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As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete.
A layer of asphalt concrete. In road construction, a base layer of crushed rock is usually laid down first to increase durability (see photo below)
(July 2009) Mixing of asphalt and aggregate is accomplished in one of several ways: • Hot mix asphalt concrete (commonly abbreviated as HMAC or HMA) is produced by heating the asphalt binder to decrease its viscosity. Informally. Asphalt concrete is a composite material commonly used in construction projects such as road surfaces. fed from a dump truck. In many countries paving is restricted to summer months because in winter the compacted base will cool the asphalt too much before it is packed to the optimal air content. Paving and compaction must be performed while the asphalt is sufficiently hot. asphalt or even epoxy. asphalt concrete is also referred to as "blacktop". then laid down in layers and compacted. •  Mixture formulations This section does not cite any references or sources. and the asphalt cement at 200 °F (95 °C). The terms "asphalt (or asphaltic) concrete".Machine laying asphalt concrete. whether that binder is Portland cement. The engineering definition of concrete is any composite material composed of mineral aggregate glued together with a binder. racetracks and airfields. particularly in North America. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. "bituminous asphalt concrete" and the abbreviation "AC" are typically used only in engineering and construction documents and literature. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. and drying the aggregate to remove moisture from it prior to mixing. Asphalt concrete pavements are often called just "asphalt" by laypersons who tend to associate the term concrete with Portland cement concrete only. HMAC is the form of asphalt concrete most commonly used on highly trafficked pavements such as those on major highways. Mixing is generally performed with the aggregate at about 300 °F (roughly 150 °C) for virgin asphalt and 330 °F (166 °C) for polymer modified asphalt. . airports and parking lots. It consists of asphalt (used as a binder) and mineral aggregate mixed together.
thus releasing less carbon dioxide. While in its dissolved state the asphalt is less viscous and the mix is easy to work and compact. waxes. which is important for construction sites with critical time schedules. filler and bitumen. Cold mix is commonly used as a patching material and on lesser trafficked service roads. Cut-back asphalt concrete is produced by dissolving the binder in kerosene or another lighter fraction of petroleum prior to mixing with the aggregate. After the mix is laid down the lighter fraction evaporates. While elsewhere. The emulsion will break after enough water evaporates and the cold mix will. Bitumen is an oil based substance. it is correctly known as refined bitumen. The usage of these additives in hot mixed asphalt (above) may afford easier compaction and allow cold weather paving or longer hauls. sand. or asphalt emulsions to the mix. It is a semi-solid hydrocarbon product produced by removing the lighter fractions (such as liquid petroleum gas. • . Not only are working conditions improved. found in some parts of the world. aerosols and vapours. petrol and diesel) from heavy crude oil during the refining process. Mastic asphalt concrete or sheet asphalt is produced by heating hard grade blown bitumen (oxidation) in a green cooker (mixer) until it has become a viscous liquid after which the aggregate mix is then added. Natural asphalt concrete can be produced from bituminous rock. “asphalt” is the term used for a mixture of small stones. While in its emulsified state the asphalt is less viscous and the mixture is easy to work and compact. The asphalt mixture contains approximately 5% bitumen. bitumen is commonly known as “asphalt cement” or “asphalt”. where porous sedimentary rock near the surface has been impregnated with upwelling bitumen. ideally.• • • • Warm mix asphalt concrete (commonly abbreviated as WMA or WAM) is produced by adding either zeolites. which is used as a road paving material. As such. take on the properties of cold HMAC. semi-solid substance. but the lower layingtemperature also leads to more rapid availability of the surface for use. At ambient temperatures bitumen is a stable. This allows significantly lower mixing and laying temperatures and results in lower consumption of fossil fuels. In North America. Cold mix asphalt concrete is produced by emulsifying the asphalt in water with (essentially) soap prior to mixing with the aggregate.
