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Original Title: Jack-up Legs Structural Strength Analysis. DQC-PTH

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in Transit Condition

1 National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

2 National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Ha Noi, Viet Nam

cuongdq.vctb@gmail.com

large dimensions. The leg structures of jack up rig are raised up during transit,

therefore they are not directly subjected to wave and current loads, they just

bear inertial forces due to system's shake caused by wave and current actions

and other loads. To analyze strength of the leg structures of jack up rig in transit

condition in accordance with current code and standards, it needs to solve two

important problems which are to determine the jack up rig's motions and the

inertial forces acting on leg structures due to the motion mentioned above. In

the this article, these issues will be clarified through an example of 400-feet

jack-up rig which is fabricated in Vietnam.

checking.

1 Introduction

states, including: transit, raised and lowered and operating

condition. In operating condition, the jack up rig’s structural

system is calculated as a fixed flatform. In raised-lowered

condition, it is calculated as a mixed structural - mechanical

system. In transit condition, it is calculated as a Floating Offshore

Unit. In this state, hull structure of the jack up rig is calculated as a

hull of Ship, directly impacted by the technology loads and

environment loads while the leg structures are not directly

subjected to wave and current loads. The effect of wave and

current on the Jack-up rig structure in the transit condition is

determined by the inertial force induced by the shaking of the

Fig. 1. Jack up rig in transit

system under the effect of wave and current (Figure 1). condition

2

This article presents an algorithm to determine the inertial forces acting on jack-up

rig leg structure which then combines the inertial force with other loads acting

directly on the leg structure system so as to check and calculate the durability of jack-

up rig leg structure in transit condition.

condition

Fig. 2. Motions of jack-up rig Fig. 3. Inertial forces in spherical coordinate system

Figure 2 illustrates the basic shake-motion components, including: surge, heavy,

sway, pitch, roll, yaw. Once the boundary element method is utilized to analyze

system’s vibrations, the structural system is considered as an absolutely rigid body

and discrete in point mass systems with geometric and mechanical features connected

rigidly with conventional coordinate system locating at the center of the system

(Figure 3), the shake-motion equation of the jack up rig subjected to the wave and the

current loads is written as follows:

(𝑀 + 𝐴)𝑈̈ + 𝐶𝑈̇ + 𝐾𝑈 = 𝐹(𝑡) (1)

Where:

𝑀: Mass matrix in global coordinate system [1,2,9];

𝐴: Added mass matrix with the components 𝐴𝑖𝑗 are determined from radiation

wave potential function Φ𝑅 and 𝑛𝑖 are the normal vector of 𝑑𝑆 body on the mean

wetted body surface 𝐵 [1,2,9] :

𝐴𝑖𝑗 = 𝑅𝑒{𝜌𝑤 ∬𝐵 Φ𝑗𝑅 𝑛𝑖 𝑑𝑆 } (2)

𝐶: Damping matrix with the components 𝐶𝑖𝑗 are determined from radiation

wave potential Φ𝑅 while ignoring viscous damping between structure and

environment [1,2,9]:

𝐶𝑖𝑗 = 𝐼𝑚{𝜔𝜌𝑤 ∬𝐵 Φ𝑗𝑅 𝑛𝑖 𝑑𝑆 } (3)

Where: 𝜔 is the wave frequency taking into account of current influence through

Doppler effect, it depends on curent velocity and the angle between the current and

the propagation direction of the incoming wave and the effect of the structural

velocity in transit case [1,2]; 𝜌𝑤 is sea water density.

3

Herein, the composition of inertial force caused by the added mass and the

damping force are two components of the radiation wave force.

