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A model of material particles and photons in an elastic continuum of infinite extension.

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SPATIAL CONTINUUM.

THE SCHRÖDINGER WAVE EQUATION.

To Elizabeth

model of light, matter, and the basic forces of nature outlined in my booklet

”The Great Puzzle”. It is a followup of another paper, ”Standing waves be-

tween singularities in an elastic continuum of infinite extension”, where I shall

propose how the presented ideas in that paper can be sewn together to form a

model of photons and material particles. As a precondition there has got to be

an enormous concentration of potential and kinetic energy released in a very

limited area of the spatial continuum, where initially various constellations of

disturbances can occur. Finally I will show how the outlined model can be

brought into accordance with The Schrödinger wave equation.

singularities in the form of oscillating nodes, which oscillate between compression

and inflation along an infinitely long chain of nodes [3]. Compression and inflation

are located to the area around each node, but for convenience I will speak of the

spatial mass as if it was going into or out of the nodes themselves. Normally the

spatial mass that is ejected from one node goes as a compression into its adjacent

nodes such that the net displacement is zero, but there may be a single node in

the chain that is inflated to a higher degree than what is taken up by the other

nodes in the chain. A node of this kind is – also for convenience – said to be a

bubble. The bubble is of course not stable, but will immediately be filled up with

an inward stream of spatial mass from say the next node in the chain. In this way

the bubble is moving in a stepwise manner from node to node along the chain.

When the domain around the node representing the bubble is exactly filled up, the

inward stream of spatial mass has its maximum speed and will continue for a while

until compression stops the movement and reverses the stream. Therefore nodes

that are left behind have got to oscillate with decreasing amplitudes as the bubble

recedes. On the other hand the next node in the chain cannot suddenly be inflated

to the exited level, but has got to start oscillating with increasing amplitude in

good time before the bubble arrives. Hence the arrival of the exited node has got

to be preceded by a pilot chain of nodes that oscillate with increasing strength as

the inflated node approaches. The entire chain of nodes may extend far out in

Date: 15-09-10.

1

2 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

both directions. This picture conforms well with the findings in the cited paper [3]

where I found that oscillating nodes only are possible in an infinitely long chain

of oscillating nodes. Here the assumption has got to be modified to incorporate

very long, steadily increasing strings of nodes (which I will dub the preamble) that

culminate in a strongly inflated node (dubbed the bubble) whereupon the trailing

nodes (which I will dub the postamble) gradually decrease towards zero. In this

picture all matter has got to be viewed as composed of long, almost infinitely long

strings of oscillating nodes with a strongly excited node at its core.

A delta function of the type sin(ωt)/t seems to cover this situation well for the

oscillation of each node along the chain of nodes when t varies between − ∞ and

+ ∞. This is a calculated guess and I cannot prove it, but I will try to see what

implications it will have. The limit of the function as t approaches zero is given by

sin(ωt)

lim = ω,

t→0 t

where ω is the angular velocity of the oscillation. (See the leftmost blue graph in

Figure 1.) Let us give each node along the chain (represented by a black dot in the

graph) an integer number n such that the next node in the chain has the number

n + 1, and let the displacement from the domain of node #n at the time t be given

by:

sin[ω(t − nπ/ω)]

Dn (n, t) = k

t − nπ/ω

where k is some constant. First we notice that according to the above assumption,

when rotation is disregarded, the displacement from node #0 at the time t = 0 is

given by:

sin(ωt)

D0 (0, 0) = k lim = kω

t→0 t

while the displacements from all the other nodes in the chain are zero, i.e. the

displacement from the entire chain of nodes is kω. Half a period later node #1 is

fully inflated while the displacements from all the other nodes again are zero. In

fact this is the case for all times t = nπ/ω

sin[ω(t − nπ/ω)]

(1.1) Dn (n, nπ/ω) = lim k = kω.

t→nπ/ω t − nπ/ω

In the intermediate phases, the inflation gradually decreases while the new displace-

ment builds up in the next node. In this way the inflated node moves from node to

node with a frequency like 2f while all the other nodes along the chain oscillate be-

tween fully inflated state and fully compressed state with the same frequency. The

blue columns in Figure 1 show the the displacement from each node in successive

steps in the course of half a period.

