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Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection Shaft Current Protection


Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
Tin Rabuzin
and MU Research Engineer, SmarTS Lab, KTH
Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

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1 Introduction
Introduction

Measurement 2 Measurement Devices


Devices

Protection
Relay 3 Protection Relay
Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2 4 Protection Systems


and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation 5 IEC61850-9-2 and MU
Conclusions

6 Hallstahammar Installation

7 Conclusions

2/45
Introduction

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems
• Shaft overcurrent protection is an important generator
IEC61850-9-2 protection issue
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation • Currents flowing in the shaft damage bearings
Conclusions

• Results in reduced operating time and financial losses

3/45
Introduction

Introduction

Measurement
Devices
Shaft Voltage
Protection ”... in a perfectly constructed alternator both practice and
Relay
theory tell us that no such vagabond current exists so that the
Protection
Systems cause must be looked for in constructive inequalities.”
IEC61850-9-2 Buchannan, 1915
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions
• Main cause of shaft currents are magnetic asymmetries in
the stator core
• Magnetic asymmetry arises due to normal manufacturing
processes

4/45
Introduction

Introduction

Measurement Shaft Voltage


Devices

Protection Ratio is reduced to lowest


Relay
terms:
Protection
Systems
A 4×S
IEC61850-9-2 = (1)
and MU B P
Hallstahammar
Installation If A is odd number:
Conclusions

fshaft = A × fline (2)

If A is even number, no shaft


current exists.

5/45
Introduction
Hydro generators
Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

6/45
Problem and Literature Review

Introduction

Measurement
Turbo generators
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

7/45
Introduction

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay
• Suitable sensor had to be used which satisfies mechanical
Protection
and electrical requirements
Systems
• Possible influence of stray flux from the generator
IEC61850-9-2
and MU
• Installation requirements - space constraints
• Low currents flowing in a large conductor (shaft)
Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions • Numerical relay had to be used (REG670 Version 2.0)


• Low output from measurement device had to be adapted

8/45
Introduction

Introduction
Current Transformer
Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

• Made out of 2 or 4 parts depending on the size of the shaft


• Shaft is single primary winding
• Many secondary turns
• Low secondary voltage and current
9/45
Introduction

Introduction Rogowski coil


Measurement
Devices
• Ampere’s law
Protection
Relay
−−→ → −
I
1
Protection i(t) = B(t) · ds (3)
Systems µ0
IEC61850-9-2
and MU
• Induced voltage
Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions u(t) = N (4)
dt
• Current and voltage
relation
A ~˙
u(t) = N · µ0 · i(t) (5)
s
10/45
Introduction

Introduction

Measurement
Rogowski coil
Devices

Protection
Relay
Advantages Drawbacks
Protection
Systems No iron core - linear, no saturation
Necessity of integration circuit
IEC61850-9-2 and magnetizing current
and MU Low production cost Low voltage output
Hallstahammar Mechanical fexibility, small size Low frequency noise
Installation
and weight from integrator circuit
Conclusions
Electrically safe when open Sensitivity to conductor position
Wide bandwidth Limited rejection of external fields
Non-disturbing for primary circuit Inability to measure DC currents
Can endure large overload without
damage

11/45
Measurement Devices

Introduction

Measurement
Devices
• Three measurement devices
Protection
Relay • Rogowski coil
Protection • CT - ILDD 096
Systems • CT - Zelisko GWR3
IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar • Focus is put on Rogowski coil


Installation

Conclusions
• ILDD 096 is used to demonstrate reduced magnetic
performance

• Zelisko GWR3 is considered as a part of retrofit


installation

12/45
Measurement Devices

Introduction
Rogowski coil
Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

Sensitivity 200 mV/A Accuracy ±0.3 %


Bandwidth 4 Hz to 40 kHz Linearity ±0.05 %

13/45
Measurement Devices

Introduction
Zelisko GWR3
Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

Name Zelisko GWR3 Primary Winding 1 turn


Inner Diameter DI = 990 mm Secondary Winding 600 turns
Outer Diameter DO = 1100 mm Test Winding 2 turns

14/45
Measurement Devices

Introduction ILDD 096


Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

Name ILDD 096 Primary winding 1 turn


Inner Diameter 990 mm Secondary winding 500 turns
Outer Diameter 1030 mm Test winding 4 turns

15/45
Test Measurements
Linearity of Measurement Devices
300 200 70
Rogowski coil
Zelisko GWR3
Introduction Zelisko GWR3
ILDD 096 180 Rogowski coil
Zelisko GWR3 60
ILDD 096
Rogowski coil
250
ILDD 096
160

Measurement
Secondary Voltage (mV)

50

Secondary Voltage (mV)

Phase Difference (deg.)