𝐾 is the stiffness matrix of the system, it is established by the restorative forces

or hydrostatic forces acting on the wet surface 𝑆 when the jack up rig oscillates. These

restorative forces tend to bring it back to its original equilibrium[1,2,9];

𝑈, 𝑈̇, 𝑈̈ are the components of displacement,velocity and acceleration vectors of

the system, respectively;

𝐹(𝑡) is the wave load vector acting on the hull structure, due to the large

dimension effect, including the load components caused by the incoming wave and

the diffraction wave, determined by the incoming and the diffraction wave potential

function Φ𝑅 , respectively. Ignoring the effect of high-order hydrodynamic

components, the jth components (j =1÷6) of the first-order wave force vector can be

expressed by the formula (4), with Φ𝐼 and Φ𝐷 are the incoming and the diffraction

wave potential function [1,2,9] :

𝐹𝑗 (𝑡) = 𝜌𝑤 𝑖𝜔 ∬𝐵(Φ𝐼 + Φ𝐷 )𝑒 −𝑖𝜔𝑡 𝑛𝑗 𝑑𝑆 (4)

Velocity potential functions are determined approximately in the form of series

according to the order when solving 3 dimensional Laplace equation in the interactive

area of the floating structure surface and water environment when considering

boundary conditions established through assumptions such as viscidity is equal to 0,

untwisted movement, impermeability bottom of the sea, equilibrium of pressure in

free surface, conversation of momentum and the condition of infinitively far away.

This article does not concentrate in analysis methods of determination and the order

of potential fuction which are very complicated issue, still being researched,

developed in the world and only stopping at the application of the first-order potential

fuction’s which are suitable with SACS 5.3 in calculation [2].

In case of the incoming wave is considered to be a stationary random process

characterized by the spectral density function 𝑆𝜂𝜂 (𝜔), the response spectral density

function 𝑆𝑢𝑢 (𝜔)is determined by 𝑆𝜂𝜂 (𝜔) in the following relation [1,2]:

𝑆𝑢𝑢 (𝜔) = 𝑅𝐴𝑂𝑢 2 . 𝑆𝜂𝜂 (𝜔) (5)

with 𝑅𝐴𝑂𝑢 is transfer function of the structural responseu(t) under the effect of the

unit wave(a=1m).

Generally, the maximum response value of the system (at the center) is determined

by the formula [2]:

𝜏

𝑢𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √2𝑀0𝑢 𝑙𝑛 (6)

𝑇𝑧

𝜏 is the time interval that depends on the probability of occurrence of the response;

𝑇𝑧 is the mean zero up-crossing period of the response.

For the shaking motion, the DnV standard [6] regulates: limit of yaw acceleration

is 0.55g and natural period of pitch should be less than 7 sec.

4

up platform structures

The shaking motion of the system’s center causes inertial forces acting at the ith

mass setting point (𝑚𝑖 ) on the leg structures according to the following equation

(Figure 3):

The inertial force along axis x [1,2]:

𝐹𝑖𝑎𝑥 = −𝑚𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑥 with 𝑎𝑖𝑥 = 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 (7)

The tangential and centrifugal inertia forces are [1,2]:

𝐹𝑖𝜃𝑥 = −𝑚𝑖 (𝑟𝑖 𝜃𝑖𝑥̈ ) (8)

𝐹𝑖𝜔 = −𝑚𝑖 (𝑟𝑖 𝜔2 ) (9)

The inertial force along axis x, due to translational and rotational accelerations [1,

2]:

𝐹𝑖𝑥 = −𝑚𝑖 (𝑎𝑖𝑥 + 𝑟𝑖 𝜃𝑖𝑥̈ 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛼 + 𝑟𝑖 𝜔2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛼) (10)

Where: a is the shaking acceleration of system center; θix is the angle of inclination

due to the shaking motion of the ith mass around axis x (rad); 𝑟𝑖 is the distance from

the ith mass to the center of system,𝛼, 𝛽are the angles in Figure 3. The inertial force

along axis y is performed similarly.

jack-up rig leg structure in transit condition

In transit condition the load acting on the jack-up rig legs divides into two basic

types. Static and quasi-static loads including: self-weight, technological loads and

wind loads. The shaking motion induced inertial force components caused by the

effect of waves and currents are presented in section 2 and 3.

The wind load F acting on a member of the leg structure can be calculated

according to the API standard with the general formula as follows [4]:

𝐹 = (𝜌𝑎 /2)𝑢2 𝐶𝑠 𝐴 (11)

Where: 𝜌𝑎 is the density of air; 𝐶𝑠 is the shape coefficient (with cylindrical

shapes 𝐶𝑠 = 0.5); 𝐴 is the cross sectional area; 𝑢 is the wind speed.

