2% 11.2% 27.2% 2.4% 12.8 .8% .8% 100.0%

We were interested in how the work experience of the respondents in-
fluences their perception of the importance of motivation for the company’s
We were interested in how the work experience of the respondents influences their
operations. We noted that employees with work experience from 6 to 10 years
perception of the importance of motivation for the company's operations. We noted that
and employees with
employees with work anexperience
experience
from 6 tofrom
10 years11
andto 20 years,
employees with most support
an experience from 11 the view
that thetomotivation is “very
20 years, most support the important” and that
view that the motivation it isimportant"
is "very “importantand thatbut
it is not de-
cisive” (Table
"important1d).
but not This can (Table
decisive" be explained
1d). This canby be their experience
explained and knowledge
by their experience and
knowledge about what drives people to work better and what satisfaction can provide better
about what drives people to work better and what satisfaction can provide
motivation if it is used as an instrument for rewarding employees and management of the entity.
better motivation
Similar to the ageifofitrespondents,
is used as an instrument
respondents that have close for rewarding
to or employees
more than thirty years of and
management
experience,of
arethe entity.to support
less inclined Similar to the
the views aboutage of respondents,
the importance of motivation respondents
for the
that have closeoperations.
company's to or more than thirty
Among respondents yearstheofview
who support experience, areisless
that the motivation "not atinclined

to support the views about the importance of motivation for the company’s
operations. Among respondents who support the view that the motivation is
“not at all important” for the company’s operations, half of them belong to a
group that has close to or more than 30 years of experience. Another moment
deserves to be highlighted in this part, and that is the fact that the attitude
that motivation is “not at all important” is not supported by respondents with
working experience less than 5 years. This refers to the thinking that em-
ployees who are starting their careers expect that motivation will help their
69
respondents with working experience less than 5 years. This refers to the thinking that
employees who are starting their careers expect that motivation will help their hiring and
working engagement that will compensate for their efforts and be an incentive for further work
engagement.

Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

hiring and working engagement that will compensate for their efforts and be
an incentive for further work engagement.
Table 1d. Motivation and experience

Table 1d. Motivation and experience
Total work experience
Is employee motivation important to
Up to 2 11-20 21-30 Over 30
business enterprises?
years 3-5 years 6-10 years years years years Total
It is very important
4.4% 11.8% 32.4% 25.0% 17.6% 8.8% 100.0%
It is important, but not
decisive .0% .0% 24.2% 42.4% 24.2% 9.1% 100.0%
It is not always
important 7.1% 7.1% 28.6% 14.3% 42.9% .0% 100.0%
Not at all important
.0% .0% 10.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 100.0%
Total Count 40 89 347 367 287 109 1239
% 3.2% 7.2% 28.0% 29.6% 23.2% 8.8% 100.0%

We can conclude that employees in private enterprises in BiH perceive
motivation as conclude
We can an important moment
that employees in private in the overall
enterprises operations
in BiH perceive motivationof the com-
as an
pany. It is especially
important moment in theimportant to note
overall operations that theIt issubjects
of the company. of the male
especially important to note gender,
younger,
that thewith anof average
subjects of ten
the male gender, yearswith
younger, of anwork experience
average of ten years ofand
work higher
experiencelevels of

education perceive motivation as an important driver of labor, business and
the business climate and culture in companies and other business entities.

2. Forms and means of motivation

The research was directed towards the finding out which forms of moti-
vation are important for people and how to opt for them. We offered several
common and characteristic forms of motivation, that, according to our as-
sumption, may be present in enterprises in BiH (financial motivation, intan-
gible motivation, recognition and praise and career advancement). A third of
the respondents opted for financial stimulation as a form of motivation, and
the third for intangible forms of motivation (Table 2). If we consider that the
salaries of employees who are not managers in private companies are very
modest, it is understandable that employees expect to be motivated by in-
creasing salaries or any additional bonuses and fees. We assume that employ-
ees are aware of the possibility that their employers will not increase wages,
regardless of their increased efforts and contributions of labor, and then the

70
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

respondents tend to choose intangible motivation as expected and assumed
form of motivation in private enterprises in BiH. We note that one-fifth of
respondents sees “recognition and praise” as a form of employee motivation.
This tells us that employees expect recognition for their successful work by
managers and owners, or possibly by a colleague. Recognition and praise is
the most common and basic motivation and motivating factor for everyone.
Research shows that employees with more seniority, especially men, pre-
fer financila motivation, and after that intangible forms of motivation.11 On
the other hand, male employees with work experience of up to five years are
more opting for “accolades” and then for “career advancement”. Young female
respondents expect the most the intangible motivation as a reward for good
work and encouragement for the future engagement at work.
Table 2. Types of motivation of importance for employees
Table 2. Types of motivation of importance for employees

