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The road towards self-actualization

“One can choose to go back toward safety or forward toward growth. Growth must
be chosen again and again; fear must be overcome again and again.” Abraham
Maslow.

Fuente: SENA

Introductory material

Dear learner,

This material will help you study the topics related to learning activity 1.

You will learn about:

1. How to express commonalities using so, neither, either, and too.


2. Lifelong learning strategies to achieve your goals.

Let’s begin!
1. How to express commonalities using so, neither, either, and too

A. Introduction to expressing commonalities

In English, there are different ways to show agreement or to express


commonalities. You are probably familiar with two of them: me too and me
neither.

Let’s take a look at the examples:

1.

A: I am hungry.

B: Me too. Let’s cook something.

2.

A: I don’t like smoking.

B: Me neither. I think it is a bad habit.

In the two examples, speaker B agrees with what speaker A has just said. In
example 1, speaker A uses an affirmative sentence. That’s why speaker B
uses me too. In example 2, speaker A uses a negative sentence. That’s why
speaker B uses me neither.

Me too and me neither are commonly used in spoken English and are
considered informal.

Now, you will get familiar with more formal ways to show agreement and
express commonalities in English. Let’s start.

B. Expressing commonalities with so and too

Read the following examples and try to guess how to use so in the context
of commonalities.

1.

A: She’s very punctual.

B: So am I. I think being punctual is a way to show respect for people.


2.

A: They always get up late on Sundays.

B: So do I. I love staying in bed watching TV.

Did you understand how to use it? If not, don’t worry. Let’s analyze the way
speaker B replied in the examples above:

Example 1:

So am I.

Example 2:

So do I.

Can you see the pattern?

So + auxiliary + subject

This is the formula you should follow if you want to show agreement or
express commonalities using so. The auxiliary you use depends on the
sentence you are replying to.

Read the following examples:

Speaker A Speaker B
They are successful. So am I.
Carlos is going to travel next
So is Monica.
week.
Mark looks elegant today. So does his wife.
Luisa has two daughters. So do I.
We bought a new apartment
So did our parents.
last year.
I would love some hot tea
So would I.
now.
They will get married in June. So will Peter and Jane.
He has traveled all over South
So has my sister.
America.
Mario can speak German. So can Mariana.
My teacher should be more
So should I.
organized.
You could be anyone you
So could you.
want.
In the case of too, you need to use the following formula when you want to
show agreement or express commonalities:

Subject + auxiliary + too

In the following examples, speaker B will reply to what speaker A said in the
previous exercise. This time, though, speaker B will use too.

Speaker A Speaker B
They are successful. I am too.
Carlos is going to travel next week. Monica is too.
Mark looks elegant today. His wife does too.
Luisa has two daughters. I do too.
We bought a new apartment last
Our parents did too.
year.
I would love some hot aguapanela
I would too.
now.
They will get married in June. Peter and Jane will too.
He has traveled all over South
My sister has too.
America.
Mario can speak German. Mariana can too.
My teacher should be more
I should too.
organized.
You could be anyone you want. You could too.

C. Expressing commonalities using neither and either

Read the following examples and try to guess how to use neither in the
context of commonalities.

1.

A: She’s not proactive.

B: Neither am I. I find it hard to take initiative.

2.

A: They don’t go out on Fridays.

B: Neither do I. I have to get up early on Saturdays.

Did you understand how to use it? If not, don’t worry. Let’s analyze the way
speaker B replied in the examples above:
Example 1:

Neither am I.

Example 2:

Neither do I.

Can you see the pattern?

Neither + affirmative auxiliary + subject

This is the formula you should follow if you want to show agreement or express
commonalities using neither. The auxiliary you use depends on the sentence
you are replying to. Read the following examples:

Speaker A Speaker B
They aren’t proactive. Neither am I.
Carlos isn’t going to travel
Neither is Monica.
abroad.
Mark doesn’t look neat
Neither does his wife.
today.
Luisa doesn’t have
Neither do I.
children.
We didn’t buy a new
Neither did our parents.
apartment last year.
I wouldn’t go out with her. Neither would I.
They won’t get married in
Neither will Peter and Jane.
June.
He hasn’t traveled all over
Neither has my sister.
South America.
Mario can’t speak Chinese. Neither can Mariana.
My teacher shouldn’t be
Neither should her students.
so impolite.
You couldn’t be more
Neither could you.
right.

In the case of neither, you just need to use the following formula when you want
to show agreement or express commonalities:

Subject + negative auxiliary + either

In the following examples, speaker B will reply to what speaker A said in the
previous exercise. This time, though, speaker B will use either.
Speaker A Speaker B
They aren’t proactive. I’m not either.
Carlos isn’t going to study abroad. Monica isn’t either.
Mark doesn’t look professional
His wife doesn’t either.
today.
Luisa doesn’t have a topic for her
I don’t either.
thesis.
We didn’t buy a new apartment last
Our parents didn’t either.
year.
I wouldn’t go out with her. I wouldn’t either.
They won’t get married in June. Peter and Jane won’t either.
He hasn’t traveled all over South
My sister hasn’t either.
America.
Mario can’t speak Chinese. Mariana can’t either.
My teacher shouldn’t be impolite. I shouldn’t either.
You couldn’t be more direct. You couldn’t either.