According to the current standards such as [3,6] the load combinations for

analyzing of floating structurein transit condition are considered in three main impact

states as follows (these combinations are considered corresponding to the direction of

the different motions):

- Head Sea: including roll, heavy, surge, wind and current respectively;

- Beam Sea: including pitch, yaw, sway, wind and current respectively;

- Quartering Sea: including 50% roll, 50% pitch and yaw, wind and current

respectively.

5

condition

- For compressive bending member shall be checked by the following

equation [4,9] :

𝐶𝑚 √𝑓𝑏𝑥 2 +𝑓𝑏𝑦 2

𝑓𝑎

+ 𝑓𝑎

≤ 1.0 (12)

𝐹𝑎 (1− )𝐹𝑏

𝐹𝑒 ′

- For tensile bending member shall be checked by the following equation [4,9] :

√𝑓𝑏𝑥 2 +𝑓𝑏𝑦 2

𝑓𝑎

+ ≤ 1.0 (13)

0.6𝐹𝑦 𝐹𝑏

Where:𝑓𝑎 is the axial stress of member; 𝐹𝑎 is allowable axial stress [4,9];𝐶𝑚 is the

reduced stress coefficient due to the changing moment [4,9];𝑓𝑏𝑥 ,𝑓𝑏𝑦 are bending stress

along axis x and y; 𝐹𝑒 ′ is Euler stress [4,9]; 𝐹𝑏 is the allowable bending stress of

member [4,9].

Tubular joint punching stress is checked by the 2 following requirements[4]:

2 2

𝑣𝑝 𝑣𝑝

( ) +( ) ≤ 1.0 (14)

𝑣𝑝𝑎 𝑣𝑝𝑎

𝐼𝑃𝐵 𝑂𝑃𝐵

2 2

𝑣𝑝 2 𝑣𝑝 𝑣𝑝

| | + 𝑎𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛√( ) +( ) ≤ 1.0 (15)

𝑣𝑝𝑎 𝜋 𝑣𝑝𝑎 𝑣𝑝𝑎

𝐴𝑋 𝐼𝑃𝐵 𝑂𝑃𝐵

Where: 𝑣𝑝 , 𝑣𝑝𝑎 are punching stress and allowable punchingstress in the chord,

respectively [4], AX, IPB, OPB are theaxial, in-plane bending, and out-of-plane

bending stress in the chord, respectively.

the strength of the legs of jack up platform in transit

condition

The impact of the marine environmental factors on the Jack-up rig is assumed to

cause two types of independent responses:

- The response of an absolutely rigid body under the shake-motion form with six

degrees of freedom.

- The response of the elastic body in the form of stress and deformation of the

structure.

At the stage of the strength check and calculation of the jack-up rig leg structure in

transit condition, the asumption of connections between the legs and the hull is pim-

connected supports.

The general algorithm schema is described in Figure 4.

6

Fig. 4. The algorithm schema for strength check of jack-up rig leg structure in

transit condition

condition

The scale of 400ft jack-up rig structure: maximum length of Hull is 70.4 m;

maximum width of Hull is 76 m; Height of Hull is 9.45 m; Number of Leg is three

leg.

In calculating the environmental loads, it is usually calculated with 8 wave, wind

and current directions, however, in the scope of the article only calculated in NE

direction with the following environment data: Wind speed: 36 m/s; Significant wave

height Hs: 3m; Wave period Ts: 6s; Surface current velocity Vs-total: 0.57 m/s;

Current velocity at 20m depth V20-total: 0.5 m/s; Mean current velocity Vm-total:

0.48 m/s; Bottom current velocity Vb-total: 0.43m/s.

7

7.2 Modelling the jack up rig in transit condition by finite element method

The 400ft jack up rig structures are modeled by the finite element method as Figure

5, Figure 6. Structural modeling, connection modeling, special structural modeling

including: the chord and the rack are worked simultaneously and the boundary

conditions to calculate the jack-up rig structure in transit condition is implemented in

accordance to the DnV [5] and API [4].

jack-up rig on the move

Fig. 5. Equivalent hull model and Schematic diagram of jack-up rig

a) A part of leg model equivalent hull and the leg in

according to the DnV standard

jack-up rig on the move

Fig. 6. Model of the legs, connection between the legs and the hull and Overall

diagram of jack up rig in transit condition by the finite element method.

