CONTENTS

CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Classification of Materials
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction Metallic Materials Polymeric (Plastic) Materials Ceramic Materials Composite Materials Electronic Materials 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-3

Chapter 2

Mechanics of Materials
2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Normal Stress and Strain Stress-Strain Diagrams Elasticity and Plasticity Creep Linear Elasticity and Hooke's Law Poisson's Ratio Shear Stress And Strain Allowable Stresses and Allowable Loads 2-4 2-8 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-18

Chapter 3

Atoms, Molecules and Crystals
3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Introduction Chemical Bonding of Atoms Electrovalent Bond Metallic Bond Covalent Bond Polymorphism 3-21 3-21 3-23 3-24 3-25 3-25

Chapter 4

Crystal Structure of Metals
4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Introduction Body Centred Cubic Face Centred Cubic Close Packed Hexagonal Dendritic Solidification Effect of Impurities Influence Of Cooling Rates on Crystal Size 4-27 4-27 4-27 4-28 4-28 4-29 4-30

Chapter 5

Casting Processes
5.0 Introduction 5-31

CONTENTS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Ingot Casting Continuous Casting Sand Casting Die Casting Centrifugal Casting 5-31 5-32 5-32 5-33 5-33

Chapter 6

Mechanical Testing
6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Properties of Materials Strength Stiffness Elasticity Plasticity Toughness Brittleness Ductility and Malleability Hardness 6.8.1 6.8.2 6.8.3 6.8.4 6.8.5 6.8.6 6.8.7 6.8.8 6.8.9 6.9 Tensile Test Hardness Tests Brinell Test Vickers Pyramid Test Rockwell Test Impact Tests Izod Test Creep Test Fatigue Test 6-34 6-34 6-34 6-34 6-34 6-34 6-35 6-35 6-35 6-36 6-37 6-38 6-39 6-39 6-40 6-40 6-41 6-42 6-44 6-44 6-44 6-45 6-46 6-47

Some Other Mechanical Tests 6.9.1 Erichsen Cupping Test 6.9.2 Bend Test 6.9.3 Compression Test 6.9.4 Torsion Test

6.10

Significance of Mechanical Properties

Chapter 7

Non-Destructive Testing
7.0 7.1 Introduction 7-48 Tests for the Detection of Surface Cracks and Flaws 7-48 7.1.1 Penetrant Methods 7.1.2 Magnetic Dust Methods 7.1.3 Acid Pickling Methods 7-48 7-49 7-50

CONTENTS 7.2 Test For The Detection Of Internal Defects 7.2.1 X-Ray Methods 7.2.2 Gamma-Ray Methods 7.3 Ultrasonic testing 7-51 7-51 7-52 7-52

Chapter 8

Deformation and Recrystallization
8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Slip and Work Hardening Step-Step Movement of Dislocations Deformation by Twinning Annealing The Relief of Stress Recrystallization Grain Growth Normalizing Cold-Working Processes Hot-Working Processes 8-54 8-55 8-55 8-56 8-56 8-56 8-57 8-57 8-57 8-59

Chapter 9

Mechanical Shaping of Metals
9.0 9.1 Hot-Working Processes Forging 9.1.1 9.2 Drop-Forging 9-60 9-60 9-60 9-61 9-62 9-62 9-63 9-63 9-64 9-65 9-66 9-67

Hot-Pressing 9.2.1 Hot-Rolling

9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9

Extrusion Cold-Working Processes Cold-rolling Drawing Stretch-forming Coining and Embossing Powder Metallurgy

Chapter 10

Metals
10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Pure Metals Alloys Ferrous Metals Non-Ferrous Metals 10-68 10-68 10-68 10-

1 11.4 13.0 Plastics 15-99 .0 14.3 Welding Fusion Welding Processes Pressure Welding Processes Consequences of Welding 12-74 12-75 12-78 12-79 Chapter 13 Concrete 13.1.0 11.3 13.7 13.4 13.3 13. Rubber and Protective Coatings 15.0 13.1.5 13.1 13.1 Concrete Cements 13.2 13.CONTENTS Chapter 11 Soldering and Brazing 11.8 13.1.3 Lubricants Oils Greases Solid Lubricants 14-92 14-92 14-97 14-98 Chapter 15 Plastic.1.1 14.2 14.2 Introduction Soldering Brazing 11-70 11-70 11-72 Chapter 12 Welding 12.2 12.9 Gypsum Lime Natural Cements Portland Cement 13-81 13-81 13-81 13-81 13-82 13-82 13-83 13-83 13-84 13-85 13-86 13-87 13-88 13-89 Concrete Aggregates Admixtures Proportioning of Concrete Reinforced Concrete Uses and Properties of Concrete Pre-stressed Concrete Failure of Concrete Special Applications of Concrete in a Nuclear Station Chapter 14 Lubricants 14.2 13.6 13.1 12.0 12.

8 16.7 16.10 16.6 16.3 16.1 17.3 15.0 17.CONTENTS 15.3 Radiation damage Types of Radiation Effects of Radiation on the Bond Types Effects of Radiation on Materials 17-117 17-117 17-119 17-119 .2 16.2 17.5 16.4 Rubber composition Vulcanization Bits and Pieces Protective Coatings 15-101 15-101 15-103 15-104 Chapter 16 Adhesives 16.4 16.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 15.11 Adhesives Principles of Adhesion Functions Sealing and insulating Other uses Chemical forms Types of Adhesives Hot melts Others Tapes End Use Requirements Conclusion 16-109 16-109 16-110 16-111 16-111 16-112 16-112 16-113 16-114 16-114 16-116 16-116 Chapter 17 Radiation Damage 17.1 15.

Metals have crystalline structure in which the atoms are arranged in an orderly manner. polymeric (plastic). Examples of metallic elements are iron. and tungsten. In addition to structure and properties. Mechanical properties relate deformation to an applied load or force. For convenience. and ceramic materials. aluminum. They have large number of unlocalized electrons. composite materials and electronic materials also have great engineering importance.1 Metallic Materials: These materials are inorganic substances which are composed of one or more metallic elements and may also contain some nonmetallic elements. nickel. and deteriorative. nitrogen.0 Introduction: Materials are substances of which something is composed or made. two other important components are involved in the science and engineering of materials. Polished metal surface has a lustrous appearance. two more types.0) 1-1 . examples include elastic modulus and strength. examples include electrical conductivity and dielectric constant. In addition to these main classes. that is. are good thermal and electrical conductors. Electrical properties demonstrate the behavior of material in electric field. these electrons are not bound to particular atoms. in general. Many properties of metals are due to the presence of this sea of free electrons. Many metals are relatively strong and ductile at room temperature. deterriorative characteristics indicate the chemical reactivity of materials. All important properties of solid materials may be grouped into six different categories: mechanical. electrical. magnetic. Magnetic properties demonstrate the response of a material to the application of a magnetic field. optical. and many maintain good strength even at high temperatures. 1. The thermal behavior of solids can be represented in terms of heat capacity and thermal conductivity. copper.Classification of Materials CHAPTER 1 Classification of Materials 1. thermal.e. Example of optical properties are index of refraction and reflectivity. i. Nonmetallic elements such as carbon. most engineering materials are divided into three main classes: metallic. processing and performance. Metals. Metals and alloys are commonly divided into two classes: ferrous metals and alloys that contain a large percentage of iron such as steels and cast iron and nonferrous metals and alloys that do not contain iron or only a relatively small Materials Version (1. They are non-transparent to visible light. and oxygen may also be contained in metallic materials. Finally.

1. In general. Because of their nature. most polymeric materials are noncrystalline but some consist of mixtures of crystalline and noncrystalline regions. most ceramic materials are easily damaged by impact because of their low or nil ductility. the components do not dissolve into each other and can be physically identified by an interface between the components. good heat and wear resistance. They can be crystalline. zinc. Polymers include the familiar plastic and rubber materials. Some of predominant types are fibrous (composed of fibbers in a matrix) and particulate (composed of particles in Materials Version (1. and insulative properties. 1. Some of these materials are good insulators and are used for electrical innovative applications. Most composite materials consist of a selected filler or reinforcing material and a compatible resin binder to obtain the specific characteristics and properties desired.0) 1-2 . Examples of nonferrous metals are aluminum. and carbides. Usually. The strength and ductility of polymeric materials vary greatly.4 Composite Materials: Composite materials are misture of two or more materials. Ceramics are low in cost. A composite is designed to display a combination of the best characteristics of each of the component materials. and nickel. reduced friction. copper.2 Polymeric (Plastic) Materials: Most polymeric materials consist of organic (carbon containing) long molecular chains or networks. high strength and hardness. Most ceramic materials have high hardness and high temperature strength but tend to have mechanical brittleness. They have relatively low softening or decomposition temperatures. Lately. nitrides. in which glass fibbers are embedded within a polymeric material. 1. Fiberglass is a familiar example. and glass.Classification of Materials amount of iron. Structurally.3 Ceramic Materials: Ceramic materials are inorganic materials which consist of metallic and nonmetallic elements chemically bonded together. polymeric materials have low densities and may be extremely flexible. Also. They are most frequently oxides. ceramic materials have been developed for engine applications. or mixtures of both. The wide range that falls within this classification includes ceramics that are composed of clay minerals. Composites can be of many types. most polymeric materials are poor conductors of electricity. noncrystalline. Fiberglass acquires strength from the glass and flexibility from the polymer. Advantages of ceramic materials for engine applications are light weight. cement. but their processing into finished products is usually slow and costly. titanium.

advanced computers. Furthermore.25 squared inch. There are many different combinations of reinforcements and matrices used to produce composite materials. The most important electronic material is pure silicon which is modified in various ways to change its electrical characteristics. the electrical characteristics of these materials are extremely sensitive to the presence of minute concentrations of impurity atoms. 1. Materials Version (1.e semiconductors. i. are not a major type of material by volume but are an extremely important type of material for advanced engineering technology. Two outstanding types of modern composite materials used for engineering applications are fibre-glass reinforcing material in a polyester or epoxy matrix and carbon fibbers in a an epoxy matrix.Classification of Materials a matrix). A very large number of electronic circuits can be miniaturized on a silicon chip which is about 0.0) 1-3 . and welding robots. Microelectronic devices have made possible such new products as communication satellites. Semiconductors have electrical properties that are intermediate between the electrical conductors and insulators.5 Electronic Materials: Electronic materials. digital watches. hand-held calculators.

if the forces are reversed in direction. normal stresses may be either tensile or compressive stresses. the axial forces produce a uniform stretching of the bar and the bar is said to be in tension. In as much as the stress c axis in a direction perpendicular to the cut surface.e. In this case. P σ = -------------------(2-1) A Figure 2-1a Figure 2-1b When the bar is stretched by the forces 'P'. Materials Version (1.Mechanics of Materials CHAPTER 2 Mechanics of Materials 2. Thus. we obtain compressive stresses. Later. the force per unit area) is called the Stress 'σ'. the resulting stresses are tensile stresses. causing the bar to be compressed. The intensity of force (i. called a shear stress. it is referred to as a normal stress.0) 2-4 . we will encounter another type of stress. as shown in the figure. that acts parallel to the surface.0 Normal Stress and Strain: The fundamental concepts of stress and strain can be illustrated by considering a prismatic bar that is loaded by axial forces 'P' at the ends (Figure 2-1a). The internal stresses produced in the bar by the axial forces are exposed if we make an imaginary cut at section mn (Figure 2-1b).

the strain is a compressive strain and the bar shortens. the strain is called a tensile strain. ----------------------------(2-2) L If the bar is in tension. The stress distribution at the ends of the bar depends upon the details of how the axial load P is actually applied. Tensile strain is usually taken as positive and compressive strain as negative. As we move away from the ends. The strain 'ε' is called a normal strain because it is associated with normal stresses. the load usually is concentrated over a small area. Figure 2-1c An axially loaded bar undergoes a change in length. resulting in high localized stresses (called stress concentrations) and nonuniform stress distributions over cross sections in the vicinity of the load. If the load itself is distributed uniformly over the end. then the stress pattern at the end will be the same as elsewhere. it is customary to define tensile stresses as positive and compressive stresses as negative. the stress distribution gradually approaches the uniform distribution shown in Figure 2-1c. representing an elongation or stretching of the material. ε= δ Materials Version (1. However. The change in length is denoted by ' δ '. If the bar is in compression.0) 2-5 . becoming longer when in tension and shorter when in compression. The elongation per unit length is called strain 'ε'.Mechanics of Materials When a sign convention for normal stresses is required.

8 m is subjected to an axial tensile force of 70 KN (Figure 2-2). Figure 2-2 Solution: Using equation 2-1 to calculate normal stress: σ= 70 kN P = = 87.2 mm = = 429 × 10 −6 L 2. Materials Version (1. Example 2-1 A prismatic bar with rectangular cross section (20 x 40 mm) and length L = 2. it is a dimensionless quantity.8 m The quantities σ and ε are the tensile stress and strain. in the longitudinal direction of the bar. The measured elongation of the bar is δ = 1.5 MPa A (20 mm) (40 mm) The normal strain from equation 2-2 is: ε= δ 1.0) 2-6 . that is. it has no units. respectively. Calculate the tensile stress and strain in Ihe bar.2 mm.Mechanics of Materials Because normal strain is the ratio of two lengths.

Figure 2-3 Solution: During the downstroke.89 k.227 kN.5 m. Determine the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the pump rod due to the combined effects of the resistance forces and the weight of the rod.81 × 10 3 N/t) × (9. the resistance of the piston creates a compressive force C = 0. The pump rod has a diameter d = 15 mm and a length L = 97. The corresponding maximum tensile stress is Materials Version (1.85 t/m 3 × 9.N throughout the length of the rod.89 kN and during the upstroke is 8. The resistance encountered by the piston during the downstroke is 0.85 t/m3. and during Ihe upstroke it creates a tensile force T = 8. It is made of steel having specific weight γ = 7.90 kN.015 m) 2 4 W = 1327 N The maximum tensile force in the pump rod occurs during the upstroke at the upper end and is equal to T + W or 10.Mechanics of Materials Example 2-2 A deep-well pump is operated by a crank that rotates in fixed bearings and moves a piston up and down in the well (Figure 2-3). The maximum force equals the weight of the entire rod. given by the expression W =γLA π W = (7.90 kN.75 m) × × (0.0) 2-7 . The weight of the rod produces a tensile force that varies from zero at the lower end of the rod to a maximum at the upper end.

227 × 10 3 N = 57. such as bending of the pump rod and dynamic effects. we can plot a diagram of stress versus strain. Strains are plotted on the horizontal axis and stresses on the vertical axis. Other considerations. Stress-strain diagram for a typical structural steel in tension is shown in Figure 2-4. σt = 2. have not been taken into account in this example.89 × 10 3 N P = 5.Mechanics of Materials P 10.0 MPa σc= = A π × (15 mm) 2 /4 These calculations give the axial stresses in the pump rod due only to the specified loads. which means that stress and strain are proportional.9 MPa = A π × (15 mm) 2 /4 The maximum compressive stress occurs at the lower end during the downstroke: 0. the proportionality between stress and strain no longer exists: hence the stress at Materials Version (1. Figure 2-4 The diagram begins with a straight line from the origin 'O' to point 'A'. Such a stress-strain diagram is characteristic of the material and conveys important information about the mechanical properties and type of behavior. Beyond point 'A'.0) 2-8 .1 Stress-Strain Diagrams: After performing a tension or compression test and determining the stress and strain at various magnitudes of the load.

until. resulting in increased resistance of the material to further deformation. With an increase in the load beyond the proportional limit. Beginning at this point. and point B is called the Yield Point. the reduction in area of the bar becomes clearly visible and a pronounced Necking of the bar occurs (Figure 2-5). The reduction in area is too small to have a noticeable effect on the calculated value of stress up to about point 'C'. however. and many common metallic alloys. the true stress-strain curve will follow the dashed line CE' in Figure 2-4. The true stress is larger than the nominal stress because it is calculated with a smaller area. at point 'B'. the material begins to Strain Harden. Because strain is nondimensional. This phenomenon is known as yielding of the material. After undergoing the large strains that occur during yielding in the region 'BC'. Further stretching of the bar is actually accompanied by a reduction in the load and Fracture finally occurs at point 'E'. the material becomes Perfectly Plastic. In the vicinity of the ultimate stress. Additional elongation now requires an increase in the tensile load. For most practical purposes. During strain hardening.Mechanics of Materials 'A' is called the Proportional Limit. Materials Version (1. considerable elongation occurs with no noticeable increase in the tensile force (from 'B' to 'C'). which is based upon the original cross-sectional area of the specimen and is easy to calculate. as previously mentioned. which means that it can deform without an increase in the applied load. The slope of the straight line from 'O' to 'A' is called the Modulus of Elasticity. The load eventually reaches its maximum value. this slope has the same units as stress. which is usually represented by 'E'. stone. the strain begins to increase more rapidly for each increment in stress. Examples are concrete. ceramic materials. but beyond that point the reduction begins to alter the shape of the diagram. Lateral contraction of the specimen occurs when it is stretched. These materials fail with only little elongation after the proportional limit is exceeded. the conventional stress-strain curve OABCDE. the material undergoes changes in its atomic and crystalline structure.0) 2-9 . The corresponding stress is known as the Yield Stress. The stress-strain curve then has a smaller and smaller slope. provides satisfactory information for use in design. glass. the curve becomes horizontal. cast iron. In the region from 'B' to 'C'. and the corresponding stress (at point D} is called the Ultimate Stress. and the stress-strain diagram has a positive slope from 'C' to 'D'. Materials that fail in tension at relatively low values of strain are classified as Brittle Materials. If the actual cross-sectional area at the narrow part of the neck is used to calculate the stress. resulting in a decrease in the cross-sectional area.

Ductile metals such as steel. it begins to bulge outward on the sides and become barrel shaped. With increasing load. when yielding begins the behavior is quite different.2 Elasticity and Plasticity: The stress-strain diagrams illustrate the behavior of various materials. When a small specimen of ductile material is compressed. aluminum. necking may occur. Suppose further that when the load is removed.Mechanics of Materials Stress-strain diagrams for compression have different shapes from those for tension. thus offering increased resistance to further shortening (which means the stress-strain curve goes upward). the specimen is flattened out. In a tension test. as they are loaded in tension or compression. Figure 2-5 2. and copper have proportional limits in compression very close to those in tension. and therefore the initial regions of their compression stress-strain diagrams are very similar to the tension diagrams. the specimen is stretched. This property of a material. and fracture ultimately takes place. However. Assume that we apply a load to a tensile specimen so that the stress and strain go from 'O' to 'A' on the stress-strain curve in Figure 2-6a. is called Elasticity. and the material itself is said Materials Version (1. Now let us consider what happens when the load is slowly removed and the material is Unloaded.0) 2-10 . the material follows exactly the same curve back to the origin 'O'. by which it returns to its original dimensions during unloading.

Figure 2-6a Now let us suppose that we load this same material to a much higher level. the load has been entirely removed. The corresponding residual elongation of the bar is called the Permanent Set. so that point 'B' is reached on the stress-strain diagram (Figure 2-6b). In this case.Mechanics of Materials to be Elastic. The stress-strain curve from 'O' to 'A' need not be linear in order for the material to be elastic. When point 'C' is reached. Figure 2-6b The stress at the upper limit of the elastic region is known as the Elastic Limit of the material. or Permanent Strain.0) 2-11 . 'OC' remains in the material. but a Residual Strain. Usually the elastic limit is slightly above or nearly the same as Materials Version (1. when unloading occurs. the material follows line BC on the diagram.

