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Strength Check for Legs Structure of Jack-up Platforms

in Transit Condition

Ding Quang Cuong1 and Pham Thi Hang2


1 National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
2 National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
cuongdq.vctb@gmail.com

Abstract. In transit condition, jack up rig is a type of floating structures with


large dimensions. The leg structures of jack up rig are raised up during transit,
therefore they are not directly subjected to wave and current loads, they just
bear inertial forces due to system's shake caused by wave and current actions
and other loads. To analyze strength of the leg structures of jack up rig in transit
condition in accordance with current code and standards, it needs to solve two
important problems which are to determine the jack up rig's motions and the
inertial forces acting on leg structures due to the motion mentioned above. In
the this article, these issues will be clarified through an example of 400-feet
jack-up rig which is fabricated in Vietnam.

Keywords: Leg structures of jack up plafform; transit condition; strength


checking.

1 Introduction

Jack up rig is a type of mobile platform that operates in three


states, including: transit, raised and lowered and operating
condition. In operating condition, the jack up rig’s structural
system is calculated as a fixed flatform. In raised-lowered
condition, it is calculated as a mixed structural - mechanical
system. In transit condition, it is calculated as a Floating Offshore
Unit. In this state, hull structure of the jack up rig is calculated as a
hull of Ship, directly impacted by the technology loads and
environment loads while the leg structures are not directly
subjected to wave and current loads. The effect of wave and
current on the Jack-up rig structure in the transit condition is
determined by the inertial force induced by the shaking of the
Fig. 1. Jack up rig in transit
system under the effect of wave and current (Figure 1). condition
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This article presents an algorithm to determine the inertial forces acting on jack-up
rig leg structure which then combines the inertial force with other loads acting
directly on the leg structure system so as to check and calculate the durability of jack-
up rig leg structure in transit condition.

2 Shake-motion analysis of jack up platform in transit


condition

Fig. 2. Motions of jack-up rig Fig. 3. Inertial forces in spherical coordinate system
Figure 2 illustrates the basic shake-motion components, including: surge, heavy,
sway, pitch, roll, yaw. Once the boundary element method is utilized to analyze
system’s vibrations, the structural system is considered as an absolutely rigid body
and discrete in point mass systems with geometric and mechanical features connected
rigidly with conventional coordinate system locating at the center of the system
(Figure 3), the shake-motion equation of the jack up rig subjected to the wave and the
current loads is written as follows:
(𝑀 + 𝐴)𝑈̈ + 𝐶𝑈̇ + 𝐾𝑈 = 𝐹(𝑡) (1)
Where:
𝑀: Mass matrix in global coordinate system [1,2,9];
𝐴: Added mass matrix with the components 𝐴𝑖𝑗 are determined from radiation
wave potential function Φ𝑅 and 𝑛𝑖 are the normal vector of 𝑑𝑆 body on the mean
wetted body surface 𝐵 [1,2,9] :
𝐴𝑖𝑗 = 𝑅𝑒{𝜌𝑤 ∬𝐵 Φ𝑗𝑅 𝑛𝑖 𝑑𝑆 } (2)
𝐶: Damping matrix with the components 𝐶𝑖𝑗 are determined from radiation
wave potential Φ𝑅 while ignoring viscous damping between structure and
environment [1,2,9]:
𝐶𝑖𝑗 = 𝐼𝑚{𝜔𝜌𝑤 ∬𝐵 Φ𝑗𝑅 𝑛𝑖 𝑑𝑆 } (3)
Where: 𝜔 is the wave frequency taking into account of current influence through
Doppler effect, it depends on curent velocity and the angle between the current and
the propagation direction of the incoming wave and the effect of the structural
velocity in transit case [1,2]; 𝜌𝑤 is sea water density.
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Herein, the composition of inertial force caused by the added mass and the
damping force are two components of the radiation wave force.
𝐾 is the stiffness matrix of the system, it is established by the restorative forces
or hydrostatic forces acting on the wet surface 𝑆 when the jack up rig oscillates. These
restorative forces tend to bring it back to its original equilibrium[1,2,9];
𝑈, 𝑈̇, 𝑈̈ are the components of displacement,velocity and acceleration vectors of
the system, respectively;
𝐹(𝑡) is the wave load vector acting on the hull structure, due to the large
dimension effect, including the load components caused by the incoming wave and
the diffraction wave, determined by the incoming and the diffraction wave potential
function Φ𝑅 , respectively. Ignoring the effect of high-order hydrodynamic
components, the jth components (j =1÷6) of the first-order wave force vector can be
expressed by the formula (4), with Φ𝐼 and Φ𝐷 are the incoming and the diffraction
wave potential function [1,2,9] :
𝐹𝑗 (𝑡) = 𝜌𝑤 𝑖𝜔 ∬𝐵(Φ𝐼 + Φ𝐷 )𝑒 −𝑖𝜔𝑡 𝑛𝑗 𝑑𝑆 (4)
Velocity potential functions are determined approximately in the form of series
according to the order when solving 3 dimensional Laplace equation in the interactive
area of the floating structure surface and water environment when considering
boundary conditions established through assumptions such as viscidity is equal to 0,
untwisted movement, impermeability bottom of the sea, equilibrium of pressure in
free surface, conversation of momentum and the condition of infinitively far away.
This article does not concentrate in analysis methods of determination and the order
of potential fuction which are very complicated issue, still being researched,
developed in the world and only stopping at the application of the first-order potential
fuction’s which are suitable with SACS 5.3 in calculation [2].
In case of the incoming wave is considered to be a stationary random process
characterized by the spectral density function 𝑆𝜂𝜂 (𝜔), the response spectral density
function 𝑆𝑢𝑢 (𝜔)is determined by 𝑆𝜂𝜂 (𝜔) in the following relation [1,2]:
𝑆𝑢𝑢 (𝜔) = 𝑅𝐴𝑂𝑢 2 . 𝑆𝜂𝜂 (𝜔) (5)
with 𝑅𝐴𝑂𝑢 is transfer function of the structural responseu(t) under the effect of the
unit wave(a=1m).
Generally, the maximum response value of the system (at the center) is determined
by the formula [2]:
𝜏
𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √2𝑀0𝑢 𝑙𝑛 (6)
𝑇𝑧