2. Lifelong learning strategies to achieve your goals

“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”
Mahatma Gandhi.

Fuente: SENA

In the information age, our most precious asset is our brain. To learn how to use
it better, it should be our priority since its proper functioning influences the way
we interact with the world.

Information has been organized as a simple guide that includes some strategies
you might want to try in order to improve the way your brain works. Every
strategy has been scientifically tested and can be put into practice right away.
The purpose of this guide is to succinctly describe the way these strategies can
benefit your mental functioning. If you have a more inquisitive mind (and you
should), make sure to check out the bibliography and references at the end in
order to understand in depth the theoretical foundation that supports this work.

Happy learning!

A.

Fuente: SENA

If you think exercising is just about the looks, you are, I’m sorry to tell you, dead
wrong. Research has shown the way exercise positively influences your brain.
But don’t take my word for it! Just keep on reading!

When you do any kind of endurance exercise, your brain releases a protein with
protective properties. It raises the levels of another protein called BDNF, which
spurs the development of new neurons and promotes their survival. Pretty
sweet, eh?

Exercising also affects the size of the hippocampus. The hippo what? The
hippocampus. If you don’t know what it is and what it does, get ready to be
mind-blown.

The hippocampus is a small organ that plays a very important role in regards to
long-term memory and spatial navigation. In order to really picture its
importance, let’s imagine you damage it beyond repair. Guess what? From now
on, you won’t be able to record any new memories or functions.
Exercising also improves your executive function and self-regulation skills.
These skills depend on three highly interrelated brain functions:

 Working memory (it allows you to retain and manipulate different pieces of
information over short periods of time).
 Mental flexibility (it allows you to keep or shift attention in response to a
changing environment and / or apply different rules according to the context).
 Self-control (it allows you to assess the consequences of your actions).

Don’t you feel like going for a jog?

B.

Fuente: SENA

Believe it or not, there was a time when people used to handwrite absolutely
everything! Are you surprised? Well, if scientists are right, that skill will have a
comeback. Or at least, people who understand its benefits will start doing it
more often. Don’t you want to know why?

In a nutshell, handwriting outweighs typing by far in regards to its cognitive


advantages. Handwriting improves speaking fluency and increases the quality
of student’s writing. Students who handwrite express more ideas and their
compositions are more cohesive. Students, who type on the other hand, show a
diminished ability to process new information. Take that tablet users! (Actually,
there are some pretty cool handwriting apps you can download for tablets,
too...).

It seems that handwriting enhances the process of reflection and manipulation of


information because it activates more neurological processes. If you attend a
lecture, research has shown it is more beneficial to take handwritten notes since
it improves the process of recalling information. While handwriters tend to be
more selective, laptop-notetakers tend to transcribe rather than process
information.

OK, take a break and go dust your old pen and notebook. It is time to put your
fine motor skills to the test!

C.

Fuente: SENA

“Everything we want is on the other side of fear”. George Addair.

Comfort zone: That really cozy place where stress and risk are minimized, that
womb-like environment where worries don’t exist, that marvelous zombie-like
place where nothing bothers you… Who doesn’t want it? Well, you shouldn’t!

It turns out your comfort zone actually becomes your prison since it does not let
you grow. It prevents you from stepping out of it because you don’t want to
experience the feelings associated with it: fear of the unknown, fear of rejection,
stress, anxiety, etc. But shying away from those feelings doesn’t decrease them
over time. You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to know this, right? You know
it and I know it, so what now?

Well, the idea is not to become your own bully! The idea is to design a plan to
get out if it gracefully. It is not an easy task, but it’s worth it. Let’s see why it is
challenging. There is a part of your brain called the amygdala that is responsible
for our emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation, and the fight or flight
response. When we face uncertainty (experiencing something new / learning
something new), the amygdala highjacks the body until a potential threat has
been fully scanned. So far so good, eh? Well, it is not that simple.
There are two types of memories: implicit memory and explicit memory. Implicit
memory has to do with emotional experiences. Remember that elementary
school teacher who told you your drawings were horrible? Guess where that is
stored. Explicit memory, on the other hand, deals with a conscious recollection
of information. When the amygdala takes over, the access to sensible and
conscious information is clouded. It is like when you get angry and say
something stupid that you consciously don’t mean. Or that one time when your
crush talked to you and you didn’t know what to say and just blushed. Freaking
amygdala!

But don’t feel there’s nothing you can do. Actually, you can take baby steps and
start feeling like taking more risks more often while building more confidence in
the process. Any learning process will cause some level of anxiety, but
researchers have found that in order to maximize your performance, it is
necessary to experience a state of relative anxiety.