The load remains constant. In the case of mid steel. even though the Materials Version (1.0) 2-12 . This behavior occurs with many materials. This situation does not hold for all materials. However. the stress in the wire gradually diminishes with the elapse of time. due to creep. After this time. consider a wire that is stretched between two immovable supports so that it has an initial tensile stress 'σo' (Figure 2-7a). the yield stress is also very close to the proportional limit. After the initial loading time 'to'. suppose that a vertical bar (Figure 2-7a) is loaded slowly by a force 'P'. Eventually it reaches a constant value. 2. so that the bar elongates by an amount 'δo'. so that for practical purposes the yield stress. The characteristic of a material by which it undergoes inelastic strains beyond those at the elastic limit is known as Plasticity. Figure 2-7a As a second example of creep. although sometimes the change is too small to be of concern. lengthen as shown in Figure 2-7b. in Figure 2-6a. Assume that this loading and the corresponding elongation take place during a time interval 'to'. an elastic region is followed by a plastic region. and the proportional limit are assumed to be equal. the bar may gradually. even though the load does not change. Thus.Mechanics of Materials the proportional limit. the elastic limit. When large deformations occur in a ductile material loaded into the plastic region.3 Creep: Some materials develop additional strains over long periods of time and are said to Creep. the material is said to undergo Plastic Flow. Rubber provides the outstanding example of a material that is elastic far beyond the proportional limit. For example.

including metals.0) 2-13 . which is due to creep.Mechanics of Materials supports at the ends of the wire do not move. The linear relationship between stress and strain for a bar in simple tension or compression can be expressed by Hooke's Law. given by the following equation. plastics.concrete. Figure 2-7b Creep is usually more important at high temperatures than at ordinary temperatures. The modulus of elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain diagram in the linearly elastic region. It is a property of many solid materials.4 Linear Elasticity and Hooke's Law: When a material behaves elastically and also exhibits a linear relationship between stress and strain. is called Relaxation of the material. and its value depends upon the particular material being used. and other structures that operate at elevated temperatures for long periods of time. σ = E ε ----------------------(2-3) 'E' is a constant of proportionality known as the Modulus of Elasticity for the material. wood. and ceramics. This process. Steel has a modulus of approximately 200 GPa: for Materials Version (1. materials such as steel. Concrete and wood will creep slightly even at atmospheric temperatures. furnaces. such as structural metals. However. It has relatively large values for materials that are very stiff. and therefore it should always be considered in the design of engines. 2. it is said to be Linearly Elastic.

but in metals the changes in lateral dimensions are usually too small to be visible.7 to 14 GPa. The ratio of the strain in the lateral direction to the strain in the axial direction is known as Poisson's ratio 'ν'. the lateral strain represents a decrease in width (negative strain) and the axial strain represents elongation (positive strain). they can easily be detected with measuring devices. ν=− lateral strain ---------------(2-4) axial strain For a bar in tension.e.0) 2-14 . More flexible materials have a lower modulus: typical values for plastics range from 0. 2.5 Poisson's Ratio: When a prismatic bar is loaded in tension. It is readily seen in a stretched rubber band. However. with the bar becoming shorter Materials Version (1. The modulus of elasticity is also called Young's Modulus. For compression we have the opposite situation. Figure 2-9 The Lateral Strain at a point in a bar is proportional to the axial strain at that same point if the material is linearly elastic.Mechanics of Materials aluminum it is approximately 70 GPa. normal to the direction of the applied load (Figure 2-9). i. the axial elongation is accompanied by Lateral Contraction.

we see that shear forces 'V' must act over the cut surfaces of the bolt. Then a free-body diagram of the bolt (Figure 2-10c) shows the bearing stresses exerted by the clevis and the bar against the bolt. that acts parallel or tangential to the surface of the material. Poisson's ratio has a positive value for most materials. and so the Materials Version (1. will be developed against the bolt. As an example. From a free-body diagram of the portion mnpq of the bolt (Figure 2-10d). 2. let us look at the connection in a side view (Figure 2-10b). consider the bolted connection shown in Figure 2-10.Mechanics of Materials (negative axial strain) and wider (positive lateral strain). a clevis 'C'. the bar and clevis tend to shear off the bolt. In addition. Figure 2-10a Figure 2-10b To show more clearly the action of these stresses. This connection consists of a flat bar 'A'. In this particular example there are two planes of shear. the stresses on the left hand side (labeled 1 and 3) are from the clevis and those on the right hand side (labeled 2 are from the bar.6 Shear Stress And Strain: There is another very common type of stress. and this tendency is resisted by shear stresses in the bolt. and a bolt 'B' that passes through holes in the bar and clevis.0) 2-15 . known as a Shear Stress. and contact stresses. The freebody diagram of shows that there is a tendency to shear the bolt along cross sections 'mn' and 'pq'. Under the action of the tensile loads P. called Bearing Stresses. Therefore. the bar and clevis will press against the bolt in bearing.

and we have the following equation for Hooke's law in shear: τ = G γ -------------------(2-6) 'G' is the constant of proportionality called the Shear Modulus of elasticity (also called the Modulus of Rigidity). Shear stresses have no tendency to elongate or to shorten an element. For linearly elastic region of stress-strain diagram. Each of the shear forces V is equal to P/2. the shear stress and shear strain are directly proportional. material is deformed. resulting in Shear Strain.0) 2-16 . This angular deformation is called Shear Strain 'γ' and it is measured in radian. The average shear stress 'τ' on the cross section of the bolt is obtained by dividing the total shear force 'V' by the area 'A' over which it acts: τ= V ----------------(2-5) A Figure 2-10c Figure 2-10d Under the action of shear stress. Materials Version (1. measured in terms of angular deformation. They produce a change in the shape of the element and it is deformed in such a way that its opposite faces are moved with respect to one another.Mechanics of Materials bolt is said to be in Double Shear.

Materials Version (1.0) 2-17 . A force P = 116 kN is required. the average compressive stress in the punch is σc = 116 kN × 10 3 P = = 409 MPa Ac π × (19 mm) 2 /4 in which 'Ac' is the cross-sectional area of the punch. the average shear stress is τ= P 116 kN × 10 3 = = 324 MPa As 358 mm 2 Also. What is the average shear stress in the plate and the average compressive stress in the punch? Figure 2-11 Solution: The average shear stress is obtained by dividing the force 'P' by the area being sheared by the punch This area is equal to the circumference of the hole times the thickness of the plale: As = π × (19 mm) × (6 mm) = 358 mm 2 Therefore.Mechanics of Materials Example 2-3 A punch with a diameter of 19 mm is used to punch a hole in a 6 mm steel plate (Figure 2-11).

If the factor of safety is too low. a common method of design is to use a factor of safety with respect to yielding of the structure. The incorporation of factors of safety into design is not a simple matter. The ratio of the actual strength to the required strength is called the Factor of Safety 'n': Factor of safety = n = actual strength ----------------(2-7) required strength Of course. there are several ways in which factors of safety are defined and implemented. possibility of fatigue failure. or repeated) and how accurately they are known. accuracy of the methods of analysis: whether failure is gradual (ample warning) or sudden (no warning).0 if failure is to be avoided. In actual practice. Depending upon the circumstances. Under these conditions. or it can mean that the deformations have exceeded some limiting value so that the structure is no longer able to perform its intended functions. They are usually determined by groups of experienced engineers who write the codes and specifications used by other designers. inaccuracies in construction.Mechanics of Materials 2. deterioration due to corrosion or other environmental effects. Because of these complexities. The latter kind of failure may occur at loads much smaller than those that cause actual collapse. the factor of safety must be greater than 1. types of loads (static. The structure begins to yield when the yield stress is reached at any point within the Materials Version (1. the likelihood of failure will be high and hence the structure will be unacceptable.7 Allowable Stresses and Allowable Loads: If structural failure is to be avoided. dynamic. it is important that the material remain within the linearly elastic range in order to avoid permanent deformations when the loads are removed. if the factor is too large. The actual strength of a structure must exceed the required strength. The ability of a structure to resist loads is called Strength. quality of workmanship. For many structures. factors of safety from slightly above 1. The determination of a factor of safety must also take into account such matters as the following: probability of accidental overloading of the structure by loads that exceed the design loads. consequences of failure (minor damage or major catastrophe): and other such considerations. variations in properties of materials. it may be too heavy).0 to as much as 10 are used. because both strength and failure have many different meanings. good engineering judgment is required when establishing factors of safety. Failure can mean the fracture or complete collapse of a structure. the loads that a structure actually can support must be greater than the loads it will be required to sustain when in service. the structure will be wasteful of materials and perhaps unsuitable for its function (for instance.0) 2-18 .

cast-iron cylinder (Figure 2-12) is to support an axial compressive load P = 580 kN. This method is suitable for brittle materials. ---------------------------(2-9) n The last method involves the application of factors of safety to loads rather than to stresses.0) 2-19 . By applying a factor of safety with respect to the yield stress. but it also is used for wood and high-strength steels. It is decided to design the cylinder with a wall thickness 't' of 25 mm and a factor of safely of 3. yield stress Allowable stress = factor of safety ----------------------------(2-8) n Another method of design is to establish the allowable stress by applying a factor of safety with respect to the Ultimate Stress instead of the yield stress. σ allow = σy σ allow = σu Figure2-12 Materials Version (1. Ultimate Loads mean the loads that produce failure or collapse of the structure. circular. The loads that the structure must support in service are called Service Loads. Thus. we obtain an Allowable Stress. that must not be exceeded anywhere in the structure.0 with respect to the ultimate strength.Mechanics of Materials structure. or Working Stress. The ultimate stress in compression for the material is σu = 240 MPa. ultimate load Factor of safety = n = service load Example 2-4 A short. Compute the minimum required outside diameter 'd' of the cylinder. hollow. such as concrete and some plastics.

we get d =t + A = 117. σ allow = σ u 240 MPa = = 80 MPa n 3. Materials Version (1.0 The required cross-sectional area can now be found: A= P σ allow = 580 kN × 10 3 = 7250 mm 2 80 MPa The actual cross-sectional area is π d 2 π (d − 2 t) 2 − = π t (d − t) A= 4 4 in which 'd' is the outside diameter and (d .2 t) is the inside diameter.Mechanics of Materials Solution: The allowable compressive stress is equal to the ultimate stress divided by the factor of safety. Solving for 'd' and then substituting t = 25 mm and A = 7250 mm2.0) 2-20 . equation 2-9.3 mm πt The outside diameter must be at least this large in order to have the desired factor of safety.

There are ninety-two different 'natural' chemical elements of which over seventy are metals. gaining or sharing electrons. Altogether there are ninety-two different types of atom which occur naturally though during the 'nuclear age' scientists have succeeded in producing some new ones. stones and rocks like granite. These atoms are held together by forces of attraction which are due to the electrical charges within each atom. As a result of such reactions strong bonds are formed between atoms so that the atoms are left with completed outer electron shells. it follows that there are generally insufficient electrons to complete the final outer shell. whilst others are useless to the engineer either by virtue of poor mechanical properties or because they are chemically very reactive. of the naturally occurring atoms the smallest and simplest is that of hydrogen. Materials Version (1. Of the non-metallic elements carbon is perhaps the one which forms the basis of most engineering materials since it constitutes the "backbones' of all plastics. Consequently less than twenty of them (Table 3-1) are in common use in engineering alloys. At the same time there is electrical attraction between the outer-shell electrons of one atom and the protons in the nuclei of neighboring atoms and it is these forces of attraction which cause both chemical combination and physical changes such as crystallization to take place. All truly solid materials consists of atoms which are arranged in some pattern peculiar to that material. Another element silicon has become famous in the form of the 'silicon chip'. Some of these metallic elements are extremely rare. Moreover it can be used in strong fibre form and is an essential constituent of all common heat-treatable steels. Oxygen and silicon are by far the most common elements in the Earth's crust and account for some 75 per cent of it in the form of clays. This is achieved by atoms either losing. Since the number of protons in the nucleus governs the total number of electrons in all shells around it. is that of uranium. The distribution of electrons in different shells or energy levels is also known to us. sands.0) 3-21 . Molecules and Crystals 3. some two-hundred and thirty-eight times as massive.0 Introduction: Atoms are very tiny particles indeed. 3. but along with oxygen (as silicon dioxide or silica) it is the basis of many refractory building materials.1 Chemical Bonding of Atoms: We all know the basic structure of atoms and the subatomic particles. Molecules and crystals CHAPTER 3 Atoms. for example plutonium. whilst the largest.Atoms.

5 19.4 2620 1458 1950 1773 960 232 1667 3410 1150 1710 420 1800 420 310 270 130 140 11 230 420 390 200 110 220 50 28 49 35 50 60 55 16 4 38 25 25 Materials Version (1.5 7.9 8.9 8.3 18.8 8.3 1. Molecules and crystals Table 3-1 Properties of the important engineering metals.Atoms.9 19. Metal Chemical Symbol Relative Density Melting-point (0C) Tensile strength (Nmm-2) (soft) Elongation (%) Aluminum Antimony Beryllium Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Gold Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mercury Al Sb Be Cd Cr Co Cu Au Fe Pb Mg Mn Hg 2.6 21.6 1.2 8.4 10.9 11.0) 3-22 .3 7.6 7.1 8.3 4.1 6.7 7.7 7.2 13.7 6.3 50 0 6 60 30 10 64 5 20 Molten at ordinary temperatures Molybdenum Nickel Niobium Platinum Silver Tin Titanium Tungsten Uranium Vanadium Zinc Zirconium Mo Ni Nb Pt Ag Sn Ti W U V Zn Zr 10.6 660 630 1285 321 1890 1495 1083 1063 1535 327 651 1260 -39 59 10 310 80 220 250 220 120 500 18 180 500 Molten at ordinary temperatures 60 0 2.7 5.

Two of these electrons complete the first shell. Figure 3-1 The atom of fluorine on the other hand contains nine protons in its nucleus and. therefore. three electrons in orbit around that nucleus. Two of these fill the first shell so that there are no less than seven electrons in the second shell (Figure 3-1). leaving a lone electron in the second shell (Figure 3-1). For example. the lone electron of the lithium atom is snatched away so that it joins the outer electron shell of the fluorine atom. to form crystals of sodium chloride (common table salt). To have an understanding of the bond.Atoms.0) 3-23 . Because the lithium particle has lost a negatively charged electron it now has a resultant positive charge. consequently. whilst the fluorine particle having gained an electron now has a resultant negative charge. nine electrons in orbit around it. consider the combination which occurs between the metal lithium and the extremely reactive non-metallic gas fluorine. If a lithium atom and a fluorine atom approach each other. Molecules and crystals 3. Charged particles of this type are called ions. This leaves the lithium particle with a complete first shell (2 electrons) and at the same time the electron which it has lost goes to complete the second shell (8 electrons) of the fluorine particle (Figure 3-2).2 Electrovalent Bond: The Electrovalent Bond is the attractive force produced by reactions which take place between metals and non-metals. An atom of lithium contains only three protons in its nucleus and. Figure 3-2 Materials Version (1. the extremely reactive metal sodium combines with the equally reactive non-metallic gas chlorine. Metals always form positively charged ions whilst non-metals form negatively charged ions.

For lithium fluoride. Figure 3-3 3. These outer-shell electrons are loosely held to the atomic nucleus and as a metallic vapour condenses and subsequently solidifies these outer-shell electrons get free to form a sort of common pool and are virtually shared between all atoms in the solid metal. Since the resultant metallic ions are all positively charged they will repel each other and so arrange themselves in some form of regular (crystal) pattern in which they are firmly held in position by the attractive force between them and this permeating 'cloud' of negatively charged electrons (Figure 3-4). whilst unlike charges attract. This type of bonding is Metallic Bond. like charges repel so that lithium and fluorine ions arrange themselves in a geometrical pattern in which each fluorine ion is surrounded by six lithium ions as its nearest neighbours whilst each lithium ion is surrounded by six fluorine ions (Figure 3-3). two or at most three electrons in the outermost shell of the atom. However. Other such suits may form more complex crystal patterns depending upon the relative sizes of the ions involved and the ratio of the electrical charges carried by each type of ion. Figure 3-4 Materials Version (1.3 Metallic Bond: Most metals have one. This type of strucutre is called Crystal Structure. it is a relatively simple cubic type of crystal structure. Molecules and crystals As these lithium and fluorine ions carry opposite charges they will attract each other.0) 3-24 .Atoms.

all the metals posses following main characteristics: All metals are good conductors of electricity. 3. The element carbon has the ability to form long chain-like molecules in which carbon atoms are covalently bonded to each other and to hydrogen atoms: An important feature of covalent bonded materials is that. Metals are lustrous in appearance since the free. For example. vibrating surface electrons reflect back rays of light as these fall upon the surface of the metal.5 Polymorphism: Many solid elements can exist in more than one different crystalline form and are said to be Polymorphic (the term allotropy is also used to describe this phenomenon). These electrons are not free to move away and so the materials are excellent insulators since they cannot conduct electricity. hydrogen atom consists of a single electron in orbit around a nucleus consisting of a single proton. Hence instead of a transfer of electrons from one atom to the other there is a sharing of electrons between two atoms thus binding them together.0) 3-25 . the outer-shell electrons in these covalent substances are securely held to the atoms to which they belong.Atoms. Molecules and crystals It is due to this metallic bonding. Since electrons constituting the 'electron cloud' are free to move within the body of the metal. 3. The application of heat to a piece of metal causes electrons to vibrate more actively and these vibrations can be passed on quickly from one electron to another within the electron cloud. Two atoms of hydrogen will therefore combine to form a molecule of hydrogen and in this way the two electrons are shared between the two atoms thus completing the electron shell for each atom by this process of sharing the two electrons. unlike metals in which the outer-shell electrons can travel freely within the electron cloud so making metals conductors of electricity. For example.4 Covalent Bond: The covalent bond is formed between atoms of those non-metallic elements in which there is a strong attractive force between the nucleus and the outer-shell electrons. polymorphism of iron which Materials Version (1. Generally these different crystalline forms are stable over different temperature ranges so that transition from one form to another takes place as the transition temperature is passed. Metals are good conductors of heat. Most metals are ductile because layers of ions can be made to slide over each other by the application of a shearing force. At the same time metals are strong because the attractive force provided by the electron cloud opposes the slipping apart of those layers of ions.

Another example is tin.Atoms. White tin. Molecules and crystals enables us to harden suitable steels. is stable above 13°C whilst 'grey tin' is stable below 13°C. which is also polymorphic existing as 'grey tin'. ordinary 'white tin' and as 'brittle tin'.0) 3-26 . Materials Version (1. the form with which we are generally familiar.

Iron and Tungsten are BCC at normal temperatures. 'Lattice Structure' or 'Crystal Structure'. During solidification. Face Centred Cubic (FCC).can exist as either gases.2 Face Centred Cubic: It consists of atom cores at the corners of the cube and one atom core at the middle of each cubic face. the particles consist of single atoms. 4.Crystal Structure of Metals CHAPTER 4 Crystal Structure of Metals 4.1 Body Centred Cubic: It consists of atom cores (i. or solids. In a metallic gas. all being held in position by the Electron Gas.0) 4-27 . As the temperature falls condensation occurs and liquid metal is formed in which atoms are held together only by weak forces of attraction. Materials Version (1. Figure 4-1 4.e.e. Body Centred Cubic (BCC). liquids. for that matter .and other elements. which are in a state of continuous motion. Each atom becomes firmly bonded to its neighbours by stronger forces of attraction: so the solid metal acquires strength. the atoms arrange themselves according to some regular pattern. atoms without the outer electrons) at the corners of a cube and one atom core in the centre. The 'state' in which a metal exists depends upon the conditions of temperature and pressure which prevail at the time. all bounded together by the Electron Gas. and Close Packed Hexagonal (CPH). Most of the important metals crystallize into one of three different patterns as solidification takes place (Figure 4-1) i.0 Introduction: All metals .

Crystal Structure of Metals Aluminium. crystallization will begin. nine atoms will come together to form a single unit. Lead. The term 'dendrite' is derived from the Greek word 'dendron'. Beryllium and Cobalt are CPH at ordinary temperatures. Gold and Platinum are FCC at ordinary temperatures. and form what is called a 'dendrite' (Figure 4-2). The nucleus of each crystal will be a single unit of the appropriate crystal lattice. meaning a tree. Zinc. 4.4 Dendritic Solidification: When the temperature of a molten pure metal falls below its freezing-point. except that the branches in a dendrite follow a regular geometrical pattern. overlapping the original one. Zirconium. Soon the tiny crystal will reach visible size. For example.0) 4-28 . and this will grow as further atoms join the lattice structure (Figure 4-1). Secondary and tertiary arms develop from the main 'backbone' of the dendrite .rather like the branches and twigs which develop from the trunk of a tree. These atoms will join the 'seed crystal' so that it grows most quickly in those directions in which heat is flowing away most rapidly. in the case of a metal with a bodycentred cubic lattice. Although these atoms in the centre of the hexagon look out of place. 4. Copper.3 Close Packed Hexagonal: It consists of one atom core at each corner of a solid hexagon. one atom core on the top and bottom faces and three atom cores on the corners of a triangle in the middle of the solid hexagon. Figure 4-2 Materials Version (1. they are real part of another close packed plane displaced in space.