What kind of motivation is most Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
important for you? Percent Percent
Financial incentives 364 29.4 29.5 29.5
Intangible motivation (days 384 31.0 31.1 60.6
off, travel)
Awards and commendations 266 21.5 21.7 82.3
Career advancement 223 17.7 17.7 100.0
Total 1237 99.8 100.0
Missing System 2 0.2
Total 1239 100.0

The best indicator
The best that
indicator employees
that employees in privatecompanies
in private companies in Bosnia
in Bosnia and Her- feel
and Herzegovina
zegovina feel and understand the importance of motivation for
and understand the importance of motivation for good performance is the fact that good perfor-
more than
mance
half ofisour
therespondents
fact that more than
believe thathalf of our
"always" respondents
should be "improvedbelieve that “always”
the forms and means to
should beemployees"
motivate “improved(Table
the forms and
3). If we addmeans to motivate
that respondents employees”
with 34.1% support(Table 3). that
the view
If "often"
we add that respondents with 34.1% support the view that “often” should
should be payed attention to perfecting forms and methods of motivation, then we can
beconclude
payed attention to perfecting
that employees instinctively forms and methods
and intuitively of motivation,
feel the importance then we
of motivation and the
can conclude that employees instinctively and intuitively feel
need for it to be present in the business and operation of their businesses.
the importance
of motivation and the need for it to be present in the business and operation
of their businesses.

11
Due to the limited space and the purpose of the text, we are not able to show all the tables
and all the crossing of variables, so we will express only some characteristic data.

71
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

Table 3. Improvement of forms and methods of motivation
Table 3. Improvement of forms and methods of motivation

It should be improved Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative
the forms and methods Percent
of employee motivation
Valid Always 649 52.4 52.8 52.8
Often 422 34.1 34.2 87,2
Sometimes 157 12.2 12.2 99,2
Never 10 0,8 0,8 100,0
Total 1238 99.2 100.0
Missing 1 0.5
System
Total 126 100.0

To further verify the perception of motivation among our respondents we
included a question about what affects their poor motivation at work, and
thereby the behavior and attitude towards work and the businesses in which
they work. We have found that most respondents considered that “irregular
To further verify the perception of motivation among our respondents we included a question
wages” discourage them to work, and then comes the “job insecurity” (Table
about what affects their poor motivation at work, and thereby the behavior and attitude towards
4). These elements are typical for many private enterprises in BiH, as earnings
work and the businesses in which they work. We have found that most respondents considered
are almost always late, and threat of layoffs to employees due to difficult busi-
that "irregular wages" discourage them to work, and then comes the "job insecurity" (Table 4).
ness conditions or manipulation of results by business owners and employers.
Female elements
These are typical
respondents, for many
especially theprivate enterprises
age group in BiH,36asand
between earnings are almost
45 years old, always
late, and threat of layoffs to employees due to difficult business conditions
highlighted the “job insecurity” and “bad relationships” as the dominant fac- or manipulation of
tors thatby
results negatively affect their
business owners business motivation.
and employers. We assume
Female respondents, that we
especially the are
age group
talking
between about
36 andwomen who
45 years old,have alreadythe
highlighted created a family and
"job insecurity" and"bad
“immersed” in as the
relationships"
the labor and
dominant professional
factors duties,
that negatively affectand
theirthat eachmotivation.
business uncertaintyWe about
assume jobthat is
wede-
are talking
motivating,
about women and
who poor
haveinterpersonal
already created relations
a family and can"immersed"
draw further
in theactive energy
labor and professional
from them.
duties, Respondents
and that younger
each uncertainty aboutthan
job is 25 years old and
demotivating, highlight the poor con-
poor interpersonal relations can
ditions as the active
draw further mainenergy
motivating factorRespondents
from them. in business. This can
younger thanbe 25 interpreted as
years old highlight the
their desire to find a better business conditions, while for everything else they
poor conditions as the main motivating factor in business. This can be interpreted as their desire
have enough time and energy to repair and compensate.
to find a better business conditions, while for everything else they have enough time and energy
to repair and compensate.