If this shall be a viable model, however, then at least the net displacement has got

to be the same during the intermediate phases, so we write down the sum of the

1 3

Displacement

Flow

eighth of a period. The blue columns represents the displacement

and the red columns the flow from each node in the string.

n

X

D(t) = lim Dm (t)

n→∞

m=−n

n

X sin(ωt − mπ)

= lim kω , ωt − πm 6= 0.

n→∞

m=−n

ωt − mπ

Hence

n

X (−1)m

(1.2) D(t) = kω sin(ωt) lim .

n→∞

m=−n

ωt − mπ

n

X (−1)m z

csc(z) == lim /; ∈

/ Z,

n→∞

m=−n

z − πm π

1

(1.3) D(t) = kω sin(ωt) = kω.

sin(ωt)

We can conclude that the displacement from the whole chain of oscillating nodes

is the same at any time during an oscillating cycle. A chain of nodes meeting

4 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

these requirements will represent a net displacement, which we could call a bubble,

moving with some speed v through space.

Since the nodes can be organized along the x-axis of a coordinate system at a

distance of λ/2 from each other, then the displacement from each node along the

x-axis can be represented by applying the Dirac’s delta function1

Z ∞

sin[2π(x − c̃t)/λ]

D(n, t) = k δ(x − n · λ/2) dx.

−∞ 2π(x − c̃t)/λ

with gravity”[4], I showed that confined wave energy in the spatial continuum will

displace an amount of spatial mass given by the relation

E

D= .

3(λ + 2µ)

If we assume that this is a general principle also the other way around such that to

a given displacement there is a net amount of energy given by

(1.4) E = 3D(λ + 2µ) = 3k(λ + 2µ)ω = ~ω,

where h and ~ is a couple of new constants given by ~ = h/2π = 3k(λ + 2µ). Hence

~ h

(1.5) k= = .

3(λ + 2µ) 6π(λ + 2µ)

The angular velocity ω in Equation (1.4) can be replaced by the frequency ν by the

identity ω = 2πν which yields

(1.6) E =hν,

and

hν 2π~ν

(1.7) D= = .

3(λ + 2µ) 3(λ + 2µ)

This establish the remarkable condition that the energy in any chain of oscillating

nodes is proportional to the frequency alone.

We now turn back to the amplitudes of the oscillation by each node, which by the

way are situated at a distance of half a period from each other. Between maximum

compression and inflation there has got to be a phase of inward and outward flow

of spatial mass to and from the nodes. The rate of change of the displacement from

each node will naturally be a measure of the flow, so by taking the time derivative

of the displacement we will get an expression for the flow, i.e. the flow through

a surface around the node where div u = 0. It turns out that the flow may be

Z ∞

f (x)δ(x − a) = f (a).

−∞

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/DeltaFunction.html).

1 5

ωt ], or for the entire chain of

nodes the flow, F (n, t), from node #n at the time t is given by

hω h sin(ωt − nπ) i

Fn (n, t) = nπ cos(ωt − nπ) − .

t− ω ωt − nπ

We can draw a graph of the displacement from each node along the y-axis (blue

column) and the flow out of each node along the z-axis (red column). Just think of

the nodes as not moving entities and the graph as moving forward along the x-axis

just showing the displacement and flow from each node as a function of time. The

first graph in Figure 1 shows a moment when all the displacement is from just one

of the nodes, while the next tree graphs show the situation 1/8, 2/8, and 3/8 of a

period later, and the last graph shows the displacement when the next node is fully

inflated 4/8 of a period later. We notice that the excitation reaches its maximum

value two times in the course of one cycle of oscillation.