200 140

Devices 120 40

150
100 30
Protection 100 80
20
Relay 60

50 10
40

Protection 20 0
0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 200 400 600 800 1000
Systems 0 0.5
Primary Current (A)
1 1.5 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

IEC61850-9-2 (a) Linearity (b) Frequency Response


and MU

Hallstahammar Step Response

Installation 200 Zelisko GWR3


Rogowski coil
180 ILDD 096
Conclusions
160

140
Voltage (mV)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
−0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Time (s)

(c) Step Response


16/45
Waveform Recordings
Rogowski coil Zelisko GWR3
300 1.5 150 1.5
Introduction
200 1 100 1
Measurement
Devices

Secondary Voltage (mV)

Secondary Voltage (mV)


Primary Current (A)

Primary Current (A)


100 0.5 50 0.5

Protection
Relay 0 0 0 0

Protection −100 −0.5 −50 −0.5


Systems
−200 −1 −100 −1
VRogowski VZelisko
IEC61850-9-2
Iinj Iinj
and MU −300 −1.5 −150 −1.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (ms) Time (ms)
Hallstahammar
Installation
ILDD 096
1.5 1.5
Conclusions VILDD
Iinj
1 1
Secondary Voltage (mV)

0.5 0.5

Primary Current (A)


0 0

−0.5 −0.5

−1 −1

−1.5 −1.5
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time (ms)
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Protection Relay - REG670 2.0
1 2 3 4
Introduction
Application Configuration - Analogue Inputs
Measurement
Devices SECONDARY VOLTAGE INPUT
A
Protection
Relay
ROG_SMAI_3P

SMAI1
Protection SMAIHPAC
BLOCK SPFCOUT
Systems ROG_V DFTSPFC G1AI3P G3P AI3P ROG_HPAC_3P
REVROT G1AI1 ROG_SMAI_U1 BLOCK AI1 ROG_HPAC_U1
GRP1L1 G1AI2 AI2
GRP1L2 G1AI3 AI3
IEC61850-9-2 TRM_40.CH11(U) GRP1L3 G1AI4 AI4
GRP1N G1N O:2|T:8|I:1
and MU O:1|T:8|I:13

Hallstahammar ILDD_V_SMAI_3P
Installation B SMAI2 SMAIHPAC
ILDD_V BLOCK G2AI3P G3P AI3P ILDD_HPAC_3P
REVROT G2AI1 BLOCK AI1 ILDD_HPAC_V
Conclusions GRP2L1 G2AI2 ILDD_V_SMAI AI2
TRM_40.CH12(U)
GRP2L2
GRP2L3
GRP2N
Connection type G2AI3
G2AI4
G2N
Ph-N AI3
AI4
O:3|T:8|I:2

SetFrequency
O:1|T:8|I:14
50/150 Hz
FreqBandWidth 0.0 Hz
FilterLength 1.0 s
C
OverLap 20 %

18/45
Protection Relay - REG670 2.0

Introduction
1 2 3 4

Measurement Application Configuration - Protection Function


Devices

Protection SHAFT CURRENT PROTECTION


Relay A Rogowski coil protection
Protection CVGAPC
Systems GRP_OFF I3P TRIP
ROG_HPAC_3P U3P TROC1 GRP_OFF
BLOCK TROC2 ILDD_HPAC_3P
BLKOC1 TRUC1
IEC61850-9-2 BLKOC1TR TRUC2
and MU ENMLTOC1 TROV1 ROG_TOV1
BLKOC2 TROV2 ROG_TOV2
BLKOC2TR TRUV1
ENMLTOC2 TRUV2
Hallstahammar BLKUC1 START
BLKUC1TR STOC1
Installation BLKUC2 STOC2
BLKUC2TR STUC1
BLKOV1 STUC2
Conclusions BLKOV1TR
BLKOV2
STOV1
STOV2
B BLKOV2TR STUV1
BLKUV1 STUV2
BLKUV1TR BLK2ND
BLKUV2 DIROC1
BLKUV2TR DIROC2
UDIRLOW
CURRENT
ICOSFI
VOLTAGE VOLT_HPAC_ROG
UIANGLE
O:2094|T:8|I:1