72
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković
Table experience
4. Causes of poor employee of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina
motivation

Table 4. Causes of poor employee motivation

What influences your poor Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
motivation at work? Percent Percent
Irregularity of salary 510 41.2 41.6 41.6
Job insecurity 253 20.4 20.4 62.0
Poor working conditions 230 18.6 18.6 80.6
Poor interpersonal relations 100 8.1 8.2 88.8
Poor opportunities for 78 6.3 6.3 95.1
advancement
Work overload 32 2.6 2.7 97.8
Too strict control 16 1.3 1.3 99.1
Routine work 12 0.9 0.9 100.0
Total 1231 99.4 100.0
Missing 8 0.6
System
Total 1239 100.0

From the preceding paragraphs of respondents we can see that they give
almost equal importance to tangible and intangible motivation, while rec-
ognition and career advancement are significantly behind the two dominant
motivating factors. On
From the preceding the other
paragraphs hand, the respondents
of respondents we can see thatindicated that
they give they equal
almost
have a need and expectation to constantly improve forms of motivation in
importance to tangible and intangible motivation, while recognition and career advancement
their
are companies. We have
significantly behind the found that respondents
two dominant motivating are the most
factors. discouraged
On the other hand, the
byrespondents
the irregular salaries and the fear of losing employment.
indicated that they have a need and expectation to constantly improve forms of
motivation in their companies. We have found that respondents are the most discouraged by
the irregular salaries and the fear of losing employment.
3. The role of leaders and managers in motivating the employees

We pointed out earlier that motivation is one of the most important fac-
tors of organizational behavior in the modern businesses, and that trust of
the employees to each other and in relation to the leaders and managers is an
important element of the overall degree of employee motivation. Our investi-
gation confirms this initial assumption, since less than half of the respondents
“strongly agree” with the statement that “the confidence of managers in staff
is essentially important for their motivation” (Table 5). This view is particu-
larly supported by respondents aged 26 to 45 years old, especially males. We
believe that this is the generation that is reaching the peak of their career and
feels the need to have the confidence of their superiors in their work, in order
73
and in relation to the leaders and managers is an important element of the overall degree of
employee motivation. Our investigation confirms this initial assumption, since less than half of
the respondents "strongly agree" with the statement that "the confidence of managers in staff is
essentially important for their motivation" (Table 5). This view is particularly supported by
respondents aged 26 to 45 years old, especially males. We believe that this is the generation that
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81
is reaching the peak of their career and feels the need to have the confidence of their superiors in
fortheir
thiswork,
to be an additional
in order stimulus
for this to be for further
an additional stimulus engagement, and to and
for further engagement, satisfy
to satisfy
their
theirneed
need toto prove
prove themselves
themselves totoothers
othersin in their
their environment
environment and better
and gain gain better
competitive
competitive
performance.performance.
By contrast,
By contrast,thethe
generation
generation older than4646years
older than yearsold old (especially
(especially older55than
older than years old)
55slightly
years less
old)(25,35)
slightly less (25,35) support the view that the trust of manager
support the view that the trust of manager is "essentially important for is their
“essentially
motivation."important for totheir
It is important notemotivation.
that one-fifth” of
It respondents
is important to notereluctance
expressed that one- when it
fifth of respondents expressed reluctance when it comes to trust of managers
comes to trust of managers in staff (Table 5), and among them are especially the women aged
inabove
staff 46
(Table
years. 5), and among them are especially the women aged above 46
years.
Table 5. Confidence and motivation
Table 5. Confidence and motivation
The trust of manager in the Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
employees is essentially important Percent Percent
for their motivation
I totally agree 580 46.8 47.2 47.2
I largely agree 393 31.7 32.0 79.2
Neither I agree nor disagree 245 19.8 20.0 99.1
I significantly disagree 10 0.8 0.8 100.0
Total 1228 99.1 100.0
Missing Syitem 11 0.9
Total 1239 100.0

It is known that organizational behavior significantly depends on the be-
havior of leaders and managers in every business entity. Managers and leaders
who are familiar with the principles of good organizational behavior and are
able to apply them in their daily work with employees have opportunities to
influence employee satisfaction and thus, indirectly, the overall organization
of state enterprises, as well as the final results. Our respondents fully confirm
these theoretical and empirical views. Specifically, 79.2% of them support the
view that “leaders should motivate employees to perform better,” while 16%
of respondents “largely agrees” with this statement (Table 6). The roots of
these attitudes may be multiple: employees, particularly in private compa-
nies, are left to their leaders to create their job; employees are more likely to
be “a man of reference”, than the initiator and creator; employees of private
companies expect only to do what they are presented; employees expect from
leaders to notice them and encourage to work harder; employees expect to
be additionally motivated for their work, as this confirms that they are on the
right track and eliminates the fear of uncertainty of employment. It is worth
noting that the view that leaders should play a major role in motivating em-

74
man of reference", than the initiator and creator; employees of private companies expect only to
do what they are presented; employees expect from leaders to notice them and encourage to
work harder; employees expect to be additionally motivated for their work, as this confirms that
they are on the right track and eliminates the fear of uncertainty of employment. It is worth
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
noting that the view that leaders should play a major role in motivating employees is less likely
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina
to be supported by the younger than 35 years old, almost equally by men and women with a
ployees is ofless
diploma likely
four years to be supported by the younger than 35 years old, almost
of college.
equally by men and women with a diploma of four years of college.
Table 6. Leaders and motivation
Table 6. Leaders and motivation
Leaders should encourage Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
employees to work better Percent Percent
Valid I totally agree 974 78.6 79.2 79.2
I largely agree 197 15.9 16.0 95.2
Neither I agree nor 59 4.8 4.8 100.0
disagree
Total 1230 99.3 100.0
Missing 9 0.7
System
Total 1239 100.0

