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Archaeplastida

The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae,
and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.[4] The chloroplasts of all these organisms are
Archaeplastida
surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they developed directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. In all other groups besides the amoeboid Temporal range: Calymmian - Present ,
Paulinella chromatophora, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or 1600–0Ma
green algae.
Had'n Archean Proterozoic Pha.

The cells of the Archaeplastida typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae. They usually have a cell wall including cellulose,
and food is stored in the form of starch. However, these characteristics are also shared with other eukaryotes. The main evidence that the
Archaeplastida form amonophyletic group comes from genetic studies, which indicate their plastids probably had a single origin. This evidence is
disputed.[5][6] Based on the results to date, alternative evolutionary scenarios to a single primary endosymbiosis are not possible to confirm or
refute.[7] Photosynthetic organisms with plastids of different origin (such as brown algae) do not belong to the Archaeplastida.

The archaeplastidans fall into two main evolutionary lines. The red algae are pigmented with chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, like most
cyanobacteria, and accumulate starch outside the chloroplasts. The green algae and land plants – together known as Viridiplantae (Latin for "green
plants") or Chloroplastida – are pigmented with chlorophylls a and b, but lack phycobiliproteins, and starch is accumulated inside the
chloroplasts.[8] The glaucophytes have typical cyanobacterial pigments, and are unusual in retaining a cell wall within their plastids (called Trees, grasses and algae in and around
cyanelles).[1] Sprague River, Oregon

Archaeplastida should not be confused with the older and obsolete name Archiplastideae, which refers to cyanobacteria and other groups of
Scientific classification
bacteria.[9][10] Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Archaeplastida
Contents Adl et al., 2005 [1]

Taxonomy Subgroups
Cladogram
Morphology Rhodophyta
Endosymbiosis Glaucophytes
Fossil record Viridiplantae (green algae and
References land plants)
External links
Cryptista?
Picozoa?
Taxonomy Synonyms
The consensus in 2005, when the group consisting of the glaucophytes and red and green algae and land plants was named 'Archaeplastida',[1] was
Plantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981 [2]
that it was a clade, i.e. was monophyletic. Many studies published since then have provided evidence in agreement.[11][12][13][14] Other studies,
though, have suggested that the group is paraphyletic.[15][6] To date, the situation appears unresolved, but a strong signal for Plantae Primoplastobiota Reviers, 2002
[16] The assumption made here is that
(Archaeplastida) monophyly has been demonstrated in a recent study (with an enrichment of red algal genes). Primoplantae Palmer et al. 2004 [3]
Archaeplastida is a valid clade.

Various names have been given to the group. Some authors have simply referred to the group as plants or Plantae.[17][18] However, the name Plantae is ambiguous, since it has also been applied to less
inclusive clades, such as Viridiplantae and embryophytes. To distinguish, the larger group is sometimes known as Plantae sensu lato ("plants in the broad sense").

To avoid ambiguity, other names have been proposed. Primoplantae, which appeared in 2004, seem [3]
s to be the first new name suggested for this group.

Another name applied to this node is Plastida, defined as the clade sharing "plastids of primary (direct prokaryote) origin [as]Magnolia
in virginiana Linnaeus 1753".[19]

Although many studies have suggested the Archaeplastida form a monophyletic group,[20] a 2009 paper argues that they are in fact paraphyletic.[15] The enrichment of novel red algal genes in a recent
study demonstrates a strong signal for Plantae (Archaeplastida) monophyly and an equally strong signal of gene sharing history between the red/green algae and other lineages.[16] This study provides
insight on how rich mesophilic red algal gene data are crucial for testing controversial issues in eukaryote evolution and for understanding the complex patterns of gene inheritance in protists.

The name Archaeplastida was proposed in 2005 by a large international group of authors (Adl et al.), who aimed to produce a classification for the eukaryotes which took into account morphology,
biochemistry, and phylogenetics, and which had "some stability in the near term." They rejected the use of formal taxonomic ranks in favour of a hierarchical arrangement where the clade names do not
signify rank. Thus, the phylum name 'Glaucophyta' and the class name 'Rhodophyceae' appear at the same level in their classification. The divisions proposed for the Archaeplastida are shown below in
both tabular and diagrammatic form.[1]

Archaeplastida:

Glaucophyta Skuja, 1954 (Glaucocystophyta Kies & Kremer, 1986) – glaucophytes

Glaucophytes are a small group of freshwater single-celled algae. Their chloroplasts, called cyanelles, have
a peptidoglycan layer, making them more similar to cyanobacteria than those of the remaining
Archaeplastida.

Rhodophyceae Thuret, 1855, emend. Rabenhorst, 1863, emend. Adlet al., 2005 (Rhodophyta Wettstein 1901) – red algae The glaucophyte
Glaucocystis
Red algae form one of the largest groups of algae. Most are seaweeds, being multicellular and marine. Their
red colour comes from phycobiliproteins, used as accessory pigments in light capture for photosynthesis.

Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005 (Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981; Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis an
d McCourt 2004; Chlorobiota Kendrick and Crane 1997)

Chloroplastida is the term chosen by Adl et al. for the group made up of the green algae and land plants (embryophytes). Except where
lost secondarily, all have chloroplasts without a peptidoglycan layer and lack phycobiliproteins.
Chlorophyta Pascher, 1914, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004– green algae (part)

Adl et al. employ a narrow definition of the Chlorophyta; other sources include the Chlorodendrales and
Prasinophytae, which may themselves be combined.

