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- Exam 1
- Chapter1 Statistic
- Sampling Distributions
- Sampling Design Lecture Notes UNIT III
- Mean Median Mode
- Complete Noise Reporrt (2)
- Chapter IV V New Oct 12 09
- RSRQ
- Quantitative Analysis Paper
- ZFL-2500VH
- Statistics in Practice, Part I
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- untitled
- 2
- Analyzing Data Set
- Chapter1_Data_Description.pdf
- The Indoor Gain Equation
- Week 10

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1. A social researcher in a particular city wishes to obtain information on the number of

children in households that receive welfare support. A random sample of 400 households

is selected from the city welfare rolls. A check on welfare recipient data provides the

number of children in each household.

(a) Identify the population of measurements that is of interest to the researcher.

(b) Identify the sample.

(c) What characteristics of the population are of interest to the researcher?

2. A leakage test was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seal designed to keep the

inside of a plug airtight. An air needle was inserted into the plug, which was then placed

underwater. Next, the pressure was increased until leakage was observed. The magnitude

of this pressure in psi was recorded for 10 trials:

3.1 3.5 3.3 3.7 4.5 4.2 2.8 3.9 3.5 3.3

Find the sample mean and sample standard deviation for these 10 measurements.

3. The nine measurements that follow are furnace temperatures recorded on successive

batches in a semiconductor manufacturing process (units are ◦ F):

(b) Find the sample median of the data.

(c) How much could the largest temperature measurement increase without changing

the sample median?

4. The minimum injection pressure (psi) for injection molding specimens of high amylose

corn was determined for eight different specimens (higher pressure corresponds to greater

processing difficulty), resulting in the following observations:

(a) Determine the values of the sample mean and sample median.

(b) By how much could the sample observation 8.0 be increased without affecting the

value of the sample median?

(c) Suppose we want the values of the sample mean and median when the observa-

tions are expressed in kilograms per square inch (ksi) rather than psi (pounds per

square inch). Is it necessary to re-express each observation in ksi, or can the values

calculated in part (a) be used directly? Hint: 1kilogram = 2.2 pounds.

observation xn+1 becomes available. What is the relationship between the mean of the

first n observations, the new observation, and the mean of all n + 1 observations? (We

can let x̄n denote the mean computed based on n observations.)

2 Tutorial 12

6. In the casino game roulette, if a player bets $1 on red (or on black or on odd or on even),

the probability of winning $1 is 18/38 and the probability of losing $1 is 20/38. Suppose

that a player begins with $5 and makes successive $1 bets. Let Y equal the player’s

maximum capital before losing the $5. One hundred observations of Y were simulated on

a computer, yielding the following data:

25 9 5 5 5 9 6 5 15 45

55 6 5 6 24 21 16 5 8 7

7 5 5 35 13 9 5 18 6 10

19 16 21 8 13 5 9 10 10 6

23 8 5 10 15 7 5 5 24 9

11 34 12 11 17 11 16 5 15 5

12 6 5 5 7 6 17 20 7 8

8 6 10 11 6 7 5 12 11 18

6 21 6 5 24 7 16 21 23 15

11 8 6 8 14 11 6 9 6 10

(b) Calculate the IQR and identify outliers.

(c) Draw a box plot that shows outliers.

(d) Find the 90th sample percentile.

7. Noise is measured in decibels, denoted as dB. One decibel is about the level of the weakest

sound that can be heard in a quiet surrounding by someone with good hearing; a whisper

measures about 30 dB; a human voice in normal conversation is about 70 dB; a loud

radio is about 100 dB. Ear discomfort usually occurs at a noise level of about 120 dB.

The following data give noise levels measured at 36 different times directly outside of

Grand Central Station in Manhattan.

78 65 60 90 83 87 75 114 85

69 94 124 115 107 88 97 74 72

68 83 91 90 102 77 125 108 65

(b) Convert the stem-and-leaf diagram into an ordered stem-and-leaf diagram.

(c) Determine the quartiles.

plasticizers and certain binders recorded the following data on flexural strength (in mega-

pascals, MPa):

5.9 7.2 7.3 6.3 8.1 6.8 7.0 7.6 6.8 6.5 7.0 6.3 7.9 9.0

8.2 8.7 7.8 9.7 7.4 7.7 9.7 7.8 7.7 11.6 11.3 11.8 10.7

ENG5001/ENG6001 – Advanced Engineering Data Analysis 3

(c) Does the stem-and-leaf diagram appear to be reasonably symmetric about the me-

dian, or would you describe the shape in some other way?

(d) What proportion of strength observations in this sample exceed 10 MPa?