Some researchers call it “optimal anxiety”, but it is the good old zone of
proximal development Vigotsky coined in the 20th century. In layman’s terms, it
means to do something that is neither too easy not too complicated, something
that is challenging and motivating enough. By doing so, you will be more
productive and will have an easier time dealing with new and unexpected
changes.

Be bold but don’t be reckless! What about having lunch at a different


restaurant? What about learning how to make pasta carbonara? Little by little
you will build momentum in order to aim at higher goals. Don’t wait any longer.
Do it now!

D.

Fuente: SENA
Camels often sit down carefully perhaps their joints creak. Wait what? What on
earth does that have to do with learning? Camels? Are you kidding me?
Patience, dear learner. What you don’t know yet is that the nonsensical
sentence above actually it’s a mnemonic device to remember the Paleozoic and
Mesozoic periods.

Take a look:

Camels. Cambrian.
Often. Ordovician.
Sit. Silurian.
Down. Devonian.
Carefully. Carboniferous.
Perhaps. Permian.
Their. Triassic.
Joints. Jurassic.
Creak. Cretaceous.

Neat, isn’t it?

Why would anyone be interested in something like this? Well, the point is that
working memory (refer to section 1, in case you already forgot what it is) has a
limited capacity. Untrained people are able to manipulate four bits of information
in their short-term memory at a time. Remember that party where you were
introduced to a bunch of people and you were not able to remember a single
name? There you have it. The limits of your working memory might have been
taking its toll on you (or maybe you just need to be more attentive).

Anyway, the thing is that there are strategies to stretch the power of your
working memory. One of them is chunking which consists on grouping several
items into one larger whole that is easy to recall. Camels often sit down
carefully perhaps their joints creak. Nine single words to remember in order
becomes one strange phrase. Get it?

There are different ways to chunk information, but there is one special
characteristic great chunks share according to the experts:

The more vivid, grotesque, absurd, shocking, and unusual, the better

Picture an octopus that has eyes at the end of its tentacles. Do you think it
might relate to a part of your brain? If your answer is yes, you are some kind of
weird visionary because it actually does. It is a mnemonic device to remember
the occipital lobe of the brain that is in charge of processing visual information.
The -oc in octopus reminds you of occipital. The eyes on the tentacles remind
you that the occipital lobe is in charge of visual info. I bet you will never forget
this! That’s the idea of chunking. You can start by borrowing somebody else’s
mnemonic devices and then start designing your own. The more you do it, the
better you’ll get at it. Isn’t it cool to use your craziest ideas to help you
remember relevant information? You can do this with your English learning
process, too. There are many resources online. Google the topic you are
interested in and try to find the mnemonic devices other people have used to
learn it. The sky is the limit.

Contextualization

Listen to Emily talk about willpower, determination, and facing challenges. Have
you ever been in her situation?

A determined mindset

Fuente: SENA

In general, people tend to think that real talent is something you have or you
don’t have. I used to believe that for many years, but I don’t anymore. I have
learned that in reality, everyone possesses the key attributes to be successful in
the area of their choice. Willpower is like a mental muscle that you must
exercise if you want it to grow stronger and stronger. Willpower is the fuel you
need to tackle the challenges life has. If you choose to believe you don’t have
willpower, you are right, and if you choose to believe you do, you are also right.
Everything is based on your mindset. That mental attitude predetermines the
way you are going to react to the situations you have to face daily.
My dad is an example of this. He was an alcoholic until one day he decided his
dreams were stronger than alcohol. He quit drinking and went back to school. It
was really hard for him to compete with younger students, but he was
determined. Two years ago, he graduated from high school. He had always
wanted that. After that, he has had to face many other challenges and so have
I, but now our willpower is stronger than ever. He thinks hard work pays off and
I do too. An American psychologist called Timothy Leary once said, “You can be
anyone this time around” and I couldn’t agree with him more.

Comprehension

A. Read again and decide if the following statements are true or false:

Statements True False

Some people are born with talent and others aren’t.


Emily once thought some people had talent and some
didn’t.
She thinks some people innately have the essential
traits to be successful.
Her dad quit his job to go back to school.
She thinks you can grow muscle, but you can’t build
willpower.
Her dad’s dreams weren’t as strong as his bad habit.

Her dad achieved one of his goals.

Both Emily and her dad think hard work gets rewarded.

B. Read the following questions and choose the best answer according to the
listening.

1. If you want to be successful in the area of your choice,

a. You should wait for opportunities to knock on your door.


b. You should know you already have the necessary traits to do it.
c. You should ask people who have successful attributes to help you.

2. Believing that you do or don’t have willpower is:

a. A choice.
b. A matter of luck.
c. Something some people have and others don’t.

3. “You can be anyone this time around” most likely means:

a. You cannot change your fate even if you want to.


b. You can change your fate if you want to.
c. Your fate has been predetermined.

