Engr. Ayaz Waseem Malik Lecturer/ Lab Engineer

Ag is the area of the concrete only and does not include the area of void(s) Total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion Al(min) Minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion Ao Aoh At Av bt fc' fy fyt Nu Pcp Ph t Tcr Tn Tu Vc Vn Vu  Gross area enclosed by the shear flow path Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Area of one leg of closed stirrup resisting torsion Area of steel for resisting shear Width of that part of cross-section containing the closed stirrups resisting torsion Specified compressive strength of concrete Specified yield strength of reinforcement Specified yield strength of transverse reinforcement Factored axial force normal to cross-section occurring simultaneously with Vu or Tu Outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Perimeter of centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Wall thickness of hollow section Cracking torque Nominal torsional moment strength Factored torsional moment at section Nominal shear strength provided by concrete Nominal shear stress Factored shear force Modification factor reflecting the reduced mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Acp Ag Al IMPORTANT TERMINOLIGIES Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Gross area of concrete section.E. For a hollow section.. C.E..T.D. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion DESIGN OF BEAM FOR TORSION 1. all relative to normalweight concrete of the same compressive strength. 1 .Engr. U.. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr.

. This situation is shown in the Figure 1. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion 2. It occurs in buildings where the edge of a floor slab and its main beams are supported by a spandrel beam running between the exterior columns.D.1 Off-center load causing torsion in the spandrel beam 2 . U. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. C.E. In such structures earthquakes can cause dangerous torsional forces. which are twisted by transverse beams or slabs.. Figure 1. TORSION Torsion occurs appreciably in many structures. such as in the main girders of bridges.Engr. Buildings in which the center of mass and center of rigidity do not coincide are called asymmetrical structures..T.E.1. where the floor beam acts as off-center load and tends to twist the spandrel beam laterally.

τ = T/(2Aot). U. Thus. 3. 1.T. it shall be permitted to neglect torsion effects if. For such cases. 1.1) as  Using Eq. Maximum shears and torsional forces may occur in areas where bending moments are small. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion If a plain concrete member is subjected to pure torsion. it will crack and fail along 45 o spiral lines due to diagonal tension corresponding to the torsional stresses. the interaction of shear and torsion can be particularly important as it relates to design.Engr.3 in Eq. Although the diagonal tension stresses produced by twisting are very similar to those caused by shear. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr.E.33λ.  For members subjected to an axial tensile or compressive force it shall be permitted to neglect torsion effects if.D. giving the cracking torque Tcr (According to R11. cracking occurs when τ reaches 0..5. Cracking is assumed to occur when the principal tensile stress reaches 0.1. The above equation states that Torsional effects can be neglected if the factored torsional moment does not exceed approximately one-quarter of the cracking torque Tcr . the principal tensile stress is equal to the torsional shear stress. they will occur on all faces of a member.. THRESHOLD TORSION According to ACI 11.1 we get. 3 .5.75 Acp /pcp and an area enclosed by the wall centerline Ao equal to 2Acp /3.. C. In a nonprestressed beam loaded with torsion alone.   Cracking Torque The cracking torsion under pure torsion Tcr is derived by replacing the actual section with an equivalent thin-walled tube with a wall thickness t prior to cracking of 0.33λ.E.

2 Equilibrium torsion Compatibility Torsion The torsional moment in a particular part of a statically indeterminate structure may be substantially reduced if that part of the structure cracks under torsion and/or rotates.3 Compatibility Torsion 4 . there is only one path along which a torsional moment can be transmitted to the supports. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion 4. This type of torsion.E.E. MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION Equilibrium Torsion For a statically determinate structure. This type of torsional moment. cannot be reduced by redistribution of internal forces or by a rotation of member. in the sense that part of structure in question twists in order to keep the deformations of the structure compatible.2..T. U.. Equilibrium torsion is illustrated in Figure 1.D. is referred to as compatibility torsion. which is illustrated in Figure 1. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. Figure 1.3. which is referred to as equilibrium torsion. C. The result will be a redistribution of forces in the structure. Figure 1..Engr.

1. 5.4. Torsion is assumed to be resisted by an imaginary space truss located in the outer tube of concrete of the member..   When appreciable torsion is present. hollow beams are assumed to have almost exactly the same torsional strengths as solid beams with the same outside dimensions. U. the maximum factored torsional moment Tu shall be permitted to be reduced to the following values (According to ACI 11. The longitudinal steel in the corners of the member and the closed transverse stirrups act as tension members in the truss. After cracking.. while the shear stresses due to Vu are spread across the width of the solid section. Such a beam may very well be more economical than a smaller one with the closed stirrups and additional longitudinal steel required for torsion design.5. This situation is illustrated in the Figure 1. C. the resistance of concrete to torsion is assumed to be negligible. The cracked concrete is still capable of taking compression stresses.5.2). Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion In a statically indeterminate structure where reduction of the torsional moment in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking.E.E. The tension cracks tend to spiral around members located at approximately 45o angles with the longitudinal edges of those members.2. Torsional stresses are quite low near the center of a solid beam. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. it may be more economical to select a larger beam than would normally be selected so that torsional reinforcement does not have to be used. Such a truss is shown in Figure.. while the diagonal concrete between the stirrups acts as struts of compression members. Because of this. 5 .4(b). In solid sections the shear stresses due to torsion Tu are concentrated in an outside tube of the member as shown in Figure 1. TORSIONAL STRESSES The torsional stress adds to the shear stress on one side of a member and subtract from them on the other.Engr.  For members subjected to an axial tensile or compressive force it shall be permitted to neglect torsion effects if.T.D.

Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion Figure 1.5 Space truss analogy 6 .Engr.D.4 Addition of torsional and shear stresses  Figure 1.E.E... C.T.. U.

7Aoh. first. then the ACI 11. The sum of these stresses may not exceed the stress causing shear cracking plus 0.T. (1-7) and (1-8).. area of stirrups At used for resisting torsion is computed as follows. the two terms on the left-hand side are the shear stresses due to shear and torsion. If the wall thickness of a hollow section is less than Aoh/Ph. According to ACI 11. and second. If the factored torsional moment for a particular member is larger than the value given in Eq.5. The size of a cross section is limited for two reasons. From the knowledge of shear design of beam it is clear that the area Av obtained is for both legs of a two-legged stirrup.E. TORSIONAL REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED The torsional strength of reinforced concrete beams can be greatly increased by adding torsional reinforcement consisting of closed stirrups and longitudinal bars. TORSIONAL MOMENT STRENGTH According to ACI 11. (b) For hollow section. Therefore the value Av + 2At is the total area of both legs of the stirrups needed for shear plus torsion.1.E.2 provides an expression to compute the absolute minimum area of transverse closed stirrups that may be used.. to prevent crushing of the surface concrete due to inclined compressive stresses due to shear and torsion.1.5.7Aoh2 but as Tu /1.6. the cross-sectional dimensions shall be such that: (a) For solid section.5.3. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion 6.3. to reduce unsightly cracking. the second term in Eq. The value At. C. U.66 ..Engr. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. 1. In Eq.8 is to be taken not as Tu Ph /1. 7 . which represents the area of the stirrups needed for torsion.5.D. is for only one leg of the stirrup. where t is the thickness of the wall where stresses are being checked. 7. 1.

C.E.5. a) 300 mm.6. There shall be at least one longitudinal bar or tendon in each corner of the stirrups.E. Al. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. To do this it may be necessary to use hooks. 10.042 times the stirrup spacing.6. 8. and a result the longitudinal torsion bars should be anchored for their yield strength at the face of the supports.. the total area of longitudinal reinforcement to resist torsion.6.5. 3) ACI 11. Where torsional reinforcement is required.Engr. shall be computed according to ACI 11. OTHER ACI CODE PROVISIONS 1) ACI 11. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion where Ao shall be determined by analysis except that it shall be permitted to take Ao equal to The longitudinal reinforcement required for torsion must be distributed around the inside perimeter of the closed stirrups with a maximum spacing of 300 mm. 8 .7 The minimum total area of longitudinal torsional reinforcement. Al(min). U.T.. It shall be permitted to take θ equal to 45o for nonprestressed members. Longitudinal bars shall have a diameter at least 0. shall be computed according to ACI 11. b) Ph/8.D.5. θ shall not be taken smaller than 30o nor larger than 60o.1 Maximum spacing.5. The term bt represent the width of that part of the member cross-section which contains the torsional stirrups.85Aoh. Maximum torsion generally acts at the ends of beams. Smax.3 Torsional reinforcement must be provided for a distance not less than bt + d beyond the point where it is theoretically no longer required.3 as. but not less than No.175bw/fyt. for transverse torsion reinforcement is smaller of.. where At /s shall not be less than 0.5. 2) ACI 11.

E.E.D.. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr.Engr. x1 500 mm y1 300 mm Solution Step 1: Check for torsional reinforcement requirement  -  Torsional reinforcement is required Step 2: Calculation of sectional properties 9 . Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion Design Example Design the torsional reinforcement for the rectangular section shown in Figure 1.. Tu = 10 kN-m and As required for Mu is 1100 mm2.. for which fc' = 30 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.T. Vu = 160 kN. U. C.6.

U. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr.T.1.E.. C. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion Assuming bottom reinforcement consists of #25 bars.D..E.1.2.Engr.   Section is sufficient to support Tu Step 4: Transverse torsional reinforcement 10 .. Step 3: Check for adequacy of concrete cross-section According to ACI 11.

.E.D.  Stirrups provided are. U.E. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. C.. Lhr) Step 5: Shear reinforcement Design of Beam for Torsion  Shear reinforcement is required Step 6: Design of Stirrups  Governs Taking. #13 @ 150 mm /c c Step 7: Design of Longitudinal Reinforcement 11 .T.Engr..

C. Lhr) Design of Beam for Torsion Additional longitudinal steel is provided in four inside corners of stirrups and vertically in between..  Longitudinal steel provided is. So Total longitudinal steel provided in beam is..E.Engr.D..E. Top Steel Mid Steel Bottom Steel 2 # 13 Bars 2 # 13 Bars 2 # 22 + 2 # 19 Bars Step 7: Detailing 300 mm 2 # 13 Bars 500 mm 2 # 13 Bars 2 # 19 Bars 2 # 22 40 mm # 13 @ 150 mm /c c 40 mm 12 .T. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr. U.

Engr. by W.E. H. 7th Edition. Design of Reinforced concrete.D. Lhr) REFERENCES Design of Beam for Torsion 1. K. U.E. 4th Edition. Reinforced concrete design. Nelson 3. by Jack C. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-08) and Commentary 2. Mosley and J. Ayaz Waseem ( Lecturer/Lab Engr.T.. C.. McCormac and James. Bungey 13 . H..

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