Asphalt concrete that is removed from a pavement is usually stockpiled for later use as a base course material. Sometimes waste materials. Several in-place recycling techniques have been developed to rejuvenate oxidized binders and remove cracking. is crushed to a consistent gradation and added to the HMA mixing process. but only proper construction.  Performance characteristics Asphalt concrete has different performance characteristics in terms of surface durability. and friction coarse (FC-5).A landing strip. or freezing of groundwater. allowing water to drain away from under the road.E. Asphalt damaged by cryoturbation. although the recycled material is generally not very water-tight or smooth and should be overlaid with a new layer of asphalt concrete. rutting. but there is a concern that the hybrid material may not be recyclable. although they do not contain tar and are not constructed using the macadam process. upheaval. and is typically less noisy than chip seal surfaces. The appropriate asphalt performance characteristic is obtained by the traffic level amount in categories A. and grade depressions. Asphalt concrete pavements—especially those at airfields—are sometimes called tarmac for historical reasons. one of the uses of asphalt concrete Asphalt concrete is often touted as being 100% recyclable. tire wear. shoving. Filling the cracks with bitumen can temporarily fix the cracks. are added to asphalt concrete as is the case with rubberized asphalt. raveling. The sound energy is generated through rolling friction converting kinetic energy to sound waves. freezing of the groundwater underneath can crack asphalt even in one winter (by cryoturbation). i. commonly known by the acronym 'RAP' for recycled or reclaimed asphalt pavement. Asphalt concrete generates less roadway noise than Portland cement concrete surfacing. In cold climates. potholes.B. such as rubber from old tires.C.e. Asphalt deterioration can include alligator cracks. can slow this process.D. The idea that highway design could be . Very little asphalt concrete is actually disposed of in landfills. Tire noise effects are amplified at higher operating speeds. This reclaimed material. braking efficiency and roadway noise. stripping.
In addition to the asphalt and aggregate. and is used in medicated shampoo to kill and repel head lice. TAR is classified as. coal tar is sometime used for heating or to fire boilers. The gaseous by-product of this process is commonly known as town gas.Depending upon its source of origin.It can be used in coal tar soap. Composition and properties of Bitumen Composition of Bitumen Materials in bituminous family are: 1) Tar: Coal tar is a brown or dark black liquid of high viscosity. BITUMEN: The bitumen aggregate mixture is cooked (matured) for around 6-8 hours and once it is ready the mastic asphalt mixer is transported to the work site where experienced layers empty the mixer and either machine or hand lay the mastic asphalt contents on to the road. . which smells of naphthalene and aromatic hdydrocarbons. Most bitumens are colloidal in nature. It is used for coating of wooden poles and sleepers. additives. Mastic asphalt concrete is generally laid to a thickness of around 3⁄4–1 3⁄16 inches (20-30 mm) for footpath and road applications and around 3⁄8 of an inch (10 mm) for flooring or roof applications. iron poles. 2) Coal Tar: It is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke.influenced by acoustical engineering considerations including selection of surface paving types arose in the very early 1970s. Wood tar contains creosote and as such has strong preservative properties. such as polymers. and antistripping agents may be added to improve the properties of the final product. and as a treatment for dandruff. 4) Mineral Tar: It is obtained by the distillation of bituminous shale. 3) Wood Tar: It is obtained by the distillation of resinous wood. Being flammable.
of a weighted needle in bitumen after a given time. Commonly a weight of 100 gm is applied for 5 sec at a temperature of 77 0F. 2. Adhesion: Bitumen has the ability to adhere to a solid surface in a fluid state depending on the nature of the surface. Typical results are 10 for hard coating asphalt. It is used as a water proofing compound in masonry. The presence of water on the surface will prevent adhesion. Under some conditions water may be absorbed by minute quantities of inorganic salts in the bitumen or filler in it. Hardness: To measure the hardness of bitumen. Properties of bitumen 1. Resistance to water: Bitumen is water resistant. 4. The penetration is a measure of hardness. the penetration test is conducted. 15 to 40 for roofing asphalt and up to 100 or more for water proofing bitumen.5) Coal Tar Pitch: It is the residue of the direct distillation of crude tar produced by the high temperature carbonization of coal. Viscosity and flow: The viscous or flow properties of bitumen are of importance both at high temperature during processing and application and at low temperature to which bitumen is subjected during service. steel and timber structure. which measures the depth of penetration in tenths of mm. at a known temperature. It is also used for water proofing concrete structures. 3. .