Practice 1

A. Read the following situations and complete each sentence.

1. Julian: “I don't think procrastinating is good for you.”


Sandra: “_____.”

a. Me too.
b. So do I.
c. Neither do I.
d. So am I.

2. Robert: “I think mindfulness meditation is useful.”


Ryan: “_____.”

a. So am I.
b. I do too.
c. I am too.
d. So do I.

3. Angela: “I love working out in the morning!”


Paul: “_____.”

a. I do too.
b. So am I.
c. Me neither.
d. I can too.

4. Tom: “I didn’t learn how to cook when I was a child.”


Sam: “______.”

a. I did too.
b. Neither do I.
c. I didn’t either.
d. Me too.
5. Maureen: “I would like to eat healthy food every day.”
Michael: “______.”

a. I do too.
b. I wouldn’t either.
c. I am either.
d. I would too.

6. Juan: I can’t go to the movies tonight.


Rocio: “______.”

a. Me too.
b. So can I.
c. Neither can I.
d. I don’t either.

7. Mariel: “I’m in the mood for jogging.”


Rose: “______.”

a. So am I.
b. Neither am I.
c. I’m not either.
d. So do I.

8. Javier: “I shouldn’t waste so much time watching TV.”


Susana: “______.”

a. Should I too.
b. So should I.
c. I should either.
d. Neither should I.

B. Rewrite each sentence, using the word in parentheses. Make verb changes
as necessary. Look at the example below.

Example:

Paul McKenna is an excellent public speaker, and Steven Kotler is too. (so).

Paul McKenna is an excellent public speaker, and so is Steven Kotler.

1. Joseph Campbell was a great scholar, and so was Robert Anton Wilson.
(too).
_________________________________________________________.
2. The university doesn’t allow plagiarizing, and neither does the school.
(not either).
_________________________________________________________.

3. Her company has adopted a new promotion policy, and his has too. (so).
_________________________________________________________.

4. Tank tops aren’t appropriate in the office, and neither are sandals. (not
either).
_________________________________________________________.

5. They were annoyed by her behavior, and I was too. (so).


_________________________________________________________.

6. I have decided to volunteer, and so has she. (too).


_________________________________________________________.

7. Chloe doesn’t like getting up early, and they don’t either. (neither).

_________________________________________________________.

8. We’re not going to the seminar this weekend, and you’re not either.
(neither).
_________________________________________________________.

C. Use short responses with so, too, neither, or not either to agree with the
statements.

1. A: I don’t really like the fast pace of the modern world.

B: ____________.

2. A: I’m really annoyed by people who are not punctual.

B: ____________.

3. A: I try not to be rude when I get upset.

B: ____________.

4. A: I can’t understand why people talk during movies.

B: ____________.

5. A: I speak up when someone tries to put me down.


B: ____________.

6. A: I don’t have time to get involved with my community.

B: ____________.

7. A: I would consider spending some time teaching others what I know.

B: ____________.

D. Match the following statements with the appropriate response.

I was at a seminar last week.


a. I do too.

I can’t believe what she said.


b. I don’t either.

I don’t handwrite anymore.


c. I shouldn’t either.

I didn’t use to write my goals.


d. So did I.

I’m trying some new learning


strategies. e. I can’t either.

Martha loves using mnemonics.


f. Neither did I.

I shouldn’t have cheated.


g. I was too.

I applied for a new job yesterday.


h. So am I.

E. Read the following statements. Go to the multimedia, listen to the options


and choose the correct option.

1. He doesn't like doing chores, and she doesn’t _________.

a. (either)
b. (neither)
c. (too)

2. I hate it when people give up easily, and so _________my sister.

a. (does)
b. (is)
c. (neither)

3. My sister doesn’t know what mnemonics are. ____________ does my


mother.

a. (Either)
b. (Neither)
c. (Nor)

4. He didn't come to the conference, and his boss didn't


________________.

a. (come)
b. (neither)
c. (either)

5. Exercising is important for your mental health, and _________is eating


well.

a. (too)
b. (neither)
c. (so)

6. He writes his daily goals every morning. So ________his children.

a. (does)
b. (do)
c. (are)

7. Paulo Freire has done a lot for education, and so __________ Ken
Robinson.
a. (has)
b. (is)
c. (does)

8. He didn’t yell at me. He didn't insult me _________.

a. (too)
b. (either)
c. (neither)

9. I didn’t know handwriting is cognitively demanding. Neither_________my


teacher.

a. (do)
b. (did)
c. (know)

10. Her brother steps out of his comfort zone often. Her sister _______too.

a. (does)
b. (steps)
c. (is)
F. Go to the multimedia and listen to a podcast about the similarities between
teens and cats. Based on the podcast, answer the questions below:

Look what the cat dragged in

Fuente: SENA

Phil: Hello and welcome to “Are you kidding me?”, the podcast that will put a
smile on your face every morning. Today, we have a special guest that will
warm these cold November mornings. His name’s Joe Medina, a standup
comedian from San Diego, California. Hi, Joe, it’s nice to have you on our show.