This idealized model can possibly explain some of the properties of material par-

ticles if the path is curled up in some way, and even the photon if the path is a

stretched out line, for instance the quantum and point-like property of the photon,

but it does not say anything about the electromagnetic and spin properties and why

the photon moves with the speed of light. On the contrary; an irrotational stand-

ing wave can be composed of two oppositely moving progressive waves that moves

with about the double of the speed of solenoidal waves. It is therefore necessary to

include some sorts of coupling to solenoidal oscillations into the model.

finite extension” [3], I pointed out the possibility that there might be coupled

oscillations between irrotational and solenoidal oscillations in the same string of

nodes. The coupling has got to take place during the inward stream of spatial

mass towards the singularity when energy is transferred from the radial movement

to a circular movement, and conversely from circulation to an outwards directed

movement when the node is inflated. Hence the rotational component will follow a

similar delta function as the displacement, i.e. sin(ωt)/t, and reach its maximum

when the bubble is inflated. It is important to realize that the coupling can only

take place in the immediate neighborhood of the singularity where the displacement

gradients are so great that the linear theory of elasticity is not applicable and we

have got to resort to the Navier/Stokes equation2. Everywhere else in space out-

side this tiny area the two waveforms move literally independent of each other, and

the displacement components originated from each of the nodes can be superposed

linearly.

2With great deformation gradients the velocity of spatial mass points, v, is different from the

partial derivative of u with respect on time as it is taken to be in the Navier/Cauchy equation.

In fact v = ∂u/∂t + v(∇v) [1, Chapter 4] (i.e. ’The velocity of a mass element in an elastic

continuum is like the partial time derivative of u plus the change of v in the direction of v times

the norm of v’) which is accounted for in the Navier/Stokes equation

6 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

with radius r, then according to classical physics it has an angular momentum, also

called spin, given by L = mrv. The spin axis is normal to the circular plane and

goes through the center of the circle with a direction according to the righthand

rule. The system’s kinetic energy is of course 1/2mv 2 . Accordingly a rotating body

has an intrinsic spin given by L = Iω and a kinetic energy E = 1/2Iω 2 , where I is

the momentum of inertia and ω the angular velocity.

of oscillating nodes, let us think of the chain of nodes as pulsating beads on an

elastic string where each bead rotates in the opposite direction of its two adjacent

beads. Further let the pulsating and rotational energy be of the same magnitude,

which amounts to the same as saying that the rotational energy is half of the total

energy in the entire chain of nodes. At the exact moment when the rotation of the

inflated bead has its maximum value, all the other beads are coming to a complete

standstill. Hence the rotational energy is half of the total energy, i.e. E = 1/2 Iω 2 ,

and the net spin of the system is given by L = Iω. In the above section we found

that the total energy of the system is given by E[tot] = ~ω. By assuming that ω is

the same in both cases we can combine these properties and obtain

1 2

2 Iω = 12 ~ω,

Iω = ~,

L = ~.

This simplified thought experiment indicates that the spin of the system is inde-

pendent of the energy and therefore becomes a natural constant.

In this thought experiment the spin axes were taken to be directed along the string

of nodes, but that need not be the case. A more probable assumption is that the

axes are directed in the right and left direction along the string. Say that that is

the case and that the bubble is moving forwards with the speed of c. Then the

right and left rotation in the preamble may well generate a transversal progressive

wave. The same mechanism will also take place in the postamble, but there is a

problem: The plane polarized wave in the postamble is half a period out of phase

with the corresponding wave in the preamble.

When the spin around the bubble-node itself builds up, however, the buildup of

rotation is delayed by a quarter of a period and it gets increasingly out of phase

with the field in the associated wave. The rotational axes will therefore get a

precession towards the forward or backward direction of the string. The precession

will continue during the build-down phase until the rotation axis has made a 180

degree pirouette while the node enters the postamble section of the string. With this

correction in place, the phase of the waves generated in the preamble and postamble

will be in tune with each other, and the progressive wave that follows the bubble

as it moves along, will - at least near the string - resemble a free transversal wave

moving along with the bubble. A lot of wave-trains with the same frequencies and

polarization directions may well be thought to move in step, and the superposition

1 7

of the fields will approximate a plane polarized wave like a laser beam. This should

be a plausible explanation of the electromagnetic property of the photon model,

but it also indicate why a photon has spin: As the rotation around the bubble

reaches its maximum value, it will point in the forward or backward direction of

the movement vector just as the spin of a real photon.