8

Load Combination: The inertial force due to the shaking motion of the system

acting on the jack-up rig legs in transit condition is combined with other loads (self-

weight, technology, wind load, etc.) to calculate and check the strength of the jack-up

rig legs in transit condition. Case loads and load combinations are performed by

Noble Denton [3] and DnV [6].

7.3 Results of strength check and check of the 400ft jack up rig legs in transit

condition

Analyzing the shaking motion of the 400ft jack up rig in the South Vietnam Sea

was conducted by using specialized software program (SACS)[2]. Some representative

results are shown in Figure 7.

The biggest peak: 28.1 m/m, Period: T = 24s The biggest peak: 8.3 m/m, Period: T = 17s

Fig. 7. RAO transfer function of the Surge and Sway motion of the 400ft Jack up

rig in transit condition

The acceleration of the system is determined by solving the motion equations(1).

The product of the acceleration and mass gives us the inertial force. The results of the

inertial force on the structural system of the 400ft Jack up rig in transit condition, see

Table 1.

Table 1. The results of the inertial force on the structural system of the 400ft Jack up rig in

transit condition

case Roll Pitch Yaw Surge Sway Heavy Surge Sway Heavy Roll Pitch Yaw

The inertial loads in Table 1 are the input data to calculate and check the leg of the

400 ft jack up rig in transit conditon. Using SACS 5.3 software to solve the internal

9

forces and stresses, which are combined with checking conditions in formulas (12),

(13), (14), (15) to get the results of strength check of the 400ft jack-up rig legs in

transit condition. Detailed are shown in Figure 8.

L01 section: 0.06

Fig. 8. Unity Check results of the 400ft Jack up platform in transit condition

When checking the frame elements according to the API standard, the UCmax

value = 0.71 (on the chord element) <1 indicates that all elements of the leg are

satisfied the strength conditions. The UC values are largest in the element which is

located in the connection between the legs and the hull, and they are most dangerous.

Strength check of the joints: The joints has the largest UC value = 0.504 <1, thus,

they are satisfied the strength conditions.

8 Conclusion

This article gives a general algorithm to analyze and check the strength of jack up

rig legs in transit condition.

The responses between large-sized floating objects with complex shapes and waves

and currents are determined by the boundary element method, which are the basis for

determining the inertial forces acting on the legs of the jack up rig when modeling

independently the leg structure in the strength check.

The results of this article are only preliminary. In the coming time, the research

team of the Institute of Civil Engineering Construction, National University of Civil

10

platfrom in other condtions.

References

1. ANSYS/AQWA (2013), ANSYS/AQWA Theory Manual (2013); AQWA User Manual

(2012).

2. SACS ,Structure Analysis Computer System) User Manual (2015).

3. Noble Denton Interational LTD, Guide lines for Loadout/General guidelines for marine

transportation, Noble Denton (2009).

4. American Petroleum Institue (API)-RP-2A-WSD, 21th Edition, Recommended Practice

for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms-Working stress

Design (2010).

5. DNV-OS-H101, Offshore standard, Marine operation general (2005).

6. DNV-RP-H103, Modelling and analysis of Marine operations , ALE (2010).

7. American Bureau of Shipping, Rule for Building and Class - Mobile offshore drilling unit

(2008).

8. American Bureau of Shipping, Rule for Classification of Marine Vessels and Structure

(2008).

9. American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC), 9th

edition (2005).

10. Young Bo-Kim, Dynamic Analysis of Multiple-Body Floating Platforms Couple with

Mooring lines and risers. Doctor Philosophy, Texas A&M University (2003).

11. Matiur Rahman, Three Dimension Green’s Function for Ship Motion at Forward Speed

(1988).

12. Gunther F. Clauss, Katja Stutz, Time Domain Analysis of Floating Bodies with Forward

Speed, Proceedings of OMAE’01, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2001).

13. Mark Jason Cassidy, Non-Linear Analysis of Jack-Up Structures Subjected to Random

Waves, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oxford (1999).

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