Joe: Hi Phil. It’s great to be here. Thanks for the invitation.

Phil: Don’t mention it. Listen, I was told you have a new sketch about similarities
between cats and teens. Is that right?

Joe: Yeah, that’s right. I have been working really hard trying to come up with
new material to keep my act fresh. Just because it is comedy, it doesn’t mean
it’s easy.

Phil: I know what you mean, man. Hey, would you mind sharing some of your
new material here on the show?

Joe: Not at all. You guys have been really supportive from the get-go. This is
just based on what I’ve seen my teenage kids do.

Cats don’t turn their heads when you call them. Teenagers don’t either.

Cats don’t walk outside of the house with an adult human being. Neither do
teenagers.
If you tell a joke to a teenager, she will never laugh. Cats won’t either.

Cats can lie on a sofa all day long without doing anything. Teenagers can too.

People say cats have nine lives. Teenagers act like they do too.

Whenever you’re doing something important, cats feel the need to disturb you.

So do teenagers.

I have a thousand more similarities, but if you want to hear the rest, don’t forget
to buy tickets for tonight’s show at Mad House Comedy Club.

Phil: Hahahahaha. You can bet I’ll be there, Joe. I am a parent myself and
hadn’t stopped to think about that. On a different note, why don’t you tell us how
you got into standup comedy?

Joe: Sure! When I was in … (fade out).

1. Mark the following sentences true or false accordingly:

Sentences True False


Joe Medina hosts a morning podcast.
Phil told Joe he has a new podcast.
Joe thinks writing comedy is easy.
Joe has children.

2. Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences:

 When you call a cat or a teenager,

a. They will turn their heads right away.


b. They will hear and make a noise.
c. They will act as if they didn’t hear you.

 In regards to humor,

a. Cats and teenagers seem not to get adult’s jokes.


b. Cats and teenagers love it when adults tell them jokes.
c. Cats and teenagers love to look funny on videos.

 In regards to behavior, teenagers:

a. Seem to be cautious.
b. Seem to be reckless.
c. Seem to be worried.

 When adults are busy,

a. Cats and teenagers keep their distance.


b. Cats and teenagers leave them alone.
c. Cats and teenagers distract them.

G. Listen to four people describing their profile for an online dating service
company.

Stan Celine Kelly Diego

I am in love with I am more of a city I like to think I am I live downtown. It


the outdoors. girl. I enjoy crowds. adventurous. I is the most vibrant
There’s nothing I love going might not have a part of the city and
better than shopping and lot of free time, but I love it. There’s
riding a bicycle watching people. I when I do, the last always something
in the country. know it sounds place where I want going on. I love
Even though I weird, but I find to stay is the city. I going to the
like living in the people fascinating. have a country movies, watching
city, sometimes I’m not really into house where I plays, visiting
it gets too reading; I prefer spend at least four museums, and
overwhelming. watching series days a week. I’m a eating out. I hardly
Every weekend I online. Going country girl at ever leave town. I
go out of town to camping or hiking heart even though don’t like going to
enjoy nature is my idea of hell. I was raised in the places where I
and read city. I love quiet cannot enjoy the
surrounded by places because I comforts of the
the silence of can concentrate city. When I want
the mountains. more when I read to take a break
and write, two of from work, I read
my favorite a novel or surf the
activities. web and try to find
something to
watch: a TV show,
a movie, a
documentary…

Fuente de imágenes: SENA

1. Based on what you heard, complete the sentences below with the correct
names:

a. _______________ likes nature, and so does ________________.

b. ________________ isn’t interested in sleeping under the stars. Neither is


________________.

c. ________________ loves the city life. _____________ does too.

d. ________________and ____________enjoy reading, and so


does________________.

e. ________________doesn‘t stay in the city all week. Neither does


________________.

2. Read the following statements. Decide if they are true or false according to
the profiles:

Statements True False


Celine likes the outdoors, and so does Diego.
Stan doesn’t like noisy places, and neither does Kelly.
Diego is into reading, and Kelly is too.
Celine doesn’t mind being surrounded by people, and
Diego doesn’t either.
Kelly can concentrate more in a public place, and so
can Stan.

Practice 2

A. Go to the multimedia and listen to a neuroscientist talk about the importance


of exercise. Take notes as you listen and answer the questions below:
Fuente: SENA

If you think exercising is just about the looks, you are mistaken. Research has
shown the way exercise positively influences your brain.

When you do any kind of endurance exercise, your brain releases irisin, a
protein with neuroprotective properties. Irisin raises the levels and increases the
expression of another protein called BDNF, which spurs the development of
new neurons and promotes their survival. Pretty sweet, eh?