So let us put this model of a material particle to a test to see how it fits into a

realistic picture of material particles.

along a curled up sting of oscillating nodes all oscillating with the same frequency,

ν = E/h, and with rotational components around axes that all point along the

same spatial direction. The spin in the forward or backward direction does not

contribute to creating the solenoidal wave and can be neglected. The whole system

is advancing with a group velocity v ¿ c. The field around each node is composed

of concentric outwards and inwards progressive waves that interfere with each other

forming standing waves, and the complete pattern is made up of a superposition of

the waves from each node in the wave packet. The pressure fields in longitudinal

waves are pure scalar fields and can readily be added, and so can the displacement

vector components in different solenoidal fields, for instance by the three component

in a cartesian representation. In the latter case, however, let all the rotation axes be

in the z direction. Then all displacement components are in the x, y plane and the

number of components to add reduces to two. This makes it possible to represent

the solenoidal fields as a superposition of the real and imaginary parts of the fields

around each node in the vicinity, which adds up to the complex field ψ(r, t). The

squared value of ψ, i.e. ψ 2 = ψ ∗ ψ, is a real property, which is like the square of the

displacement vector, u, provided that a suitable choice of constants are chosen.

equation [2] without any external forces. It is given by

∂2u

(λs + 2µs ) grad div u − µs curl curl u = ρs

∂t2

which by the identity curl curl A = grad div A − ∇2 A yields

∂2u

(λs + µs ) grad div u + µs ∇2 u = ρs .

∂t2

The solenoidal field is described by setting div u = 0 and we acquire

ρs ∂ 2 u

∇2 u = .

µs ∂t2

The divergence-free displacement field around an oscillation node can be repre-

sented by a complex number ψ(r, t) as stated above, and by inserting the wave

speed c2 = µs /ρs we obtain the wave equation

1 ∂ 2 ψ(r, t)

(3.1) ∇2 ψ(r, t) = ,

c2 ∂t2

8 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

which can be solved by the product method. Notice that I only seek solutions that

is a superposition of standing waves around a plethora of oscillating singularities

with rotating axes all pointing in the same direction as described above.

1 ∂2

∇2 [g(r) · f (t)] = [g(r) · f (t)]

c2 ∂t2

g ∂2f

f ∇2 g = 2 2

c ∂t

∇2 g 1 ∂2f

= 2

g c f ∂t2

The left and right side of this equation are only functions of r and t respectively,

and can therefore be set to the same constant, say −q 2 , and we obtain the two

equations

∇2 g = −q 2 g,

∂2f

= −c2 q 2 f,

∂t2

which have soultions of the form [5, page 16]

g ∝ exp(−i q · r), q 2 ≡ |q|2 ,

f = exp(−ickt),

from which we obtain

ψ = exp(−i q · r) · exp(−icqt),

£ ¤

ψ = exp − i(q · r + cqt) .

This is an expression for a plane wave moving in the direction of q and oscillating

with a frequency ν = cq/2π. As presumed above, the energy of the system is a

function of the frequency, and we obtain

E E

cq = 2πν = 2π = , ~ = h/2π,

h ~

E

q= .

~c

The displacement function, ψ, takes the form

h −iE i

(3.2) ψ = exp − i(q · r) + t .

~

I will use a double-line font to distinguish the internal energy in a wave packet from

the classical kinetic and potential energies of the particle.

1 ∂2ψ

(3.3) ∇2 ψ = ,

c2 ∂t2

can be developed further into

(−i)2 E2

(3.4) ∇2 ψ = ψ,

~2 c2

1 9

which is the equation for the internal (not observable) oscillation of a wave packet

with energy E.