Where: 𝑀0 is the non-zero moment of the response spectrum as determined in (5);


𝜏 is the time interval that depends on the probability of occurrence of the response;
𝑇𝑧 is the mean zero up-crossing period of the response.
For the shaking motion, the DnV standard [6] regulates: limit of yaw acceleration
is 0.55g and natural period of pitch should be less than 7 sec.
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3 Determination of the inertial forces acting on the legs of jack


up platform structures

The shaking motion of the system’s center causes inertial forces acting at the ith
mass setting point (𝑚𝑖 ) on the leg structures according to the following equation
(Figure 3):
The inertial force along axis x [1,2]:
𝐹𝑖𝑎𝑥 = −𝑚𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑥 with 𝑎𝑖𝑥 = 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 (7)
The tangential and centrifugal inertia forces are [1,2]:
𝐹𝑖𝜃𝑥 = −𝑚𝑖 (𝑟𝑖 𝜃𝑖𝑥̈ ) (8)
𝐹𝑖𝜔 = −𝑚𝑖 (𝑟𝑖 𝜔2 ) (9)
The inertial force along axis x, due to translational and rotational accelerations [1,
2]:
𝐹𝑖𝑥 = −𝑚𝑖 (𝑎𝑖𝑥 + 𝑟𝑖 𝜃𝑖𝑥̈ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 + 𝑟𝑖 𝜔2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼) (10)
Where: a is the shaking acceleration of system center; θix is the angle of inclination
due to the shaking motion of the ith mass around axis x (rad); 𝑟𝑖 is the distance from
the ith mass to the center of system,𝛼, 𝛽are the angles in Figure 3. The inertial force
along axis y is performed similarly.

