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This book had its genesis in a conversation with Because of the limits placed upon me as a psy­
Father Bob Bailey. Some of you might recognize chic for the show, we could not talk about anything
Father Bob from his appearances on the A&E tele­ connected with the case. So, instead, we opted to
vision series Paranormal State. Father Bob and I talk about our different experiences with ghosts and
were on a case together, and we had a little time spirits. Because Father Bob is often consulted on the
to chat over tea. We'd never really had a chance to topic of exorcism, inevitably demons came up. Fa­
get to know one another, and this seemed as good ther Bob was lamenting that there were no good re­
a time as any. sources out there that listed the names of demons,
For some of my fans, the idea of me hanging as names are seen as important in the process of de­
out in a hotel lobby with a Catholic priest might liverance. Although Father Bob cannot do full exor­
seem pretty strange. Father Bob and I come from cisms without the sanction of the Catholic Church,
very different worlds. He’s an ordained priest with he does get called in to do house cleansings and to
a parish in Rhode Island. He is also the co-founder perform blessings on people who feel that they are
of a group of paranormal investigators called the being haunted by something much darker than a
Paranormal Warriors of Saint Michael. I’m Pagan simple human ghost.
clergy, and I study everything from the occult to In his line of work, the name of the demon is
vampires. I’m the founder of a magickal society important. In the Catholic rite of exorcism, known
called House Kheperu. You would think that we as the Roman Ritual, this ties back to a story re­
would mix like oil and water, yet our shared inter­ corded in both the Gospel of Mark and the Gospel
est in the paranormal guarantees that we have at of Luke. Here, when Jesus is confronted by a pos­
least some common ground. sessed man, he very specifically asks the name of

Introduction 2

the demon before driving it out. The passage im­ names with extraordinary meanings—the sort you
plies that the name has power over the demon. This just couldn’t find in your average baby-name book.
concept itself ties back to very ancient beliefs from Why not take that personal reference and expand
Babylon, Sumer, and Akkad—related cultures with upon it? My collection of names was already in a
a very lively demonology. Interestingly, in the bib­ spreadsheet format, so it wouldn’t be too hard to
lical story, Jesus eventually drives out the demons separate out all the demons, then expand each of
into a herd of swine. In ancient Sumer, thousands them into full entries, like a dictionary . ..
of years before the Gospels were penned, one com­ As Father Bob and I sat sipping our tea in the
m on m ethod of exorcism involved transferring a quiet hotel lobby, my brain starting churning. It
possessing demon into an animal substitute—often would be a lot of work to develop something de­
a goat or a pig. In these rites as well, a powerful finitive from the skeletal resource I had on hand,
component was the demon’s true name. but since I knew where to look, it was a doable
I joked with Father Bob about how great it project. Maybe a little insane considering the
would be if there were a real version of Tobin’s am ount of work it would require, but definitely
Spirit Guide—the fictional book they used in the doable.
movie Ghostbusters to find the names of all the "You want names to go with your demons?” I
weird spirits that kept turning up in New York. asked after thinking about it for a while. "Give me
And then I thought about it for a minute or two. a little time, Padre. I might have a book for you.”
Tobin’s Spirit Guide might be a convenient plot de­
vice used in a funny movie, but there really are
W H A T ’S IN A N A ME ?
books out there that list the names of spirits—
Words had power in the ancient world, and few
demons, angels, and everything else in between.
words were viewed with more fear than those that
They are called grimoires, and they are books of
named the forces of evil. Among many ancient
ceremonial magick w ritten mainly betw een the
peoples, the names of demons and devils were
twelfth and seventeenth centuries in Western Eu­
thought to act as a kind of beacon, calling those
rope. Although the grim oiric tradition was not
beings up from the depths whenever their names
exclusive to Western Europe, they became a main­
were uttered. As a result, these names were often
stay of W estern European occultism throughout
approached with superstitious dread. Some people
the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
in the m odern era are still reluctant to pronounce
I’d long been collecting grimoires, and back in
the name of a demon out loud. In the Europe of
2002 I’d even started a casual list of the names con­
the Middle Ages, this fear gave rise to a num ber
tained in these sometimes infamous books. The list
of nicknames for Satan. Called Old Nick or Old
of names was a personal reference for my creative
Scratch, it was a common folk belief that these
efforts. I collected baby-name books for the same
nicknames of the Devil had less power to draw his
reason—I loved learning about the origin and mean­
influence directly into a person's life when uttered
ings of names. Sometimes a particularly interesting
out loud.
or obscure name could inspire an entire tale. The
grimoires were a good source of highly unusual
3 Introduction