If impurities were dissolved in the molten metal. or. however. Figure 4-3 4. alternatively. Liquid metal will be drawn in from elsewhere to fill the space formed as a dendrite grows. and this leads to the irregular overall shape of crystals (Figure 4-3). it follows that outer arms of neighbouring dendrites are likely to make contact with each other at irregular angles. until all the remaining liquid is used up. Since each dendrite forms independently.5 Effect of Impurities: In pure metals.Crystal Structure of Metals The arms of the dendrite continue to grow until they make contact with the outer arms of other dendrites growing in a similar manner nearby. If this is not possible. then small shrinkage cavities are likely to form between the dendrite arms. because all atoms in a pure metal are identical. the existing arms thicken until the spaces between them are filled. there will be no hint of the dendritic process of crystallization once solidification is complete. In this way.0) 4-29 . these would tend to remain in solution until solidification was almost complete. they Materials Version (1. When the outward growth is thus restricted.

the ultimate crystals will be tiny. will lead to some degree of undercooling of the molten metal to a temperature below its actual freezing-point (Figure 4-4). however. since fine-grained castings are generally tougher and stronger than those with a coarse grain size. A rapid fall in temperature.0) 4-30 . making the cast metal brittle and likely to fail along the crystal boundaries. A gradual fall in temperature results in the formation of few nuclei and so the resultant crystals grow unimpeded to a large size.Crystal Structure of Metals would reveal the dendritic pattern when a suitably prepared specimen was viewed under the microscope. 4. Materials Version (1. Due to this undercooling and the instability associated with it. It is due to this concentration of impurities at crystal boundaries that a small amount of impurity can have such a devastating effect on mechanical properties. This is an advantage.6 Influence Of Cooling Rates on Crystal Size: The rate at which a molten metal is cooling as it reaches the freezingtemperature affects the size of the crystals which form. a very large number of nuclei is produced. Due to it.

sheet.0) 5-31 .0 Introduction: Most metallic materials pass through a molten state at some stage during the shaping process. Much of this molten metal is cast into ingot form prior to being shaped by some mechanical working process. both ferrous and non-ferrous. rod. This branch of technology is termed Powder Metallurgy. forged. 5. or extruded into strip. or other sections. are cast in the form of ingots which are then rolled.can be shaped only by casting since they lack the necessary properties of either malleability or ductility. Figure 5-1 Materials Version (1.Casting Processes CHAPTER 5 Casting Processes 5. Some metals and alloys and a number of non-metallic products such as concrete .1 Ingot Casting: Many alloys. The powder is then compressed and sintered to provide the required shape. Some of the common casting processes are briefly discussed in the following. A few metallic substances are produced in powder form. tube.

5. Liquid metal is poured into the mould which is solidified in the mould shape.2 Continuous Casting: This process is used to produce ingots of both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys (Figure 5-2). This reservoir feeds metal into the 'pipe' which forms as the main body of the ingot solidifies and contracts. the base is withdrawn downwards at a rate which will keep place with that of pouring. since very intricate shapes can be produced in a large range of metals and alloys. there is little process scrap.0) 5-32 . since the necessary outlay on the simple Materials Version (1.Casting Processes When produced as single ingots. In modern steelmaking. Figure 5-2 In continuous casting. 5. The pattern is withdrawn to leave a cavity of the correct shape in the sand.3 Sand Casting: In sand-casting process. Moreover. As solidification begins. Sandcasting is a very useful process. Here the molten metal is cast into a short water-cooled mould. pipe is eliminated since the continuous-cast ingot is conveyed by a system of guide rolls direct to the rolling mill from which the emerging product is cut to the required lengths by a flying saw. sand mould is made by using a suitable pattern. relatively small numbers of castings can be made economically. since very long ingots are produced and consequently there is proportionally less rejected pipe. steel is generally cast into large iron moulds holding several tonnes of metal (Figure 5-1). There is a reservoir of molten metal which shall be preserved until solidification of the body of the ingot is complete.

a permanent metal mould is used. 5. sewage and gas mains. Greater dimensional accuracy and a better surface finish are also obtained by die-casting. 5. A permanent cylindrical metal mould. The product has a uniformly fine-grained outer surface.Casting Processes equipment required is low. thus producing a hoilow cylinder of uniform wall thickness. However. Moreover. non-yielding metal mould. and the grain much finer. Centrifugal force flings the metal to the surface of the mould. because of their high shrinkage coefficients. and the charge of molten metal is either allowed to run in under the action of gravity (gravity die-casting). as compared with the metal die which is necessary in die-casting processes. or is forced in under pressure (pressure die-casting). Figure 5-3 Materials Version (1. because of the rapid cooling rates. and molten metal is poured into it (Figure 5-3).4 Die Casting: In die-casting. is spun at high speed. Die-casting is confined mainly to zinc or aluminium-base alloys. Such alloys would inevitably crack due to their contraction during solidification within the rigid. The product of die-casting is metallurgically superior to that of sand-casting because the internal structure is more uniform. output rates are much higher when using a permanent metal mould than when using sand moulds.5 Centrifugal Casting: This process is most commonly used in the manufacture of cast-iron pipes for water. Wooden patterns are also cheap to produce.0) 5-33 . and is considered superior to a similar shape which has been sand-cast. some alloys which can be sand-cast cannot be die-cast. without any central core.

it must have sufficient Strength. small strain. 6. The behaviour of a metal under a load depends upon its certain properties. 6. however they lose their elasticity when stressed beyond this point and only partially regain their original shape on release of the load.5 Toughness: Toughness is the property of a material which allows it to withstand a great deal of deformation together with high stress without rupture.4 Plasticity: When a stress beyond the elastic limit is placed on a material. it may become permanently deformed or plastic.3 Elasticity: The property of a material which causes it to return to its original shape upon release of an applied stress is called Elasticity.Mechanical Testing CHAPTER 6 Mechanical Testing 6. Stiffness of a material is. some fracture. Thus. some stretch greatly. collapse. We have been referring to many of them throughout but now they are formally discussed under: 6. shortened.e.2 Stiffness: If a material changes form only slightly. strength can be defined as the maximum stress which a material can develop in resistance of being lengthened. a plastic material is one which easily becomes permanently deformed or has a comparatively low modulus of elasticity. therefore. 6. Thus. some react very little. 6. i.0 Properties of Materials: Various structure materials react differently to the same loads. All materials are elastic below their elastic limit.1 Strength: For a material to be suitable for use in a structure. it must be able to withstand the expected forces or loads without rupture. or distorted to the point of failure. its resistance to strain as measured by its modulus of elasticity. or undue distortion.0) 6-34 . That is. under stress then it is said to have a high degree of Stiffness. Toughness Materials Version (1.

the test-piece is destroyed during the testing process.0) 6-35 . in a tensile test we measure the force required to stretch a specimen of the metal until it breaks. whilst in various hardness tests we produce a small dent in the surface of a test piece by using a compressive force. ductility is the ability of a material to undergo large permanent deformation in tension while malleability is the ability to undergo large permanent deformation in compression. In the type of test mentioned above. While designing a structure. It is a combination of many properties. Brittleness is opposite to plasticity. Thus. 6. These are taken from a batch of material and they are therefore assumed to be representative of the batch.Mechanical Testing actually is a measure of the energy which a material will absorb without failure.7 Ductility and Malleability: Ductility is the property of a material which allows it to be drawn out by tension resulting in a permanent set. and can only be applied to individual test pieces. for example X-rays are used to seek internal cavities in castings. Such tests are therefore known as Destructive Tests. Various mechanical tests have therefore been devised over the years.8 Hardness: Hardness is the ability to resist very small indentations. Tests of a different nature and purpose are used to examine manufactured components for internal flaws and faults. before we can use it. 6. The hardness number is then calculated as the force used divided by the surface area of the impression produced by it. we are primarily concerned with the balancing of forces We must therefore know the effects which the application of forces may have on a material. with the object of comparing the amount of deformation produced in a metal with the force which was employed to produce it. Thus. abrasion and plastic deformation. 6. These tests are generally referred to as Materials Version (1. A malleable material is one which can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets.6 Brittleness: A brittle material is one which can be permanently deformed only to a very limited extent following which it will beak suddenly. A ductile material is one which may be stretched considerably before rupture takes place.

and is subjected to a tensile force which is increased by suitable increments. Force-Extension diagram is plotted with the data to analyse the behaviour of the material. the amount by which the length of a known 'gauge length' on the test piece increases is measured. 6. Fig. 6-1 Materials Version (1.Mechanical Testing Non-Destructive Tests (NDT). A test piece of known cross-sectional area is gripped in the jaws of a testing-machine.0) 6-36 . This process continues until the test piece fractures. In such tests the component is not destroyed during the test. For each increment of force.1 Tensile Test: The tensile strength of a material is the stress required to cause fracture of a test piece in tension.8.

If the force is released at any point before 'A' is reached. and the material obeys Hooke's law.8. if the force is now removed.first uniformly along its entire length. Such extension as there is directly proportional to the force. at the head of the list and talc (with an index of 1) at the foot (Table 6-1). the hardest of all (with a hardness index of 10). Moh's scale was used to assess the relative hardness of minerals. compared with the increase in force. the material suddenly suffers a sudden extension for very little increase in force. Table-1 Moh’s scale of hardness Material Hardness index Diamond 10 Sapphire 9 Topaz 8 Quartz 7 Feldspar 6 Apatite 5 Fluorspar 4 Calcite 3 Gypsum 2 talc 1 Materials Version (1. 6. at 'M'. a small permanent extension will remain in the material. This is called the Yield Point (Y). that is. This 'necking' occurs just after the maximum force has been reached. Any mineral in the list will scratch any one below it and in this way the hardness of any 'unknown' substance can be related to the scale by finding which substance on the scale will just scratch it and a hardness index thus assigned to it. the test piece will return to its original length. the material stretches rapidly . Thus.0) 6-37 . and. Earlier. It shows that at first the amount of extension is very small. the force at 'B' required to break the specimen is much less than the maximum load at 'M'. 'OA' is a straight line. and since the cross-section decreases rapidly at the neck. and then form a 'neck'. with diamond. If the test piece is stressed past the point 'A' (known as the elastic limit or limit of proportionality). the extension between 'O' and 'A' is elastic.Mechanical Testing Figure 6-1 shows a typical force-extension diagram for an annealed carbon steel. This consists of a list of materials arranged in order of hardness.2 Hardness Tests: A true definition of surface hardness is the capacity of that surface to resist abrasion. As the force is increased further. Any extension which occurs past the point 'A' is of a plastic nature.

using some form of calibrated microscope. a different set of tables being used for each possible combination of 'P' and 'D'.8.Mechanical Testing Modern methods of hardness testing really measure the materials resistance to penetration rather than to abrasion. and the Brinell hardness number (H} is found from: Figure 6-2 load (P) area of curved surface of impression H= If 'D' is the diameter of the ball. 6. it can be shown that: π area of curved surface of impression = D D − D 2 − d 2 2 It follows that ( ) H= π D D − D2 − d 2 2 ( load (P) ) 'H' is generally found by reference to tables which relate 'H' to 'd'. and d that of the impression. Materials Version (1.0) 6-38 .3 Brinell Test: It is probably the best known of the hardness tests. The diameter of the impression is then measured. A hardened steel ball is forced into the surface of a test-piece by means of a suitable standard load (Figure 6-2).

5 Rockwell Test: The Rockwell test is particularly useful for rapid routine testing of finished material.8. and no subsequent measurement of the diameter of the impression is involved. One great advantage of this is that all impressions will be geometrically similar. within limits.4 Vickers Pyramid Test: The Vickers pyramid hardness test uses a square-based diamond pyramid (Figure 6-3) as the indentor. and. and when it is subsequently released (timing being automatic).8. Full load is then applied. and so the result will be less uncertain. and the scale is then adjusted to zero. Consequently. since the hardness number is indicated directly on a dial. Figure 6-3 6. this is converted (on the dial) to hardness values in which the surface area of the impression is related to the load in the usual way. This takes up the 'slack' in the system. the operator does not have to choose a P/D2 ratio as he does in the Brinell test. and the indentor is brought into contact with the surface under 'light load'. for reasons similar to those indicated in the case of the Brinell test.0) 6-39 . Although the depth (h) (Fig-6-4) of the impression is measured by the instrument. though he must still observe the relationship between depth of impression and thickness of specimen. the test-piece Materials Version (1.Mechanical Testing 6. A further advantage of the Vickers hardness test is that hardness values for very hard materials (above an index of 500) are likely to be more accurate than the corresponding Brinell numbers since diamond does not deform under high pressure to the same extent as does a steel ball. The test piece is placed on the table of the instrument. the accuracy of the result will not vary with depth of the impression.

7 Izod Test: The Izod impact test employs a standard notched test piece (Figure 6-5). both in this and the other impact tests. the unsatisfactory material would prove to be extremely brittle as compared with the correctly treated one. The striking energy of approximately 163 J is partially absorbed in breaking the test-piece. however. which would be tough. A heavy pendulum. Figure 6-4 There are also other methods for hardness testing like the Shore scleroscope. however. Brittleness of a material is often not revealed during a tensile test.8. It is essential.0) 6-40 . etc.6 Impact Tests: These tests are used to indicate the toughness of a material. In an impact test. wear resistance tests. This indicates the amount of mechanical energy used in fracturing the test piece. and as the pendulum swings past. 6.Mechanical Testing remains under 'light load' whilst the hardness index is read direct from the scale. To set up stress concentrations which will ensure that fracture does occur. for which reason a standard gauge is supplied to test the dimensional accuracy of the notch. it carries with it a drag pointer which it leaves at its highest point of swing.8. is allowed to strike the test-piece after being released from a fixed height. the test piece is notched. 6. and particularly its capacity for resisting mechanical shock. that this notch always be standard. Materials Version (1. mounted on ball-bearings. which is clamped firmly in a vice.

8. and for this reason the effects of creep must be taken into account in the design of steam and chemical plant.Mechanical Testing Figure 6-5 There is also another very common impact test known as the Charpy impact test. some metals extend very gradually. gas and steam turbines. 6. This phenomenon of slow but continuous extension under a steady force is known as Creep.8 Creep Test: When stressed over a long period of time.0) 6-41 . Materials Version (1. and furnace equipment. Such slow extension is more prevalent at high temperatures. and may ultimately fail at a stress well below the tensile strength of the material.

Fatigue Failure is associated with the effects which a fluctuating or an alternating force may have on a member. At low stress and/or low temperature (Curve I) some Primary Creep may occur but this falls to a negligible amount in the Secondary Creep (the creep curve becomes almost horizontal). 6. The Limiting Creep Stress of a material at any given temperature is the maximum stress it can withstand without showing any measurable extension.8. and from these the limiting creep stress is derived. Figure 6-6 Creep tests are carried out on test pieces which are similar in form to ordinary tensile test pieces. A test piece is enclosed in a thermostatically controlled electric tube furnace which can be maintained accurately at a fixed temperature over the long period of time occupied by the test.9 Fatigue Test: Experiments show that a girder which would support a static load of 12 tonf for an indefinite period. orwhen subjected to the action of a 'live load'.0) 6-42 . With increased stress and/or temperature (Curves II and III) the rate of secondary creep increases leading into Tertiary Creep and inevitable catastrophic failure. and some form of sensitive extensometer is used to measure the extremely small extension at suitable time intervals. A set of creep curves. is finally produced. The test piece is statically stressed. Materials Version (1.Mechanical Testing Creep occurs generally in three stages (Figure 6-6). would fail if a load of only 3 tonf were raised and lowered on it some three million times. obtained for different static forces at the same temperature.

alternatively. Each test piece is tested at a different value of W.0) 6-43 . until failure occurs. Materials Version (1. a number of similar specimens of the material are tested by a fatigue testing machine in which alternations of stress can be produced in a test piece very rapidly (Figure 6-7). This stress is the fatigue limit or endurance limit. that is. From these results. This is possible since the fatigue limit is well below the tensile strength for all materials. or even a bad tool mark on the surface of a component which has otherwise been correctly designed with regard to the fatigue limit of the material from which it was made. a microstructural defect. Any feature which increases stress concentrations may precipitate fatigue failure. until about 20 million reversals have been endured. Such failure can be due simply to bad design and lack of understanding of fatigue. an S-N curve is plotted. or. but is much more likely to be due to the presence of unforeseen highfrequency vibrations in a member which is stressed above the fatigue limit. The curve becomes horizontal at a stress which will be endured for an infinite number of reversals.Mechanical Testing To find the fatigue limit. stress (S) against the number of reversals (N) endured. a sharp fillet. Thus a fatigue crack may start from a keyway. Figure 6-7 Fatigue failure will ultimately occur in any member which is stressed above its fatigue limit in such a way that the operating stress fluctuates or alternates.

9. When the test piece splits.Mechanical Testing 6.0) 6-44 . then back through 90° in the opposite direction (Figure 6-9).2 Bend Test: Bend tests are often used as a means of judging the suitability of a metal for bending treatment during a production process. a hardened steel ball is forced into the test piece (Figure 6-8).9 Some Other Mechanical Tests: Most of these tests are designed to evaluate some particular property of a material which is not revealed adequately during any of the preceding tests.9. and this height (in mm) is taken as the Erichsen value. The wire is bent through 90° over a cylinder of specified radius 'R'. 6. It requires little equipment other than a vice. Materials Version (1. This is continued until the test piece breaks. The most useful aspect of the test is that it gives some idea of the grain size of the material. Figure 6-8 6. In this test. and hence its suitability for deep-drawing. will show up as a rough granular surface in the dome of the test piece. the number of bending cycles being counted. Coarse grain. Erichsen cupping test is used in such cases. always associated with poor ductility in a drawing operation.1 Erichsen Cupping Test: Materials of very high ductility are used for deep-drawing. the height of the cup which has been formed is measured. However. which is clamped between a die-face and a blank-holder. The surface affected by the bending process is examined for cracks. a simple measurement of ductility in terms of percentage elongation (obtained during the tensile test) does not always give a complete assessment of deep-drawing properties.

This is compressed (using a tensile-testing machine running in 'reverse') until it fails. A cylindrical block.3 Compression Test: Compression tests are used mainly in connection with cast iron and concrete since these are materials more likely to be used under the action of compressive forces than in tension. Figure 6-10 Materials Version (1.Mechanical Testing Figure 6-9 6. is used as a test piece (Figure 6-10(i)).9.0) 6-45 . the length of which is twice its diameter.

Mechanical Testing Malleable metals do not show a well-defined point of failure (Figure 6-10(ii)) but with brittle materials (Figure 6-10(iii)). One grip remains stationary whilst the other is rotated. Figure 6-11 Materials Version (1. usually by multiple shear at angles of 45° to the direction of compression. the ultimate compressive stress can be measured accurately. The simple machine used (Figure 6-11) consists essentially of two grips which remain in the same axis and do not apply any bending moment to the test piece. since the material fails suddenly. 6. The test piece is held in the machine so that its longitudinal axis coincides with the axis of the grips and so that it remains straight during the test. steel wire in particular. This is achieved by applying a constant tensile force just sufficient to straighten it but not exceeding 2% of the nominal tensile strength of the specimen.9.0) 6-46 . The test consists of twisting a piece of wire in the same direction round its own axis until it breaks or until a specified number of twists has been endured.4 Torsion Test: Torsion tests are often applied to wire.

Elongation is a measure of difficulty (the ability to be plastically deformed in tension without failure) and so may be an important factor in the fabrication cost of many components. a designer will work to 1/2 or 1/3 of the yield strength to allow a margin of safety. will yield locally under a scratch or a corner and increase its own strength at that location. Fatigue resistance is primarily of importance to designers. sharp corners will do the same thing.0) 6-47 . A ductile material. Other than this.10. ductility can significantly affect the load carrying ability of the material. Generally. however. A small surface mark will reduce the fatigue strength of a brittle material enormously. on the other hand. Yield strength is of great importance. Impact resistance is of value in components subject to high rates of loading. It is important to remember. It is also a test for poor heat treatment and can give an indication of a material's fatigue resistance in high load rate applications. since it is the stress which mustn't be exceeded if the component is to stay the same size and shape for its whole working life. Materials Version (1. Significance Of Mechanical Properties: Hardness is of most interest where wear resistance is needed. that overloading can cause premature failure and is not always obvious. Ultimate tensile strength is of little use to designers since most components will be hopelessly deformed and usable long before they break.Mechanical Testing 6. In addition. its main use is to estimate the tensile strength or as a quick check that a material meets a specification. Elongation is a safety device given to designers and fabricators by metallurgists to save them from their own poor work.