19/45
Protection Relay - REG670 2.0
Linearity and Accuracy of the relay
Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Quantity Rated Value Nominal Range
Relay
Current Ir = 1 or 5A
Protection (0.2 − 40) × Ir
Systems Operative Range (0 − 100) × Ir
IEC61850-9-2 AC Voltage Ur = 110 V
and MU (0.5 − 288) V
Operative Range (0 − 340) V
Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions • Voltage and current outputs of measurement devices are


below nominal range of the relay

Device Voltage at Iprim = 1A Current at Iprim = 1A


Rogowski coil 200 mV X
Zelisko GWR3 104 mV ≈ 1.5 mA
ILDD 096 90 mV ≈ 1 mA
20/45
Protection Relay - REG670 2.0

Introduction

Measurement
Linearity and Accuracy of the relay
Devices

Protection 35 400
Relay SMAI Output SMAI Output
SMAIHPAC Output SMAIHPAC Output
Protection 30 350
Systems
300
25
IEC61850-9-2
Noise Voltage (mV)

Noise Current ( µA)


and MU 250
20
Hallstahammar 200
Installation
15
Conclusions 150

10
100

5 50

0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (s) Time (s)

21/45
Protection Relay - REG670 2.0

Introduction

Measurement
Linearity and Accuracy of the relay
Devices
Linearity of measurements Accuracy of measurements
Protection 5 15
Relay
4.5
Protection 10
Systems 4

3.5
Measured Voltage (V)

IEC61850-9-2 5

Voltage Error (mV)


and MU
3
Hallstahammar 2.5 0
Installation
2
Conclusions −5
1.5

1 50 Hz 50 Hz
−10
60 Hz 60 Hz
0.5 150 Hz 150 Hz
180 Hz 180 Hz
0 −15
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Input Voltage (V) Input Voltage (V)

22/45
Protection Systems

Introduction

Measurement Amplifier Settings


Devices

Protection • Possibility of voltage or current input/output


Relay

Protection
• Every combination was chosen
• 2 voltage/voltage gains due to setting procedure
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU • Systems were also tested without an amplifier
Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions
Setting 1 Setting 2 Setting 3 Setting 4
Input Range 0...250 mV 0...1 V 0...5 mA 0...5 mA
Output Range 0...10V 0...10 V 0...10 V 0...20 mA
Gain 40 10 2 V/mA 4

23/45
Protection System A

Introduction

Measurement
Devices Integrator
Box KNICK TRM of REG670
Protection
Relay

Protection
∫ 2
4
5
6
CH1

Systems 7 8
CH11
IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation
DC/DC
Conclusions
Converter

48 V

24/45
Protection System B

Introduction

Measurement
Devices
KNICK TRM of REG670
Protection S1
Relay 82 Ω 2 5
S2 CH1
4 6
Protection 7 8
Systems
CH11
IEC61850-9-2 ILDD/GWR3
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation
DC/DC
Conclusions Converter

48 V

25/45
Protection Systems

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

26/45
Protection Systems

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

27/45
Protection Systems

Introduction

Measurement
Ramping Tests
Devices
Ramping time step, ∆ t = 200 ms Ramping time step, ∆ t = 3 s
Protection 1.4 1.4
Relay ILDD 096 ILDD 096
Zelisko GWR3 Zelisko GWR3
Protection 1.2 Rogowski coil 1.2 Rogowski coil
Systems
1 1
Primary trip current (A)

Primary trip current (A)


IEC61850-9-2
and MU
0.8 0.8
Hallstahammar
Installation
0.6 0.6
Conclusions
0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0 0
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
Setting number Setting number

28/45
Protection Systems
Filtering Tests
Introduction
Waveform of a primary current
Measurement 6
Devices
4
Protection
Primary Current (A)

Relay
2
Protection
Systems 0

IEC61850-9-2 −2
and MU
−4
Hallstahammar 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Installation Time (ms)

Conclusions

Device Set 0 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 4 Iprim


Rogowski coil 965 mA 1000 mA 970 mA X X
Zelisko GWR3 960 mA 914 mA 959 mA 980 mA 960 mA 1A
ILDD 096 925 mA 972 mA 950 mA 1081 mA 1100 mA
Rogowski coil 500 mA 500 mA 500 mA X X
Zelisko GWR3 490 mA 458 mA 502 mA 505 mA 533 mA 0.5 A
ILDD 096 620 mA 606 mA 563 mA 684 mA 725 mA
29/45
Protection Systems