Now let us consider the particle as seen by an observer moving along with the

speed v ¿ c, and let the oscillation in the fixed coordinate system be represented

by primed coordinates

ψ(x0 , y 0 , z 0 , t0 ) = g(x0 , y 0 , z 0 )f (t0 ),

£ E0 ¤

= g(x0 , y 0 , z 0 ) exp(−i t0 )

~

and

1 ∂2f

f ∇2 g =

g .

c2 ∂t2

Next transform the movements over to the unprimed coordinate coordinate system

of the observer, who is moving along with the speed −v. From the observers

standpoint the particle seems to be moving in the positive direction. It is only

in a Lorenz coordinate system that the divergence-free properties are invariant by

transformations3, so we apply the Lorenz transformations

x − vt

x0 = p ,

1 − v 2 /c2

y 0 = y,

z 0 = z,

t − vx/c2

t0 = p ,

1 − v 2 /c2

and consider the particle at the position x = 0 and time t = 0.

From the observer’s point of view the oscillation takes the form

³ −iE0 ´

f (x, y, z, t) = exp p ·t ,

~ 1 − v 2 /c2

h −i i

f (x, y, z, t) ≈ exp (E0 + 12 E0 v 2 /c2 ) · t

~

If we define m = E0 /c2 then we recognize the term 12 E0 v 2 /c2 = 21 mv 2 as the kinetic

energy, T , of the wave packet and we obtain

h −i i

f (x, y, z, t) = exp (E0 + T ) · t .

~

E0 is supposed to be the internal energy before the particle is set into motion, and

m is defined as the rest mass of the particle.

£ −i ¤

g(x, y, z, t) = exp (q0 + k) ,

~

where q0 is representing the particle’s internal and k its progressive component of

motion. Hence k is pointing in the direction of the particle’s motion while q0 is

3Discussed in my paper ”A comparison between the Linear Theory of Elasticity and the Clas-

sical Theory of Electromagnetism” [2].

10 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

pointing in the direction of the curled-up path along the string of nodes. For each

positive q0 there is an equally great negative value somewhere else in space so the

mean value of q0 · k is zero. This amounts to the same as stating that q0 and k

are orthogonal to each other.

When we split up the energy, E, into a stationary part E0 and a kinetic part T ,

and accordingly q into q0 + k, the wave function (3.2) takes the form

h −iE0 −iT i

ψ = exp − i(q0 · r) − i(k · r) + t+ t ,

~ ~

h iE0 i h iT i

ψ = exp − i(q0 · r) − t · exp − i(k · r) − t

~ ~

∇2 ψ = ψ1 ∇2 ψ2 + ψ2 ∇2 ψ1 + 2∇ψ1 ∇ψ2 .

∂2ψ

= ψ1 ψ¨2 + 2ψ˙1 ψ˙2 + ψ2 ψ¨1 .

∂t2

With

h iE0 i

ψ1 = exp − i(q0 · r) − t ,

~

h iT i

ψ2 = exp − i(k · r) − t ,

~

= −ψ1 ψ2 q0 · k

= 0.

With these terms inserted into the wave equation (3.1) we obtain

1

ψ1 ∇2 ψ2 + ψ2 ∇2 ψ1 = (ψ1 ψ¨2 + 2ψ˙1 ψ˙2 + ψ2 ψ¨1 ).

c2

By Equation (3.3) underlined terms cansel out and the above equation reduces to

1

ψ1 ∇ 2 ψ2 = (ψ1 ψ¨2 + 2ψ˙1 ψ˙2 ).

c2

−iE0 −iT (−i)2 T 2

c2 ψ1 ∇2 ψ2 = 2 ψ1 ψ2 + ψ1 ψ2 ,

~ ~ ~2

E0 T T

c2 ∇2 ψ2 = −2 2 (1 + )ψ2 .

~ 2E0

1 11

~2 c2 2

− ∇ ψ2 = T ψ2 , (E0 = mc2 ),

2E0

~2 2

− ∇ ψ2 = T ψ2 ,

2m

~2 2 h iT i

− ∇ ψ2 = T exp − i(k · r) − t ,

2m ~

~2 2 ~ ∂ h iT i

− ∇ ψ2 = T exp − i(k · r) − t ,

2m −iT ∂t ~

~2 2 ∂ψ2

− ∇ ψ2 = i~ ,

2m ∂t

We can now replace ψ2 -old with ψ-new and acquire

~2 2 ∂ψ

∇ ψ = −i~

2m ∂t

This is the free Schrödinger wave equation for a particle moving with constant

speed.