Castings may crack due to contraction during the period of solidification and cooling. This developer can be blown on as a Materials Version (1. Even with fairly rigorous on-line inspection. others may be far harder to detect. are rep resentative of a batch of manufactured material. 7. and a number of suitable methods are available in each case.0) 7-48 . etc.1. During such testings. the surface to be examined is first cleaned adequately to remove grease. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). Some cracks show up during inspection using a simple hand magnifier. the excess is carefully washed from the surface with warm water (the surface tension of water is too high to allow it to enter the fine cracks). faults and flaws are detected either at the surface or below it. The test surface is then carefully dried and coated with a 'developer' such as powdered chalk. Small components may be immersed in the heated penetrant. After sufficient time has elapsed for the penetrant to fill any cracks. it is hoped. These tests give an overall assessment of the quality of the product.1 Penetrant Methods: In these methods. If the quality of such components is very important. and then dried (Figure 7-1). therefore. since properties are generally uniform throughout a large batch of material derived from a single cast ingot. however. For example.Non-Destructive Testing CHAPTER 7 Non-Destructive Testing 7. Other suitable solvents may also be used to remove excess penetrant.1 Tests for the Detection of Surface Cracks and Flaws: Surface cracks may arise in a material in a number of ways. it may be necessary to test each component individually using some type of nondestructive examination. the term nondestructive testing is often replaced by Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE). surrounding atmosphere. as for example castings used in nuclear power plant. Components which are produced individually. faulty components can arise due to the influences of many variable factors such as working temperature. may vary in quality. The penetrant liquid is then sprayed on to the surface. In many cases such tests will be adequate. 7. which should be warmed to about 90°C. and the operator skill. such as castings and welded joints. steel tools may develop hair-line cracks which are not apparent during ordinary visual inspection.0 Introduction: Those tests described in the previous chapter are destructive tests carried out on samples which.

the use of chalk becomes unnecessary. thus revealing the presence of the cracks.1. the penetrant contains a compound which becomes fluorescent under ultraviolet light and thus.m. when there is a gap or other discontinuity at or just below the surface. so the chalk layer will become stained. In air. 7. A further advantage over the penetrant method is that flaws which are immediately below the surface are also detected. They provide a very quick and efficient method of detecting cracks. through the component. Therefore.2 Magnetic Dust Methods: These methods can be applied only to magnetic materials. It can also be produced by passing a heavy current at low e. When the prepared surface is illuminated by ultraviolet light. the lines of Materials Version (1. they repel each other and spread (Figure 7-2(iii)).0) 7-49 . As the coated surface cools it contracts and penetrant tends to be squeezed out of any cracks. Aluminium-alloy castings are frequently examined in this way. the cracks containing the penetrant are observed as bright lines on a dark background. The magnetic method involves making the component part of a 'magnetic circuit' (Figure 7-2(i)). Magnetic lines of force pass easily through a magnetic material than through air.f. In some cases. where the mouth of a crack may have closed. the component is dipped into a suspension or solution of the developer which is allowed to dry on the surface. Penetrant methods in general are particularly useful for the examination of non-ferrous metals and austenitic (non-magnetic) steels. the magnetic dust method is particularly suitable for examining machined or polished surfaces. Most penetrants of this type contain a coloured dye which makes the stain immediately noticeable.Non-Destructive Testing powder or sprayed on as a solution or suspension. The component is then set aside for some time. Figure 7-1 In some cases. This magnetic field can be induced in the component either by permanent magnets or by electromagnetic means. Thus.

The surface is then examined under 'black light' in a darkened cubicle.0) . the casting is washed again and dried quickly. if necessary. Another way is to use a 20 to 30% solution of hydrochloric acid at ambient temperature for up to twelve hours. This simple procedure provides a cheap but effective way of dissolving oxide layers and revealing most surface defects. 7. Figure 7-2 The magnetized component can also be observed by placing it in paraffin containing a suspension of tiny iron particles. If some iron dust is now sprinkled on the surface of the component.2 Test For The Detection Of Internal Defects: 7-50 Materials Version (1. This mixture is extremely corrosive and thus. the fault is observed. it will stick to the surface where the lines of force break out and therefore.Non-Destructive Testing force spread outwards. the casting is washed thoroughly and. 7. mixtures of concentrated nitric and hydrofluoric acids are used.3 Acid Pickling Methods: Surface defects in steel castings can generally be revealed by pickling the casting in a 10% solution of sulphuric acid at about 50°C for up to two hours. Finally. The sensitivity of this method can be improved by coating the surface to be treated with a suitable liquid. containing magnetic particles which have been treated with a fluorescent compound. After removal from the acid bath. For stainless steels. lines of force cut through. any residual acid is neutralized by using a hot suspension of slaked lime. due to the presence of a fault. the tests require great care. The particles will be attracted to the surface of the component at any points where.1.

In this way.Non-Destructive Testing Castings may contain unwanted internal cavities. Figure 7-3 7.0) 7-51 . in the form of gas blow-holes and shrinkage porosity. these radiations are most widely used in the detection of internal faults. This type of fluoroscopy is much cheaper and quicker. so that the resultant radiograph may be viewed instantaneously. but is less sensitive than photography.2.2. Similarly. But high frequency electromagnetic radiation. an x-ray photograph of the interior of the metal is obtained. These internal flaws are hidden from us because metals are opaque to light.2 Gamma-Ray Methods: Materials Version (1. So. A fluorescent screen may be substituted for the photographic film. 7. may penetrate through metals. and its use is limited to the less-dense metals. with the help of which faults can be detected (Figure 7-3). like x-rays and gamma rays.1 X-Ray Methods: X-rays travel in straight lines like light rays and can penetrate through metal provided they posses enough energy and the metal is not so thick in crosssection that the X-rays are completely absorbed. wrought materials and welded joints may also contain such flaws for several reasons.

radium was used as a source of γ-rays. which can both transmit and receive highfrequency vibrations. γ-ray radiography is in many respects simpler than using x-rays but security arrangements need to be even more stringent.0) 7-52 . They can be used for more dense metals and also when the material is thick. which converts and amplifies the signal.Non-Destructive Testing γ-rays can also be used in the radiography of metals. γ-rays radiograph has the advantage over x-rays that it is more mobile and less cumbersome to transport.3 Ultrasonic testing: In ultrasonic testing very high-frequency vibrations are used. Exposure to γ radiation can be extremely dangerous. A probe containing a quartz crystal. They are more energetic than x-rays and unlike X-rays. 7. which absorbs radiation more effectively than do the light alloys. They are particularly useful in the radiography of steel. Frequencies between 500 000 and 10 000 000 Hz are commonly used whereas our ears can detect sounds at frequencies only between 30 and 16 000 Hz. before it is recorded on the cathode-ray tube. cannot be 'switched off' because a radioactive isotope may emit continuously for a period varying from a few seconds to thousands of years. The probe is connected to an amplifier. which are beyond the acoustic range which can be received by our ears.e. A lead safe is therefore used to protect against them. Materials Version (1. is passed over the surface of the material to be tested (Figure 7-4). 'harder' than X-rays. Since it is very rare and expensive. They are more energetic i. now artificially activated isotopes are used. Originally. One of the most useful activated isotopes is cobalt-60.

Since this echo returns to the receiver in a shorter time. This method is particularly suitable for detecting faults in sheet. the vibrations will pass from the probe. between the peaks of the pulse is proportional to the thickness 'T' of the test material. then the pulse is interrupted. unrestricted through the metal. Both the transmitted pulse and its echo are recorded on the cathode-ray tube. plate and strip materials more than 6 mm thick.0) 7-53 . such as the blowhole 'D'. Materials Version (1. and be reflected from the bottom inside surface at 'B' back to the probe. which also acts as a receiver. an intermediate peak appears on the cathode-ray tube. Its modified equipment is used for detecting faults in welds. If any discontinuity is encountered. Its position relative to the other peaks indicates the distance of the fault below the surface. and reflected back as indicated.Non-Destructive Testing Figure 7-4 Under normal conditions. and the distance 'T1'.

a point is reached (the yield point) and the layers or planes of atoms begin to slide over each other. Metal Recrystallization temperature (0C) Tungsten 1200 Nickel 600 Pure iron 450 Copper 190 Aluminium 150 Zinc 20 Lead Below room temperature. If the stress is removed during this stage. but it loses its ductility. By this phenomenon. and any further increase in stress will lead to fracture. if the stress is now removed. the metal returns to its original shape.0 Slip and Work Hardening: When the shape of a piece of metal is changed by the application of forces. Figure 8-1 Slip of this type can occur along a suitable plane. If the stress is increased further. called the plastic deformation (Figure 8-1). Table 8-1 Recrystallization temperature of some metals. permanent deformation remains in the metal. deformation takes place.0) 8-54 .Deformation and Recrystallization CHAPTER 8 Deformation and Recrystallization 8. At first crystals within the metal are distorted in an elastic manner and it increases proportionally with the increase in stress. Microscopic examination will show that individual crystals have become elongated and distorted in the direction in which the metal was deformed. The metal is then said to be 'work-hardened'. and so. This process of 'slip' is irreversible. and this process goes on until all available slip planes in the piece of metal are used up. the metal becomes hard and strong. hence they tin Cannot be ‘cold-worked’ Materials Version (1. until it is prevented by some fault or obstacle within the crystal A further increase in the stress will then produce slip on another -plane or planes.

When twinning is complete the lattice direction wilt have altered so that one half of the twinned crystal is a mirror image of the other half.2 Deformation by Twinning: Some metals deform plastically by a process other than slip. When the crystal is stressed to its yield point these dislocations will move stopped by some obstruction such as the atom of some alloy metal which is larger (or smaller) than those of the parent metal.1 Step-Step Movement of Dislocations: Slip does not occur simultaneously by one block of atoms sliding over another block across a complete crystal plane. Therefore. It occurs step-by-step by the movement of faults or discontinuities within the cystallographic planes. During slip.Deformation and Recrystallization 8. 8. ions within each successive plane in a block move through different distances. real strength of a metal is much less than that calculated on the baisi of a perfect crystal. A metal becomes work-hardened when all dislocations are jammed against each other or against various other obstacles within the crystals or against the crystal boundaries. The stress required to cause deformation by twinning is generally higher than that needed to produce deformation by slip. These faults where atoms are missing within a crystal (Figure 8-2) are known as 'dislocations'. Movement of dislocation is stopped also by a crystal boundary or another dislocation moving across its path. Materials Version (1. known as 'twinning'. all ions in a block move through the same distance.0) 8-55 . Figure 8-2 The step-by-step movement of a dislocation through the crystal structure of a metal requires a much smaller force than would the movement of a large block of ions by simultaneous slip. But in the case of twinning (Figure 8-3).

recrystallization. Alloying. some of the internal stresses disappear.e.5 Recrystallization: When the temperature is further increased. At this stage. A cold-worked metal has considerable internal stress due to the presence of elastic strains internally balanced within the distorted crystal structure.e. or the presence of impurities. as atoms and dislocations move through small distances into positions nearer equilibrium. the relief of stress. and the strength and hardness produced by cold-working remain high. and the lower the temperature at which recrystallization will begin. these new crystals are small and regular in shape. The more heavily the metal is cold-worked.0) 8-56 . 8. This phenomenon. without the application of heat. it is said to be cold-worked.4 The Relief of Stress: As the temperature of the cold-worked metal is gradually raised. Annealing is the process by which these residual stresses developed as a result of are relieved and the metal regains its original ductility. As the new crystals grow. It occurs in three stages i. which had become elongated in one direction by the cold-working process. a point is reached where new crystals begin to grow from nuclei which form within the structure of the existing distorted crystals.3 Annealing: When a metal is deformed or worked at normal temperature i. they take up atoms from the old distorted crystals which they gradually replace. Unlike the old crystals.Deformation and Recrystallization Figure 8-3 8. The resrystallization temperature for a metal cannot be determined precisely because it varies with the amount of cold-work to which the metal had been subjected before the annealing process. the greater the internal stress. and grain growth. The minimum temperature at which it will occur is called the 'Recrystallization Temperature' for that metal. 8. there is no alteration in the generally distorted appearance of the structure. Materials Version (1. raises the recrystailization temperature of a metal. known as Recrysiallizanon.

those shaping processes in which tension is employed are cold-working processes.Deformation and Recrystallization 8.8 Cold-Working Processes: Most metals and alloys are produced in wrought form by hot-working processes. the new crystals will increase in size by absorbing each other. in order to limit grain growth. because the metal is not highly stressed. very few nuclei are formed. Consequently. The difference is that an annealed metal is usually allowed to cool in the heat treatment furnace after being heated. So. Any attempt to pull a metal through a die at high temperature would fail. so their ductility decreases. For example. frequent inter-stage annealing is required during cold-working which increases the cost of the process. until the resultant structure becomes relatively coarse-grained. As far as possible. Therefore. because the metal would be so weak as to tear. 8. Both the time and temperature of annealing must be controlled. This is undesirable. rather than coldworking processes. Materials Version (1. because they are generally softer and more malleable when hot and consequently require much less energy to shape them. In very light cold-work metal.0) 8-57 . while a normalized metal is taken out of the furnace and allowed to cool in air. Hot-working processes make use of compressive forces to shape the work-piece. Temperature has a much greater influence on grain growth than does time. The amount of cold-work the material receives prior to being annealed also affects the grain size produced. and the ductility poor. figure 8-4 shows typical sequence of operations for the manufacture of a cartridge-case by deep-drawing brass sheet. the resultant crystals will be small since there will be less space in which individual crystals can grow. since a coarsegrained material is generally less ductile than a fine-grained material of similar composition.6 Grain Growth: If the annealing temperature is well above that for recrysiallization of the metal. Consequently the grain size will be large. operations involving the use of hot-working by compression are used. Main disadvantage of cold-working is that most metals work-harden quickly during cold-working operations. The reason for this is that metals become weak in tension at high temperatures. the amount of locked-up stress is great and so. In heavily cold-worked metal. a large number of new crystal nuclei will form instantaneously as the recrystallization temperature is reached.7 Normalizing: The term Normalizing is used in the engineering industry to denote a similar treatment to Annealing. 8. when heat is supplied during annealing.

hardness and toughness for service. Cold-working processes include: • • • • • • The drawing of wire and tubes through dies. Hot-working generally leaves an oxidized or scaly surface. as in the manufacture of aluminium kitchenware. To improve the machinability of the material by making the surface harder and more brittle. particularly in the aircraft industry. Cold-heading. which necessitates 'pickling' the product in an acid solution. To produce a smooth. Stretch forming. To attain greater dimensional accuracy than is possible in hot-working processes. Spinning and flow-turning. Coining and embossing. clean surface finish in the final operation. Materials Version (1. as in the production of nails and bolts.0) 8-58 . only by cold-work. Mild steel and most non-ferrous materials can be hardened . and strip.Deformation and Recrystallization Figure 8-4 Some of the reasons for using cold-working processes are: • • • • To obtain the necessary combination of strength. The cold-rolling of metal plate. sheet.

For this reason. recrystallization will take place simultaneously with deformation (Figure 8-5). The expended energy is minimum because metals are more malleable at high temperatures.Deformation and Recrystallization 8. tougher. shot-blasting and/or acid pickling prior to at least one cold-working operation which will improve the surface quality and accuracy of dimensions. Metals remain soft. for the manufacture of plate. and more ductile than was the original cast material. due to oxidation and scaling at the high working temperature. At such a temperature. but with mechanical properties superior to those of castings: Extrusion.9 Hot-Working Processes: A hot-working process is one which is carried out at a temperature well above the recrystallization temperature of the metal or alloy. accuracy of dimensions is generally more difficult to maintain. Forging and drop-forging. It also results in the formation of a uniformly fine grain in the recrystallized material. hot-working saves both energy used and production time.0) . and can be quickly and continuously reduced to the required shape. strip. for the production of many solid and hollow sections (tubes) in both ferrous and non-ferrous materials. hotworking processes are usually followed by some surface-cleaning process. replacing the original coarse cast structure. 8-59 Materials Version (1. Consequently. the product is stronger. for the production of relatively simple shapes. and shaped sections. For this reason. The principal hot-working processes are: • • • Hot-rolling. sheet. Moreover. Thus. such as water-quenching. because they are recrystallizing continuously during the working process. Figure 8-5 The main disadvantage of hot-working is that the surface condition is generally poor. the metal will not work-harden.

it forges it between the two halves of the die. one half being attached to the hammer. 9. With the aid of simple tools called 'swages'. A shaped two-part die is used.1 Drop-Forging: If large numbers of identically shaped components are required.1. This consists of a hot bar of metal. Some of these processes are as under: 9. using either a hand. Deformation and recryslallization take place at the same time. Materials Version (1. a series of dies may be required.1 Forging: The simplest metal-working process is that of hand-forging. is lifted either mechanically or by steam pressure. whilst the other half is carried by a massive anvil.or a power-assisted hammer.0) 9-60 .0 Hot-Working Processes: Now we know that a hot-working process is one which is carried out at a temperature above the recrystallization temperature of the material. the smith can produce relatively complex shapes. held on the anvil by means of tongs. so the material remains malleable during the working process. As the hammer comes into contact with the metal. The hammer. and is then allowed to fall or is driven down (Figure 9-1) on to the metal to be forged. Intermediate annealing processes are therefore not required. then it is convenient to mass-produce them by drop-forging.Mechanical Shaping of Metals CHAPTER 9 Mechanical Shaping of Metals 9. working between two vertical guides. so working takes place very rapidly. For complicated shapes.

The downwards thrust is sometimes as great as 500 MN. instead of receiving a rapid succession of blows.Mechanical Shaping of Metals Figure 9-1 9. The drop hammer is replaced by a hydraulically driven ram.2 Hot-Pressing: This is a development of drop-forging and is generally used in the manufacture of simpler shapes. Materials Version (1. as it is in drop-forging. This is important when forging large components. and is not confined to the surface layers. the metal is gradually squeezed by the static pressure of the ram. The main advantage of hot-pressing over drop-forging is that mechanical deformation takes place more uniformly throughout the work-piece. which may otherwise have a non-uniform internal structure.0) 9-61 . so that.

in a single operation from a cast billet.Mechanical Shaping of Metals 9. quite complex sections of reasonably accurate dimensions can be obtained. which leaves the casting unit via a series of guide rolls which convey it to a train of reduction rolls followed by a set of finishing rolls.2. Now that the bulk of steel is produced from continuouscast ingots. a coiling machine and is cut by a flying saw as required. The ram is then driven forward hydraulically. The finished strip passes into. The most important feature of the process is that.1 Hot-Rolling: Traditionally a steel-rolling shop consists of a powerful ' reversing mill (Figure 9-2) to reduce the section of the incoming white-hot ingots. with sufficient force to extrude the metal through a hard alloy-steel die. The billet is heated to the required temperature and placed in the container of the extrusion press (Figure 9-3).0) 9-62 . followed by trains of rolls which are either plain or grooved according t0 the product being manufactured. Materials Version (1. Figure 9-2 Hot-rolling is also applied to most non-ferrous alloys in the initial shaping stages but finishing is more likely to be a cold-working operation. 9.3 Extrusion: The extrusion process is used for shaping a variety of both ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. The solid metal section issues from the die in a manner similar to the flow of toothpaste from its tube.

and.0) 9-63 . ordinary twohigh mills are generally used. Materials Version (1.5 Cold-rolling: Cold-rolling is used during the finishing stages in the production of both strip and section. To roll very thin material. A much better surface quality is obtained if the workpiece is cold-worked after being pickled. since ductility is usually less at high temperatures. some degree of cold-work is applied to most wrought metallic materials as a final stage in manufacture. Some cold-working processes are as under: 9. so it needs to be sand-blasted or 'pickled' in an acid solution if its surface condition is to be acceptable. The production of mirror-finished metal foil necessitates the use of rolls with a highly polished surface. Cold-working is also a means of obtaining the required mechanical properties in a material. this means that the working rolls must be supported by backing rolls. if the material is of great width. Some operations which involve drawing or pulling the metal can be carried out only on cold metals and alloys. small-diameter rolls are necessary. For rolling Thicker material. or at least heavily oxidized. the degree of hardness and strength can be adjusted. Therefore.Mechanical Shaping of Metals Figure 9-3 9. and also in the manufacture of foils (Figure 9-4). otherwise they will bend to such an extent that reduction in thickness of very thin material becomes impossible. By varying the amount of cold-work in the final operation.4 Cold-Working Processes: The surface of a hot-worked component tends to be scaled.

6 Drawing: Drawing is exclusively a cold-working process.0) 9-64 . in the manufacture of wire (Figure 9-5). In all the cases. Materials Version (1. because it relies on high ductility of the material being drawn. Rod. For example. the material is pulled through the die by winding it on to a rotating drum. wire and hollow sections (tubes) are produced by drawing them through dies.Mechanical Shaping of Metals Figure 9-4 9. the material is lubricated with oil or soap before it enters the die aperture.

and plastic deformation takes place. Proper lubrication of the stretch-block is necessary. Figure 9-6 Materials Version (1. Stretch-blocks are generally of wood or compressed resin-bonded plywoods. In stretch-forming. In the 'rising-table' machine (Figure 9-6). are also used.7 Stretch-forming: In any forming process. The operation is carried out over a form-tool or stretch-block. the workpiece is gripped between jaws. this is accomplished by applying a tensile load to the work-piece such that the elastic limit is exceeded. and the stretch-block is mounted on a rising table which is actuated by a hydraulic ram. zinc-base alloys. so that the component assumes the required shape.0) 9-65 .Mechanical Shaping of Metals Figure 9-5 9. though other materials. permanent deformation can only be achieved in the workpiece if it is stressed beyond the elastic limit. or reinforced concrete. such as cast synthetic resins.

Consequently. It is confined mainly to the manufacture of coins. Since no provision is made for the extrusion of excess metal. the force necessary to emboss metal is much less than in coining. medals. Embossing differs from coining in that virtually no change in thickness of the workpiece takes place during pressing. the size of the blanks must be accurately controlled to prevent possible damage to the dies. High pressures are necessary to produce sharp impressions.Mechanical Shaping of Metals 9. keys.0) 9-66 . The material used for embossing is Figure 9-7 generally thinner than that used for coining. and this limits the size of work which is possible. due to the development of excessive pressures. Figure 9-8 Materials Version (1. and the process is affected by using male and female dies (Figure 9-8). etc.8 Coining and Embossing: Coining is a cold-forging process in which deformation takes place entirely by compression. The coining operation is carried out in a closed die (Figure 9-7).