The best way to check the quality of organizational behavior and the role
of motivationThe best
inway
it istothe
check the qualityofofthe
knowledge organizational
degree of behavior andemployees
loyalty of the role of motivation
un-
dertaking the work. To verify these statements, we asked our respondents the
in it is the knowledge of the degree of loyalty of employees undertaking the work. To verify
question of whether
these statements, theyour
we asked would show full
respondents the loyalty
questiontoof the company
whether if it falls
they would show into
full loyalty
crisis,
to theprovided
company they areinto
if it falls wellcrisis,
motivated
providedfor
theytheir job.motivated
are well Slightly for
lesstheir
than half
job. of less
Slightly
the respondents showed willingness to “always” show loyalty to the company
if it falls into crisis if they previously were “well motivated” (Table 7). Here we
note that men show a much higher degree of loyalty than women, while the
least loyalty show respondents younger than 25 years old.
One quarter of employees is ready to “often” show loyalty to the compa-
ny in crisis, and among them the most loyal is the age group from 46 to 55
years old. It is interesting that educated with master’s and doctoral titles show
full loyalty to the company, while employees with secondary education show
little willingness to be loyal if a company runs into difficulties despite the
high motivation that would be provided to them by managers and leaders of
the company. We assume that this is a group whose jobs are routine in na-
ture (services, transportation, sales, etc.), and that they are prone to frequent
job changes. An important fact is that 11.3 percent of respondents is “never”
ready to express loyalty to the company if it falls into a crisis, no matter if they
were previously well motivated to work and meet business tasks. It can be
concluded that employees of private companies in BiH have shown willing-
ness to be loyal to companies with appropriate good motivation, which would
be provided to them by managers, leaders and business owners, which can be
an encouraging indicator for creating a good business climate and organiza-
tional behavior of these companies.

75
be concluded that employees of private companies in BiH have shown willingness to be loyal to
companies with appropriate good motivation, which would be provided to them by managers,
leaders and business owners, which can be an encouraging indicator for creating a good
business climate and organizational behavior of these companies.
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81
Table 7. Motivation and loyalty of employees

Table 7. Motivation and loyalty of employees
If I am well Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
motivated, I will have Percent Percent
a full loyalty to the
organization if it runs
into difficulties
Valid Always 600 48.4 48.8 48.8
Often 322 26.0 26.1 74.9
Sometimes 167 13,5 13.6 88.5
Never 141 11.3 11.5 100.0
Total 1230 99.2 100.0
Missing 9 0.8
System
Total 1239 100.0

In order to complete our knowledge about the degree of motivation of
employees in our survey, we asked respondents to comment on whether and
how much motivation is present in the contact and communication with col-
leagues at work. We were interested in whether the respondents are willing to
“feel free to discuss with colleagues on issues of motivation.” We assumed that
free discussion with colleagues on issues of motivation speaks about the qual-
ity of interpersonal relationships in the company, but also about the special
forms of awareness and sensitivity to the needs of better business motivation
of employees. One-third of employees (our participants) “fully agrees” with
the attitude that they should feel free to discuss with colleagues in all matters
of employee motivation (Table 8). This stance clearly support the men in the
age group between 26 and 35 years of age, while the least prone to this para-
graph are women in the age group above 55 years old. If we add to this the fact
that more than fifty percent of respondents said they “largely agree” with the
statement that “they want to feel free to discuss with colleagues on issues of
motivation,” it is clear that the motivation is strongly present in the thoughts
and desires of employees in private enterprises in BiH, and that a good mo-
tivation could be a significant factor in building good interpersonal relations
and good organizational climate and organizational culture in enterprises.
This expectation could be implemented in some companies owned by foreign
private companies (banks, insurance companies, some representative offices
of foreign companies in the field of services), while it is less likely that some-
thing like that will happen in private companies owned by the citizens of
BiH, as traditional culture and the past behavior of the owners, managers and
leaders of these private companies do not provide sufficient indications for
such a conclusion.
76
representative offices of foreign companies in the field of services), while it is less likely that
something like that will happen in private companies owned by the citizens of BiH, as
traditional culture and the past behavior of the owners, managers and leaders of these private
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
companies do not provide sufficient indications for such a conclusion.
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Table 8. Interpersonal Relations and Motivation
Table 8. Interpersonal Relations and Motivation