And yet, as far as the ancients were concerned, shows evidence of Christian redaction—changes
the names of devils and demons could do more and insertions that better reflect Christian be­
than simply attract their attention. The names of liefs. It is a pseudepigraphal text, which is to say
spirits were thought also to compel them, control that it was not written by King Solomon himself,
them, bind them, and banish them. In Jewish de­ although it bears his name. It is named after him
monology, the many names of the night-demon Li­ because it tells his story and it is told from his per­
lith were inscribed upon protective amulets because spective to lend that story more weight. This was a
those names were thought to have power over her. common practice in the time period during which
Properly applied, they didn't attract her—they could the Testament was written, although it was equally
drive her away. In the Testament of Solomon, King common in that time (and for centuries afterward)
Solomon demands the names of a series of demons to assume that the pseudepigraphal author really
so he can then put them to work building the Tem­ was the author of the text.
ple of Jerusalem. By surrendering their names, one The Testament of Solomon is, by far, not the
after the other, they acknowledge Solomon's power only extra-biblical tale that depicts King Solomon
over them. as a controller of demons. The legends that grew
The Testament of Solomon and its related tradi­ up around this Old Testament monarch are many
tion had a trem endous impact on the European and varied, from his escapades with the demonic
concept of demons. It helped to establish the be­ Queen of Sheba, to the mystery of King Solomon's
lief that demons could be compelled and bound mines, to the years wherein the demon Asmodeus
using the names of angels as well as magickal allegedly stole his throne. King Solomon’s prowess
names of God. It presented dem ons as a very as a wise man and magician also influenced Mus­
real—albeit largely invisible—force in the world, lim legends: the stories of genies trapped in bottles
tormenting humanity with death, disaster, and dis­ like those found in the One Thousand and One Ara­
ease. These concepts were already widely present bian Nights all tie back to the Solomonic tradition.
in the demonology of other ancient cultures, from In order to understand the tradition influenced
the Sumerians to the Egyptians to the Greeks, but by this work, it’s not necessary to believe that King
with King Solomon in the story, the material be­ Solomon somehow had demonic assistance in the
came relevant to Christians, Jews, and Muslims construction of the Temple of Jerusalem, nor even
alike. The book also helped to prom ote an idea that he had power over demons at all. The impor­
that many demons were either fallen angels or the tant thing to understand is that a great many peo­
misbegotten progeny sired by those angels once ple in the both the ancient world and in Europe
they had come to earth—a concept that tied into up through the Renaissance believed these things.
even older traditions present in Jewish legends and And belief in Solomon’s power was at least partly
hinted at within the first few books of Genesis. responsible for a complicated system of magick
W ritten some time in the first few centuries that revolved around spirit evocation. Names were
after the start of the Common Era, the Testament a fundamental part of that system.
of Solomon likely started off as a Jewish text but it
Introduction 4