This treatment causes recrystallization to occur and in this way the crystal structure becomes regular and continuous as grain-growth takes place across the original boundaries where cold welds have formed between particles. copper and iron for use as a cheap bearing material. Hence tungsten is produced from its ore as a fine powder.Mechanical Shaping of Metals 9. and this is beyond the softening temperature of all ordinary furnace-lining materials.0) 9-67 .g. This powder is then 'compacted' in a die of suitable shape at a high pressure Under the high pressure. which have very high melting-points. such as: • • • to produce metals and alloys of controlled porosity. stainless steel filters to deal with corrosive liquids. to produce alloys of metals which do not mix in the molten state. e. This heating process is known as Sintering. called 'refractory' metals. and also oil-less bronze bearings. For example. e. for the production of small components such as the G-frame of a micrometer screw gauge where the negligible amount of process scrap makes the method competitive. Although powder-metallurgy was originally used to deal with metals of very high melting-point. its use has been extended for other reasons.9 Powder Metallurgy: Powder-metallurgy processes were originally developed to replace melting and casting for those metals. The compacts are then heated to a temperature above the recrysiallization temperature.g. the particles of tungsten become joined together by 'cold-welding' at the points of contact between particles. Materials Version (1. tungsten melts at 3410 °C.

etc. it forms crystals containing all these elements and this is termed as an Alloy. it begins to crystallize. Cast iron is strong in compression and brittle. hardness.0) 10-68 . we can closely predict the final properties an alloy will have.7%. the ore is burned in a fuel. 10. These crystals grow as the liquid metal cools until a solid metal mass results.1 Alloys: To some extent different hot molten metals will dissolve in wach other. 10. Generally. rate of cooling and mechanical treatment. where the carbon content is over 1. The carbon in this coke will dissolve in the molten iron upto a maximum of 5% and the liquid cools to form a carbon-iron alloy. This carbon-iron alloy may be produced with an extensive variety of crystal structure but basically they all fall into two general categories. Generally. the steels. When a very hot liquid metal is allowed to cool. ductility. the ferrous metals covering the many varieties of iron and steel and the non-ferrous metals covering all other types.Metals CHAPTER 10 Metals 10. the harder. usually coke. It can be produced in a variety of strength and hardness by varying the cooling rate. if we control the crystal structure by carefully choosing such items as alloying elements.0 Pure Metals: Pure metals are chemical elements that are usually solid at normal temperatures and become liquids when heated to very high temperatures. and from this crystal formation the metal gains its properties of strength. where the carbon content is less than 1. this material is Materials Version (1. Thus. the basic ingredient of all ferrous metals.7% and the cast irons. the more carbon contained in the alloy. In the extraction of iron from iron ore. When a liquid containing two or more metals dissolved in each other cools.2 Ferrous Metals: All metals may be divided into two general classes. more brittle and less ductile it will be. These crystals may form in different sizes and shapes. This solid mass is made up tiny crystals.

are important. they are often produced with other alloying elements e. tin. medium carbon steels are used for such items as shafts. Steels are produced in varying amount of carbon content. in addition to it. 10. whereas high carbon steel is used for springs. As an example. pump casings in conventional areas of an NPP are made of cast iron. Of considerable importance are the properties of aluminium being light in weight and having a comparatively small tendency to capture neutrons. Since they are generally more expensive than ferrous metals. Stainless steels are used for moderator components. manganese so that it has strength approaching that of mild or low carbon steel. It shows greater strength than aluminum under conditions of high temperature and pressure and also has good corrosion resistance and low neutron capture probability. nickel. Low carbon steels are generally used for fabricating steel plates. zinc.0) 10-69 . such as valves and pumps. Zirconium is an expensive metal. corrosion resistance.Metals used where weight and toughness are less important than cost. a very corrosion resistant metal. and turbine blades where the properties of hardness and strength together with good corrosion resistance are essential. hardness and strength in compression. These are produced both as pure metals and as alloys of different non-ferrous elements. tools. lead. Aluminum has high corrosion resistance and can be produced as an alloy with such elements as copper. zirconium and aluminium. they are commonly used where their distinctive properties such as light weight. silicon. with chromium and nickel which results in stainless steel. The non-ferrous alloys contain neither iron or carbon. electrical conductivity etc.g.3 Non-Ferrous Metals: Some of the more important non-ferrous metals are copper. Materials Version (1. etc.

alloying with the metals to be joined. brazing. during which a joint might. complete or incipient fusion takes place at the surfaces of the two pieces of metal being joined.1 Soldering: A solder must be capable of "wetting". such as riveting. Nevertheless. Materials Version (1. Alloys based on tin or lead fulfil most of these requirements for a wide range of metallurgical materials which need to be joined. since tin will alloy readily with iron. copper.Soldering and Brazing CHAPTER 11 Soldering and Brazing 11.0) 11-70 . Best-quality tinman's solder contains 62% tin and possesses distinct advantages in that it will pass quickly from complete liquid to complete solid without any intermediate pasty stage. which is comfortably below the point at which deterioration in properties of the metals to be joined will take place. depending upon whether they are to be used by the tinsmith or the plumber.0 Introduction: Apart from purely mechanical methods. The mechanical strength of the solder must also be adequate. the chief methods available for the joining of metals are soldering. Plumber's solder contains about 67% lead. Plain tin-lead solders are of two main types. so that the work itself is in no danger of melting. since it enables him to "wipe" joints in lead piping. and will consequently be pasty between 183°C and about 265°C. be broken. that is. a feat which would be almost impossible to accomplish with an alloy melting or freezing over a small range of temperatures. and lead. the tin content may be reduced to 50% ("coarse" tinman's solder) or even less. since tin is an expensive metal compared with lead. This extended range over which the alloy will be in a pasty state is of advantage to the plumber. Industrial applications of these processes are many and varied. so that a more or less common crystal structure exists as we pass across the region of the joint. and welding. 11. and at the same time have a freezing range appreciably lower. and melt at temperatures between 183°C and 250°C. In soldering. At the same time tin-lead alloys possess mechanical toughness. if disturbed.

When copper alloys are soldered it is always possible that at some point in the joint the concentrations of copper and tin will be such that a hard brittle copper-tin intermetallic compound such as Cu31Sn8. A list of representative solders is given in Table 11-1. Such fluxes usually have a resin base and are almost completely non-corrosive.5 2 1. Materials Version (1. therefore. within the limits in which it is added.Soldering and Brazing Solders are sometimes strengthened by the addition of small amounts of antimony which.4 2.0) 11-71 . This difficulty can be overcome by soldering copper with an alloy consisting of 97.8 80 97. to wash the finished joint. or Cu6Sn5.35 80. Possibly the best known flux is hydrochloric acid ("spirits of salts"). for. or the acid-zinc chloride solution which is obtained when a piece of zinc is dissolved in hydrochloric acid.5 Coarse tinman’s solder Plumber’s solder Plumber’s solder for wiping joints General-purpose solder Substitute solder for general purposes Substitute plumber’s solder For soldering iron and steel For soldering copper and its alloys In order that the solder shall "wet" the surfaces of the metals to be joined. Table 11-1 Tin-Lead –Base Solders Composition (%) Solidification Range (0C) Solidification Begins and Ends at 183 0C 220-183 260 – 183 235 – 188 220 – 188 250 – 180 270 – 180 250 – 243 Solidifies at 205 0C Types and uses Sn 62 Pb 38 Sb - Ag - Tinman’s solder 50 33 31 43.5 0.5% silver. and thus acts as a metallic bond between the two.65 0. whilst lead and copper are insoluble in each other. an organic type of flux is safer to use. these fluxes have the disadvantage that the residue they leave behind is likely to lead to corrosion of the metal near to the joint. If it is inconvenient.5% lead and 2. Whilst being most effective in action.5 30 18 12 - 50 67 67 55 69.8 8 - 0. (This makes it very difficult to solder alloys containing aluminium. will be formed and cause brittleness in the joint. silver alloys with each. remains in solid solution. the latter must be clean and free from oxide.) To clean the metal surface a flux is used which will dissolve the thin oxide layers which might form before the surface can be wetted by the solder.

1 illustrates the action of a suitable flux during a soldering operation.the film of solder cools and solidifies (E) . leaving a clean metal surface covered by a layer of protective flux (C) . As the soldering bit-moves away. Most ferrous materials and non-ferrous alloys of sufficiently high melting point can be joined by brazing. stronger joint is required.2 Brazing: Although the technique of this process may vary to some extent. a fluoride type of flux may be used. Immediately the molten solder wets this clean surface and begins to alloy with it (D).0) 11-72 . Fig. Brazing is used when a tougher. Figure 11-1 11. particularly in alloys of higher melting point than those usually joined by soldering.Soldering and Brazing though only really effective on copper and tin-plate. Higher-grade brazing compounds. The boiling flux rapidly becomes more concentrated and dissolves the oxide film (B). Ordinary brazing solder contains about 50% copper and 50% zinc. At (A) the oxidised metal surface is covered by a layer of flux solution. which begins to boil as the soldering bit moves towards it. Materials Version (1. A boraxtype flux is generally used. metallurgically it is similar to soldering. though for lower temperatures involved in highgrade silver soldering. or silver solders. contain over 50% silver. Typical brazing alloys are shown in Table 11-2 . Cheaper grades of silver solder contain between 10 and 20% silver and about 50% copper.

Figure 11-2 Materials Version (1. monel and stainless steel Lower – grade silver soldering Shows example of four common types of brazed joint.5 30 38 Ag 80 65 50 20 10 Cd 18 5 Sn 5 870 – 880 750 740 – 795 695 – 720 625 – 635 775 – 815 820 .5 45 52 Zn 50 45 4 15 16.0) 11-73 .870 Type Ordinary brazing alloys for Ferrous materials High-grade silver solders for use on brass and light-guage copper.Soldering and Brazing Table 11-2 Brazing Solders and Silver Solders Composition (%) Freezing Range (0C) Cu 50 50 16 20 15.

However.0) 12-74 . Welding calls for rather different techniques to those employed in brazing and soldering.Welding CHAPTER 12 Welding 12.he joined pieces are melted locally so differences between the weld metal and the pieces being joined are structural rather than compositional. Figure 12-1 Materials Version (1. more often than not.0 Welding: Some welding processes resemble both soldering and brazing n that molten metal is applied to produce a joint between the two pieces. Thus we have both fusion and pressure-welding processes. The speed of working is particularly important if complete melting of the metal near the joint is to be avoided. and . of similar composition to the metals being joined. in welding the added metal is. Some welding processes rely on pressure to effect joining of the two halves and in such cases no metal is added to form a joint. as indicated in Figure 12-1. the weld metal being provided by the two parts being joined.

Welding

12.1

Fusion Welding Processes:
In all fusion welding high temperatures are employed in or to melt the parts quickly. In this way damage to the unmelted metal near the weld is minimized since the time at high tempera is reduced. Also heat must be supplied fast because the pieces being joined will conduct heat away from the weld area at quite high rate. Fusion welding can be classified according to the source o! heat. The most common sources are gas flame and electric arc,1 chemical reaction, laser beams, and electron beams are also used in special applications. Gas flames usually use acetylene and oxygen, since both gases are readily available and very high temperatures are easily attained Hydrogen and oxygen can be used to get even higher temperatures the atomic hydrogen welding torch, which uses an electric arc to supplement the heat of combustion. Electric arcs can be struck between two non-consumed elect a non-consumed electrode and the work, or between a consumed electrode and the work. The third is, perhaps, the most common; the electrode is continually melted to supply the weld metal nee to fill the weld. When non-consumable electrodes are used (carbon and tungsten are common),a separate filler rod is melted in the arc to fill the weld. In all welding the molten metal is shielded by non-reactive gas to prevent oxidation. In gas flame welding the combustion products form this shield, but in electric arc methods it must h provided either by a continuous supply of gas (such as argon or helium) from a cylinder or by including a combustible material ii the flux. Flux is used in most welding processes to slag off oxides and impurities in the molten metal as well as to burn and provide an unreactive gas shield around the molten metal. While flux is usually supplied to the joint by coating it on filter rods, it sometimes applied as a loose powder which is piled on the area be welded. Common welding methods are illustrated for your information in Figures 12-2 to 12-6.

Materials Version (1.0)

12-75

Welding

Fig. 12.2

Fig. 12.3

Materials Version (1.0)

12-76

Welding

Figure 12-4

Figure 12-5

Materials Version (1.0)

12-77

seam welding and butt welding (which is used to end caps onto CANDU fuel elements). A more modern version of this is ultrasonic welding. A metallic bond is formed wherever there is direct contact. where the two surfaces to be joined are rubbed together by high frequency sound waves. The parts to be joined are then pushed together and the hot met cooled.2 Pressure Welding Processes: In pressure welding no extra metal is added to the joint.0) 12-78 . This rubbing breaks up the oxide film and friction supplies the heat. and the metal recrystallises across the joint forming a continuous crystal structure. All such methods rely on the electrical resistance of weld area (caused by oxide on the surfaces and the irregularity the surfaces) to localize the heating. and direct metal to metal contact is established. The pieces to be joined are heated above their recrystallisation temperature and forced together by hammering. The blacksmith's forge is the most common example of pressure welding without melting. At the joint any oxide on the surface gets broken up. These processes can be divided into two classes according to whether r not the joint is ever molten. These resistance welding methods are illustrated in Figures 12-7 to 12-10.Welding Figure 12-6 12. Materials Version (1. Fine wires are welded to microscopic electronic circuits in his way. Other common pressure welding processes depend on electric current to heat the weld area until it is soft or even molten. Such processes include spot welding.

The fallacy is that the metal at ' point of failure may be much weaker or more brittle than the bulk of the material as a direct result of his welding. uncontrolled heating is almost always detrimental. You will recall from previous lessons that heat can have quite severe effects the grain structure. Further from the weld the steel would have been transformed to austenite but the temperature would not have been high enough to cause grain growth. In steel the metal very close to the weld has been heated high in the austenite region and so the austenite may have suffered grain growth before transforming. the steel would not re been transformed but will have been held in the pearlite grain growth region and considerably Materials Version (1. on cooling. Further out yet.3 Consequences of Welding: A welder may boast that his weld is stronger than the parent metal. Heat conduction through the steel to the cold surrounding metal might have cooled the austenite fast enough to form martensite.0) 12-79 . He backs up this statement by the fact that welds seldom fail before metal near a weld.Welding Figure 12-7 Figure 12-8 Figure 12-9 Figure 12-10 12. to pearlite or martensite.

Thus the metal surrounding a weld could have a wide variety of structures. These structures might lead to tensile failure creep (lower U.S. These and other faults such as cracking of the well or adjacent metal can be detected in several ways. Any metal is liable to be softer and less ductile owing to grain growth.T.Welding softened. of the softened material) or fatigue or brit failure (low ductility of martensite). Stainless steel can suffer a great loss in corrosion resistance near a weld (this is called weld decay). other problems arise when welding other materials. most of the welding induced structures will have worse properties in one way or another i. Other failures happen for different reasons. The weld may not have penetrated right through the area to be joined or there may be incomplete melting of the parent metal leaving the weld unjoined to the component in some places. ultrasonic testing. fairly strong and quite ductile).e. These are all failures due to the alteration of the metal' s crystal structure. Welds may fail because of the existance of slag or blow holes in the weld material itself. The degredation described above applies to steel. such as X-ray. and crack detection and so will usually be detected before the weld is put into nuclear service. Since most steel plate is supplied hot rolled (a fine pearlite structure which is very tough. Aluminum alloys are very susceptible to high temperatures which can leave them very soft. Structural changes can not be easily detected without destroying the component and so are far more dangerous.0) 12-80 . gamma radiography. the region around a weld will have soft patches an brittle patches. Materials Version (1.

It is made by calcining* natural limestone (largely calcium carbonate. known commercially as "quicklime".1/2H2O) to bring it back to the original chemical composition of gypsum.2H2O. Most cementing materials in fact will harden either in air or under water. or the ability to harden under water. 13. In common use are the non-hydraulic cements. and not the result of an evaporation process. gypsum and hydrated lime. Commercially it is used as "plaster of par is". 13.1/2H2O.1 Cements: Cements or cementing materials are substances which. Materials Version (1. and subsequent removal of excess water by evaporation leaves a hard. 13. when mixed with water to form a paste.0 Concrete: Concrete consists of a mixture of cement. water and an inert matrix of sand.1. On the addition of water to plaster of paris. possess the ability to harden into a solid.1. CaSO4. natural cement and Portland cement.1 Gypsum: Gypsum is a non-metallic rock found in many section of the world. and a trace of clay. and their hydraulic counterparts.0) 13-81 .2H20. It is important to realize that this hardening is the result of a chemical reaction between the cement and the water. The cement binds the sand and stone together and fills up the voids between the sand and stone particles.2 Lime: Common lime. a small amount of magnesium oxide (Mg0) . This action causes the mixture to harden. is composed largely of calcium oxide (Ca0). and gravel or crushed stone. Although all the components of concrete are essential. Such materials are termed hydraulic cements. and widely distributed throughout the United States.Concrete CHAPTER 13 Concrete 13. with the chemical formula. the cement is the most important because it is the "weakest link in the chain". a mixture results which has the property of setting by the action of recombination of some of the mixing water with the plaster of paris (CaSO4. and concretes made up with hydraulic cements are said to possess the property of hydraulicity. rock-like mass. CaSO4. Chemically it is CaSO4.

3 Natural Cements: Natural cement is the finely pulverized product of the calcination of a claybearing limestone.1. mortar and stucco. and the whole mixture is subjected to further grinding to a fine powder.). slowlyrotating heated kiln. Unlike the cements discussed previously. it is usually necessary to incorporate pipes for cooling water inside to remove the heat of reaction with the water of the concrete. natural cement has nowadays been almost entirely displaced by portland cement.Concrete CaC03. which is then coarse-ground. It is not normally recommended for placement under water. Thus. All portland cements are hydraulic. the product is normally a metal oxide. * Calcining is roasting a more or less finely-divided substance in a kiln or drum. Ca (OH)2 with consider able evolution of heat and change in volume. slightly-inclined. since rigid product control is difficult. It is interesting to note that in a huge structure such as a dam. have high strength and durability. by absorbing carbon oxide from the air to become calcium carbonate. there are two distinct stages in the setting of a portland cement: the initial set.4 Portland Cement: Portland cement is an artificial mixture of lime-bearing and clay-bearing materials which is kiln-dried and subsequently ground to a fine power. Upon the addition of a limited amount of water.0) 13-82 . A calculated amount (2-3%) of raw gypsum is added to retard its rate of setting. and is of variable quality. and the final set. 13. depending upon the composition of the cement and the ambient conditions. This is then referred to as slaked or hydrated lime. Commercially. which may take days and even weeks to become complete. and are used in making concrete for all aspects of modern constructional work. from which it emerges as a hard lumpy clinker. 13. This power is then fed into the elevated end of a long. Materials Version (1. all quicklime is slaked in a kiln. which usually requires anything from about 45 minutes to 10 hours. It is used as the cement component in mason's plaster. natural cements normally set so rapidly that it becomes necessary to add a considerable amount of gypsum in order to control the set within desired limits. Hydrated lime hardens upon the addition of water in the presence of air. In addition. the calcium oxide is converted to calcium hydroxide.1.

however. whereas the fine aggregate assists the cement paste in holding the concrete together by filling in the voids between the coarse aggregate particles. the aggregates in general must possess physical properties at least equal to the properties desired in the concrete. For instance.0) 13-83 . to expose freshly poured concrete to temperatures below freezing even though calcium chloride has been added.Concrete 13. It is extremely deliquescent (attracts water from its surroundings). Materials Version (1. Aggregates are classified into two groups. The coarse aggregate is used primarily for the purpose of providing bulk to the concrete. Such anti-freeze compounds are therefore not normally used unless their addition in the required amounts can be shown by tests not to adversely affect the properties desired in the concrete. cement and water. calcium chloride can be used in amounts up to 2% of the weight of the cement to accelerate its setting.3 Admixtures: Any material in concrete other than cement. Those retained on a ^ inch or No. fire resistance and resistance to wear and abrasion. since in the small percentages used. and crushed stone which are mixed with cement and water in making concrete are referred to as aggregates. It is not safe. the length of time required for protection with covers and artificial heat can be reduced. one could not reasonably expect to make a high density concrete from low density aggregates. is termed an admixture. The amount of compound necessary to lower the freezing point of water. or to one of ingredients before mixing. By using this material in cold weather. When frequent freezethaw cycles are likely. the freezing point is not appreciably lowered. Prevention of freezing of concrete during setting is possible by the addition of sufficient amounts of certain compounds. 4 sieve are coarse. Properties of concrete which are partly attributable to aggregates include density. however. also causes serious loss of strength and durability.2 Concrete Aggregates: The inert materials such as sand. modulus of elasticity. aggregates and water that is added in the mixer. For instance. 13. and its reaction with water (hydration) is quite exothermic (gives off heat). according to their size. strength. gravel. creep. This was done at NPD. entrained air can be incorporated to provide space for expansion. Although the quality of a concrete mix is determined principally by the quality of the cement paste. All particles which pass through this sieve are referred to as fine.

finely-ground gypsum (not exceeding 3% by weight of the cement) is commonly used as a "retarder" to overcome the acceleration in set caused by hot weather. certain oils and hydrocarbons are more effective. As water is added to cement. the paste so formed becomes increasingly more dilute. oils and hydrocarbons. or to delay stiffening in difficult placing jobs.4 Proportioning of Concrete: The proportions of the component materials (cement. water and aggregates) in a concrete mix directly affect the properties of both the mix and the hardened concrete. which shows the relationship between compressive strength and the watercement ratio. is determined by the quality of the paste.Concrete Similarly. in so far as proportioning is concerned.0) 13-84 . 13. In concrete. The cement-water paste is the major active ingredient in the mix and the quality of the concrete. Admixtures used as waterproofing agents in concrete include soap. Under more adverse conditions. Figure 13-1 Materials Version (1. soap functions as a water repellent and is of use in situations where exposure to moisture is at worst only moderate. This is illustrated in Figure 131. with a corresponding decrease in the ultimate strength of the hardened concrete.

economy can be further improved by using larger sizes of coarse aggregate since such a mix would have fewer voids to be filled. 1 part Portland Cement. the remainder.5 Reinforced Concrete: Concrete used alone is generally referred to. though it decreases strength. This is illustrated in Fig. Any voids or air pockets existing between pieces of aggregate in the mix can be eliminated by careful mixing and the use of a vibrator-compacting process as the concrete is poured. 13. all by volume). as the greater the percentage of fines in a mix. since this is the most expensive constituent of concrete. In addition. only a small percentage is necessary for the hydration of the cement. As a general rule. Figure 13-2 A fairly typical mix for a normal type concrete would be 1: 3: 5: by volume (ie. is necessary to provide the proper workability in the mix. therefore. To achieve this objective it is important to choose a suitable ratio of coarse to fine aggregates. the larger will be the surface area to be covered by the cement paste. 3 parts fine aggregate. thus required a reduced amount of cement paste. the amount of mixing water used should be kept to a minimum. Such concrete is suitable only for use in situations where the loads or stresses to which it may Materials Version (1.0) 13-85 . 5 parts coarse aggregate.Concrete Of all the water added to the cement to form the paste.as plain concrete. From a purely economic standpoint it is desirable to use as little cement as possible. 13-2.

