Gadner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences In 1983, Howard Gardner published Frames of Mind: the theory of multiple intelligences.

Gadner formulated his theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) based on his belief that there is not just one form of cognition that cuts across all human thinking. To date, he proposed eight forms of intelligences and believed that there could be more. Gadner’s premise is that each individual has all eight forms of multiple intelligences in varying degrees. Teaching should focus on the individual’s strongest intelligences. Eight intelligences stated are verbal linguistic, logical mathematical, visual spatial, body kinesthetic, musical rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalist. Bruner’s Inductive Learning Theory Bruner’s Inductive Learning Theory encompasses the scientific model. Students identify problems, generate hypotheses, test each hypothesis against collected data and apply conclusions to new situations. The purpose of this type of instruction is to teach students thinking skills. In this process of learning, the teacher must carefully plan the questions that should be asked in order to help students to attain the principle or abstraction being taught. The teacher should try and encourage students to discover principles by themselves. The task of the teacher is to translate information to be learned into a format appropriate to the learner’s current state of understanding. Bruner’s learning theory encourages students to actively use their intuition, imagination, and creativity. The approach starts with the specific and moves to the general. The teacher presents examples and the students work with the examples until they discover the interrelationships. Bruner believes that classroom learning should take place through inductive reasoning, that is, by using specific examples to formulate a general principle.

Gadner’s learning theory has its unique procedure to organize the learning process. I will use a science topic to show the differences between Gadner’s Theory of multiple intelligences and Bruner’s learning theory. The same topic (how to differentiate living things and non-living things) is discussed again in this learning theory. The first step is pupils are asked to collect various living things and non-living things found in school garden. Pupils make hypotheses to the objects collected. similarities and difference on the next step. . In Bruner’s learning theory. Teacher uses questions to guide the pupils to examine the objects collected and identify their main characteristic. the concept of classification is explained using other examples of living things and nonliving things so that generalizations can be derived. teacher helps the pupils to classify the living things and non-living things collected based on their own characteristics. The topic I used is how to differentiate living things and non-living things.Comparison between Bruner’s Inductive Learning Theory and Gadner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence. Pupils test each hypothesis that made previously. Gadner proposed a five-step plan to create a lesson. there are 4 main steps in the learning process from specific to general. During the third step. Pupils are asked to collect living things and non-living things in school garden Teacher uses guiding questions to help pupils to examine the objects collected and identify their characteristics Teacher helps pupils to classify the living things and non-living things based on their characteristics The concept of classification is explained using other example of plant so that generalizations can be derived On the other hand. Eventually.

Similarities between two theories .In the first step. teacher states the lesson objectives and outcome. The next step is teacher picks tools from Multiple Intelligence Toolbox which is formulated by Gadner. The learning outcome expected is students are able to differentiate living things and non-living things. teacher needs to focus the content by going through mentally all the aspects covered in this topic. Observe them. Learn new words from unfamiliar objects. The key aim of the lesson is to enable each pupil to learn the topic within a single learning experience. Focus the content Sequence the lesson State the lessons objectives and outcome Pick the tools from Multiple Intelligence Toolbox Define how each tool will be used Activities in the lesson to develop pupils’ eight intelligences Drawing Empathy practices Hands-on labs Know thyself procedures Music performance Role play Categorize Vocabulary Draw the objects that have observed in school garden Talk with a partner about characteristics of living things and non-living things Get an ant and a small rock and put them in a container separately. In the final step. teacher has to sequence the lesson by arranging the tools Multiple Intelligence Toolbox that used in order. Note the similarities and differences between living things and non-living things Use non-living things to create a soundtrack of music Act out one of the living things and non-living things Categorize living things and non-living things Watch a video to identify the living things and non-living things. After this.

it was “How do you want the children to learn?” Gadner highlighted a lesson is planned to develop pupils’ inner potential or skills in several areas as each child have his own unique set of intellectual strengths and weakness. Differences between two theories Gadner and Bruner place the stress on different aspects of learning. Implication of both learning theories Theory of Multiple Intelligences implies that educators should recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills. teaching in this manner can facilitate a deeper understanding of the subject material. Bruner suggests that teachers should arrange their teaching materials in a way that can be accepted by pupils according to their abilities and experiences. Gadner also stated that teacher decides how to order the various learning activities with the lesson once he is clear on how you and your students will use the tools in the lesson. Teacher encourages the pupils to become active seekers of information as pupils are guided to acquire new structures through interaction with the material to be learned References . For Gadner. Gadner stressed on the process of learning and developing pupils’ intelligence. Bruner begins his lesson with problem-solving that leads to the development of the required skills. Another implication is that teachers should structure the presentation of material in a style which engages most or all of the intelligences. By activating a wide assortment of intelligences. the main question was “What do you want the children to learn?” while for Bruner. teachers also need to teach learning materials in a systematic arrangement that follows specific sequences so that pupils can understand the learning materials more effectively. Bruner’s learning theory implies that teacher should act as a catalyst to motivate pupils to develop the necessary learning skills. Besides that.Sequencing step is vital in both learning theories.

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