AP Euro Chapter 11: The Age of Reformation

Society and Religion
Monarch progressively take away local power; townspeople lose rights and freedoms. Religious revolt seen as ally to stay politically free.

Social and Political Conflict

Reformation first in free imperial cities of Germany (Lutheran), Switzerland (Zwinglian).  65 free imperial cities.  Some quickly turn, some slow, some mixed. Economic and social prosperity -> more enthusiastic to reform.  Printers’ guild. Literate, sophisticated, rapidly growing.  Bullied—certain guilds with government control, regions with powerful monarch.

Popular Religions Movements and Criticism of the Church [big idea]
“Exile” in Avignon  Great Schism  Conciliar period (?)  Renaissance papacy  Diet of Worms (1521) German nobility present 102 oppressive, corrupting church burdens. In general, increasing frustration with Catholic Church by end of Middle Ages.

Lay Criticism  Urban laypeople knew more about the world: travels, post, printing press, library.  Religious simplicity; imitation of Jesus. Members equal, modeled on New Testament The Modern Devotion (Brothers of the Common Life a/k/a The Modern Devotion)  Religious life of prayer and study w/o church commitments or abandoning World.  Zwolle, Deventer in Netherlands.  Educated public; civic minded.  Nicholas of Cusa; Johannes Reuchlin, Desiderius Eramus studied here.  Thomas a Kempis: Imitation of Christ – most popular religious book.  Personal piety. Conservative (retain old values) but not hierarchy. Lay Control over Religious Life  Network of church offices collapse: sense of regional identity, better regional administration.  Benefice – church sell offices to highest bidder.  Often benefice holders didn’t live in their diocese -> badly administer them. Greedy. 1

Bio [details]  Son of Thuringian miner  Educated Mansfeld. what to think about them.)  Indulgences originally given to Crusaders who couldn’t complete penance b/c died. Gabriel Biel  Entered Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine in Erfurt on 17 July 1505. Magdeburg (Brothers o/t Common Life). tax them. recurring] Nuremberg humanists translated/distributed 95 Theses. half to Albrecht and creditors. 1342-1352) declare treasury of merit – infinite reserve of Church’s good works. pray.. Death of Emperor Maximilian 1 (1519) bought time for Luther. alms. Martin Luther and the German Reformation to 1525 English/French national religion reformation: Statutes of Provisors and Paemunire/Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.  Election of Charles 5 [big idea.  1343 – Pope Clement 6 (r.  Archbishop Albrecht of Mainz needed money to pay debt for holding 3 ecclesiastical offices. doctorate in theology 1512. Fortunate.  Leo 10 – revived Jubilee Indulgence (plenary) (first issued by Julius 2) to rebuild St..  1511 – Augustinian monastery in Wittenberg. and Pope Leo sold indulgences. Did not pursue law like expected.  John Tetzel preached indulgences good persuasively. then selflessly act. etc. .  Sixtus 4 – Indulge sins of people in Purgatory. The Attack on Indulgences Priestly absolution transform eternal penalty of sin into temporal (work: fast. Luter’s 95 Theses argued indulgences to save Purgatory people trivialized salvation into a product. Eisenach. Instead..  Rulers/administrators allowed/encouraged indulgences because taxed. God does not account good works because that would be God a puppet to man.  Listened to William of Ockham. Not whether to do good things. don’t do good works for the sake of salvation. Fugger banking house. Dispensed by Pope.  1510 – Went to Rome and verified criticisms. 2 . Justification by Faith Alone [big idea]    Did not believe humans could achieve God-required perfection.  1501 – 1505 Univ.. Half to Leo. Know faith will save you. That prevents you from acting selflessly b/c you always fear. Peter’s Basilica. Governments take more control of church properties. of Erfurt.  Albrecht.