4MN/m 2 in tension. the majority of concretes exhibit excellent resistance to fire . this is achieved by embedding in the concrete steel bars which have high tensile strength. reinforcement also serves to limit the size of any cracks caused by shrinkage during setting or changes in length by temperature variations. In addition to enabling the concrete to resist the application of tensile stresses. As a structural material its uses are further enhanced by its good wear resistance. the fire resistance of a concrete is directly related to the properties of its associated aggregates.Concrete be subjected are of a purely compressive nature. Similarly. are dependent upon the choice of suitable aggregates. which. to resist the tensile stresses. as these become badly disrupted on exposure to fire. 13. as used in construction work. ie.0) 13-86 . will support considerable compressive loads. This is why reinforcing rods are placed as close to the bottom as possible.the main exception being those concretes which employ flint aggregates. Materials Version (1.6 Uses and Properties of Concrete: Plain concrete. Reinforcement is necessary whenever the concrete is to be subjected to tensile stresses*. From this we can see how reinforcement works (Figure 13-3) Figure 13-3 *This includes bending stresses (beams) and buckling (columns). Fortunately. Here the top fibres are in compression and the bottom ones in tension. Typical strengths for concrete (2400 kg/m3 are 20MN/m2 in compression and 2. as you might have expected. while for steel the corresponding values are 185MN/m for both tension and compression. and if reinforced with steel bars will in addition resist the application of moderate tensile stresses. F is the load and R1 and R2 are supports. durability and resistance to corrosion.

the only significant limitation of concrete as a construction material is the difficulty in altering a concrete column. the size of the columns required and their associated dead weight becomes unduly excessive. since above this. "pre-stressed"concrete can be made. and putting these under considerable tensile stress in such a manner that the stresses will oppose any subsequent loads. Apart from its bulk. and is more widely used in conventional construction projects. It is particularly suited for use in the construction of multi-storey buildings. gradual on-site (post-tensioning) The first is more economical. although its relatively high density. it is true to say that reinforced concrete is.7 Pre-stressed Concrete: By passing steel cables through ducts in concrete. the least expensive fully fireproofed construction material available. 13. for most applications. (around 2400kg/m3 ). "pre-fab" at the factory (pre-tensioning) 2. will usually limit the number of storeys to seven. say. however. It consists of stretching tendons (cable) near the base of the form and then pouring the concrete on top. transferring the load to the concrete (Figure 13-4): Tendon Figure 13-4 Materials Version (1. as compared with. the clamps holding the tendons are released.0) 13-87 . When the concrete has set sufficiently (normally 28 days). a steel girder or a wooden beam.Concrete All in all. There are two methods of pre-stressing: 1.

as regards the interior. which can result in cracking and spall ing (pieces of concrete separate from the surface) . From this it can be seen that when such a beam is put into use. The chemical identity of the atoms is unchanged. concrete is liable to fail if it is overloaded. Neutrons. and physically trapped (the excess over that required chemically which had to be added for workability) . This prevents possible failure from tension (buckling) which might occur if complete pre-stressing was done at the beginning.0) 13-88 . We will ignore the effect of the relatively few neutrons which are captured (and thereby produce new atoms). This has been done in the giant pre-stressed concrete pressure vessels of Britain's advanced gas-cooled reactors. For brief discussion here. and the dotted lines the final pretensioned state. which can result in cracking and spalling (pieces of concrete separate from the surface) . are the effects of heat and radiation on the one hand. 13. Heat tends to drive away both particularly. This type of pre-stressing has the feature that the structure can be designed for the removal of the tendons (if they are likely to corrode. however. it is more vulnerable to tensile (and shear) stresses than compression. Heat drives water out of the concrete. The bending shown here is greatly exaggerated but the bending in actual beams can be observed I with the eye. there is another ramification of this water loss: the shielding efficiency decreases. the energy of the rays is converted finally to heat. one at a time. give up their lost energy directly or indirectly as heat. Gamma rays which do not penetrate concrete interact with the atoms there.8 Failure of Concrete: Like any other structural material. and replacement with fresh ones. There are two types of water in concrete: chemically bound (water of hydration) Heat drives water out of the concrete. as previously pointed out. when the beam is loaded the compressive forces in the bottom concrete fibres have to be overcome before they can go into tension. Materials Version (1. An important contributor to the slowing down of neutrons is elastic scatter. on being slowed down by either elastic or inelastic collisions. the forces already present have to be overcome (reversed) before any further stresses are exerted. On-site pre-stressing consists of applying the design load gradually to alreadycast concrete while increasing the stress on the tendons. which is done by light nuclei. The internal stresses resulting from this inner water trying to get out cause cracking. In other words. and some chemicals on the other. In concrete this is mainly done by the hydrogen atoms in the contained water. the latter. for instance).Concrete The solid lines represent the initial state. In the case of concrete as a neutron shield.

In this respect the dense aggregate materials in the concrete are responsible firstly for reducing the intensity of any gamma radiation fields. unfortunately with the release of "capture gamma radiation". the worst offenders are chlorides and strong acids. therefore. Even higher densities (4800kg/m3) can be obtained by using ferrophosphorus ore and iron shot as the aggregate materials.Concrete On the chemical side. 13. barytes. can be de-iced just as cheaply using either ammonium phosphate or urea fertilizers as with the highly deleterious common salt (sodium chloride). (washing soda) or bicarbonate (baking soda) are safer to work with than aqueous ammonia and especially sodium hydroxide (caustic soda. since the most effective gammaabsorbing materials consist of high atomic weight elements having high densities. Concrete sidewalks. enhancing the shielding ability of a concrete by using high density aggregates will permit the use of reduced concrete thicknesses without any reduction in shield effectiveness.9 Special Applications of Concrete in a Nuclear Station: In a nuclear station. upon the densities of its aggregates. compression and shear than the 2400kg/m3 material. Materials Version (1. the hydrogen content of the water of hydration in the cement is responsible for further slowing down these neutrons to thermal energies by the process of "elastic scatter". The effectiveness of concrete as a shielding material depends principally. sodium carbonate.0) 13-89 . however. lye). in that it permits the use of concrete shields in areas where available space is limited and secondly in that it can reduce heavy water holdup at points where it is necessary for heavy water lines to pass through the shielding. with the result that the remaining aggregate just crumbles away. The density of ordinary concrete (2400kg/m3) can be increased by replacing the usual fine and coarse aggregates with high density ores such as ilmenite. In other words. These thermal neutrons are then readily captured by nearby nuclei. The acids (particularly nitric and hydrochloric) dissolve the cement. Chloride and nitrate salts act in a similar albeit much less vigorous way: they render the cement component somewhat water soluble. Acid spills on concrete should be treated with an alkali along with the flushing with water. concrete serves not only as a structural material but also as a shielding material for gamma-neutron radiation fields. It should be noted. etc. A heavy concrete employing such aggregates would have a density of around 3500kg/m3. Subsequently. or magnetite. firstly. and secondly for slowing down any fast neutrons by the process of "inelastic scatter". which of course presents an additional gamma field for aggregate shielding. that the 4800kg/m3 concrete is weaker in tension. This fact is advantageous.

0) 13-90 . regardless of the material used. by the cost. (See Figure 13-5). and the fact that being such a poor structural material lead shielding requires some sort of supporting frame. Lead. can only be justified economically when space is restricted. Materials Version (1. then laminations of some hydrogenous material such as masonite must be included. Likewise steel also makes an excellent gamma shield. or when pipes containing heavy water have to be as short as possible. In conclusion it should be borne in mind that although concrete is by no means the best shielding material available. Unfortunately. the most economic. since only a quarter of the thickness is required for a given effectiveness. and if neutron shielding is required. for instance. Experience has shown that the weight of material required for given shield is generally the same.Concrete Figure 13-5 illustrates some of the locations in which the various density concretes have been utilized in the construction of NPD. and ^ such is useful in shielding doors that would be difficult to fabricate from concrete. it is. on account of its excellent structural qualities. is a far better gamma shield than concrete. This is more than offset. however. or for that matter the heavier concretes. Thus the use of dense materials such as lead and steel. steel is also relative expensive.

Concrete Figure 13-5 Materials Version (1.0) 13-91 .

and grease which is generally a solid.0 Lubricants: There are basically two types of lubricants in common usage: oil. Proper grease quantity is easily 2. Improved efficiency of labyrinth 4. conditions protection favour oil.0) 14-92 . Use of oil makes it easier to confined in housing which control the correct amount of simplifies bearing design lubricant.1 Oils: The three general types of oil are as follows: (1) Mineral oils. Advantages of Grease Advantages of Oil 1. textile and chemical other types of bearings on the industries same machine 4. (3) Synthetic oils are man-made chemical compounds with better properties than mineral oils.Lubricants CHAPTER 14 Lubricants 14. Same lubricant may be used on in food. (2) Fixed oils are produced from plants. If bearing must operate under enclosures gives better bearing high temperatures. because of its fire-resistant properties. An example of a synthetic oil is phosphate ester which will be used in the power control system at Bruce. Maintenance may be reduced . such as castor shrub and rape seed. which are the most common type and are produced by refining petroleum crude. and animals. The properties of an oil may be divided into six main groups: Materials Version (1. which is always a liquid at operating temperature. no oil 1. Oil is easier to drain and refill. and regreasing is This is important if lubricating infrequent intervals are close together 2. Table 14-1. level to maintain. Table 14-1 gives a comparision between the two types of lubricants. 3. Freedom from leakage is important 3. These oils are generally used with mineral oils to improve the oiliness of the resulting mixture.. Comparative Advantages of Grease and Oil in Bearings 14.

Lubricants

1. Flow properties - viscosity, viscosity index, pour point 2. High temperature properties - volatility, thermal stability, evaporation residue, decomposition products and residues. 3. Oxidation characteristics " inhibitor susceptibility / resistance to oxidation. 4. Hydrolysis - resistance to bases, acids, water or steam 5. Solubility - in water, in hydrocarbon solvents 6. Miscibility - how well it mixes with petroleum products. Now that the properties of oils have been grouped let us examine the properties in greater detail. Viscosity - is basically a measure of the ability of an oil to resist shear stress or in other words an oil of low viscosity flows more easily than an oil of high viscosity. An oil's viscosity is its most important property, as it is this property that ' most affects its load bearing capacity and the amount of internal heat generated. Hence in deciding which oil to use for a particular application, the viscosity must be high enough to maintain the required lubrication film, but not so high that undue friction losses might occur. Fig 14-1 indicates how viscosity is affected by various factors. Viscosity Index - indicates how viscosity depends on temperature; thusan oil of a high viscosity index will show little change in viscosity as temperature varies. The V-I can be improved by the addition of a colloid. Temperature Stability - is the ability of a lube oil to maintain its load bearing capacity over the range of temperature variations under which it is likely to be used. As the temperature increases an oil may begin to decompose into carbonaceous and tarry products, especially if oxygen or metallic oxides are present in the system. Flash Point - is the temperature to which a lubricant must be heated before its vapour, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to burn. At its fire point a lubricant will keep on burning. Temperature Increasing temperature lowers oil viscosity. A high-viscosity oil can support a heavy load, especially at low temperatures. High-viscosity oils also have more internal friction.

Pressure

Materials Version (1.0)

14-93

Lubricants

Increasing pressure increases oil viscosity. However, this only becomes important when pressures are in the neighborhood of many megapascals. Load Capacity Viscosity of an oil must be matched to the application. The oil must have enough viscosity to handle the load, yet increasing the viscosity causes an increase in fluid friction, which heats the oil and lowers the viscosity. Shaft Speed High speed means faster shearing of oil layers/ and more fluid friction. As temperature goes up/ viscosity goes down to decrease load capacity. However, a high speed helps to form a hydrodynamic wedge in bearings.

Materials Version (1.0)

14-94

Lubricants

Increasing temperature lowers oil viscosity, A highviscosity oil can support a heavy load, especially at low temperatures. High-viscosity oils also have more internal friction.

Increasing pressure increases oil viscosity. However, this only becomes important when pressures are in the neighborhood of many megapascals.

Viscosity of an oil must be matched to the application. The oil must have enough viscosity to handle the load, yet increasing the viscosity causes an increase in fluid friction, which heats the oil and lowers the viscosity.

High speed means faster shearing of oil layers, and more fluid friction. As temperature goes up, viscosity goes down to decrease load capacity. However, an high speed helps to form a hydrodynamic wedge in bearing.

Oil Viscosity Characteristics Figure 14-1

Materials Version (1.0)

14-95

These additives act by either forming an adsorbed film which prevents moisture from making contact with the metal or by forming a surface coating by chemical action. In addition to the above properties of an oily a number of additives are available to enhance existing or add further properties to an oil.0) 14-96 . This property is of prime importance in thin film lubrication. especially if "hot spots" are present. If water is allowed to accumulate in the circulating system it may lead to the formation of an oil-water emulsion which may lead to oil breakdown or corrosion or both. cause spillage at vents as well as creating difficulties in regulatory systems.is the ability of a lube oil to cling to the surface of a material. The effect of heat.deter the reaction of oxygen with oil and also inhibit the catalytic action of metals upon the oil-oxygen reaction and hence extend the useful life of the oil. If oxidation is not prevented. This quantity is important in refrigeration applications or in any equipment which is intended for operation at low temperatures. under certain prescribed conditions. Foam is undesirable because it can lead to oxidation.aid in the separation of an oil-water emulsion which is usually caused by the presence of contaminants such as rus and sludge. Emulsifying Agents .aid in maintaining cleanliness in internal combustion engines. Anti-foaming Agents . Oiliness . Detergents . In the crankcase the detergent keeps solids sus-pended in the oil so that they can be filtered out elsewhere. Anti-oxidants . Rust Inhibitors .is the temperature at which an oil just barely flows. Demulsifiers . Usually a fixed oil is added to a mineral oil to increase its oiliness. on entrained air is primarly responsible for oxidation. Some of the more usual additives will be discussed below. interfere with heat transfer.are used to enable the oil to surround each particle of water to prevent metal corrosion. the oil will become acidic and form sludges and may promote corrosion. while I in the area swept by the rings' the detergent prevents sludge or lacquer from building up.are used to prevent entrained air from being turned into foam by turbulence in the system. Materials Version (1.Lubricants Pour Point . An emulsion can generally be broken by heating to 75°-100°C then allowing adequate settling time.enable the oil to protect steel surfaces from rusting when in contact with water or moist air within the oil circulating system.

and synthetics.0) 14-97 . also as they are water soluble they cannot be used in contact with water or steam. These greases are usually made by cooking tallow or fatty acids with lime and water thus forming the base or "soap'.2 Greases: There are four types of grease in use: ie. Multipurpose greases are so named because their worked and unworked properties are similar. These greases are produced in both water soluble and insoluble types of many consistencies and most types have little or no effect on natural or synthetic rubber. Materials Version (1.Lubricants 14. Water resistant grease is generally used in low temperature applications (below 80°c) since above this temperature the water in the grease. In general in soda based greases a lower water content means a better products as excessive water causes the grease to lose consistency. Generally silicone greases are highly resistant to water and oxidation as well as chemical fumes. while the lithium base has a dropping point about 175 °C but its low temperature characteristics are far better. which acts as a binder. water and lube oil. Water soluble (soda based) greases are made from fatty acids. Synthetic greases are made from standard soaps with a synthetic lubricant substituting for mineral oil or are made entirely from silicone. but caustic soda (Na0H) is used instead of lime. Because of their good properties it is often possible to meet all the grease requirements of a large plant with one high quality lithium-base grease. The water resistance of a lithium base grease is between a good soda-base grease and a calcium-base grease. water resistant. multipurpose. They are formed with a barium or lithium base depending on the temperature they are to be used at. At low temperatures these greases become stiff and hence cause high starting torques.' then a definite amount of water and oil are added to get the required emulsion of base and oil. water soluble. The barium base is suitable for use at temperatures up to 200°c and beyond if regreasing is frequent enough to remove by-products that will form at these elevated temperatures. The synthetics are expensive but useful in applications where there is a wide temperature variation . rapid oxidation or gumming. evaporates allowing the oil to separate and "bleed" 3Ut of the bearing leaving a sticky soap mass which can lead to failure. The amount of oil added determines the consistency of the grease. The main difference between these greases and the calcium based (water resistant) greases lies in the fact that the former are more nearly a chemical mixture of soap and oil and don't depend entirely on water content to stay jelled.

Graphite is used in two forms: natural graphite. Molybdenum disulphide is used in the machine tool industry for lubrication. hence the material forms layers which can easily slide upon each other. then mixed with a solvent. Among these solids are graphite and molybdenum disulphide.0) 14-98 . colloidal graphite is manufactured in an electric furnace from anthracite coal plus petroleum coke forming a soft greasy material.Lubricants 14. a mineral which is used as a lubricant and conductor in electrical brushes and also may be used in a dry form or mixed with solvents for use in such places as oil-less bearings. Materials Version (1. This substance starts to slowly oxidize at 400°C but can be used at temperatures up to 565 °C at which it rapidly oxidizes.3 Solid Lubricants: In certain solids the interatomic bonds are strong in two directions but weak in the third. This second form of graphite is good for high temperature applications. almost chemically pure. Molybdenum disulphide closely resembles graphite in appearance but has twice the density of graphite.