9. In a study of warp breakage during the weaving of fabric (Technometrics, 1982: 63), 100

specimens of yarn were tested. The number of cycles of strain to breakage was deter-

mined for each yarn specimen, resulting in the following data:

175 176 76 264 15 364 195 262 88 264

157 220 42 321 180 198 38 20 61 121

282 224 149 180 325 250 196 90 229 166

38 337 65 151 341 40 40 135 597 246

211 180 93 315 353 571 124 279 81 186

497 182 423 185 229 400 338 290 398 71

246 185 188 568 55 55 61 244 20 284

393 396 203 829 239 236 286 194 277 143

198 264 105 203 124 137 135 350 193 188

(a) Construct a relative frequency histogram based on the class intervals [0,100), [100,200),

[200,300), . . ., and comment on the features of the histogram.

(b) Construct a histogram based on the following class intervals: [0,50), [50,100), [100,150),

[150,200), [200,300), [300,400), [400,500), [500,600), [600,900).

(c) If weaving specifications require a breaking strength of at least 100 cycles, what

proportion of the yarn specimens in this sample would be considered satisfactory?

10. Ledolter and Hogg report that a manufacturer of metal alloys is concerned about customer

complaints regarding the lack of uniformity in the melting points of one of the film’s alloy

filaments. Fifty filaments are selected and their melting points determined. The following

results were obtained:

320 326 325 318 322 320 329 317 316 331

320 320 317 329 316 308 321 319 322 335

318 313 327 314 329 323 327 323 324 314

308 305 328 330 322 310 324 314 312 318

313 320 324 311 317 325 328 319 310 324

(a) Construct a frequency table, and display the histogram, of the data.

(b) Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation.

(c) Locate x̄, x̄ ± s on your histogram. How many observations lie within one standard

deviation of the mean? How many lie within two standard deviations of the mean?

(d) Find the five-number summary for these melting points.

(e) Construct a box-and-whisker diagram.

4 Tutorial 12

11. A small part for an automobile rearview mirror was produced on two different punch

presses. In order to describe the distribution of the weights of those parts, a random

sample was selected, and each piece was weighed in grams, resulting in the following data

set:

3.669 3.705 4.023 3.588 3.945 3.871 3.744 3.711

3.645 3.977 3.888 3.948 3.551 3.796 3.657 3.667

3.799 4.010 3.704 3.642 3.681 3.554 4.025 4.079

3.621 3.575 3.714 4.017 4.082 3.660 3.692 3.905

3.977 3.961 3.948 3.994 3.958 3.860 3.965 3.592

3.681 3.861 3.662 3.995 4.010 3.999 3.993 4.004

3.700 4.008 3.627 3.970 3.647 3.847 3.628 3.646

3.674 3.601 4.029 3.603 3.619 4.009 4.015 3.615

3.672 3.898 3.959 3.607 3.707 3.978 3.656 4.027

3.645 3.643 3.898 3.635 3.865 3.631 3.929 3.635

3.511 3.539 3.830 3.925 3.971 3.646 3.669 3.931

4.028 3.665 3.681 3.984 3.664 3.893 3.606 3.699

3.997 3.936 3.976 3.627 3.536 3.695 3.981 3.587

3.680 3.888 3.921 3.953 3.847 3.645 4.042 3.692

3.910 3.672 3.957 3.961 3.950 3.904 3.928 3.984

3.721 3.927 3.621 4.038 4.047 3.627 3.774 3.983

3.658 4.034 3.778

(a) Using about 10 (say, 8 to 12) classes, construct a frequency distribution of the data.

(b) Draw a histogram of the data.

(c) Describe the shape of the distribution represented by the histogram.

√

12. A transformation of data values by means of some mathematical function, such as x

or 1/x, can often yield a set of numbers that has “nicer” statistical properties than the

original data. In particular, it may be possible to find a function for which the histogram

of transformed values is more symmetric (or, even better, more like a bell-shaped curve)

than the original data.

For example, in an experiment designed to study the behaviour of certain individual cells

that had been exposed to beryllium, the interdivision times (IDTs) of cells were deter-

mined for a large number of cells both in exposed (treatment) and unexposed (control)

conditions. Consider the following IDT data:

28.0 17.9 19.5 21.1 31.9 28.9 60.1 23.7

18.6 21.4 26.6 26.2 32.0 43.5 17.4 38.8

30.6 55.6 25.5 52.1 21.0 22.3 15.5 36.3

19.1 38.4 72.8 48.9 21.4 20.7 57.3 40.9

Construct a histogram of this data based on classes with boundaries 10, 20, 30, . . .. Then

calculate log10 (x) for each observation, and construct a histogram of the transformed data

using class boundaries 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, . . .. What is the effect of the transformation?