THE GRI MOI RI C TRADI TI ON T ertiu ć adifehora&TfcT

The grimoires of medieval and Renaissance Eu­ osctrcm sci? accifti at
vdifpefitio. Itatp du tot* f ' LVX
obrifoiet corpfci? cjfi
ftaemnt rfemeopfaslir// о EVs I gnis
rope are the direct inheritors of the Solomonic h folk? er faacsei?uclut f]
Kcuftoiomtr panter SC •IsypdR ,
tradition as it appears in the Testament of Solomon. I fulgunsjet oculi ci9 ut fj
(busbentgnepuidet . f t \ Ц щ ИЦс
cju пирата diipew crtscaideti's.Etde agelc
They get their name from an Old French word, apparutt muferib?! uif
grammaire, which means “relating to letters.” Let­ sfiep uidetfaaejjns nnC Adicfta forma fex ettri
net aituen'rascgm cell's ra ignisppetates cotict
ters, names, and the very process of writing are all fua anagoge fduftas. in
Q ya ob cam dinacio ,
integral to the grimoiric tradition. Some of these a dcfaipdonep oi&9 f In om.i ^
fhratep dcu pyramt'dis
rcMiorar tiidet. E x mbus со ucrfoiy fumu occupai
magickal books were viewed as possessing so gnotcibilts .yL cumejqdfumaluxl
prtofcugloria dt /уа omnia pute
much power in their words alone that if a passage bar.EtiHibcs ma Ц abitfupmudanasf
petmeansab ’
this iaohesrSC oronibqsejiMp flatias mediu py
were mistakenly read by someone not properly ini­ /У wsttxidiliimus,"
lci/cuituciusr t, infeiptooccaltqs b midis lumolufo:
tiated into the mysteries, a master who understood ledio eius ffi mancie St ignotus * ,.
;j — tas fenfibilia
— —— ш
Ли. i.dc me __teneti non uaiens m J! bafe renerem
the proper use of the book had to read a passage A uifibms omnia tapeias
i.hsccratui ^ : cunda qqibasinfederit in
of equal length to negate the unwanted effects.1 rresi medio (uutrafiktens habitu oibus - cis idigeti*
iledor ignis Cefpjgasmouans oiaoibos perieme tc
Although no written line of descent currently /Hu£tDsinc6pi*h£lus.imixtus
oia ditanens imutabiiis.ioma bras. Itac
exists to show us how concepts about demonic igntve petts acuwsaigiliśtelet iublimis trcsmuc
incogi bills, temper mobilisiempet
evocation recorded in the first few centuries of the 6C \ \ code room uigcns. tnouens alia curt
tcllic u
Christian era survived to re-emerge in the 1100s fia copltdcns. manes maftcmgibtUs F
fulli” cgćs. ciafemetipm paitb iuiuti» '\N
teb* futacdii idrus. emcawpoics cuft-i s i' \
and beyond, the connection is unmistakable. King mfibmter pte.ncglett’ hand apparóŁĆfituS j
citoericas citptglupates (шс dsttuMicoSat
Solomon's name comes up again and again, and icipiom mb’ Wicas.
many of the grimoires are directly attributed to
him. These are of course as pseudepigraphal as the
Testament of Solomon itself, but that did not stop ' <
medieval writers and copyists from putting the old mud us
king’s name on these forbidden tomes. Perhaps fgm't a aialta \ %/ у ScnCbiiij, mini's SC
ca.i.Edimilirti tr? tnudus
the two most famous are the Clavicula Salomonis— «afpeftusco^q neb ncbraęr.prm
known as the Key of Solomon— and the Lemegeton, uignisardentiu& dr mudPUelJigibi
iflffi ■ Г-.l, :,..ll..ei, 1л1|Уa Or
also known as the Lesser Key of Solomon.
Detail from an early sixteenth-century edition of the Celes­
The grim oires do not deal exclusively with tial Hierarchy showing the seven planetary spheres in the
demons. Many of the spirits in the grimoires are scheme of Creation. Courtesy of the Merticus Collection.
described as angels, elemental spirits, and beings
cated by the rituals recorded in the grimoires, it
known as Olympian spirits—intelligences tied
can sometimes be difficult to tell what exactly is
to the seven planets and thus the seven celestial
intended to be a demon. Certainly, the line sepa­
spheres. Given all the good spirits, bad spirits, and
rating demons from angels can get fuzzy in these
in-between spirits that were believed to be invo-1
works, particularly because many demons are pre­
1. Richard Kieckhefer, Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer’s Manual sented as fallen angels, and they retain the tradi­
of the Fifteenth Century (University Park, PA: Penn State
University Press, 1997), p. 8.
5 Introduction

tional nomenclature of angels, with names ending priests and lay-brothers were experimenting with
in -ael or -id. demonic magick, most of W estern Europe was
However, as hazy as the identification of some swept up in a mania focused on witchcraft, sorcery,
of these spirits may at times be, there are also clear and pacts with the Devil. Folk beliefs about witch­
cases where the beings enum erated in the gri- craft and the very real tradition of the grimoires ex­
moires are described specifically as demons. Even isted side by side and, in some instances, may have
then, these beings are not necessarily presented even fed into one another. However, even though it
as entities to be avoided. Instead, following in the invoked demonic spirits, the magickal system of the
tradition set down by the Testament of Solomon, the grimoires was perceived as being distinctly different
writers of these magickal texts seek to abjure, con­ from the “Satanic” practices of witches—at least
trol, and otherwise coerce these demons into ser­ by its practitioners. This was primarily because of
vitude by commanding them in the name of God the ritual elements and invocations to God woven
and his angels. throughout the grimoires.
This is probably one of the most striking things As curious as it may sound, given the frequent
about the grimoiric tradition, and it often comes references to Christ and the Holy Trinity that ap­
as a shock to both Christians and non-Christians pear in some of the grimoires, a lot of the priestly
who approach these books as forbidden bastions and ritual aspects of these books of magick were
of black magick. The magickal system outlined in inspired by Jewish esotericism. The Jewish tradi­
the grimoires is highly religious. Furthermore, this tion known as the Qabbalah is a mystical path,
system is predicated on the existence of a supreme but it also has practical magickal applications.
being, and that supreme being is very clearly the Much of Qabbalistic magick revolves around the
God of the Bible. There is no avoiding the influ­ Tree of Life. This is a kind of mystic ladder that
ence of Yahweh or the Bible in these works. Even is seen as a map of reality. The Tree of Life con­
though many of the grimoires are devoted to the tains ten Sephiroth—a word derived from a Hebrew
sum m oning and com m anding o f demons, the term meaning "sapphire” or “jewel.” These jewels
spells contained in these tomes frequently read like are placed along pathways that move up the Tree
priestly orations uttered in a high Latin mass. of Life from Malkuth, at the bottom , which rep­
In part, this is because the magickal system in resents the physical world, to Keter (also spelled
the grimoires was practiced mainly by members Kether), at the top, which is the crown ju st be­
of the clergy. In the Middle Ages, priests and lay- neath the Throne of God. In Qabbalistic magick,
brothers were some of the only individuals who a trained individual seeks to ascend the ladder of
had the literary expertise to write, read, and copy the Tree of Life through rigorous practices that
these texts. Professor Richard Kieckhefer typifies the involve meditation, fasting, and ceremonial ritual.
demonic magick of the grimoires as "the underside Encounters with demons and angels are a part of
of the tapestry of late medieval culture.”2 This is, this mystic journey. The ultimate goal is a vision of
of course, interesting because at the same time that the Throne of God, an experience believed to be
powerfully transformational.

