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EXAMPLE OF FLEXURAL MEMBER DESIGN

Given
o DL (Self-weight, floorboards, etc) = 1.0 kN/m2
o Imposed load = 2.5 kN/m2
o Effective span = 3.8 m
o Joists spacing (more than 4) = 400 mm
o Timber: Strength group 1, standards grade, dry

Design the breadth and the depth of the beam.

Solution

Analysis

i) Bending

UDL on each joist, w = (Imposed load + DL) span


= (2.5 +1.0) x 0.4 = 1.4 kN/m

1.4 kN/m

3.8m

Maximum moment, M = (1.4 x 38002)/8 = 2.527 x 106

ii) Shear

Maximum shear, V = wL/2 = (1.4 x 3800)/2 = 2660 N

Design

Need to calculate:-

i. Deflection
ii. Lateral stability
iii. Bearing length
The imposed load floor joists is considered as LONG TERM, but qualify for LOAD
SHARING. Hence, the following permissible stresses are used.

Table 4: Bending grade stress, σm,g,,// = 26.5 N/mm2


Table 5: Factors considered, K1 and K2 only. For K2, refer clause 10 (MS 544:
Part2:2001)

Notes: members include rafters, joists, trusses or wall studs, Emean should be used to
calculate deflections and displacements.

Therefore, permissible bending stress, σm,adm,// = 26.5 x 1.0 x 1.1


= 29.2N/mm2

Permissible compressive stress ┴ grain, σc,adm, ┴ = 3.74 x 1.1


= 4.1N/mm2 (Standard)
= 4.67 x 1.1
= 5.4N/mm2 (Basic)

Permissible shear stress, σv,adm,// = 2.28 x 1.1


= 2.5N/mm2

Emean = 18800N/mm2

Therefore, the required Z = M/ σm,adm,// = (2.527 x 106)/29.2 = 84541 mm3

The maximum shear stress in the cross section occurs at the neutral axis and can be
calculated for rectangular member as:-
3V
 v ,a , // 
2bh

Therefore, the applied shear stress, σv,a,,// = the permissible shear stress, σv,adm,//

3V/2bd = 2.5 N/mm2

The required bd (area) = 3V/2x2.5 = (3 x 2660)/(2x2.5)


= 1596 mm2

iii) Deflection

The deflection limit is δp = 0.003L = 0.003 x 3800 = 11.4 mm

The critical beam deflection is :


5 wL4
δ=
384 EI

4
5 wL
Therefore, the required I =
384 E p

= 5(1.4 x 38004)
384 (18800 x 11.4)

= 17.74 x 106 mm4

Refer to geometrical properties of dressed timber given Table B4 of the MS 544:2001


Part 2.

Try timber joist size 50 mm x 200 mm

 Minimum size = 45 mm x 190 mm


 Area = 8550 mm2
 Second moment of area = Ixx = 25721250 mm4
= Iyy = 25721250 mm4
 Section modulus = Zxx = 1442813 mm3
= Zyy = 270750 mm3

Lateral stability (Table 7 MS 544:2001 Part 2)-pg 24

Degree of lateral support Maximum depth to


breadth ratio
No lateral support 2
Ends held in position 3
Ends held in position and member held in line as by tie rods 4
at centers not more 30 times breadth of member
Ends held in position and compression edge held in line, as 5
by direct connection of sheathing, deck or joist
End held in position and compression edge held in line, as 6
by direct connection of sheathing, deck or joist, together
with adequate bridging or booking spaced at intervals not
exceeding 6 times the depth
Ends held in position and both edge held firmly in line 7

The maximum depth to breadth ratio (d/b) recommended by MS 544 (for flexural
solid member with ends held in position and compression edge in position and
compression edge held in line) is 5

For beam 45 x 190


d/b = 190/45 = 4.2 < 5 OK!
Adopt timber joist size 50mmx200mm.
iv. Bearing length

The bearing length at a support or point of load application can be determined by: -

Vr
 c ,a , 
blb

Where :-
Vr – the applied bearing force or reaction force at a support
b – the member width (assuming full width is supported)
lb – the length of member in bearing contact
Vr
lb  = 2660/(45 x 4.1) = 14.4 mm
b c ,a ,