4 Load cases analyses and load combinations to analyze the


jack-up rig leg structure in transit condition

In transit condition the load acting on the jack-up rig legs divides into two basic
types. Static and quasi-static loads including: self-weight, technological loads and
wind loads. The shaking motion induced inertial force components caused by the
effect of waves and currents are presented in section 2 and 3.
The wind load F acting on a member of the leg structure can be calculated
according to the API standard with the general formula as follows [4]:
𝐹 = (𝜌𝑎 /2)𝑢2 𝐶𝑠 𝐴 (11)
Where: 𝜌𝑎 is the density of air; 𝐶𝑠 is the shape coefficient (with cylindrical
shapes 𝐶𝑠 = 0.5); 𝐴 is the cross sectional area; 𝑢 is the wind speed.
According to the current standards such as [3,6] the load combinations for
analyzing of floating structurein transit condition are considered in three main impact
states as follows (these combinations are considered corresponding to the direction of
the different motions):
- Head Sea: including roll, heavy, surge, wind and current respectively;
- Beam Sea: including pitch, yaw, sway, wind and current respectively;
- Quartering Sea: including 50% roll, 50% pitch and yaw, wind and current
respectively.
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5 Strength check of jack-up rig leg structure in transit


condition

Strength check of tubular members:


- For compressive bending member shall be checked by the following
equation [4,9] :
𝐶𝑚 √𝑓𝑏𝑥 2 +𝑓𝑏𝑦 2
𝑓𝑎
+ 𝑓𝑎
≤ 1.0 (12)
𝐹𝑎 (1− )𝐹𝑏
𝐹𝑒 ′

- For tensile bending member shall be checked by the following equation [4,9] :
√𝑓𝑏𝑥 2 +𝑓𝑏𝑦 2
𝑓𝑎
+ ≤ 1.0 (13)
0.6𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑏

Where:𝑓𝑎 is the axial stress of member; 𝐹𝑎 is allowable axial stress [4,9];𝐶𝑚 is the
reduced stress coefficient due to the changing moment [4,9];𝑓𝑏𝑥 ,𝑓𝑏𝑦 are bending stress
along axis x and y; 𝐹𝑒 ′ is Euler stress [4,9]; 𝐹𝑏 is the allowable bending stress of
member [4,9].
Tubular joint punching stress is checked by the 2 following requirements[4]:
2 2
𝑣𝑝 𝑣𝑝
( ) +( ) ≤ 1.0 (14)
𝑣𝑝𝑎 𝑣𝑝𝑎
𝐼𝑃𝐵 𝑂𝑃𝐵

2 2
𝑣𝑝 2 𝑣𝑝 𝑣𝑝
| | + 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛√( ) +( ) ≤ 1.0 (15)
𝑣𝑝𝑎 𝜋 𝑣𝑝𝑎 𝑣𝑝𝑎
𝐴𝑋 𝐼𝑃𝐵 𝑂𝑃𝐵

Where: 𝑣𝑝 , 𝑣𝑝𝑎 are punching stress and allowable punchingstress in the chord,
respectively [4], AX, IPB, OPB are theaxial, in-plane bending, and out-of-plane
bending stress in the chord, respectively.

6 Algorithm schema of the problems to be solved to calculate


the strength of the legs of jack up platform in transit
condition

The impact of the marine environmental factors on the Jack-up rig is assumed to
cause two types of independent responses:
- The response of an absolutely rigid body under the shake-motion form with six
degrees of freedom.
- The response of the elastic body in the form of stress and deformation of the
structure.
At the stage of the strength check and calculation of the jack-up rig leg structure in
transit condition, the asumption of connections between the legs and the hull is pim-
connected supports.
The general algorithm schema is described in Figure 4.
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Fig. 4. The algorithm schema for strength check of jack-up rig leg structure in
transit condition

7 Strength check of the 400ft jack-up rig leg structure in transit


condition

7.1 Input data


The scale of 400ft jack-up rig structure: maximum length of Hull is 70.4 m;
maximum width of Hull is 76 m; Height of Hull is 9.45 m; Number of Leg is three
leg.
In calculating the environmental loads, it is usually calculated with 8 wave, wind
and current directions, however, in the scope of the article only calculated in NE
direction with the following environment data: Wind speed: 36 m/s; Significant wave
height Hs: 3m; Wave period Ts: 6s; Surface current velocity Vs-total: 0.57 m/s;
Current velocity at 20m depth V20-total: 0.5 m/s; Mean current velocity Vm-total:
0.48 m/s; Bottom current velocity Vb-total: 0.43m/s.
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7.2 Modelling the jack up rig in transit condition by finite element method
The 400ft jack up rig structures are modeled by the finite element method as Figure
5, Figure 6. Structural modeling, connection modeling, special structural modeling
including: the chord and the rack are worked simultaneously and the boundary
conditions to calculate the jack-up rig structure in transit condition is implemented in
accordance to the DnV [5] and API [4].