2. Richard Kieckhefer, Forbidden Rites, p. 13.

Introduction 6

of the Angel Raziel—that have a long-reaching in­

fluence in later Christian grimoires. Another ex­
ample of uniquely Jewish magick appears in the
Book of Abramelin, also known as the Sacred Magic
of Abramelin the Mage. Despite being written by
a fourteenth-century Jewish scholar, this book
had a significant impact on Christian ceremonial
magick. In the m odern era it remains one of the
most influential texts in this tradition. Most of the
Christian grimoires contain abjurations of the spir­
its that include a litany of names, many of which
are titles of God in garbled Hebrew. They are not
always accurately spelled and their true meanings
don t always seem to be clearly understood by the
Christian writers borrowing them, but their im­
portance was recognized and retained within the
system, albeit often by rote.
It would be possible to write another book en­
tirely on the crossover between Jewish and Chris­
tian magick in the grimoiric tradition. The impor­
tant point to be made for the purpose of this work
is that the influence of Jewish magick ensured that
the spells contained in European grimoires very
closely resembled religious ceremonies. Hebrew
names, and specifically Hebrew names of God,
play a significant role, and the predom inantly
Christian authors of the grimoires then added
Christian elements, such as references to Christ,
the Trinity, and even the Virgin Mary. The result
evolved into its own system, but it is clearly a sys­
Tree of Life
tem that stems from medieval Jewish magick as
The grimoiric tradition borrows a lot from this well as the Solomonic tradition, with roots stretch­
Jewish mystical tradition. The ceremonial quality ing as far back as the hermetic magick practiced
of Qabbalistic practice is adopted almost whole­ in the ancient Hellenic world. Demons and an­
sale into the magick of the grimoires, as is the sig­ gels both play significant roles in this system, and
nificance of Hebrew names—especially the secret rather than being controlled through black arts,
names of God. There are several Jewish magickal demons were thought to be controlled only by
texts—most notably, the Sepher Razaelis, or Book those individuals holy enough and pure enough to
7 Introduction