Exercising also affects the size of the hippocampus. The hippo what? The
hippocampus. If you don’t know what it is and what it does, get ready to be
mind-blown:

The hippocampus is a small organ that plays a very important role in regards to
long-term memory and spatial navigation. In order to really picture its
importance, let’s say you damage it beyond repair. Guess what? From now on,
you won’t be able to record any new memories or functions. Creepy, I know.

Exercising also improves your executive function and self-regulation skills.


These skills depend on three highly interrelated brain functions:

 Working memory (it allows you to retain and manipulate different pieces of
information over short periods of time).

 Mental flexibility (it allows you to keep or shift attention in response to a


changing environment and / or apply different rules according to the context).

 Self-control (it allows you to assess the consequences of your actions).

Don’t you feel like going for a jog?


1. According to the neuroscientist, are the following statements true or false?
Choose the correct option.

Statements True False


Exercise is only a way of improving your physical
appearance.
Irisin creates new neurons.
The hippocampus is a part of the brain in charge of
visual information.
The hippocampus plays an important role in the
formation of new memories.
Self-control helps you make more sensible decisions.

2. Choose the best answer based on what the neuroscientist says:

 By doing exercise, you are not only improving the way you look, but also:

a. The size of your hypothalamus.


b. The executive function of your brain.
c. The number of items you can retain for a short period of time.

 Working memory is related to:

a. What you can remember for a limited period of time.


b. How you can move through space.
c. What you can remember for an indefinite period of time.

 Which protein stimulates the survival of new neurons?

a. Irisin.
b. BDNF.
c. Spirulina.

 Which mental function is related to responding to new circumstances?

a. Self-control.
b. Working memory.
c. Mental flexibility.
B. Read the following text about the comfort zone and answer the questions
below.

Fuente: SENA

Comfort zone: That really cozy place where stress and risk are minimized, that
womb-like environment where worries don’t exist, that marvelous zombie-like
place where nothing bothers you… Who doesn’t want it? Well, you shouldn’t!

It turns out your comfort zone actually becomes your prison since it does not let
you grow. It prevents you from stepping out of it because you don’t want to
experience the feelings associated with it: fear of the unknown, fear of rejection,
stress, anxiety, etc. But shying away from those feelings doesn’t decrease them
over time. You don’t need to be a rocket scientist to know this, right? You know
it and I know it, so what now?

Well, the idea is not to become your own bully! The idea is to design a plan to
get out if it gracefully. It is not an easy task, but it’s worth it. Let’s see why it is
challenging. There is a part of your brain called the amygdala that is responsible
for our emotions, emotional behavior, and motivation, and the fight or flight
response. When we face uncertainty (experiencing something new / learning
something new), the amygdala highjacks the body until a potential threat has
been fully scanned. So far so good, eh? Well, it is not that simple.

There are two types of memories: implicit memory and explicit memory. Implicit
memory has to do with emotional experiences. Remember that elementary
school teacher who told you your drawings were horrible? Guess where that is
stored. Explicit memory, on the other hand, deals with a conscious recollection
of information. When the amygdala takes over, the access to sensible and
conscious information is clouded. It is like when you get angry and say
something stupid that you consciously don’t mean. Or that one time when your
crush talk to you and you didn’t know what to say and just blushed. Freaking
amygdala!

But don’t feel there’s nothing you can do. Actually, you can take baby steps and
start feeling like taking more risks more often while building more confidence in
the process. Any learning process will cause some level of anxiety, but
researchers have found that in order to maximize your performance, it is
necessary to experience a state of relative anxiety. Some researchers call it
“optimal anxiety”, but it is the good old zone of proximal development Vigotsky
coined in the 20th century. In layman’s terms, it means to do something that is
neither too easy not too complicated, something that is challenging and
motivating enough. By doing so, you will be more productive and will have an
easier time dealing with new and unexpected changes.

Be bold but don’t be reckless! What about having lunch at a different


restaurant? What about learning how to make pasta carbonara? Little by little
you will build momentum in order to aim at higher goals. Don’t wait any longer.
Do it now!

1. What is the best way to describe what the comfort zone is?

a. An expanding area of growth.


b. An area of stagnation.
c. An area of limitless resources.

2. The comfort zone is like a prison because:

a. It forces you to design plans to escape.


b. It doesn’t allow you to flourish.
c. It doesn’t allow you to feel comfortable.

3. By ignoring uncomfortable feelings, you will:

a. Perpetuate their existence.


b. Make them disappear.
c. Face your fears.

4. The sentence “you don’t have to become your own bully” most likely means:

a. You should be relentless with yourself.


b. You should be compassionate with yourself.
c. You should take advantage of people.
5. The amygdala is related to:

a. Implicit memory.
b. Explicit memory.
c. Elementary school.

6. It is challenging to make sensible decisions under the influence of stressful


circumstances because:

a. A part of your brain blocks conscious thinking.


b. A part of your brain blocks unconscious thinking.
c. A part of your brain blushes.