I want to feel free to discuss with Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
colleagues on issues of motivation Percent Percent
Valid I totally agree 412 33.3 33.6 33.6
I largely agree 697 56.3 56.8 90.4
Neither I agree nor 117 9.5 9.6 99.1
disagree
I significantly disagree 13 0.9 0.9 100.0
Total 1239 99.2 100.0
Total 1239 100.0

In theInend,
the we
end,wanted
we wanted to to
know
knowwhether the employees
whether the employees in in private
private enter-in BiH
enterprises
prises in BiHa good
experience experience
employeea motivation
good employee motivation
as an important as of
element antheimportant ele-culture
organizational
ment of the organizational culture and organizational climate in their com-
and organizational climate in their companies. It turned out that 55.6% percent of respondents
panies. It turned out that 55.6% percent of respondents perceived motivation
perceived motivation of employees as "an important element of the organizational climate", and
of employees as “an important element of the organizational climate”, and
the organizational culture of the company (Table 9). This perception we see especially in the age
the organizational culture of the company (Table 9). This perception we see
group from 36 to 45 years old, but also with respondents who have a master's level education,
especially in the age group from 36 to 45 years old, but also with respondents
Master and PhD. We can conclude that younger employees and those with high levels of
who have a master’s level education, Master and PhD. We can conclude that
education perceive and
younger employees motivation
those as an high
with important
levelspart of the organizational
of education culture and
perceive moti-
organizational behavior in enterprises in BiH.
vation as an important part of the organizational culture and organizational
behavior in enterprises in BiH.
Table 9. Motivation and the organizational climate
Table 9. Motivation and the organizational climate
Good motivation of employees Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
I consider as an important Percent Percent
element of the total
organizational climate and
behavior in the company
Valid I totally agree 688 55.6 56.0 56.0
I largely agree 285 23.0 23.0 79.0
Neither I agree nor 245 19.8 20.1 99.1
disagree
I significantly disagree 10 0.8 0.8 100.0
Total 1229 99.2 100.0
Missing 10 0.8
System
Total 1239 100.0

77

From the foregoing discussion we can see that employees in private enterprises in BiH
understand the importance of the employee motivation for the overall business environment
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

From the foregoing discussion we can see that employees in private enter-
prises in BiH understand the importance of the employee motivation for the
overall business environment and business success. Also, respondents indi-
cate that among employees who are not managers, is constantly present the
desire to improve forms of motivation, and that it should have a significant
participation of managers and leaders of these enterprises. Employees per-
ceive motivation as an important factor in the overall organizational behavior
and the assumption of the personal progress and good interpersonal rela-
tions.

4. Discussion of research results

Analysis of the survey results shows that employees in private companies
in Bosnia and Herzegovina perceive motivation as an important factor of
building a good business environment, business climate and interpersonal re-
lationships. By studying the views expressed by respondents, we can see that
motivation is not often present in their businesses as usual and continuous
instrument of the encouragement of the employees to the better, more cre-
ative, meaningful and accountable operation. This can be interpreted as the
result of the transformation of former socially-owned enterprises to private
enterprises and sudden changes in working conditions, operations and over-
all business environment, and the relationship between owners and managers
towards the employees. In fact, many private enterprises emerged through
the purchase (privatization) of enterprises that had a social (collective) form
of ownership and collective management. The new owners are attempting to
completely break with the old form of labor, management and the old busi-
ness culture in which employee motivation was present through additional
financial compensation, the increased number of days of rest, praise, recogni-
tion and giving of gifts for special commitment and contribution to the labor
productivity. The new owners, managers and leaders motivate employees with
some kind of fear of reduction in wages, job loss, deterioration of business
conditions, the difficult situation of the business entity in the market, debts
environment, and even the constant threat to close down the company if the
employees do not work better, staying at work longer than the official work-
ing hours and fit to other forms of modest conditions and savings. This kind
of motivation we define as “motivation by fear” as opposed to the motiva-
tion by incentives, rewards and promotions, which is common in developed
countries. In our study, it was observed that there are companies that develop
78
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