Peasants. 1521) argued before Diet of Worms. Fredrick the Wise – Luther’s lord and protector. Charles 1 -> Charles 5 revive Imperial Supreme Court. Many rulers supported reforms for decades.000 died. 1530s: Schmaldkaldic League – German protestant lands. Luther’s Excommunication and the Diet of Worms 1520 – wrote  Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation  Rulers should force reforms and church and reduce its power. If Luther supported revolution. Habsburg and Fugger support (buy 7 votes) Charles 1 of Spain. 3 .  Babylonian Captivity of the Church  Only 2/7 sacraments (Baptism. (Jan. Translated New Testament to German using Erasmus. Lutherans not social revolutionaries. and consult with diet on major FX/DX affairs. (Apr. He condemned as un-Christian. 1521) bull of exocommunication.  Freedom of a Christian – Salvation by faith alone. 70. Said contradicted Scripture. (May 1521) imperial ban declared him outlaw. Revolt 1524-5 invoking Luther’s name. Eucharist) Biblical. (Same year) Leo’s Papal Bull (Charter) Exsurge Domine declare heretic. prepared for war against Catholic emperor. Luter initially sympathized each other. conscience. Peace of Augsburg (1555) grant princely control over religion in imperial law. Hid and disguised at Wartburg Castle for a year. presided by Chuck 5. give 60 days. The Peasants’ Revolt       Reformation plagued by internal division. Also worked on relationships with princes to get German troops. ordered to recant.000 – 100.    Pope support Francis 1. How the Reformation Spread 1520s – 1530 : magistrates and princes adopted reformation and legislated reform. viewed intertwine with peasant revolution as doom. Peasants see criticism of Christian freedoms and monastic landowners as their own. he’d contradict himself and probably die. Imperial Distractions: War with France and the Turks [big idea. reason. Council of Regency. Diet of Speyer (1526) – declared princes free to enforce Edict of Worms (1521) (condemned Luther) gave princes authority to religion. Critics believe decision ended hope of Reformation as social and moral force. recurring] War with France and Ottoman Turks. Suppressed. Prince > Pope.  Prevented unilateral imperial action against reformists. Exchange for votes.

Opposed indulgences. successor of Zwingli. Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575). 1531: Zwingli wounded. st  1 reforming act: No longer need to be celibate. Though Zwingli was a dangerous fanatic. concluding a dispute. Communual church more fundamental then individualism. Desire for reform since Councils of Constance (1414-1417) and Basel (1431-1449). Zwingli argue congregation stood for infant’s place. Caspar Hedio in 1530. C. Chaplain with mercenaries in Battle of Marignano in Italy in 1515 (they lost). 2.  Discipline: puritanical Protestantantism. Then criticized. Marburg Colloquy Landgrave Philip of Hesse (1504-1567) wanted to united Swiss and German under mutual defense. he is also in body. Anabaptists and Radical Protestants Fundamentalists want faster.  1522 – broken Lenten fast (~ burning own flag).The Reformation Elsewhere Zwingli and the Swiss Reformations [big idea] Switz. (1) threaten sovereignty and (2) morality. dismembered. No symbolize at all. Only baptize as adult (b/c Jesus baptized as adult).  Affair with barber’s daughter.  Not so scandalous. Tetrapolitan Confession – semi-Zwinglian views. executed. 1. son-in-law. Treaty allowed cantons to determine own religion. Amish. “This is my body” -> only spiritually in bread.  1523 – city government sanctioned Scripture Test. Anabaptists: ancestors of modern Mennonite. Reject what is not literally supported by scripture. 1519 – competed for People’s Priest in Church of Zurich. more through Apostolic Christianity. Luther advocate when Christ in spirit. they sympathized with celibate clergy. Minimized it. Zwingli advocate symbolic interpretation. who had child. Luther. Swiss Civil Wars Both at Kappel. Popular opposition to mercenary service. less Luther. credited more Erasmus. 13 cantons. prepared by reformers Martin Bucer. Thought Luther still stuck in Medieval theology. Some P. both. 4 . Reformation in Zurich Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) humanist. scattered. 1529:Protestant victory Catholic cantons had to sever alliances and recognize Protestant rights.