C. Decide if the following statements are true or false according to the text:

Statements True False


It is very simple to step out of your comfort zone.
If you feel some anxiety when you are trying something
new, there’s something wrong with you.
Optimal anxiety is the perfect zone where things are
neither too simple nor too frustrating.
By methodically stepping out of your comfort zone, you
will gain more confidence.
It is better to wait until you feel you are ready to step
out of your comfort zone.

D. Read to Sam sharing what he considers to be one of the most effective


lifelong learning tools he has ever learned. Take notes as you listen and
answer the questions below.

Fuente: SENA
I have always been a very competitive person. I had always wanted to be
number one no matter the cost until the day I had a panic-attack at work. That
day while I was at the hospital, I realized I had been too focused on winning to
the detriment of everything else. A doctor told me that mindfulness meditation
would help me reduce my anxiety and stress.

Until then, I thought meditation was for hippies and people with too much free
time, but I couldn’t have been more wrong. Mindfulness meditation taught me
how to stop prolonging the unnecessary suffering that results from trying to
escape the uneasiness, and sometimes pain, that comes as a consequence of
being alive.

Basically, you just have to sit, close your eyes, and pay attention to your
breathing. When your inner dialogue starts distracting you, you just have to
gently bring back your attention to your breathing. This meditation is basically
becoming aware of the present moment without judgment. Research has shown
that it strengthens the immune system, lowers your blood pressure and
increases your levels of satisfaction with life. I think everyone should try it. It has
dramatically improved my well-being.

1. Decide if the following statements are true or false according to what Sam
says:

Statements True False


Sam is not a competitive person anymore.
Sam changed his mind about meditation
after having a panic-attack.
Even though he worked hard, he still had
time to focus on his family.
A doctor told him to try some experimental
drug to treat his anxiety.
Sam had an erroneous idea about
meditation.

2. Read the following statements and choose the correct answer:

 The word “uneasiness” is closer in meaning to:

a. Difficulty.
b. Anxiety.
c. Enjoyment.
 In order to practice mindfulness meditation, you just have to:

a. Buy the necessary equipment.


b. Go online and find a course.
c. Find a comfortable place.

 When your mind gets distracted by thoughts, you should:

a. Start breathing faster to concentrate more.


b. Try as hard as possible to remove them.
c. Softly take your attention back to your breathing.

 Research on mindfulness meditation has shown that:

a. It helps you be more competitive.


b. It improves your health and quality of life.
c. It removes your negative thoughts.

E. Read to professor Lisa Seuss talk about proven test-taking techniques. Take
notes as you listen and answer the questions below:

Taking a test doesn’t have to be a nightmare

Fuente: SENA

Taking tests might not be the most relaxing activity for most people, but you
can improve the way you take them by following some simple strategies.
First and foremost, if you want better academic success, there is no
substitute for preparation. Learning how to best prepare and study for exams
will make you feel more relaxed. The main ingredients to achieve better
results are preparation and relaxation.

Do plan ahead so that you can have plenty of study time.

Don't let your work affect your studying plans. Create a study schedule and
stick to it.

Do use mnemonic devices to easily remember large quantities of


information.

Don't waste too much time preparing to study for the exam. Spend that time
studying for the exam.

Do ask your teacher about the contents of the exam and the type of
questions he/she is most likely to ask.

Do set goals for each test. Setting a goal will have a positive impact on your
motivation. Be realistic, though.

Don't let external influences affect your preparation. Avoid people with whom
you usually get into arguments.

Do take breaks while studying. Research shows that studying in smaller


chunks with regular breaks helps students retain more information.

Don't study in a place full with distractions. Choose a place where you won’t
be disturbed.

Do review previous exams to get familiar with the kinds of questions your
teacher asks.

Do take practice exams. If possible, create your own practice exam.

Don't stay up late the night before an exam. Sleeping well is essential for
proper cognitive functioning.

Do read the instructions for each exercise carefully. Make sure you
understand them before taking the exam.

Don't get stuck on a question for too long. If the question is too difficult,
move to the next question and get back later.

Do take your time and double check your answers.


Do reward yourself with a something special after you have finished the test.
Watch a good movie, buy a nice meal, take a nap, etc.

1. Write the following pieces of advice into their corresponding column:

 Sleep well the night before the exam.


 After turning in the exam, do something fun.
 Study for long periods of time without breaks.
 Turn in the exam as soon as you finish answering the last question.
 Answer each question as fast as you can.
 Use traditional memorization strategies.
 Attend all the review sessions.
 Spend the night before the exam trying to memorize information.
 Choose a noisy study place to build concentration power.
 Plan your study sessions in advance.

Do’s Don’ts

2. Read the following statements and decide if they are true or false
according to information in the video.

Statements True False


Most people find test-taking relaxing.
Being committed to your study schedule is not
essential.
Mnemonic devices can help you recall a lot of
information.
Spend plenty of time preparing to study for the test.
Don’t make your teacher upset by asking questions
about the test.
Stay away from annoying situations.
Reviewing your answers is a sign of mental
weakness.
Don’t overthink. If a question is too difficult, move
on to the next.