be able to convincingly command them with the had originally sourced spirits named in the Secret
many sacred names of God. Grimoire of Turiel, but in the end I cut them all, be­
cause they were more properly Olympian spirits—
COMPI LI NG THE N A M E S intelligences believed to the tied to the seven plan­
etary spheres—rather than fallen angels. In a few
W hen I developed the concept for this book, the
instances, when the grimoire itself does not make
focus was on names. I knew it was possible to
a clear distinction, I had to judge a spirit’s status
write an entire text on the practice o f demonic
based on context. If the spirit is associated with
magick as it appears in the grimoires, but that was
malevolent magick or if its name appears in asso­
not my goal. I simply wanted to create a resource
ciation with other known demonic spirits, and no
of proper names attributed to demonic spirits, and
effort is made to distinguish it from the demons, I
the grimoiric tradition was the best place to start.
have included that spirit’s name in this book. Sev­
As it turned out, I never had to stray far from the
eral spirits from the Grimoire of Armadel fall into
grimoires to produce an extensive list of names. In­
this class.
stead, I found that I had to set strict limitations for
As a result of these criteria for selection, you
what would and would not be included in order to
will find that I have sourced mainly the grimoires
keep this book at a manageable length.
that stem from the Christian tradition of West­
First, in order to be included in this book, the
ern Europe. Christian clergy were hardly the only
name had to be presented in the text as the proper
people producing tomes of demonic and spiritual
name of a demon. It could not be a general name
magick in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, but
for a class of demon, like an incubus or a succu-
they were certainly the ones who were most in­
bus. Aside from one lone exception, all of the
clined to define certain spirits as demonic.
names collected in this book were presented in
As we have seen already, these books had their
their sources as the proper names of demons. The
genesis in Jewish mysticism, and there was a rich
one exception is an entry on the Watcher Angels,
grimoiric tradition among Muslim writers as well.
a class of fallen angels. The belief in these beings
Some of these texts, like the Arabic Picatrix at­
had a significant if subtle influence on the demon­
tributed to Al-Madjiriti, were excluded at the out­
ology that underpins the grimoires, and I felt that
set because they did not meet the most basic cri­
this would best be covered in a separate entry that
terion for this work. The Picatrix has more to do
stands in addition to all of the individual entries on
with alchemy and astral magick—magick tied to
specific Watchers.
the movement of the stars and planets—than with
Second, the spirit being named had to be in­
infernal spirits. Likewise, even certain tomes asso­
fernal. This m eant that w ithin its source text,
ciated with the Christian grimoiric tradition were
the name was defined as one of the following: a
excluded because they did not contain named spir­
demon, a fallen angel, or an evil angel. (A number
its specifically described as demons or evil angels.
of Jewish sources, such as the Sword of Moses, use
An excellent example of this exclusion is the
the terms wicked angel or evil angel rather than fallen
Heptameron, traditionally credited to Peter de
angel.) In some cases, the designation was hazy. I
Abano. This text, first published in Venice in 1496
Introduction 8

scholar Johannes Wierus), are in Latin. I have a tol­

erable enough command of both Latin and French
to understand the grimoires and contem porary
works w ritten in these languages. As a result, I
can source these prim ary materials or compare
them with m odern English translations in order
to achieve a more accurate reading of the demon
names and functions. Although I have a decent
grasp on Romance languages, I have little familiar­
ity with Hebrew and even less with Arabic. This
inability on my part to compare current transla­
The demon Belial at the gates of Hell. From the 1473 tions against their source texts automatically ruled
work Das Buch Belial by Jacobus de Teramo. out a num ber of the more traditional Jewish and
but believed to have been written as many as two Muslim works of magick. In the case of several
hundred years earlier, includes a section of seven Hebrew names of Lilith, I reached out to Clifford
groups of spirits with kings, ministers, and rul­ Hartleigh Low of His command
ing intelligences. A num ber of these names are of the Hebrew language allowed me to transliter­
extremely similar to names that also appear in ate these names for this book.
the Sworn Book of Honorius, a grimoire that is in­ Multi-text referencing was necessary for a num ­
cluded in the bibliography of this book. In both ber of the names contained within this book. This
texts, the spirits are associated with the seven plan­ was largely due to the very nature of the grimoires
etary spheres. Their ranks and organization are themselves. Many of these books were w ritten
nearly identical—but in the Heptameron, the spir­ prior to the invention of the printing press. This
its are specifically identified as angels. As a result, m eant that they were handwritten manuscripts,
even though it is obvious that the Sworn Book was copied from person to person, often furtively and
influenced by the Heptameron, I only included the in poor lighting. This m ethod of transmission did
versions of these names that appeared defined as not lend itself to accuracy—and in many of the
demons in editions of the Sworn Book. grimoires, names are significantly different from
Although my primary aim was to source only one edition to the next. Even once the printing
proper names of spirits defined intratextually as press came into the picture in the 1400s, only some
infernal, I had another reason for sticking with the of these magickal books made it into formal print.
grimoires primarily associated with the Christian Others continued in manuscript form, hand-copied
tradition of Western Europe: convenience. Works and hidden away for fear that their very presence
like the Clavicula Salomonis and the Lemegeton are in a scholar's library might be call for the Inquisi­
some of the most widely available in the English tors to come knocking at the door.
language. Others, like the Pseudomonarchia Daemo- Modern translators have not helped to m ain­
num (a collection of names that actually appears as tain consistency with these texts either. In some
an appendix to a larger work by sixteenth-century cases, a book by two different translators is hardly
9 Introduction