wanderer. died in a peasant’s revolt. Old Testament theocracy. Spiritualists God speaks directly to you. Michael Servetus (1511-1553). Farel convince him to stay. 1. Schleitheim Confession (1527): define anabaptists pacifist. 1534 – conversion. executed in Geneva for blasphemy against Trinity Lelio. Established in Palatinate (Germany in Rhineland). 1. Authorities viewed separatism as threat. John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation [big ideas] 1550+: Calvinism replace Lutheranism. no participate in secular government. advocate religious autonomy. opponenets of Calvinism. hung their skeletons.  Adopted polygamy (many widowed/deserted women). Joined French Reform Party.  Calvin arrive in July 1536. ethical religion. 5 . Zwinglians. refusal to oath.  Protestant and Catholic armies killed them. Menno Simons (1496-1561) founded Mennonites. Antitritinarians Believed in commonsense. Caspar Schwenckfeld – writer. The Anabaptist Reign in Munster – Lutherns.000 K. received benefices that paid for education and law degree. rational. Separate from society to more perfect model of New Testament Church.  21 May 1536: Geneva officially adopt Reformation. Jan Beukelsz of Leiden controlled Munster from 1534-5  Kicked/forced convert Lutheran and Catholics  Besieged. Jan Matthys of Haarlem. Sebastian Franck – K dogmatic religion. God’s will is sovereign and humans must conform. Contributed to intellectual preparations.Conrad Grebel and the Swiss Brethren Grebel (1498-1526) founded Anabaptistism. Reorder society according to God’s plan. John Calvin (1509-64) son of secretary to bishop of Noyon. original sin. Thomas Muntzer. sedition. Political Revolt and Religious Reform in Geneva  1533 – Bern sent reformers Guillaume Farel (1489-1565) and Antoine Froment (15081581) to Geneva. 1529 – Anabaptism capital.000 – 5. Predestination. Schwenckfeldian Church named after. and Catholics persecute them in city. joined Reformation. predestination. in the present. Judge citizens compared to his own experience. non-provocative separatist Anabaptist. Faustus Sozzini founded Socinianism. May 1534 – surrendered benefices. 2.

1538 – Luthern writes Schmalkaldic Articles. Calvin’s Geneva  1540 – Genevan officials who liked Calvin elected. Became center of Lutheran Resistance. humanist curriculum. Invited him to return. all Protestant sects could practice.  People thought they were too strong. Christian 2 (r. 1513-1523) introduced Ref. Exiled.  Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation The Diet of Augsburg [details] Charles 5 focus on empire direct Diet of Augsburg (1530) to order Lutherans to recvert to Catholicism. stalemate with emperor. England.Presented articles of governance and catechism in 1537. he never left. distracted by France and Turks once again. girls’ schools. Damaged Calvin’s reputation. 2 edition Institutes of the Christian Religion. 1547 – Imperial army defeat Schmalkaldic League. refuge in German city Magdeburg. capture Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse.  All magistrates Calvinists.  Home to exiled Protestants from France. 1531 – Lutherans form Augsburg Confession. 5. nd  Cavin went to Strasbourg. Led by Landgrave Philip of Hesse and Elector John Frederick of Saxony. Diet of Vesteras (1527) examined clergy with royal authority. loyal to Calvin.  Implemented his reforms. moderate statement of beliefs. Gustavus Vasa (r.  Enforced moral discipline.  “woman’s paradise” because they beat men who beat women. promoted by Frederick 1. Education reforms provided compulsory education. 1/3 population. to Denmark. Christian 3 (r. exiled Calvin and Farel.  1553 – Execution of Michael Servetus. Restored traditional ceremonies. Poland: no central political authority. who K’d Trinity. Had to practice what you preach. Supported by greedy nobility. Scotland. more strongly worded. Model of toleration in 1550+. 6 . Reactions Against Protestants [big idea] Charles 5 tried to compromise Protestants and Catholics 1540-1. 1523-1560) confiscated church property.  Predestination: <Calvin says:> offend nonbelievers but true Christians take comfort because they know their lives are determined by a loving God. definitive moral statement of Protestant faith. 1536-1559) established as state religion.000 refugees. The Expansion of the Reformation [details] Consistories – theologians and lawyers replaced Catholic episcopates with Protestant churches.

 Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (ca. Calvinists planned revolutions to gain freedom. dismissed in 1529. Advised him to declare King supreme in English spiritual affairs. Catholic prelates couldn’t take their lands and titles with them. The English Reformation to 1553 Centrally resisted Pope’s influence since late Medieval. put in charge of securing annulment and failed.  More wrote Response to Luther in 1523. recognize Henry as head of English church.  King receive “Defender of the Faith” from Leo 10. The King’s Affair [big idea]     Henry + Catherine -> (only) Mary.  [Lutherans] Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556). 1531 – Convocation – legislative assembly representing English clergy. King Henry 8 (r. Lutherans can keep seized church land. required special permission from Pope.The Peace of Augsburg 1552 – Chalres defeated by protestants. religion. Submission of the Clergy – put canon law under royal control. 1533 – Henry web (pregnant) Anne. Granted religious freedom in Peace of Passau (Aug. 1527 – infatauted with Anne Boleyn. 1492-1536) translated New Testament to English 1524-5 in Germany.  William Tyndale (ca. “Reformation parliament. 1475-1530).  Problem: Pope Leo was prisoner of Charles 5 b/c of the Sack of Rome in 1527.  Cardinal Wolsey aspired to be Pope. clergy under royal jurisdiction.  Prohibited by canon and Biblical law. Freedom to migrate to different region w/ diff. Female monarch unstable. 7 . The Preconditions to Reform 1520s – Cambridge discuss smuggled Lutheran writings. 1509-47) Sir Thomas More (1478-1535) led royal opposition to Protestantism. The “Reformation Parliament” [details] 1529 – 7-year session.” Subordinated clergy. one of Catherine’s lady-in-waiting. Did not accept Calvinism and Anabaptism. Thomas Cromwell (1485-1540) became King’s advisers. 1555): ruler of land determine religion.  Couldn’t annul. Circulate in England 1526. Unnatural for women to rule over men. 1552). Henry believed God cursed him marriage because of Catherine’s previous marriage to his brother Arthur. Peace of Augsburg (Sept.  Charles 5 was Catherine’s nephew. 1532 – Parliament published grievances against church.

 Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation Sources of Catholic Reform   Many reform proposals made.  1552 – Second Act of Uniformity.  German Protestant leaders fled to England in refuge after Charles 8’s Victory over princes (1547). wasn’t worth the trouble. Mary declared illegit. Act of Succession: Anne’s children were legit heirs to the throne. Wives of Henry 8 1536 – Anne executed for (alleged) treason. Tyndale’s Bible grew into Coverdale Bible (1535) and Great Bible (1539). nunneries. Communicated with John Calvin. King authority of church appointments. Married four times.  Oratorians – elite clerics to promote religious literature and music. 1558) succeeded Edward (died as teen). 1538 – Dissolved monasteries. Executed Thomas More and John Fisher when they refused Acts. Daughter Elizabeth. restore Catholic.  Ursulines – covents in France. led invalidating marriage to Catherine.  1549 – Act of Uniformity enforcced Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer. 1536.  Somaschi. Act of Supremancy: Henry only supreme head in earth of Church of England. John of the Cross 8 . return to Saint Francis ideals. 1534 – Ended payments to Rome. Teresa of Avila. St. Marriage with Anne of Cleves intended to ally with Protestant German Princes. revised Common Prayer. founded by Bishop Gian Pietro Carafa -> Pope Paul 4  Caupuchins. Six Articles of 1539 – reaffirm Catholic doctrines. The Protestant Reformation Under Edward 6 Edward 6 was only 10. The King’s Religious Conservatism 1536 – Ten Articles only minor protestant concessions. 1553 – Catherine’s daughter Mary 1 (d.  Medieval monasticism: 2 mysticists St. Italy for all social classes. regency of Edware Seymour -> Duke of Somerset. Barnabites repair Italy morally and physically.Feb – King highest court of appeals.  Reformed. but popes squashed them b/c they had already lost enough power in Council of Constance + Basel. New orders within church:  Theatines reform-minded. moderate Protestant doctrine. Earl of Warwick -> Duke of Northumberland. adultery. Mar – Cranmer became archbishop of Canterbury. Remained Catholic (w/o Rome).