Pronunciation practice

Note: This practice must be completed using the multimedia version of the
study material. There you will find the corresponding sound files.

A. T-voicing in connected speech

As you already know, in some varieties of English, particularly in the USA


and Canada, t can be pronounced differently depending on its context. The
most common variation is t̬, a voiced pronunciation of the regular t; which
sounds like a very rapid d.

This can happen not only within words, but also, in sentences, where words
connect together. Let’s go to the multimedia, listen to some sentences and
identify the instances in which a voiced t̬ occurs.

ˈwɑt̬‿ə ˈwʌndərfəl ˈdeɪ


What a wonderful day.

pʊt̬‿ɪt̬‿ɪn ðə bɑks
Put it in the box.

ˈɡet̬‿ə ˈnju ˌpleɪs tə ˈliv


Get a new place to live.

Note: T-voicing can occur in many accents of English. It can appear within
words and also in connected speech. Remember, that t can become t̬ when it is
preceded by a stressed vowel and followed by an unstressed vowel.

B. Go to the multimedia, listen to the following sentences and decide if T-


voicing has occurred.

1.

Yes No
2.

Yes No

3.

Yes No

4.

Yes No

5.

Yes No

Now, listen to the sentences again and practice repeating them.

ɑɪ dɪdnt laɪk ðə fud at̬‿ˈɔl


I didn't like the food at all.
ɑɪd ˈlʌv səm ˈbɪskɪts ˈnɑu
The house needs painting.
mɑɪ ˈtitʃər ʃʊd ˈbi ˈmɔ ˌɔrɡəˈnɑizd
My teacher should be more organized.
wi ˈbɔt̬‿ə ˈnju əˈpɑrmənt ˈlɑst ˈjɪər
We bought a new apartment last year.
ɑɪ ˈtrɑɪ ˈnɑt tə ˈbi ˈrud wən ɑɪ ɡet̬‿ʌpˈset
I try not to be rude when I get upset.

C. Go to the multimedia and listen to the following sentences. Click on the word
ends where T-voicing has occurred.

I was at a seminar last week.


I always put on some weight
during the holidays.
Maria was sick so she spent
the night at the hospital.
I think that is a bad habit.
Kate and Jules asked me to
come over dinner.
Now, listen to the sentences again and practice repeating them.

ˈɑɪ wəz ət̬‿ə ˈsemɪnər ˈlɑst wik


I was at a seminar last week.
ju ˈɔlweɪz pʊt̬‿ɑn ˈweɪt ˈdʊər·ɪŋ ðə ˈhɑlɪˌdeɪ.
You always put on some weight during the holiday.
ˈdʒeɪn wəz ˈsɪk soʊ ʃi ˈspent ðə ˈnɑɪt̬‿ət ðə ɪˈmɜrdʒənsi rum
Jane was sick so she spent the night at the emergency room.
ɑɪ ˈθɪŋk ˈthæt̬‿ɪs ə ˈbæd ˈhæbɪt.
I think that is a bad habit.
ˈkeɪt̬‿ənd ˈdʒulz ɑskt mi tə ˈkʌm ˈoʊvər ˈdɪnər
Kate and Jules asked me to come over dinner.

D. Read the following sentences. Type the correct spelling for the word that has
been transcribed.

Sentence Word
Ever since Paula has been at college,
she has been considered an excellent
ˈskɑlər.
When he was coming home, he saw a
ˈkripɪ man.
I couldn’t enter because there was a
kraʊd at the gate.
She has just bought some tæŋk tɒps.
He doesn’t do anything different at work
for ages. He’s in a ˈkʌmfərt zəʊn.
A terrorist group ˈhaɪdʒækt a Pacific Air
Dreamliner.
She loves ˈdʒɑgɪŋ at nights.
Fortunately, he has ˌoʊvəˈkʌm his
addiction.

Now, go to the multimedia, listen to the sentences and check the stress and
intonation patterns used. Then, record yourself and practice pronouncing them.
Ever since Paula has been
at college, she has been
considered an excellent
scholar.
When he was coming home,
he saw a creepy man.
I couldn’t enter because
there was a crowd at the
gate.
She has just bought some
tank tops.
He doesn’t do anything
different at for ages. He’s in
a comfort zone.
A terrorist group hijacked a
Pacific Air Dreamliner.
She loves jogging at night.
Fortunately, he has
overcome his addiction.

Document control

Name Position Dependence Date

Theme expert Dirección de


Asesor English Dot formación November
Author Mauricio Aldana
Works - Programa profesional. 2014
de bilingüismo Dirección General

Centro
Rachman Copy editor – Línea October
Adaptation Agroindustrial.
Bustillo Martínez de producción 2015
Regional Quindío