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Summary
Relay

Protection • More stable and accurate measurements with voltage than


Systems
current signals
IEC61850-9-2
and MU • Higher voltage results in more accurate measurements
Hallstahammar
Installation • No amplifier is needed at currently set alarm and trip
Conclusions values
• Zelisko GWR3 and Rogowski coil can be used with
REG670 2.0

30/45
IEC61850-9-2 and MU

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay
Advantages
• No input transformers on the SAM600 results in higher
Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2 accuracy at low voltage levels


and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation • Reduced wiring and EMI on the low level signal
Conclusions

• No need for dedicated voltage input channel on the TRM

31/45
SECONDARY VOLTAGE INPUT
A IEC61850-9-2 and MU
SMAI1_SHAFT_3P

Introduction OMICRON set-up for IEC61850-9-2 test


BLOCK
SMAI1
SPFCOUT
SMAIHPAC
SHAFT_VT DFTSPFC G1AI3P G3P AI3P SMAIHPAC_SHAFT
REVROT G1AI1 SMAI1_SHAFT_UL1 BLOCK AI1 SMAIHPAC_SHAFT
Measurement GRP1L1 G1AI2 AI2
GRP1L2 G1AI3 AI3
Devices TRM_40.CH11(U) GRP1L3 G1AI4 AI4
GRP1N G1N O:2|T:8|I:1
O:1|T:8|I:13
Protection
Relay

ProtectionB
CURRENT INPUT
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
SMAI2_SHAFT_3P
and MU
SMAI2 SMAIHPAC
Hallstahammar BLOCK G2AI3P G3P AI3P
SHAFT_CURRENT SMAIHPAC2_SHAFT_
Installation REVROT G2AI1 SMAI2_SHAFT_IL1 BLOCK AI1 SMAIHPAC2_SHAFT_
GRP2L1 G2AI2 AI2
GRP2L2 G2AI3 AI3
TRM_40.CH1(I) GRP2L3 G2AI4 AI4
Conclusions GRP2N G2N O:3|T:8|I:2
O:1|T:8|I:14

SMAI4 MU_SHAFT_SMAI_3P SMAIHPAC


BLOCK G4AI3P G3P AI3P MU_SHAFT_3P
REVROT G4AI1 MU_SHAFT_SMAI BLOCK AI1 MU_SHAFT_HPAC
GRP4L1 G4AI2 AI2
GRP4L2 G4AI3 AI3
MU1_921.I1 GRP4L3 G4AI4 AI4
GRP4N G4N O:4|T:8|I:3
O:1|T:8|I:16

32/45
IEC61850-9-2 and MU
SAM600
Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

33/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction
Intentional
Measurement
A Shaft Gorunding
Devices

Protection Bearing
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
Rotor
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions Coaxial cable


Rogowski coil
Injection wire

ILDD 052 Secondary of ILDD

RARIC

Turbine

34/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction

Measurement Secondary of ILDD


Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU
Coaxial cable
Hallstahammar
from Rogowski
Installation

Conclusions

Merging
Unit

35/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

36/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

37/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction

Measurement
Stray flux
Devices
Noise waveforms Amplitude Spectrum of Primary Current
Protection 40 18
Relay ILDD 052 ILDD 052
Rogowski coil Rogowski coil
30 16
Protection
Systems 14
20
Secondary Voltage (mV)

IEC61850-9-2 12
and MU 10

|V(f)| (mV)
10
Hallstahammar 0
Installation 8

Conclusions −10
6
−20
4

−30 2

−40 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200
Time (ms) Frequency (Hz)

38/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction

Measurement
Shaft Current
Devices
Primary Current Waveform Amplitude Spectrum of Primary Current
Protection 4 1.6
Relay
3 1.4
Protection
Systems 2
1.2
IEC61850-9-2
Primary Current (A)

1
and MU 1

|I(f)| (A)
0
Hallstahammar 0.8
Installation −1
0.6
Conclusions −2
0.4
−3

−4 0.2

−5 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 200 400 600 800
Time (ms) Frequency (Hz)

39/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Introduction Trip and alarm level settings of REG670