wanted to be soldier of Christ. no gain political power.  Spanned 4 different Pope reigns. Control own behavior.  Attached traditional spirituality and mysticism. Pope promised only religious reforms. well-dressed. The Revolution in Religious Practices and Institutions Religion in 1400s (15th Cent.000s pilgrims gather to shrines in search of cure or miracle. [Catholic Reform] The Council of Trent (1545-1563) [big idea]        Success of Reformation + Charles 5 --> Pope Paul 3 (r. Reformed internal rules.  100s-1.  His report so critical pope suppressed. 100 days could not eat eggs. distributed amongst protestants as justification.  Spiritual Exercises encouraged absolute spiritual self-discipline. Rulers gradually accept. fat.Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits [big idea]  Ignatius of Loyala (1491-1556) originally courtier and soldier. liberal theologian. regularly visit parishes.  1/3 of year was some religious observation. The Social Significance of the Reformation in Western Europe  Luther. drew back some Protestants. Calvin politically conservative.) Life  Clergy 6-8% population.  Teach to submit unquestioningly to church authority.  “magisterial reformers” – used magistrates to coerce populace. 9 . Impressed by self-sacrifice of Saints.  Aristocrats donated to churches and chapels.  Mass completely in Latin.  Seminary in every diocese. Zwingli. Aquinas take precedence.  Parish priests had to be educated. building walls recorded their lineage. conversion when he was wounded and passed time reading Christian classics. 1534-1549) call council of church. Reaffirm traditional Catholic doctrine. plague and politics.  Children of most powerful lived in Monasteries. Some entertainment.  No sell church offices or other stuff. 3 sessions over 18 years b/c of war. celibate.  They didn’t want to change reigning laws and institutions.  Bishops must move back to diocese and preach regularly. butter. Pope appointed reform commission chaired by Caspar Contarini (1483-1542). Trent = imperial city in northern Italy.  Some scholars say they encouraged acceptance of socio political SQUO. political and spiritually powerful.  Some say this made them compromise principles. Nunneries. meat.

 Clergy under civil jurisdiction. (2) exalt as virgins. just as abusive as husband. The Reformation and the Changing Role of Women        Rejected medieval tendency to (1) degrade women as temptresses. defend original study. humanist tools of primary sources better suited for Protestantism than scholasticism Ignatius encouraged adopting authoritative scholastic theologians’ perspectives. Read original sources. not book).  Cloisters gone. Companionate marriage: Coworkers in Godordained family. Similar goals to Wittenberg. Women gain divorce rights.) Life  Clergy decrease 2/3. 10 .  Churches reduced 1/3. poetry. bred contempt for Greek. Could marry. Hebrew.” Religion in 1500s (16th Cent. fined and punished those venerating saints. But Protestant educational institutions preserved for modernity many humanist works and achievements. Of Geneva. housewife. Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) – “praeceptor of Germany” On Improving the Studies of the Young (address. etc. Praised women in own right. argue Scholasticism undermined sound Biblical doctrine. Scholastic stuff dropped. remarry. ½ original coverts converted back before 1600. and oratory.  Poorly trained and paid substitutes of church offices “take care of souls.  Service in vernacular.  Clergy exempt from tax. mathematics. of Wittenerg curriculum. Some feared Protestantism narrowed Humanism (Erasmus). Expose: nunnery administered by men. Before. Calvin greatly helped by wives. Reformation encouraged literacy of women to model lives after own reading of Bible. many transformed into hospice or school.  Encouraged meditation of Bible. Luther and Melanchthon reform Univ.Sold indulgences many times a year. couldn’t divorce.  The Reformation and Education        Protestants humanist. Study Greek. Luther. John Calvin and Theodore Beza form Genevan Academy -> Unv. Encouraged study history. Biblical job as mother. esp.  Not everybody happy.  Shrines closed.  Religious holidays decrease 1/3. most did. Church tolerated if they paid penitential fine. Only 1/5 protestant by 1650.  Clergy in public w/ concubines and children. Higher classes protested closing nunneries because cloistered life more interesting for them than secular. often criminal law too.