ENG5001/ENG6001 – Advanced Engineering Data Analysis 5

13. A survey on knee injuries recorded the following data on type of injury (A= mensical

tear, B=MCL tear, C=ACL tear, D=patella dislocation, E=PCL tear):

A B B A C A A D B A C E B

B A A C D C A C B C C C A

B B C A A B C C A C B B D

A B A C B A A C A B B E B

B B C C A C A A B D A A C

B C C A B B A D C A B

(b) Construct a pie chart for this data.

14. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has studied the use of rear-seat

automobile lap and shoulder seat belts. The number of lives potentially saved with the

use of lap and shoulder seat belts is shown for various percentages of use.

of use Lap belt only Lap and shoulder belt

100 529 678

80 423 543

60 318 407

40 212 271

20 106 136

10 85 108

15. Blood cocaine concentration (mg/L) was determined both for a sample of individuals who

had died from cocaine-induced excited delirium and for a sample of those who had died

from a cocaine overdose without excited delirium; survival time for people in both groups

was at most 6 hours. The data is as follows.

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.5 2.7

2.8 3.5 4.0 8.9 9.2 11.7 21.0

Non-ED: 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2

0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.8

0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.7 2.0 3.2 3.5 4.1

4.3 4.8 5.0 5.6 5.9 6.0 6.4 7.9 8.3 8.7

9.1 9.6 9.9 11.0 11.5 12.2 12.7 14.0 16.6 17.8

(a) Determine the medians, quartiles and IQRs for the two samples.

(b) Are there any outliers in either sample? Any extreme outliers?

(c) Construct a side-by-side box plot, and use it as a basis for comparing and contrasting

the ED and non-ED samples.

6 Tutorial 12

16. Specimens of three different types of rope wire were selected, and the fatigue limit (MPa)

was determined for each specimen, resulting in the accompanying data:

371 372 372 380 391 391 392

Type 2: 350 354 359 363 365 368 369 371

373 374 376 380 383 388 392

Type 3: 350 361 362 363 364 365 366 371

377 377 377 380 380 380 392

(a) Construct a side-by-side box plot, and comment on similarities and differences.

(b) Construct a stem-and-leaf plot for each of the three types. Comment on similarities

and differences.

(c) Does the side-by-side box plot in part (a) give an informative assessment of similar-

ities and differences? Explain your reasoning.

17. Wear resistance of certain nuclear reactor components made of Zircaloy-2 is partly deter-

mined by properties of the oxide layer. The following data is from an article that proposed

a new nondestructive testing method to monitor thickness of the layer ; the variables are

x = oxide-layer thickness and y = eddy current response:

y: 20.3 19.8 19.5 15.9 15.1 14.7 11.9 11.5 8.3 6.6

(a) Construct a scatter plot of the data. How would you describe the nature of the

relationship between the two variables?

(b) Compute the sample correlation coefficient for the data. Does it confirm your im-

pression from the scatter plot?

18. Express the sample correlation coefficient r in terms of the following sums:

X X X X X

xi , yi , x2i , yi2 , xi y i

19. Toughness and fibrousness of asparagus are major determinants of quality. An article

“Postharvest glyphosate application reduces toughening, fiber content, and lignification

of stored asparagus spears” reported the following data on x = shear force (kg) and y =

percent fiber dry weight:

x: 46 48 55 57 60 72 81 85 94

y: 2.18 2.10 2.13 2.28 2.34 2.53 2.28 2.62 2.63

x: 109 121 132 137 148 149 184 185 187

y: 2.50 2.66 2.79 2.80 3.01 2.98 3.34 3.49 3.26

(a) Using the formula obtained in Problem 18, calculate the sample correlation coeffi-

cient. Based on this value, how would you describe the nature of the relationship

between the two variables?

ENG5001/ENG6001 – Advanced Engineering Data Analysis 7

(b) If a first specimen has a larger value of shear force than does a second specimen,

what tends to be true of percent dry fiber weight for the two specimens, which one

would be larger?

(c) If shear force is expressed in pounds, what happens to the value of r? Why?

20. An experiment was conducted to investigate how the behaviour of mozzarella cheese

varied with temperature. The following data was obtained, with x = temperature and y

= elongation (%) at failure of the cheese.

x: 59 63 68 72 74 78 83

y: 118 182 247 208 197 135 132

(a) Construct a scatter plot in which the axes intersect at (0, 0). Mark 0, 20, 40, 60,80,

and 100 on the horizontal axis and 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 on the vertical axis.

(b) Construct a scatter plot in which the axes intersect at (55, 100). Does this plot seem

preferable to the one in part (a)?

(c) What do the plots suggest about the nature of the relationship between the two

variables?

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