recognizable as the same text. In most cases, when • The names in this book are proper names of
names vary from edition to edition, I have simply demons
compiled them into one entry, with notes on the • Names are clearly identified as belonging to
variations and their sources. However, in the case demons, fallen angels, or evil angels in their
of the Sworn Book of Honońns as translated by Jo­ source texts
seph H. Peterson in 1998, and the edition of the • The names are drawn prim arily from the
Sworn Book produced by Daniel Driscoll in 1977, Christian grim oiric tradition o f W estern
the differences in the names, functions, and de­ Europe
scriptions of the spirits are so vast that I have cho­
• Some influential Jewish, biblical, and extra-
sen to give them all separate entries.
biblical works are also sourced
One of my secondary goals with this work was
to present names that are new to people, or at least The grimoires sourced in this book were w rit­
names that are rarely included in more standard ten mainly during the Middle Ages and Renais­
reference works. Since the focus is on the proper sance. There are several works included that were
names of demons connected with a largely Judeo- written after this time, but they are either direct
Christian system, however, I had to retread some descendants of the grimoires or they became en­
familiar territory beyond the grim oires them ­ tangled with that tradition during the occult re­
selves. You will find all the old familiar names of vival of the nineteenth century. The two main
demons from the Bible, primarily because these texts that might seem a little out of place based on
names are foundational to the demonology of me­ the criteria outlined above are Charles Berbiguier's
dieval Christian Europe. As such, these names, or Les Farfadets and Collin de Plancy’s Dictionnaire
variations on them, appear in the grimoires over Infernal. These nineteenth-century French works
and over again. are largely included because of an edition of the
I also felt it wise to branch out to several ex­ Grand Grimoire translated by A. E. Waite in his
tra-biblical texts that contributed significantly to Book of Black Magic and Pacts and later reprinted by
the medieval concepts o f infernal beings. Jewish Darcy Kuntz. Waite gets material from both Ber-
legends of demons like Lilith, Samael, and Azazel biguier and de Plancy mixed up with the writing
played their own roles in shaping medieval Chris­ of Johannes Wierus. It was necessary to cite both
tian demonology, and apocryphal texts cut from French writers in order to put that information in
the early canon of the Bible, such as the Book of context and to clarify its true origins.
Enoch and the Book of Tobit, were also too influ­ Finally, it should be noted that this book, al­
ential to leave out. The focus remains on the gri- though extensive, is by no means an exhaustive col­
moiric tradition, but names and themes from these lection of the demon names that appear in the gri­
related traditions are woven like threads through­ moiric tradition. I have made a considerable effort to
out many of the European magickal books. track down as many texts that fit my criteria as pos­
To summarize the criteria for the names in­ sible, but within the scope of this book it was neither
cluded in this book: feasible nor necessary to source every existing gri­
moire. There are simply too many different versions
Introduction 10

materials by cutting up old manuscripts to include in

the binding or covers of later editions.
Any attem pt to track down all of these books
and study the information contained within would
be the work o f a lifetime, and perhaps several
lifetimes. The variations on the demons named
within these texts would be infinite, but perhaps
that is simply the nature of demons.
In his nineteenth-century opus Demonology
and Devil-Lore, Moncure Daniel Conway starts out
with a story. Three friars have snuck out to the
German m ountains to witness the gathering of
devils rum ored to occur on Walpurgisnacht. One
of the demons attending this event discovers them
in the process of attempting to count the frolick­
ing hordes of Hell. The demon behaves in a rather
sympathetic fashion to the three fellows, suggest­
ing that they leave off their counting and instead
head to safety. For, he tells them, ". . . our army is
such that if all the Alps, their rocks and glaciers,
were equally divided among us, none would have a
pound's weight."3
After having danced with the demons named in
this book for quite some time, I know exactly how
Conway felt when he quoted this tale.
Fifteenth-century image of Satan and his demons. Early
depictions of demons hardly compare to the modern
image of a red-skinned man with a goatee. Courtesy of ABOUT THI S BOOK
Dover Publications.
This book is not intended to be a how-to book on
of the grimoires scattered throughout the libraries
grimoiric magick, although if you read this book
of Europe and far too many variations upon the
all the way to the end, you should come away with
names within those books. There are copies of cop­
a basic knowledge of what grimoiric magick is and
ies of copies, each deviating slightly from a lost origi­
what it is not. This book is also not intended to
nal. There are heretofore unknown versions of these
be a definitive dictionary of the grimoires them ­
books still lying unidentified in libraries and private
selves. That is a subject that is far too vast, espe­
collections. And there are grimoires that have been
cially given the many different editions of each
lost forever, either buried, burned, or partitioned into
other books; it was common in the Middle Ages and
3. Moncure Daniel Conway, Demonology and Devil-Lore, vol. 1
even in the Renaissance to conserve book-making (New York: H enry Holt and Company, 1879), p. v.
11 Introduction