Plastics in fact usually consist principally of carbon. hydrogen. beta or neutron irradiation. One place where this versatile material is found in the Plant: the high density concrete beams on either side of the hatches above the reactor at NPD contain a layer of polyethylene to aid in neutron shielding. Rubber and Protective Coatings CHAPTER 15 Plastic. is solid in its finished state. Rubber and Protective Coatings 15.0 Plastics: The definition given by the American Society for Testing Materials is that " a plastic is a material that contains as an essential ingredient an organic* substance of large molecular weight. this is done with polyethylene. can be shaped by flow. Most polyethylene. Increased cross-linking can be incorporated by gamma. Besides the shape of the * An organic substance is considered to be any compound containing carbon (with the exception of carbonate (CO3) and cyanide (CN) groups). but also rigidity and brittleness. Perhaps the most widely known plastic is polyethylene. and at some stage in its manufacture or in its processing into finished articles. for example. pressure or a catalyst. for example. oxygen and nitrogen. What this means in English is that it is an organic polymer which is or was moldable. which is made by reacting ethylene (a low boiling gas manufactured from natural gas) with itself in the presence of heat. to raise its softening point above the boiling point of water (eg for kitchen utensils).0) 15-99 . Plastic Materials Version (1. usually under the influence of one or more of heat.Plastic. whence the monomers are extracted. The raw materials normally originate from petroleum and/or coal. is flexible and quite soft and tough. Such "sideways-bonding" (known as cross-linking) imparts hardness and higher softening point. this is due to the fact that the molecules are for the most part long straight chains which are not bonded to each other in very many places. catalyst and high pressure: n C2H —> (C2H4) n ethylene (monomer) polyethylene (polymer) n typically 100-1000 The properties of the plastic depend on the structure of its molecule. The monomer is reacted either with itself or with other monomers.

strong fibres can be obtained. Most of the thermoplastics are limited to about 150°C. and which upon cooling regain their solid state. Whereas the atoms in a piece of metal are held together by a Free-Flowing electron "sea".Plastic. two broad classifications: 1. If this happens. (Appendix 2) Plastics are light but for their weight are fairly strong. conduction (with some decomposition) can occur either across the surface or through the bulk of the material. All the electrons are held within the individual molecules (most of the valence (outer shell) electrons are involved in covalent bonding)/ and cannot leave ____ unless of course the rated voltage is sufficiently exceeded. because of the ease with which long. An important application of plastics is as insulators. In fact/ fibres can be obtained which match the tensile strength of the strongest steels. Typical of this group are polystyrenes. The overall cost is usually low. have useful physic properties and excellent chemical resistance. giving rise to good electrical conductivity. 2. and even at this temperature the strength begins to deteriorate. Rubber and Protective Coatings molecules. acrylics and vinyls (Table 1 in the Appendix). Thermosetting: Thermosetting describes plastics that solidify or set on heating and cannot be remelted. however. Their primary disadvantage is susceptibility to heat. thermoset materia1 cannot be reshaped once they have been fully cured. The strength problem can be overcome in some respects by fibre reinforcement. even if the process is repeated. Compared to other materials they have a wide range of colours. Materials Version (1. the properties depend also on the nature of the chemical groups found in the plastic. Thermoplastic: Thermoplastic describes plastics that may be softened by heat. and again when compared to metals have low strengths. pre"* extrusion). Fibre reinforcement most commonly entails glass. there are. a piece of plastic has no such mobile electrons. They can be shaped by relatively simple means (such as die casting. The term "plastic" covers as wide a field as does "metal" . Glass fibre reinforced plastics find extensive use in aviation. In general. are adaptable to mass production methods. Typical of this group are the phenolics (bakelite)and epoxies.0) 15-100 . Thermosetting plastics will eventually char or even burn.

red-heat and beyond. rolled into sheets. it is usually diluted. The molecular weight of rubber hydrocarbon is not definitively known. is their behaviour under strain. Unlike -metals. Rubber and Protective Coatings Believe it or not. These properties were undesirable even in the • early use of rubber. This latex is not the sap of the rubber tree. When cooled to low temperatures it becomes hard and brittle. is widespread in the plant kingdom. Two excellent examples are duPont's Teflon and Kapton. rather than being limited to the rubber tree. which was chiefly for the Materials Version (1. It usually occurs as a colloidal solution in a white fluid known as latex. A most odd and valuable property of many plastics and resins. It contains 35% rubber. (C5H8)x. in which strain is induced in proportion to the stress applied.2 Vulcanization: Because there is little or no cross-linkage of the chains of the molecules.0) 15-101 . 15. (If "the milky" fluid from goldenrod or dandelion is rubbed between the fingers. plastics can be springy. we draw it out from the layer between the bark and the layer containing the sap. It occurs "in microscopic tubules distributed throughout the plant and is obtained from those in the cortex layer between the bark and the cambium layer. 15. a little ball of rubber will result).000.300. The former features almost universal chemical resistance while possessing the added property that few things stick to it. and received its name when it was used by an inspired individual to erase pencil marks. especially when glass fibre reinforced (Fibre glass re-wrote the pole vault record books). Research is continually working towards the development of better and better plastics. Contrary to popular belief. the latter is good for continuous service at temperatures up to 4000C. in fact. and washed.000. Rubber consists mainly of a hydrocarbon polymer. rubber from the tree is thermoplastic and becomes soft and sticky on heating.000. one investigation indicates a range of 50." which roughly translated means that although the latex is found in little tubular cells throughout the plant.000 to 3. moveover they deflect much more for a given load. its occurrence. After tapping.1 Rubber composition: Rubber was discovered by early Spanish explorers of America. and shows an astonishing capacity to cope briefly with far higher temperatures. plastics show a stress-strain relationship which depends on the rate at which the stress is applied. coagulated. the monomeric compound CSHB is called isoprene.Plastic. with 60% of the molecules having molecular weights > 1.

he was genuinely talented. and one which withstood relatively high temperatures without softening and which retained its elasticity and flexibility at low temperatures. on high in sulfur (23-35%) for hard rubber or ebonite. When the tension is removed.* Development of the process led to the production of a material with much greater toughness and elasticity. accidently dropped one of his brews on a hot stove and discovered what he called vulcanization. And then one day in 1839 a New England inventor by the * name of Charles Goodyear. Pictorially the situation is as follows: Figure 15-1 Commercial rubber is either low in sulfur (1-3%) for soft rubber. Vulcanization is a chemical reaction of the rubber hydrocarbon with sulfur: the chains of rubber molecules are tied together by sulfur atoms giving a huge cross-linked macro-molecule. Why? • Although he (to an extent) fluked this one. in the course of trying to ameliorate the rubber situation. plastic deformation cannot occur ? the paucity of the cross-links. although he was kept in poverty by infringements of his patents. So what does this accomplish? These (few) cross-links that we introduce prevent the original rubber molecules from slipping pass one another ie.Plastic.0) 15-102 . Rubber and Protective Coatings waterproofing of textiles. does permit the original molecules to be aligned and elongated to a considerable extent by stretching ______ the stuff is now elastic. Materials Version (1. Rubbers containing intermediate amounts are useless. the molecules spring back to the original alignment.! however. He ended up with over 60 patents and many bestowed honours.

Two products which emerged after World War I are Buna rubber (European) and Neoprene (American).3 Bits and Pieces: (a) One of the outstanding developments in the rubber industry has been the use of anti-oxidants to prolong the life of rubber articles. fabric-filled. The net result chemically is that the macro-molecules get chopped up somewhat. after which the sheeted material is used to line molds which are then subjected to heat and pressure. Because of the loss the East Indies and Malay Peninsula during World 15-103 (d) (e) Materials Version (1. but it was slow in coming because it costs more than natural rubber. Pine oil is added and after straining. Most rubber articles contain some reclaim. Its chief use is in the manufacture of. with the result that these two are hard at room temperature. Rubber articles are usually formed in either of the following two ways: (i) The ingredients are compounded on a rolling mill. and eventually crumbliness and even stickiness. The aging of rubber is due to reaction with oxygen. and costs only a fourth to a third as much as natural rubber. (b) (ii) (c) Did you know that those old. and for most uses its properties have been inferior. worn-out. after which the articles are shaped by gelation on a mold and then vulcanized. however. The atoms are arranged somewhat differently. The additives are simply mixed into the latex. insoluble-in-everything tires are reclaimable? It is done on a large scale. chewing gum. the mixture is pressed into sheets. There is such a thing as synthetic rubber.Plastic. Other additives include carbon black and "carbon white" (finely divided silica) to increase stiffness and tear and abrasion resistance. you guessed it. This reclaimed rubber can be revulcanized. the lower molecular weight is manifested in reduced elasticity and tensile strength. and softeners such as pine oil. Their hydrocarbons are indentical to each other and have the same chemical composition of rubber. this softens the rubber and disintegrates the fabric. fillers to reduce cost where strength is not important. The tire is shredded and stewed in dilute caustic soda at 180200°C. One vitally important application is in the manufacture of golf balls. Chicle is a resin containing polyisoprenes along with carbohydrates. Rubber and Protective Coatings 15.0) . non-recappable. Two other naturally occurring rubber-like materials are gutta-percha and balata.

but its relatively high cost of manufacture has limited its use to those applications that require its unique properties. chemicals. chances are it will have a visible dried film on the outside. This same unsaturation. The butadiene is usually co-poly-merized with another compound. Mineral (e. many edible oils can "dry" in this way___if you happen to be using one of these in the kitchen and the bottle has been around for quite a while. if present to at least a moderate degree. Although a synthetic true rubber is unknown. such as resistance to oil. lubricating) oils do not possess this property. enables a thin layer of a vegetable oil to react with the oxygen of the air. a dry film. Neoprene is a good general purpose rubber. great impetus was given the synthetic rubber industry in the United States. each of which has its own desirable characteristics that frequently are superior to those of natural rubber.g. with the result that the synthetic product is now firmly established. 2.Plastic. Table 1 Order of Drying Ability of Some Common Vegetable Oils NonDrying 1. many different synthetic products are made. The synthetics produced in largest amounts are manufacture from butadiene (C4He). What it refers to can most simply be described as latent or unused reactivity*. Rubber and Protective Coatings War 11. light and heat. 15. the semi-drying oils leave a more or less tacky film. A fully saturated fat has I no unused reactivity. In the body. ie. Olive Castor * Chemically described. such as styrene. unsaturation refers here to covalent bonds involving more than one pair of electrons per carbon-carbon bond. or at least be sticky Such an oil is called a drying oil. this latent reactivity aids in the breaking up of the otherwise nearly inert molecules. air. Table 1 below lists some common vegetable oils in order of increasing unsaturation.4 Protective Coatings: Everybody knows of the word "unsaturated" being used to describe fats and vegetable oils. The division into the three categories is somewhat arbitrary.0) 15-104 . Materials Version (1. and polymerize somewhat to become a solid. which in turn is made from alcohol petroleum or acetylene. thus reducing accumulation of body fat (and cholesterol). Although linseed oil is the classic example.

or are entirely composed of.0) 15-105 . 4. Driers are metallic salts of organic acids. Rubber and Protective Coatings NonDrying 3. thinner and rosin (pine tree resin). 10. The rosin imparts hardness and high gloss to the film. Materials Version (1. which was used a lot in the olden days. The drying oil is called the vehicle because after drying it holds the pigment. There are basically two categories of varnish: indoors and outdoors. or an organic dye. It is essentially identical to kerosene. thinner (again mineral spirits). entails first the evaporation of the solvent (giving the tacky stage). The dried film from drying oils will not dissolve in anything. but are rarely colour-fast to sunlight. pigment. solvent naphtha and coal oil. The former features better resistance to abrasion. it may be replaced by natural or synthetic resins. 8. it is normally either a metallic oxide (Ti02 for white) or salt. alkyd resins. and turpentine may be substituted for them. Varnish is a mixture of drying oil. and driers• The pigment (very finely ground after blending) provides colour and covering power. which are synthesized from medium molecular weight polyhydric alcohols and unsaturated acids. The latter provide most of the bright colours. One component (poly) urethane is a modern synthetic indoors varnish (requires only paint thinner for cleanup). cottonseed sesame corn sunflower soybean linseed Drying "Boiled" linseed oil.* they catalytically accelerate the reaction with atmospheric oxygen. The drying of varnish then. while the latter can better withstand sunlight. The alkyds dry much faster and may give superior films. peanut Rape SemiDrying 5. 6. 9. is really just ordinary linseed oil to which driers have been added. Modern paint vehicles now contain. Paint is a mixture of drying oil. The thinner is called mineral spirits and is what you get when you buy "paint thinner" or "solvent". heave it in the garbage. so if you forgot to clean your brush. 7. followed by oxidative curing of the remaining film.Plastic.

which is made by treating cotton with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. while the one in between is "semi-gloss". Lacquer in theory takes in any protective coating which dries by evaporation only.Plastic. which are essentially ordinary paint thinned way down to penetrate new wood well to colour it. * secreted on trees by certain insects in Southern Asia. or extender. Mn. Shellac and Lacquer differ from all the proceeding coatings in one basic respect: they dry by evaporation only. alcohol. (talc). All of the coatings discussed so far produce dried films which will not dissolve in anything. ir addition to its virtue of being cheap." which must be used for thinning and clean-up. used for coating wood.butyl acetate) and/or ketones (eg. stains. the dullest is "flat". acid. and the coated article itself. Rubber and Protective Coatings Oridinary paint is manufactured in three classifications of gloss: the shiniest is called "enamel". which are used as undercoats when painting new metal (to minimize corrosion). latex. a finelydispersed emulsion of paint in v (the droplets are so small that they can be seen only under a microscope). polyurethanes and polyesters/ which feature superb adhesion and/or resistance to abrasion. usually magnesium sil. which disrupts the otherwise smooth film of the vehicle. The only way to remove these dried films is by scraping or sanding. which permits water thinning and clean-up of the undried material. by a simple dissolving action. It is orange-brown in colour. Specialty paints include primers. but by far the most widely used lacquer is that based on nitrocellulose. This means that the dried film can be removed from equipment. The difference is achieved by loading up the paint with what is called an inert. Pb. along with a placticizer to give flexibility to the film. The solvent mixture comprises "lacquer thinner. and toluene. The lacquer.0) 15-106 . there is no oxidation or polymerization of the remaining film. acetone). Shellac. consists of the nitrocellulose dissolved in a mixture of low and medium molecular weight esters (eg. expensive two-component protective coatings such as epoxies. The commercial paint removers can greatly aid scraping. Materials Version (1. Ca ** more than one OH group per molecule This is a finely-divided inorganic compound. caustic and/or solvents. not used much any more is a solution of a resin called lac* in alcohol (methyl hydrate at the hardware store). • usually naphthenates of Co. which often contains pigment. they do this by loosening and wrinkling the old film.

multipurpose. un-usual chemical Polyether (chlorinated) Brilliant. rigid colorful Polyethylene Versatile. good weather-ability No odor. colourful Polypropylene Polyeth-Spencer Alathon-Dupont Escon-Humble Oil Penton-Hercules Polystyrene Styron-Dow Lustrex-Monsanto Exon-Firestone Marvinol-Naugatuck Vinyls * Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Materials Version (1. easily Coloured Some Trade Name Kralastic-Naugaturc Kralastic-Naugatuck Chemical Division Delrin-Dupont Lumarith-Celances PlastaceleDepont Vuepak-Monsanto Tenite Butyrate-Eest-man Butyrates Tough. stable.0) 15-107 . Rubber and Protective Coatings APPENDIX Table 1 Term ABS* Acetal Acetates Features Excellent toughness Extremely riged Tough. stands hard treatment Forticel-Celances Nixon C/N-Nixon Nit-ration Herculoid-Hercules Powder Hercocel E-Hercules powder Nixon E/C-Nixon Nit-ration Ethyl cellulose Highly chemical resistant Strong and extra temperature Fluorocarbon Polyamides (nylon) High impact strength Excellent chemical resistance Light weight and squeezable Teflon-Dupont Zytel-Dupont Lexan-General Electric Polycarbonate Light weight.Plastic. bright finish Cellulose propionate Tough. hard. hard surface. inflammable Cellulose nitrate Tough.

Plastic. rigid. tear resistant Some Trade Name Plaskon-Allied Dapon-FMC Corp Cascoloid-Borden Epon-Shell Chemical Melmac-Americal Cyanamid Resinox-Monsanto Mylar-Dupont Silastic-Dow Corning Lauxite-Monsanto Mondeur-Mobay Chemical Materials Version (1. Rubber and Protective Coatings Table 2 Term Alkyds Allyls Caseins Epoxies Melamines Phenolics Polyesters Silicones Ureas Urethanes Features Good electrical properties Low electrical loss Good colour range Excellent adhesion Strong and light-fast Hard. strong Tough hard surface Resistant to 590 F Colourful. dimensionally stable Tough.0) 15-108 .

2. In other words. 16. These are what are known as organic compounds. Two basic but important facts about adhesive materials are: 1. These would at best remove grossly unsuitable materials from consideration or at worst they could be misleading. Although not usually used as an adhesive.Adhesives CHAPTER 16 Adhesives 16. examples of which are gasoline. Structurally it can be represented as H H and this is called a monomer. When linked with others in a chain.1 Principles of Adhesion: Chemically adhesives are with few exceptions derived from* materials which contain carbon and other elements in combination.0 Adhesives: An adhesive is a substance applied as a thin intermediate layer which is capable of holding materials together in a useful manner by surface attachment. adhesives influence and are influenced by the materials with which they come in contact. 1 1 1 1 C = C H H Since in this form it exists independently. ethylene (C2H4) can be used to illustrate how the bonding works. An adhesive does not perform its function independently of its environment or context of use. these molecules are called Polymers. Table 1 (appendix) lists general comments which may be useful as a preliminary guide. For this reason it is virtually impossible to compile a selection guide. An adhesive does not exist which will bond anything to anything with equal utility. H 1 H 1 H 1 H 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 C 1 H H H H Materials Version (1. alcohols and all living organisms.0) 16-109 .

Materials Version (1. that is. while the secondary bonds provide the adhesive force by linking the polymer chains and ultimately the adherents.2 Functions: In many situations/ adhesives are more practical or essential than conventional bonding. adhesives can join thin metal sections to thick sections so that the full strength of the thin section is utilized. For example.(molecular forces) The second type of adhesion is mechanical. Conventional mechanical fastening or spot welding produces a structure whose strength is limited to that of the areas of the thin section in contact with the fasteners or the welds. This occurs where porous. This type of bonding is termed specific adhesion.0) 16-110 . 16.Adhesives • One inorganic adhesive is silicate of soda-the solution is called waterglass. Now if the hydrogen atoms are removed there will be bonds available for adhesion. rivets. penetrable surfaces are involved. paper "and cloth. and as a result the adhesive is able to enter crevices of the material and flow around fibres to provide an effective mechanical anchorage. such as wood. Some applications such as bonded honeycomb structures rely exclusively on adhesives the thin metal facings could not be bonded to the core without them. This can be visualized as: Figure 16-1 It is the primary bonds which link the monomer into chains. spot welds etc. A glued joint produces a distributed stress over the whole adhesive and thus eliminates the local stress concentration attendant upon screws. it is essentially chemical in nature.

it forms a barrier to fluids which do not attack or soften it. and minimize contact corrosion in metals.4 Other uses: Bonded joints can serve as insulation. (Figure 16-2). and when they are closed the space is filled to provide continuity. 16. Materials Version (1. Further use of thiokol is made in the other hatch covers. they have limited resistance to extreme temperatures and humidities.0) 16-111 . As well. a fill (thiokol) is used as a semi-permanent seal and fill above the steel wedge in the seal plate of the boiler room hatch. The need for special joint design to prevent cleavage is another.S. There are disadvantages of bonded structures which have limited their use in engineering. Their smooth appearance can also be an aesthetic advantage.3 Sealing and insulating: Since the adhesive provides full contact with mating surfaces of the joint. These include the need for long processing times for curing and the dependence of joint durability on the quality of the bonding process. very important factor and this is outlined in the appendix. A clearance space is allowed between adjacent covers to permit easier handling. damp out sound and vibration. This property is used to advantage in nuclear operations At Pickering G. Figure 16-2 This fill effectively prevents any movement of the wedge as well as completing the seal.Adhesives 16.

eg. Some have good resistance to radiation and for this reason are used in nuclear operation. compressors and cast-iron casings with significant saving in weight and design complexity. These tend to be sticky and are the most common in packaging. based on 200 basic polymers.0) 16-112 .6 Types of Adhesives: Many kinds of adhesives are being used. Epoxy adhesives with good gap filling properties are used for bonding pumps. for some adhesives are mixtures of polymers and possess thermal characteristics of both. 16. The particles do not dissolve in water but disperse discretely as droplets. with epoxy. Adhesives are classed as Thermoplastic or Thermosetting depending on whether they do or do not revert to a fluid state upon application of heat. give considerably lower strengths than the thermosetting types. Thermoplastics. cured under heat and pressure.S. Something like 5000 products are available today. In emulsions on the other hand. the polymeric molecules are "water-loving'. Materials Version (1. resin type emulsions. Thermoplastic adhesives (also plastics) have this property while thermosetting ones are insensitive to heat once they have been subjected to heat treatment or to some agent -which. The buffers are "water-loving" and are called emulsion agents.Adhesives 16. which precludes any intensive study at this stage. which soften with heat. • This classification is not absolute.5 Chemical forms: Adhesives are available as liquid. Epoxies and their modifications find the widest use for bonding metals. but nevertheless are used where lower joint strengths are acceptable. paste or dry. the most widely used ones can be grouped under a few broad headings.promotes the development of polymers. they are very soluble in water as are suqar and salt. depending largely on the type of materials being bonded and also on the service conditions of the bonded assembly. but they can be further classified as solutions or emulsions depending on their behaviour with water. This was vital in the decision to line (waterproof) the spent fuel bays at Pickering G. However. In a solution. the molecular chains are "water-hating". that is.* For Engineering applications the majority of structural adhesives are of the thermosetting type. They are usually very sticky and will attach themselves to many surfaces or bunch together unless a buffer is placed between them and the water. because they do not contain solvents and are true liquids Single component epoxy resins have become available in the last few years as liquids or films which avoid the need for critical premixing of resin and simplified processing.