Measurement
Devices • Four parts of the installation
Protection • Rogowski coil + MU + REG670 2.0
Relay
• Rogowski coil + (Amplifier) + REG670 2.0
Protection
Systems • ILDD 096 + (Amplifier) + REG670 2.0
IEC61850-9-2 • ILDD 096 + RARIC
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation System Trip Value Alarm Value
Conclusions Rogowski (No Amp) 200 mV 100 mV
Rogowski (With Amp) 8V 4V
Rogowski (MU) 200 mV 100 mV
ILDD 096 (No Amp) 125 mV 62
ILDD 096 (With Amp) 5,2 V 2,6 V
ILDD 096 + RARIC 164 mV X

40/45
Hallstahammar Installation
Shaft Current
Introduction
Secondary Voltage Waveforms
Measurement
Devices 500

V (mV)
0
Protection
Relay −500 Rogowski
ILDD 052
Protection 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (s)
Systems
Filtered Secondary Voltage
400
IEC61850-9-2
300
and MU
V (mV)

200
Hallstahammar
100
Installation Rogowski
ILDD 052
0
Conclusions 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (s)
ILDD 052 Trip Signal
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Rogowski Trip Signal
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
RARIC Trip Signal
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10

41/45
Hallstahammar Installation
Waveforms
Introduction

Measurement Voltage waveform form Rogowski with an amplifier


Voltage waveform form MU + Rogowski
Devices
10
200
Protection
V (mV)

Relay 0 5

V (mV)
Protection −200 0
Systems 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (ms) −5
IEC61850-9-2 Voltage waveform form Rogowski without an amplifier
and MU −10
200 0 20 40 60 80 100
V (mV)

Hallstahammar Time (ms)


Installation 0
Voltage waveform form ILDD 096 with an amplifier
−200 10
Conclusions
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (ms) 5
Voltage waveform form ILDD 096 without an amplifier

V (mV)
200 0
V (mV)

0
−5
−200
0 20 40 60 80 100 −10
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (ms) Time (ms)

42/45
Conclusions

Introduction
• Rogowski coil is a suitable choice for measurement of shaft
Measurement
Devices currents due to its mechanical and electrical properties
Protection • Lightweight, flexible, easy to mount
Relay
• Linear, no saturation, frequency independent, rejection of
Protection
Systems stray flux
IEC61850-9-2
and MU
• It can be used in pair with protection relay REG670 2.0
Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions
• Existing installations with ILDD or new installations with
Zelisko GWR3 can be used with REG670 2.0

• If trip and alarm levels will be kept as they are, no


amplifier is needed

43/45
Conclusions

Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay
• Merging Unit has no input current transformers which
Protection results in a good performance even with low level signals
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU • No amplifier has to be used even if trip and alarm levels
Hallstahammar are reduced
Installation

Conclusions
• Since fiber optics are used, EMI on low level signals is
eliminated

44/45
Introduction

Measurement
Devices

Protection
Relay

Questions?
Protection
Systems

IEC61850-9-2
and MU

Hallstahammar
Installation

Conclusions

45/45
Protection Systems
Linearity - Systems A and B with Zelisko GWR3
Linearity with Settings 1 and 2 Linearity without amplifier
10 300
Setting 1 Without Amplifier
9 Setting 2
250
8

Secondary Voltage (mV)


Secondary Voltage (V)
7
200
6

5 150

4
100
3

2
50
1

0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Primary Current (A) Primary Current (A)

Linearity with Settings 1, 2 and 3 Linearity with Setting 3 and without amp.
7 200 8
Setting 1 Without Amplifier
Setting 2 180 Setting 4 7
6 Setting 3
160
6

Secondary Voltage (mV)

Secondary Current (mA)


5
Secondary Voltage (V)

140
5
120
4
100 4

3
80
3

2 60
2
40
1 1
20

0 0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Primary Current (A) Primary Current (A)
46/45
Protection Systems

Linearity - System B with ILDD 096


Linearity with Settings 1,2 and 3 Linearity with Setting 3 and without amp.
6 8
Setting 1 140 Without Amplifier
Setting 2 Setting 4
7
5 Setting 3
120
6

Secondary Voltage (mV)

Secondary Current (mA)


Secondary Voltage (V)

4 100
5

80
3 4

60
3
2
40 2
1
20 1

0 0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
Primary Current (A) Primary Current (A)

47/45
Hallstahammar Installation

Linearity Measurements
Systems without an amplifier Systems with an amplifier
250 10
Rogowski No Amp Rogowski With Amp
MU + Rogowski 9 ILDD 052 With Amp
ILDD 052 No Amp
200 8
Secondary Voltage (V)

Secondary Voltage (V)


7

150 6

100 4

50 2

0 0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Primary Current (A) Primary Current (mA)

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