grimoire—not to mention the amount of scribal enty-two infernal entities traditionally included in
error that twists and taints many of the texts. This the larger work known as the Lemegeton, has some
is also not a book on types or species of demons. of the m ost elaborate descriptions. It portrays
There are books like that elsewhere, and they have demons who teach language, demons who build
been done well by other researchers. castles and fortifications, and demons who reveal
This is a reference book of names, first and secrets about the past, present, and future. Other
foremost. However, it contains much more than works, such as the Testament of Solomon, not only
simply the names of demons. It also contains enum erate the powers that certain demons pos­
ranks, affiliations, and powers traditionally asso­ sess, but they also describe how to frustrate these
ciated with these entities. A rich tradition of de­ powers. Typically, such texts include the names of
m onology is woven within and throughout the angels believed to control and constrain the de­
European grimoires. Within this tradition, there mons in question. A few of the grimoires include
is a pecking order in the infernal hierarchy. This symbols, signs, and secret names of God that have
pecking order is a dark reflection of the feudal so­ power over the demons.
ciety present in Europe at the time that many of W henever it is offered, I have included this in­
the grimoires were first composed. Demons have formation in each entry. If a demon’s name is de­
titles and ranks like prince and king, duke and earl. fined, that is also included in the entry. In several
Many of them serve superior spirits, and most also cases, the name is clearly derived from an existing
oversee whole retinues of their own. The spirits word or even from the name of another demon;
beneath each major demon arrange themselves in these instances, the entry includes commentary
in legions—a convention possibly influenced by on the likely origins and meaning of the name.
the biblical passage recorded in Luke and Mark, in Variations on the name, typically drawn from re­
which a demon utters the phrase, "Our name is le­ lated texts, are included in the entry with a note on
gion, for we are many.”4 where these variations appear.
In addition to this, many demons have plan­ Nearly all of the fifteen hundred-plus entries in
etary and elemental associations. Some of these this book are the proper names of demons. There
associations are likely the result of the influence are a few exceptions. There are also entries for the
of works on astral magick, like the Picatrix. There most frequently sourced works. The books that
are grimoires that assign a demon or an angel to have entries in this dictionary are by no means the
every planetary hour and every day of the week. only works cited throughout this work, but they
Demons are also associated with the cardinal direc­ are the most significant to an overall understand­
tions, and in at least one work, known as the Ars ing of the tradition from which these names are
Theurgia, the demons enumerated within the text drawn. In addition to entries on specific books,
are tied to every conceivable point of the compass. you will also find some entries on individuals.
Demons are also assigned various functions, of­ Most of these individuals are directly related to
fices, and powers. The Gonia, a collection of sev­ the significant sources cited throughout this work.
Their entries also exist to give context to grimoiric
magick and the related tradition of demonology
4. The Bible, Mark 5:9. See also Luke 8:30.
Introduction 12

that influenced concepts about both angels and de­ Of course, the big question is: what on earth
mons in Western Europe. do you use a big book of demons for? This book
Throughout this book, you will also find a is predicated on the idea that names have power.
number of impact articles. These are short entries Many people still believe that even to say the name
separate from the rest of the text that help to paint of a demon out loud is to summon that entity into
a broader picture about the beliefs, practices, and their life. A great deal of fear surrounds the subject
events in Western Europe that impacted religion, of demons, and I prefer to fight fear with knowl­
demonology, and the tradition of the grimoires. It edge. I think it is important to learn how the people
is my hope that these extra articles will help pro­ who worked to summon demons actually believed
vide context for the practice of demonic magick they could be called up and compelled.
represented in the material in this book. I also think it is important to understand that
At the back of this book, I have collected lists these infernal entities were not viewed as all-pow­
of correspondences. These are from a spreadsheet erful. Although they were certainly presented as in­
I kept side by side w ith the entries in this text. timidating, the message of the entire Solomonic tra­
These lists contain the names of the demons as­ dition underpinning the grimoires is that faith has
sociated with a specific quality or power. The lists power. Demons—whatever you think demons re­
are alphabetized for easy reference. I have not in­ ally are—are not invincible, and the best way to con­
cluded every single power, association, or ability trol and to combat them is by knowing their names.
connected with the demons in this text. Instead, I The book you now hold in your hands con­
focused on the qualities I felt would be most useful tains over fifteen hundred names of power. Do
to know. Use these for easy reference when you are not fear that power. Learn what it means and use
looking for a demon specifically associated with it responsibly.
topics like death, poison, or disease. Not all of the
qualities are negative, because in the grimoiric tra­ —Michelle Belanger, January 2010
dition even spirits defined as demons could still be
forced to be helpful.
Aariel: A demon granted the title of duke. Aariel of the Abyss.” In Crowley's edition of the Goetia,
serves in the court of the infernal king Asyriel. Ac­ Abaddon is again mentioned, not as a being, but
cording to the Ars Theurgia, Aariel manifests only as a place mentioned in a binding. See also APOL­
during the hours of the day. He is connected with LYON, GOETIA.
the direction of the south and has twenty minister­
ing spirits to serve him. See also ARS THEURGIA,
Abaddon: In the Book of Job and in Proverbs,
Abaddon is mentioned as a place of destruction,
possibly equivalent in concept with the m odern
notion of Hell. However, in Revelation 9:11, Abad­
don is no longer the Abyss itself but is instead per­
sonified as the angel in charge of that Abyss. The
name is translated in Greek to Apollyon, meaning
“The Destroyer.” Both Abaddon and Apollyon
were integrated into dem onology as powerful
princes of Hell. In Francis B arrett’s The Magus,
Abaddon is associated with the seventh mansion
of the furies, and he is said to govern destruction
and wasting. Gustav Davidson, in his classic Dic­ An angel with the keys to Hell binds the Devil. From a
twelfth-century miniature, courtesy of Dover Publications.
tionary of Angels, describes Abaddon as the “angel