Ulvophyceae Mattox & Stewart, 1984


Trebouxiophyceae Friedl, 1995 (Pleurastrophyceae Mattox et al. 1984; Microthamniales Melkonian 1990)
Chlorophyceae Christensen, 1994 The rhodophyte Laurencia

Chlorodendrales Fritsch, 1917 – green algae (part)


Prasinophytae Cavalier-Smith, 1998, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004– green algae (part)
Mesostigma Lauterborn, 1894, emend. McCourtin Adl et al., 2005 (Mesostigmata Turmel, Otis, and Lemieux 2002)
Charophyta Karol et al., 2001, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004(Charophyceae Smith 1938, emend. Mattox and Stewart 1984
) – green algae (part) and
land plants

Charophyta sensu lato, as used by Adl et al., is a monophyletic group which is made up of some green
algae, including the stoneworts (Charophyta sensu stricto), as well as the land plants (embryophytes).
The chlorophyte
Stigeoclonium
Sub-divisions other than Streptophytina (below) were not given by Adl et al.

Other sources would include the green algal groups Chlorokybales, Klebsormidiales, Zygnematales and Coleochaetales.[21]

Streptophytina Lewis & McCourt, 2004– stoneworts and land plants

Charales Lindley 1836 (Charophytae Engler, 1887) – stoneworts


Plantae Haeckel 1866 (Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836; Embryophyta Endlicher, 1836, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004) – land plants (embryophytes)

Cladogram
[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]
Below is a consensus reconstruction of green algal relationships, mainly based on molecular data.

Archaeplastida
Glaucophyta (algae)

Rhodophyta (red algae)

Viridiplantae/
green algae (incl. Embryophyta) Chlorophyta

Streptophyta/
Charophyta (incl. Embryophyta) Mesostigmatophyceae

Chlorokybophyceae

'filamentous' streptophytes
Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmoplastophyta
Charophyceae
Diaphoretickes
Coleochaetophyceae

Zygnematophyceae

Embryophytes (land plants)

Cryptista
Hacrobia
Haptista

Stramenopiles
Halvaria
SAR Alveolata

Rhizaria

However, there is a lot of contention near the Archaeplastida root, e.g. whether Glaucophyta or Rhodophyta are basal, or whether e.g. Cryptista emerged within the Archaeplastida. While the
Glaucophyta are typically figured as deepest rooting Archeaplastida,[32][33][34][35][33] some genomic research points to Rhodophyta as basal, possibly with Cryptista intruding in
Archaeplastida.[36][37][38] In 2014 a thorough review was published on these inconsistencies.[39] The position of Telonemia and Picozoa are not clear. Also Hacrobia may be associated with the SAR
clade. The SAR are often seen as eukaryote-eukaryote hybrids, contributing to the confusion in the genetic analyses.

Morphology
All archaeplastidans have plastids (chloroplasts) that carry out photosynthesis and are believed to be derived from captured cyanobacteria. In glaucophytes, perhaps the most primitive members of the
group, the chloroplast is called a cyanelle and shares several features with cyanobacteria, including a peptidoglycan cell wall, that are not retained in other members of the group. The resemblance of
cyanelles to cyanobacteria supports theendosymbiotic theory.

The cells of most archaeplastidans have walls, commonly but not always made of cellulose.

The Archaeplastida vary widely in the degree of their cell organization, from isolated cells to filaments to colonies to multi-celled organisms. The earliest were unicellular, and many groups remain so
today. Multicellularity evolved separately in several groups, including red algae,ulvophyte green algae, and in the green algae that gave rise tostoneworts and land plants.
Endosymbiosis
Because the ancestral archaeplastidan is hypothesized to have acquired its chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria, the event is known as a primary endosymbiosis (as reflected in the name
chosen for the group 'Archaeplastida' i.e. 'ancient plastid'). Evidence for primary endosymbosis includes the presence of a double membrane around the chloroplasts; one membrane belonged to the
bacterium, and the other to the eukaryote that captured it. Over time, many genes from the chloroplast have been transferred to the nucleus of the host cell. The presence of such genes in the nuclei of
[40]
eukaryotes without chloroplasts suggests this transfer happened early in the evolution of the group.

Other eukaryotes with chloroplasts appear to have gained them by engulfing a single-celled archaeplastidan with its own bacterially-derived chloroplasts. Because these events involve endosymbiosis of
cells that have their own endosymbionts, the process is called secondary endosymbiosis. The chloroplasts of such eukaryotes are typically surrounded by more than two membranes, reflecting a history
of multiple engulfment. The chloroplasts of euglenids and chlorarachniophytes appear to be captured green algae, whereas those of other photosynthetic eukaryotes, such as heterokont algae,
cryptophytes, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates, appear to be captured red algae.

Fossil record
Perhaps the most ancient remains of Archaeplastida are putative red algae (Rafatazmia) within stromatolites in 1600 Ma (million years ago) rocks in India.[41] Somewhat more recent are microfossils
from the Roper group in northern Australia. The structure of these single-celled fossils resembles that of modern green algae. They date to the Mesoproterozoic Era, about 1500 to 1300 Ma.[42] These
fossils are consistent with a molecular clock study that calculated that this clade diverged about 1500 Ma.[43] The oldest fossil that can be assigned to a specific modern group is the red alga
Bangiomorpha, from 1200 Ma.[44]

In the late Neoproterozoic Era, algal fossils became more numerous and diverse. Eventually
, in the Paleozoic Era, plants emerged onto land, and have continued to flourish up to the present.

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External links
Tree of Life Eukaryotes

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