servants. usual for partners to have had some prior relationship. Family Size    Nuclear: father. ½ die by teen. Also gave roles as independent authors for Reformation. apprenticeship. By 1400s. Birth Control   13th. Increased premarital sex. boarders. 1/5 women never married. Women wanted vanity. 11 . Loving Families?    Children sent to school. Arranged Marriages     Parents discussed first. 1 birth/2 yrs. Contraception frustrates natural goal of childbirth. Higher childbirth mortality rates -> more remarriage for men. widows remarried within months. mother. shared milk supply. remarry soon to survive. 14th century: church prohibitions evidence contraceptive mentality. Took longer to prepare materially for marriage. Widowers. nurse less healthy and sanitary. employment.  Church forbade lactating mother to have sex. women 20-25. 2-4 children who survive as adults. 6-7 children. 15% unmarried widows. Not effective. Aquinas doctrine morality = no frustrate nature’s goal. Lived in larger household w/ in-laws. illegitimate children. However. Men preferred wives not nurse. Wet Nursing    Increase risk of mortality: strange.  Nursing 75% effective contraception --> males wanted more heirs quickly. Parents respected emotional feelings Coerced marriages invalid. 1/3 die by 5. marriage required parental consent and public vows in Church. loving to prepare child for future. After Reformation. Family Life in Early Modern Europe Later Marriages       Men marry 25-30. laborers. convenience.

contemporary Italian short story. Quixote’s squire.  Worked in Rome for Spanish cardinal. Hamlet (1603) Othello (1604) King Lear (1605) Macbeth (1606). returns to die broken-hearted. viewed governments as rulers instead of ideals.  Soldier decorated in Battle of Lepanto (1571) against Turks. Cervantes (1547-1616) self-educated. Defeated by friend in combat. Fights windmill (think is dragon). ■ Wrote Don Quixote in 1603 in prison. ■ Don was middle-aged man. Conservative. English drama blend many forms: classical comedy and tragedy. Sancho Panza. Worked as schoolteacher. laughs at him. spent 5 years as slave. needed for happy balance. learned Renaissance literature. 12 .  Ship pirated in Algiers (1575). Richard 3 (1593) is a history. believed he was night and got rusty armor. Participated in every part of the theater. entrench Church and Inquisition. But only satire on surface. Realist ■ Reader believes both should be admired. medieval morality. fancied peasant girl Dulcinea as noble. Spanish literature intertwine piety + political power --> chivalry. Satire chivalric romance. married Anne Hathaway 1582. Read too many romances. William Shakespeare: Dramatist of the Age         1564-1616. Appeal to philosophers and theologians. makes fool of himself. ■ Part I appeared in 1605. Not as good as his tragedies.  Preoccupied with heroes.  Imprisoned as tax collector for padding. 1590-1610: many played performed at court.Literary Imagination in Transition Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra: Rejection of Idealism    No Protestant Reformation. 4 tragedies/3 yrs.

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