employee motivation through incentives through praise, awards, promotions,
cash bonuses and the like. Mostly it comes to banks, insurance companies,
some other service missions of foreign companies and various agencies.
The analysis of the questionnaires shows that employees in private enter-
prises in BiH are aware that motivation is very important for employees to
help them work better and achieve good business results and that well moti-
vated individuals will build an organizational culture that supports creative
and innovative work that will make employees happy. This perception of re-
spondents is confirming our basic hypothesis that employees perceive moti-
vation as an important instrument of the business climate and organizational
culture, and thus the effective performance of their businesses.
Research has shown that less than one third of employees perceive mate-
rial motivation as the most important, while two-thirds of employees prefere
the non-material forms of motivation (praise, rewards, career advancement,
further leisure). This paragraph has not fully and clearly confirmed our sec-
ond hypothesis that assumed dominance of the material forms of motiva-
tion of employees in private enterprises in BiH. Correction of this hypothesis
would involve the attitude that employees are aware that the material moti-
vation is limited or hardly expected, and therefore require compensation in
intangible forms of motivation.
An essential element in building a good business climate and sustainable
organizational behavior in any company or business entity is the degree of
loyalty of employees. Theoretical and empirical research in all parts of the
world have shown that good business motivation significantly affects the
greater degree of loyalty of employees to their company, managers, and lead-
ers throughout the organization. Respondents in our study also confirm (48%
“always” and 26% “often”) that a good motivation conditions loyalty to the
company if it falls into crisis. This position confirmed our third hypothesis
about the relationship of motivation and loyalty to the company.
Research shows that the perception of our respondents is referring to the
attitude that employees in private enterprises in BiH expect that their man-
agers and leaders motivate them, stimulate and encourage more creative,
meaningful and better work, and thus to create favorable conditions for the
development of good organizational climate, better relationships, and then
the quality of organizational behavior, which will continue to affect the great-
er efficiency and good business results. With this perception of respondents,
was confirmed our fourth hypothesis that went from saying that employees in
the surveyed companies expect from managers and leaders to continuously
motivate them to achieve better results, develop good interpersonal relations,

79
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

in order to express loyalty to the company and to become aware of the impor-
tance of motivation in the organizational behavior.

Conclusion

A survey conducted in private companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina on a
sample of 1,239 respondents, who are not employees in managerial positions,
shows that the motivation is an important factor in a successful and creative
work and that increases the satisfaction with them and affects their loyalty
to the company. Employees are aware of the importance of motivation as an
instrument for improving the work and business, a good business climate
and good interpersonal relations. We have found that male respondents, from
younger age groups (under 45 years old), with an average ten years of work
experience and higher levels of education perceive motivation as an impor-
tant driver of business in companies where they are employed.
When we review the preferences of forms and ways of motivation, we con-
clude that our respondents almost equally expect to be motivated by tangible
and intangible assets, in particular better salary and extra days off, while their
aspirations for recognition, praise and promotion in managerial positions are
much less. This leads us to conclusion that employees in the surveyed compa-
nies do not have high expectations from their work in terms that will enable
them the additional further career advancement.
The views of our respondents indicate that employees in private compa-
nies in Bosnia and Herzegovina feel a lack of motivation, especially the ex-
ternal, and they expect (aspire) from managers and leaders to better motivate
them (to advance forms and content of motivation) in order for their work
and commitment to fulfill the purpose and to allow the multiple personal
and collective satisfaction in work. In this way, the motivation would benefit
from the improvement of work efficiency, better interpersonal relationships,
loyalty to the company, sustainable organizational behavior, and thereby in-
creasing the overall performance of their businesses.

80
The role of motivation in the organizational behavior - the
Ivan Šijaković experience of the companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Literature

Cameron, W. Judy and David Pierce. Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Re-
solving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey. 2002.
Gellerman, W. Saul. Motivation in the Real World: The Art of Getting Extra
Effort from Everyone-Including Yourself. New York: Dutton. 1992.
Greenberg, Jerald. Organizational Behavior: The State of the Science. Mahwah,
New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2003.
Hasić, Dujko. Analysis of the limitations of operations in Bosnia and Herzego-
vina. Economic review. 52 (5-6). 2001.
Maddock, C. Richard and Richard L. Fulton. Motivation, Emotions, and Lead-
ership: The Silent Side of Management. Westport CT: Quorum Books. 1998.
Miriam Erez,Miriam; Uwe Kleinbeck and Henk Thierry. Work Motivation in
the Context of a Globalizing Economy. Mahwah, New York: Lawrence Erl-
baum Associates. 2001.
Miner, B. John. Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002.
Nazari, Atefeh and Abdollahi-Guilani, Mohammad. Motivation and Attitude
towards Learning English: A Case Study of Rasht Islamic Azad University.
Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods. Volume: 5. Issue: 4. De-
cember 1. 2015.
Quratul-Ain, Manzoor. Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational
Effectiveness. Business Management and Strategy. Vol. 3, No. 1 , January,
2012.
Sims, Ronald R. Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum
Books. 2002.
Yun Dai David and Robert J. Sternberg. Motivation, Emotion, and Cognition:
Integrative Perspectives on Intellectual Functioning and Development. Mah-
wah, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 2004.

81
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 57-81

82
Sociologist as a vanguard -
Mirjana Čeko Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question

Mirjana Čeko1 Review
Banja Luka UDC 341.71:929ANDRIC’1
DOI 10.7251/SOCEN1510083C
Accepted: 28.9.2015.

Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the
Albanian question2

Freedom, full freedom, it is a dream, which usually is not destined
to be realized, but poor is every man who have never dreamed it.3
- Ivo Andrić

Taking into account the very context of the book by Milojica M. Šutović
clearly are visible the deep-rooted ties of sociology and literature, which is
recognizable from the very title of this very interesting sociological - historical
- literary work. “I just want to show, to paraphrase my weakness of Nietzsche,
that it might be without Andrić, but the sociologist is not allowed to be - with-
out Andrić, as the philosopher is not allowed to be without Wagner.
... As Nietzsche would say, aesthetics is no other than applied psychology
as well as the literature is applied sociology even more filled with life and
imagination...“4
Before discussing the work itself, it is important to point out the basic
meaning of the concepts of sociology of literature and literary sociology. So-
ciology of Literature is the part of a special sociology which is basically the
study of the external context of literature, thereby ignoring the literary form
itself and the assessment and value of the literary works. On the other hand,
literary sociology is a special method of literary studies, at the same time,
marking literature as the social - historical phenomenon. In this regard, in
1
Master of Sociology - Department of Sociology at the Faculty of Political Science Banja Luka.
miraceko@gmail.com
2
Milojica Šutović, Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question. Belgrade:
Čigoja štampa. 2013.
3
Ivo Andrić, Signs along the way. Belgrade: „Rad“. 1980. p 39.
4
The Same. p 9.

83
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 83-87

simplest terms - Sociology of Literature is the way of studying the types of
literature that explore the relationship of literary works and social context in
which the work was created.5
In this work, the author, by citing Figen, states the following: “The ability
of a book as a literary document, with the proper methodical handling, to be
made useful for sociology, we can not generally dispute. From such a proce-
dure, the specific sociology of literature can only benefit. Because literary and
sociological statement concerns the behavior of the writer against his social
environment.“
Be sure to keep in mind that the literary works, as well as literature itself,
as such, can successfully be “connected” with other social sciences and dis-
ciplines, and in this regard we recognize the policy of literature. “Andrić cer-
tainly took account of what is expressed as policy of literature, which means
that literature deals with politics leaving literature, and assumes the existence
of the intrinsic link between politics as a particular form of the collective
practice and literature as the established practice of the art of writing.”6
Šutović introduces us to the policy of Andrić, emphasizing that the policy
of literature is not what is the policy of a writer, and that, in fact, a policy of
the writer Andrić was and still is very mysterious and mystified, explaining
that in certain historical periods mystification was often used as a “technique
of managing the impressions in the dramaturgy of social life “.
The author of this work tries to present a comprehensive Andrić’s per-
sonality and character from different aspects, incorporating into his book
the observations of a large number of influential individuals, as well Andrić’s
contemporaries, and those who have their “glory” acquired after his death.
What is important to emphasize, as the author himself says, is “Andrić’s pow-
er of adapting to the external environment and the ability to adapt, in spite
of serious fractures and changes in social orders and their ideology.” Because
we do need to bear in mind that Andrić lived in a time of the great social
turmoil and political and ideological changes. As the author himself points
out, the settled opinion is that the pragmatic, loyalty, political correctness,
patience and withdrawal, as well as refraining from the loud and transparent
opting for a particular way made possible the Andrić’s influence in all polit-
ical regimes that have changed in the Balkans during his lifetime. “As a man
of exceptional self-control to Andrić was not unimportant to have, and he
knew that the most important thing is to be, not only to learn about yourself,
5
Source: http://www.enciklopedija.hr/natuknica.aspx?id=56945 Taken on: 21.02.2016.
6
Milojica Šutović, Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question. Belgrade:
Čigoja štampa. 2013. p 11-12