If the particle is moving in a potential field, then E0 is varying with position, but it

is possible to introduce a small energy component V such that E0 − V is constant.

To keep the total energy constant we have got to add the same component to T . We

obtain two new properties: V , which can be interpreted as the potential in which

the particle is moving, and E = V + T , which is the total kinetic and potential

energy of the particle. The wave function takes the form

h i(E0 − V ) i h iE i

ψ = exp − i(q0 · r) − t · exp − i(k · r) − t .

~ ~

If we neglect terms with E 2 and V 2 we can proceed to

(−i)2 E02 −iE0 iV −iE0 −iE

c2 ψ1 ∇2 ψ2 + c2 ψ2 ∇2 ψ1 = ψ2 2

ψ1 + 2 ψ1 ψ2 + 2 ψ1 ψ2 .

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

By Equation (3.4) the underlined terms cansel out, and we obtain

~2 c2 2

− ∇ ψ2 + V ψ2 = Eψ2 ,

2E0

or by the same procedure as above we obtain

~2 c2 2 ∂ψ2

− ∇ ψ2 + V ψ2 = i~ .

2E0 ∂t

With m = E0 /c2 and ψ2 -old replaced by ψ-new this equation takes the form

~2 2 ∂ψ

− ∇ ψ + V ψ = i~

2m ∂t

which is the the Schrödinger wave equation [5, Eq. 1.12], and like the Schrödinger

equation it is only valid for small velocities when v ¿ c. It tells us about two

12 BJØRN URSIN KARLSEN

basic properties of the material particle: Its frequency and wave number. From

these properties one can find its energy and momentum, but not the position of

a free particle. Only if the particle is restricted to be inside a given volume will

it be possible to tell something about the whereabouts of the naked particle: The

property ψ is a measure of displacement, and its squared value becomes a measure

of the intensity of the deformation field. An elementary material particle in this

picture is an evacuated bubble that may be found anywhere in the wave packet

with an increasing probability along with the intensity of the field. Since it has

got to be somewhere in the restricted volume – and it surely has got to visit every

single node along the chain – the integral of ψ 2 dv all over the volume element can

be normalized to unity, and ψ 2 can thus be taken to mean the probability density

of finding the bubble in a given volume element inside the considered volume.

A considerate amount of interactions between material particles that meet the re-

quirements above, can be solved by applying this Schrödinger-like wave equation.

For example can different particles exchange momentum by superposition of the

fields around the individual particles that in turn leads to scattering by the inter-

action. Likewise will the progressive waves around particles, which are restricted

to move in closed volumes or orbits, tend to form standing waves that only can

occur at certain energy levels. By a double slit experiment the generated wave in

the surroundings of the string of nodes passes partly through both slits causing an

interference with varying field intensity of ψ 2 while the bubble itself has got to pass

through one of the slits tending to follow paths with stronger probable densities be-

yond the slits. A complete description of all possible interactions, however, is only

possible when spin is taken into account, and the equations are developed without

the restriction that v ¿ c.

References

1. Yavuz Başar and Dieter Weichert, Nonlinear continuum mechanics of solids, Springer, 1999.

2. Bjørn Ursin Karlsen, A comparison between the Linear Theory of Elasticity and the Classical

Theory of Electromagnetism, http://home.online.no/˜ukarlsen.

3. , Standing waves between singularities in an elastic continuum of infinite extension,

http://home.online.no/˜ukarlsen.

4. , Confined energy in an expanding elastic continuum compared with gravity,

http://home.online.no/˜ukarlsen, 2002.

5. Paul C.W. Davis and David S. Betts, Quantum mechanics, 2 ed., Stanley Thornes (Publishers)

Ltd, 1999.

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