Abadir 14

Abadir: Mathers suggests that the name of this so that it may not be discovered or stolen. He can
demon means "scattered.” Abadir appears in his also reveal things that have been hidden, especially
1898 translation of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin those items obscured through magick or enchant­
the Mage, where he is said to serve the infernal lord ments. See also ARS THEURGIA, USIEL.
Asmodeus. The name is also spelled Abachir. See Abas: In the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage,
also ASMODEUS, MATHERS. Abas is listed as a demon of lies and trickery. He
Abael: One of several demons who serve in the can be called upon to assist the magician in m at­
court of Dorochiel. Abael holds the rank of chief ters dealing with illusion as well as spells of invis­
duke with four hundred lesser spirits at his com­ ibility. This demon also appears in the Mathers
mand. According to the Ars Theurgia, he serves in translation o f the Clavicula Salomonis w ith the
the second half of the night, between midnight and same associations. According to Driscoll's edition
dawn. See also ARS THEURGIA, DOROCHIEL. of the Sworn Book, Abas is the king of the regions
Abahin: In the 1898 Mathers translation of the Sa­ below the earth. His province includes the riches
cred Magic of Abramelin the Mage, the name of this of the earth, and he is said to be able to locate and
demon appears in a list of infernal servants to the provide all manner of costly metals, including sil­
arch-fiends Astaroth and Asmodeus. Mathers sug­ ver and gold. Additionally, he seems to be able to
gests that the name of this demon means "the cause earthquakes, for it is said that he can pull
Terrible One,” from a root word in Hebrew. In down buildings and other structures and cause
another version of the Abramelin material, origi­ them to be destroyed. Finally, Abas and his min­
nally w ritten in code and currently kept at the ions can teach knowledge of the mixture of the el­
Wolfenbiittel library (the Herzog August Biblio- ements, a possible reference to alchemy, although
thek), in Wolfenbiittel, Germany, the name of this alchemical workings are not specifically described
demon is spelled Ahabhon. See also ASMODEUS, w ithin the text. In the Clavicula Salomonis, the
ASTAROTH, MATHERS. name of this demon is spelled Abac. See also CLA­
Abalam: According to W ierus’s Pseudomonarchia
Daemonum, if the dem on Paimon is summ oned Abbnthada: Described as an agreeable, if some­
and given a sacrifice or other offering, this demon, what jealous demon, Abbnthada appears in the hi­
along with his companion Beball, will also appear. erarchy of Harthan, an infernal king who rules the
Both Abalam and Beball are demonic kings who element of water. According to the Driscoll edi­
serve the Goetic demon Paimon. In the Goetia, tion of the Sworn Book, Abbnthada can be enticed
their names appear as Labal and Abali. See also BE­ to appear with the aid o f appropriate perfumes.
BALL, PAIMON, WIERUS. W hen he manifests, his body is large and has a
mottled complexion. He has the power to swiftly
Abariel: A demon in the hierarchy of the infernal
move things from place to place, and he can pro­
prince Usiel. The Ars Theurgia describes Abariel
vide darkness when it is required of him. He can
as a chief duke who belongs to the hours of day­
also bestow strength in resolution, helping others
light. He has forty ministering spirits beneath him.
to avenge wrongs. See also HARTHAN, SWORN
Abariel has the power to conceal hidden treasure