a) Equivalent hull model b) Overall diagram of


jack-up rig on the move
Fig. 5. Equivalent hull model and Schematic diagram of jack-up rig

b) Connection between the


a) A part of leg model equivalent hull and the leg in
according to the DnV standard

d) Overall diagram of the 400ft


jack-up rig on the move

c) Chord model with the rack

Fig. 6. Model of the legs, connection between the legs and the hull and Overall
diagram of jack up rig in transit condition by the finite element method.
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Load Combination: The inertial force due to the shaking motion of the system
acting on the jack-up rig legs in transit condition is combined with other loads (self-
weight, technology, wind load, etc.) to calculate and check the strength of the jack-up
rig legs in transit condition. Case loads and load combinations are performed by
Noble Denton [3] and DnV [6].
7.3 Results of strength check and check of the 400ft jack up rig legs in transit
condition
Analyzing the shaking motion of the 400ft jack up rig in the South Vietnam Sea
was conducted by using specialized software program (SACS)[2]. Some representative
results are shown in Figure 7.

The biggest peak: 28.1 m/m, Period: T = 24s The biggest peak: 8.3 m/m, Period: T = 17s

Fig. 7. RAO transfer function of the Surge and Sway motion of the 400ft Jack up
rig in transit condition
The acceleration of the system is determined by solving the motion equations(1).
The product of the acceleration and mass gives us the inertial force. The results of the
inertial force on the structural system of the 400ft Jack up rig in transit condition, see
Table 1.

Table 1. The results of the inertial force on the structural system of the 400ft Jack up rig in
transit condition

Load Angular accel Trans accel/g Force summation Moment summation

case Roll Pitch Yaw Surge Sway Heavy Surge Sway Heavy Roll Pitch Yaw

( Deg/sec2 ) (m/s2) ( kN ) ( kN.m )

S11 0 -4.9 0 -0.22 0 -0.22 4477 0 20183 -540.7 1.15E6 119

S12 0 -4.9 0 -0.22 0 0.18 4477 0 6762 -181 1.15E6 119

S13 0 4.9 0 0.22 0 -0.22 -4477 0 -5171 138.3 -1.15E6 -119

S14 0 4.9 0 0.22 0 0.18 -4477 0 -18593 498.2 -1.15E6 -119

S15 -7.9 0 0 0 0.34 -0.26 0 -7019 8722 1.82E6 78.3 63

S16 -7.9 0 0 0 0.34 0.14 0 -7019 -4700 1.82E6 -42.2 63

S17 7.9 0 0 0 -0.34 -0.26 0 7019 8747 -1.82E6 78.5 -63

S18 7.9 0 0 0 -0.34 0.14 0 7019 -4675 -1.82E6 -42 -63

The inertial loads in Table 1 are the input data to calculate and check the leg of the
400 ft jack up rig in transit conditon. Using SACS 5.3 software to solve the internal
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forces and stresses, which are combined with checking conditions in formulas (12),
(13), (14), (15) to get the results of strength check of the 400ft jack-up rig legs in
transit condition. Detailed are shown in Figure 8.

UC max: LEG section: 0.71


L01 section: 0.06

UC max: L03 section: 0.301


Fig. 8. Unity Check results of the 400ft Jack up platform in transit condition
When checking the frame elements according to the API standard, the UCmax
value = 0.71 (on the chord element) <1 indicates that all elements of the leg are
satisfied the strength conditions. The UC values are largest in the element which is
located in the connection between the legs and the hull, and they are most dangerous.
Strength check of the joints: The joints has the largest UC value = 0.504 <1, thus,
they are satisfied the strength conditions.

8 Conclusion

This article gives a general algorithm to analyze and check the strength of jack up
rig legs in transit condition.
The responses between large-sized floating objects with complex shapes and waves
and currents are determined by the boundary element method, which are the basis for
determining the inertial forces acting on the legs of the jack up rig when modeling
independently the leg structure in the strength check.
The results of this article are only preliminary. In the coming time, the research
team of the Institute of Civil Engineering Construction, National University of Civil
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Engineering will continue to present the results of structural analysis of jack up


platfrom in other condtions.

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