Animal Glue. made from boric acid. Materials Version (1. The LOCTITE products are the best known example of this type which can be formulated to give various viscosities. These polymerize in the absence of oxygen. As a result. However. 16. glass. strength increases with temperature but there are serious shortcomings. Attempts to overcome their inherent brittleness have failed. For optimum results it should be applied at 60°C. is basically a derivative of hide and bones.7 Hot melts: Since they are based on thermoplastics. and bond all common metals. and as a bench glue for general purposes it is unsurpassed. The best have shear strengths up to 10 MN/m2 while-still others can be used in 20 minutes. but problems can arise because of their limited toughness or low melt temperature (65oc to 1800C). molecular rearrangement or reversible melting or softening. Anaerobic adhesives are one of the most recent developments. the higher breakdown temperature corresponding to a more rigid chain structure. since many changes can occur below the breakdown temperature. used since Egyptian times. Recently developed special grades will stand up to 200°C. fact edible Gelatin. ceramics and phenolic plastics. Thermal shock resistance is poor even though their heat and oxidation resistance is better than that of organics. irreversible decomposition. where speed. above 250°C the materials soften.Adhesives With the exception of silicones and fluorocarbons (Teflon). Thus. Up to 5500C. setting times and shear strengths. they do not depend on chemical action or solvent to effect the setting. which occurs within seconds or minutes of application. the useful temperature range of a Polymer adhesive is difficult to ascertain. as it is a fluid at this temperature. hot melts are temperature dependent adhesives and thus achieve their strength by cooling. It also has a rapid handling bond because of the fast initial set. It is similar to a jelly and extra-refined grades are in.0) 16-113 . Unlike other adhesives. all known thermosetting and thermoplastic resins are degraded below 400°C. they are of considerable importance in mass-production industries such as paper and packaging. Ceramic adhesives. Some adhesives have unique cure mechanisms. Thus the monomer is able to polymerize to form a tough resilient bond when confined between closely fitting parts such as on threads of a nut and bolt. under the catalytic influence of metals. silica and ferric oxide. appear to offer an answer to the high temperature problem. It approaches an all purpose glue. They are also "water-hating" which means they show excellent moisture resistance. simplicity and mechanization are vital. which may be useful for dismantling the joints. a Polymer can undergo chemical modification.

Adhesives

Table -1 Type
Vegetable Casein Urea

Source
Starches of corn Potatoes, tapioca Milk Synthenic resin based on carbon dioxide (C02) & (NH3) ammonia Synthetic-resin of phenolic type dried blood

Form
dry (flour) Powder Powder or liquid

Remarks
low cost-not resistant to humidity or moisture water resistant plywood where exposure is not extreme. Also, good resistance to heat. Shorter curing cycle & temperature required than phenolics but reduced ultimate durability. Excellent under normal exposure. Excellent for laminated lumber and joints subject to severe exposure such as marine conditions. Since it is cheap it is a good modifying & extending agent in resin adhesives to regulate spread & flow. Also to shorten hot press cycles. Extender for other glues such as soybean. Corrugated fibre or paper packages.

Resorcinol

Liquid

Blood Albumin

Power

Silicate of soda

sand & soda ash

solid or liquid

Lacquer

many

Rubber

Natural or Synthetic compounds

liquid (organic) solvents used liquid

moisture resistant used when watercontaining adhesives are ruled out.

"Dry-Tack" adhesives and self-seal envelopes & shirt bands.

16.8

Others:
There are many other types of adhesives, some of which have very specialized uses owing to their characteristic properties or economies. Elastomers, for example, are used when high peel strengths are required. Soybean glues, on the other hand, are particulary suited to Douglas Firs and are used almost exclusively for these and associated species. These and others are summarized in table 1 and tables 1 and 2 of the Appendix

16.9

Tapes:
Pressure sensitive tapes consist of materials (backings) with permanently tacky adhesives bonded to them. They adhere to a variety of surfaces, and require only light pressure. (Figure.16-3) A brief summary is given here because of their omnipresence in industry.

Materials Version (1.0)

16-114

Adhesives

Table – 2 Tape type 1. Paper tapes 2. Cellophane 3. Cellulose acetate Remarks masking tape etc. - varying properties Transparent, tough, strong. Clean, strong, better humidity resistance but not as tough as cellophane High tensile strength, toughness, moisture resistance, and durability expensive Electrical tape High tensile strength, low temp. flexibility, resistant to most solvents, low moisture transmission High heat & chemical resistance Able to "breathe" - good toughness, tear resistance and conformability Aluminium, copper & lead are common Resistant to moisture & weathering Copper has good electrical conductivity Lead blocks nuclear radiation & x-rays

4. Polyester and Polyvinyl

5. Polyethylene

6. TFE fluorocarbon 7. Cloth tapes 8. Metal foil

Materials Version (1.0)

16-115

Adhesives Figure 16-3

16.10 End Use Requirements:
The ultimate strength of an adhesive is as dependent upon the service conditions such as temperature, humidity and water as it is on the adhesive itself. The temperature which the bond is subjected to in use is just as important as that under which it tool place. (see appendix) Recall that the condition of thermoplastics is temperature dependent, and that permanent damage can be done to thermosets if their design temperatures are exceeded. For this reason maximum temperature should always be noted before use. Some of these are given in table 2 of the appendix. Since a large percentage of adhesives cure by losing entrained water many may be remoistened and consequently weakened under high humidity conditions. Water resistance may be a useful property, as is the case with beer bottle labels. These however may not be humidity resistant and may fail when exposed to 80 or 90 percent relative humidity. Properties such as solvent, shock and oil resistance may also be incorporated into the final product.

16.11 Conclusion:
The use of adhesives requires a good deal of common sense, especially in sensitive industries such as nuclear plants. In many instances a patch up job could be done with an adhesive but this may not be desired. For example, if a nut is loose it can normally be secured with Loctite, but this would probably constitute a misuse. If a precision fit was designed for, an adhesive should not be used as a solution for poor workmanship; rather, only when it is designed as an integral part of a structure , such as in plywood, waterproofing, etc.

Materials Version (1.0)

16-116

17. This kinetic energy is about a fortieth of an electron volt in the moderator. short descriptions of the damage experienced by specific materials will be presented. or alpha.1 Types of Radiation: Fast neutrons lose energy by colliding with nuclei. Thermal neutrons therefore cannot cause any damage on collision with atoms of the medium.g. First let's take a general look at what appends when these radiations do their interacting. as the (for example) heavy water in which they are bouncing around. How fast are fast. radiation damage may result.. * Defined as the energy gained by an electron when accelerated through a potential difference of one volt. they have the same kinetic energy.v. beta r gamma rays. the more energy the neutrons have. e. Finally.Radiation Damage CHAPTER 17 Radiation Damage 17. both by electron ionization and atomic displacement effects. As might e expected. We get an effect only when the thermal neutron is captured by a nucleus. In some cases the addition of a neutron does not change the identity of the element. The damage resulting from fast neutron irradiation is actually caused by atoms knocked out of position by the neutrons. whereas room temperature molecules have energies only a fraction of an electron volt.e. i. this will be followed by a brief look at the separate behavior of covalent.0 Radiation damage: When we say radiation.0) 17-117 .* Fission neutrons start out typically at a couple of million e. we mean either neutrons. the greater will e the resultant damage. Materials Version (1. and some of its electrons re stripped off as the atom passes by neighboring ones. These radiations can interact with the nuclei in material or the electrons around them.. or temperature. most neutron captures by iron atoms result in just a heavier stable iron atom. when this happens. The result is a high speed charged ion passing through the material. neutrons? We measure their energies in units called electron volts. A nucleus thus clobbered takes off at high speed. ionic and metallic bonds on irradiation. Thermal neutrons are so called because they are in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings.

Incidentally. a 1 Mev beta particle can cause substantial ionization. to ten or more Mev. Unlike neutrons and gamma rays. Beta radiation ranges anywhere from a few thousand e. beta particles have very limited power of penetration. They can at best penetrate 10-15mm. Materials Version (1. with the result that the emitting nucleus recoils. Since each ion pair* formed requires 25-35ev. capture by aluminum results in the eventual formation of silicon. it (which is negatively charged) along with the remaining positively charged atom constitute an ion pair. Alpha particles have so little penetration power they are not a factor in radiation damage to materials. Beta radiation (electrons) entails charged particles. which may or may not be concomitant with the formation of an impurity atom. The fast electrons resulting from the incident gamma rays cause damage by gamma radiation. some slow down to thermal neutrons.g. and gives off its excess energy as a gamma photon. Gamma rays for the most part interact only with electrons.4% of the aluminum at the centre of the NRX reactor is transformed to silicon in 10 years. of water or body tissue. and thereby produce ionization. Thermal neutrons when captured give rise to what are called capture gamma rays (they are emitted by the target nucleus. About 0.0) 17-118 . It should be pointed out that none of the above radiations occurs alone.v. then: fast neutrons can cause a great number of ionizing effects and cause a large number of atoms to be displaced. which are Very light. Damage is caused only by interaction with the orbital electrons of the atoms in the material . On recoiling it is usually displaced from its position. When a thermal neutron is captured.Radiation Damage On the other hand. To summarize neutrons. the newly formed nucleus is in an excited (higher energy) state. • When an electron is removed from an atom.) The new nucleus often decays later on by emitting a beta particle and/or a gamma photon. and have energies in the neighborhood of 7 Mev. (Interactions with nuclei causing ejection of neutrons and other particles are not of importance in engineering design). whereas a thermal neutron can cause only one atom to be displaced. from tritium) cannot even penetrate a piece of paper.ionization is the result. while the feeble ones (e. Fast neutrons (a result of fission) are accompanied by gamma rays. it is worth knowing that only neutrons can make a material radioactive. This photon is usually very energetic (6-7 Mev).

They are thus good electrical insulators. Since this bond does depend on the sharing of electrons..* This has little effect on the strength of a material. All of the possible electronic sites are not filled.0) 17-119 . Ionizing radiation. In the case of NaCl (table salt). Ionic bonds entail cations and anions being held together in a crystal lattice by electrostatic attraction only. and chemical change. However. ionization can result in Na or a neutral Cl atom (loss of an electron from Na or Cl ) without causing the atoms to move out of their positions.e. fast neutrons can have a serious effect by knocking the metal atoms out of position. which takes place after bonds have been ruptured. However. but it soon turns-black-when exposed to ionizing radiation. therefore. all electrons in the compound are held in their orbits around particular atoms.Radiation Damage 17. In molecules with ionic bonding all the available electron sites are filled. the resistively of these materials is reduced during irradiation. The displaced electron may eventually find its way to another electron deficient site and there is no net damage. For example. but can change its color. other than metals. The electrons in the sea are mobile. The damage is caused by both neutrons and ionizing radiation. Organic compounds contain almost exclusively covalent bonding. the electrons are free to move from site to site. ionizing radiation (which causes electrons to become separated from their atoms) destroys it. forming vacancies and interstitials. so that there normally can be very little electron movement from site to site.2 Effects of Radiation on the Bond Types: Covalent bonds as you recall. Metallic bonding entails the atoms in a piece of metal being held together by an electron sea. ionizing radiation is not nearly so destructive to an ionic bond as to a covalent one. which interacts only with electrons. entail atoms being held together by the sharing of electron pairs. since radiation causes electron migration. On the other hand. exhibit ionic bonding. The amount of viscosity increase depends on the Materials Version (1. glass is quite resistant insofar as its structural properties are concerned. will not have any effect on this type of material. The majority of inorganic materials. the electron may become trapped in a lattice imperfection and we get what is called an F centre. Ionizing radiation causes disintegration of the original molecules and the formation of new and different ones. they do not belong to particular atoms. i. the German word for color 17. * From Farbe.3 Effects of Radiation on Materials: Oils suffer increase in viscosity as a result of cross-linking.

the tendency is to form gummy. the more vulnerable types can actually solidify. oils of high viscosity are more sensitive. which can restrict the flow of lubricant. They need not join in the same structure as before breaking. Exposure to air during irradiation accelerates oxidation. since the bond arrangement can be extensively changed when the bonds broken by the radiation come together.Radiation Damage composition of the particular oil. Additives can be very helpful in limiting radiation-induced oxidation and other damage. such as altered tensile strength. this can cause swelling. however. Some production of gas can also occur (mostly hydrogen and methane). tar-like polymers. Polymers (plastics) undergo drastic changes under the influence of radiation. Greases of the soap-oil type can rapidly become fluid. perhaps even liquid. a relatively radiation-resistant class of materials. Materials Version (1. and reduces threshold and limiting dosages by about a factor of 2. Hydrocarbon mineral oils can be considered. This will result in a polymer that is much softer and weaker than the original material. New bonds may be made to make new polymers that are larger or have new arrangements. In any event. These will also have new properties. In general. Figure 17-1 shows the relative effect of radiation on various polymeric materials * Fragmentation into shorter chains may occur.0) 17-120 .

Radiation Damage Effect of Radiation on Polymeric Materials Figure 17-1 Materials Version (1.0) 17-121 .

0) 17-122 . but they all suffer radiolytic damage. they will tend to get brittle and flake away. a degree of cross-linking can be added that raises this softening point above the boiling point of water.e. buried). The resins in the active water systems remove radioactive corrosion products and fission products from the water. "talus'" failing in their task as a protective coating. Under the influence of a small dose of radiation. It is felt that a combination of the radiolytic damage* and the added effort of regenerating active resins makes discarding the resins a more profitable procedure than regenerating them. Polyethylene. This need not always be bad. All plastic parts chosen for their mechanical properties will fail in time. At the present time. They will also be subjected to radiolytic breakdown. • Which in addition might result in the release of traces of corrosive chloride from the resin into the system. Paints contain polymers. the active resins are not regenerated. These radionuclides will deposit much of their energy within the resin bed. The wide use of polyethylene in kitchen utensils is a result of this radiation induced "damage". Materials Version (1. All polymers undergo change when exposed to radiation. but are discarded (i. leading to its destruction.. leading to the hazard of electrical shortcircuits. they will also get brittle and crack. thus great care must be taken when choosing the materials used in radiation fields. (as normally produced) softens below the boiling point of water.Radiation Damage Cross-linking may occur. Some are more resistant to radiation than others. Ion-exchange resins are polymers based on polystyrene. resulting in less freedom of movement for the individual chains/ and thus a more rigid and brittle polymer. Electrical insulations are polymers.

natural is more resistant to radiation damage than the synthetics. however. Their properties depend on a fine balance between inherent freedom of motion of the chain and the degree of cross-linking between the chains. When its atoms are displaced by fast neutrons. these dislocations anneal out that is. however. The resistively of these materials can drop by a factor of 10 to 100. the energy of the crystal lattice is increased. The effects of radiation on graphite have been studied in detail. Ceramic. namely spalling and internal stresses. As this happens. glass or mica capacitors with a body of inorganic material will show little damage after 1000 times the dose that will put an oil-filled capacitor out of service. The tensile strength of all is reduced. Damage to such items as crystal diodes. in general. they can take 10-100 times the radiation that organic insulators will withstand. These materials depend on a very critical number of current carriers (available electrons) for their particular electrical properties. Semiconductors are a good example. as happened to the Windscale reactor in the UK. Wire-wound and metallized resistors on ceramic bases will experience less than a 10% change in resistance at doses up to ten times those which cause resin-bonded carbon resistors to fail (because of failure of the resin). for instance. butyl rubber softens). If the graphite is heated. Degradation of components containing ceramic materials also consists of changes in electrical properties before physical deterioration. The effect of radiation on concrete was dealt with briefly at the end of the lesson covering this material. Of the rubbers. ionizing radiation has little effect on it. but the effect on hardness depends on the material (natural rubber. In many cases electrical property changes set in before other damage is apparent. (Why not?). Careful control must be exercized during the annealing process to prevent overheating the graphite. Damage to electrical properties of electronic circuit components can be serious. Materials Version (1. Careful selection of components will lead to longer circuit life in radiation fields. transistors and dry rectifiers consists of changes in conductivity. Radiation causes dimensional changes and an increase in resistively of the graphite. gets harder.Radiation Damage The molecules in elastomers (the generic name for rubber-like substances) are long strings of atoms. which for components such as these can mean game over. the carbon atoms fall back into their correct positions.0) 17-123 . the excess energy that went into displacing the atoms is released as heat. The results manifest themselves as heat damage.

Thus for each initial neutron-atom encounter. Figure 17-2 Materials Version (1. ionizing radiation has no effect (Why not?). The energy transferred in these collisions is generally large enough to allow the thumped atom* to produce additional vacant lattice sites by further collisions. a cascade of collisions resulting in vacancies can be initiated. Neutron radiation creates three types of simple defects in the crystal lattice: vacancies/ interstitials. and impurity atoms.Radiation Damage Finally.0) 17-124 . metals. As stated a few pages ago. Vacancies may be created by collisions of neutrons with the atoms in a solid lattice—they are uninhabited sites in the crystal lattice. To understand why the strength and hardness of metals increase while ductility decreases as a result of neutron irradiation. it is necessary to consider the ways in which high-energy particles damage the crystal structure.

The number introduced is generally small. Such atoms are called interstitials. are the primary causes of the radiation induced changes in the mechanical properties of metals. or excitation of free electrons. until their velocities are reduced below that of these electrons. each encounter will result in a displacement if the energy transferred exceeds 25ev. The remaining energy will be dissipated by collisions with other atoms. or by exciting the free electrons. vacancies and interstitials can rearrange themselves. Some close pairs will annihilate each other. After the energy of the moving atoms becomes less than about 50ev. as effective in causing this type of damage. It is generally considered that the defect clusters. unless they immediately recombine with adjacent vacant lattice sites. they are not expected to produce a permanent effect. no further displacements occur. Impurity atoms come about through neutron capture followed by radioactive decay.e. act directly with the nuclei of the metal atoms. This means that the last 50ev or so of each knock-on atom is dissipated by hitting other atoms without displacing them permanently. Except at very low temperatures. by forming barriers to slip. Neutrons. and it is normal in considering radiation damage to consider only fast neutrons. Most of the energy will be dissipated by ionization.i. impurity atoms and thermal spikes is presented as Figure 17-3.Radiation Damage The atoms displaced from their equilibrium (initial) positions in the lattice will stop in non-equilibrium (incorrect) positions. The energy required to knock an atom out of its equilibrium lattice site is of the order of 2 5ev. with an energy of 1 Mev or higher in fact. while others move to surfaces or become associated with lattice imperfections. Still others will combine to form clusters of defects. Materials Version (1. Gamma rays and charged particles (alpha.vacancies. Thermal neutrons have an energy of about {oev. this heats the lattice. they cannot displace further atoms without themselves remaining in the lattice position—.0) 17-125 . beta) lose most of their energy by removing electrons from the inner shells of the atoms in the metal. Because these effects are rapidly removed by the electron sea. These initially energetic atoms behave like any other charged particle radiation. causing ejection from the lattice site. and in reactor applications may normally be ignored in relation to other damage effects. How about a summarizing paragraph: The damage produced by irradiation depends markedly on the type of radiation involved. on the other hand. interstitials. A schematic diagram of how neutrons can cause ionization.. The local hot spot formed is called a thermal spike.

Radiation damage has little effect on the life of zirconium fuel sheathing. Pressure tube life is reduced because of radiation. particularly the uniform elongation. The effect of irradiation temperature on the various -properties is complex. Damage is also apparently reduced by smaller grain size. In fact. Materials Version (1. This must be considered in designs where strains resulting from volume changes are expected e. The ductility is reduced. and to a lesser extent the tensile strength. but it does impose limitations on the positions in a reactor to which fuel may be shifted.Radiation Damage Some specifics for two important metals will now be thrown at you. since creep is accelerated in a radiation field. the almost complete absence of uniform elongation causes zircaloy to show local necking and a drop in load carrying capacity at very low strains.0) 17-126 . I-t appears that partial annealing of" radiation damage responsible for one mechanical property may take place more or less independently of another mechanical property at a given temperature of irradiation. differential thermal expansion or radiation swelling. the concomitant decrease in ductility may be very bad indeed. Irradiation of zircaloy at temperatures up to 280°C considerably increases the yield strength. Neutron irradiation of plain carbon steel produces a marked increase in yield strength (with a lesser increase in tensile strength) accompanied by a decrease in the elongation to fracture. however.g. although increased carbon appears to decrease the amount of radiation damage. The increase in strength after irradiation may be beneficial. The effects of composition are complicated.

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