84
Sociologist as a vanguard -
Mirjana Čeko Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question

but also to remain what you are.”7 It is this approach to the social and political
realities that enabled Andrić the position of the senior officer of the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between the two world wars,
as well as the member of the Yugoslav diplomacy in the government of Milan
Stojadinović (1937).
During this period, namely in 1939 is formed the Andrić’s Study on Alba-
nia, which Šutović in this book places on the central place as a topic that does
not lose its importance, especially if we take into account the present condi-
tions in which is Serbia when it comes to the division of Kosovo. “... Starting
from the traditional policy of Serbia” Balkan to Balkan peoples, “Andrić in
conclusion of the Study on Albania proposes: avoiding conflicts with Italy to
prevent it to occupy all of Albania, allowing its division as a” necessary and
inevitable evil that can not be resisted “, as” a lot of damage “from which it has
to benefit, as much as it can be ..”8
In the introduction to this book, the author believes that Andrić was
certainly aware of the history and sociology in his, as he says, “literary and
diplomatic monument”, and with that thought he is lead in the overall book,
relying not only on Andrić, but also on many giants in literature, and philos-
ophy, art, politics and sociology.
The book Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the Albanian ques-
tion is divided into 18 chapters plus a preface and annexes in which is the
original text of Ivo Andrić called “The Study of Mr Andrić 30. 1. 1939.” As
it is already noted, the author comprehensively captures the character and
work of the nobel Prize winner, placing his diplomatic and literary activities
in different socio - historical contexts under different political and ideological
circumstances. In this sense Šutović says: “In building his CV Andrić has un-
doubtedly as ancient Hellens, harbored a love of literature, dialectic, thinking,
contemplation, originality and degree. Proverbially secretive, especially about
his diplomatic past, well-read and well-informed, ambitious and sensitive,
polite and courteous, Andrić was a man of compromise, not conflict, a man
of tolerance and waiting, a man of golden middle in which extremes are in-
tersected... one withdrawn, discrete and powerful figure of a thinker to whom
a sociologist is only a scout”.
We think it is one of the reasons why the author, when we talk about this
sensitive issue that relates to the Albanian people, and now the current divi-
sion of Kosovo, opted for a study of Ivo Andrić on the Albanian issue, count-
ing on his impartiality and rational proposal (in this time regarding Albania),
especially if we bear in mind the radical attitudes, and todays individuals in
7
The Same p 12.
8
The Same p 27-28

85
Sociological discourse, year 5, number 10 / December 2015 83-87

public life. However, it is important to point out that Andrić’s impartiality and
“moodiness” many interpreted in different ways, even in a negative context
calling him (especially during his diplomatic mission in Berlin) the “German
man” and as the author says: “He is according to some contemporaries in
his work very cautious, shifty, devious, exemplary student of Machiavelli and
Guicciardini, which served him as a model for understanding the mechanism
of history and were the instruction in the diplomatic work ... “
A special contribution to the understanding of the work Sociologist as a
vanguard, referring primarily to Andrić’s proposed solution of the “Albanian
question” that Serbia is also facing today, and the proposed solution for the
same, provided the Šutović’s detailed analysis of Andrić’s studies and his per-
sonality in general (with different aspects) and historical - political circum-
stances in which the Balkan was, focusing on Serbia.
It is clear that the question of which Andrić speaks not only in his study
but also in his literary creations in general, essentially is the same today,
showing only in different forms, in quite different circumstances where “nec-
essary and inevitable evil which can not be resisted,” everyone understands
and interpret in their own way, but it certainly provides the insight into the
situation as it was and as it is.
By providing insight into Andrić’s description of inhabitants of the
‘Damned Yard’ Šutović suggests a parallel with the inhabitants of Kosovo, to
which others look like “on the quarantine, and its inhabitants as a danger-
ous and difficult to cure patients that by various measures, penalties and fear,
physical and moral insulation should be kept away from the so-called healthy
and fair world. To not let them out of their circle, but to not touch them with-
out having it to, because of this touching anything good or wise can not give
birth “.9 An unreal space, which is hard to believe that exists in the so-called
democratic times, where Karađoz - “the manager of this strange and terrible
facilities” - is precisely the international community.
„...Even today, one hundred and twenty years from Andric’s birth and a
century since the liberation of Kosovo, a historian, and Andrić was widely
seen as a writer - historian or sociologist, but with no doubt I dare to say that
Andrić is the writer - sociologist, we would not be able to add anything a bit
more precise, not only in describing the social reality of Kosovo, but also in
the diagnosis of its future, and not only Kosovo, but also the problems of the
modern society, especially of technological development, the emergence on
the film, especially the US.10
9
Ivo Andrić, The Damned Yard, Belgrade: Prosveta. 1968.
10
Milojica Šutović, Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question. Belgrade
Čigoja štampa. 2013. p 89.

86
Sociologist as a vanguard -
Mirjana Čeko Ivo Andrić and the Albanian question

In the second row of the contribution of this work, but equally important,
is certainly the correlation between the writers and sociologists, for which in
both, the field of literature, and sociology, we have many examples, especially
if we are talking about literary works and authors that have left an indelible
mark in the time and space, as it certainly was and Ivo Andrić.

Literature

Šutović, Milojica. Sociologist as a vanguard - Ivo Andrić and the Albanian
question. Belgrade: Čigoja štampa. 2013.
Andrić, Ivo. The Damned Yard. Belgrade: Prosveta. 1968.
Andrić, Ivo. The Signs along the road. Belgrade: „Rad“. 1980.
Escarpit, R. Sociology of Literature. Zagreb: Matica Hrvatska. 1970.

Internet sources

http://www.enciklopedija.hr/natuknica.aspx?id=56945
http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/naslovna/reportaze/aktuelno.293.htm-
l:544163-Ivo-Andric-Albaniju-bi-trebalo-podeliti

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