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AIM:- STEFAN‘S CONSTANT BY THE BLACK COPPER RADIATION PLATES

(ELECTRICAL METHOD).

APPARATUS REQUIRED:-

The kit contains two black copper radiation plates with heater element in between three

thermometers built in power supply, AC voltmeter, AC Ammeter and their control. The kit is

self-control and needs no additional equipment.

THEORY:-

The electricity fed to the heater element is radiated by radiating disc whose steady state

temperature gives the total power radiated .If E is the total amount of heat radiated per unit area

of the body per unit time and T is the absolute temperature of the body then according to Stefan‘s

law :

E = σ T2………………………………………eq. (1)

Where σ is the Stefan’s constant .If the body is put in a surrounding of temperature then it is also

receiving an amount of heat radiation given by σTO4 .The net amount of heat radiates given out

by the body per unit area time is therefore

E1 = σ (T4-TO4)……….…………………………eq. (2)

In the present case if we neglect the heat transfer on account of conduction and convection of the

air in contact, heat energy radiated by copper discs per unit time is equal to the power supplied to

heater element. Therefore if V is the potential difference across the heater and I is the current

passing through it, then


E2 = VI = σ A (T4-TO4)

Or σ = VI / A (T4-TO4) watt m-2 k-4

From which the Stefan’s constant is determined V, I and T are measured from voltmeter,

ammeter and thermometer provided in the kit.

DIAGRAM:-
Fig.01 – Stefan’s constant

OBSERVATION TABLE:-

Sr. no. Voltage (V) Current (I) Temperature (T) Mean Temperature

(All

three-

Thermometer)
RESULT:-

The Stefan’s constant by this experiment experiment is found to be σ =………ergs cm -


2
sec-1kelvin-2

STANDARD VALUE:- σ = 5.7×10-5erg cm-2sec-1kelvin-4

PERCENTAGE ERROR:-

(𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 – 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆)


Percentage error = × 100%
𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆

= ……%

PRECAUTION:-

1) The readings of thermometer are taken only at steady.

2) All the fittings should be airtight.