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ELECTIVE L T P C

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 3 0 0 3


AIM
To understand clearly and identify the various parts of the human body, their anatomical position, their
functions and how these can be used in the design of effective biomedical systems.

OBJECTIVES
 To learn basics of human body, cell, and blood
 To study about the positioning and functioning of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems
 To study about the positioning and functioning of the nervous system and musculoskeletal system
 To study about the positioning and functioning of the digestive and excretory system
 To study about the positioning and functioning of the special organs and endocrine glands

UNIT I - INTRODUCTION HUMAN BODY -CELL, BLOOD 8


Overview of organ systems, Basic terminologies (Directional, regional, planes, feedback) - Cell: Different
types of cells, Cell Structure and its organelles - Functions of each component in the cell - Membrane –
transport across membrane - Origin of cell membrane potential - Action potential and propagation - Blood-
Composition-RBC, WBC and Platelets.

UNIT II - CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEMS 9


Structure of heart -Circulation types - Cardiac cycle- Volume and pressure changes - ECG - Heart sounds -
Blood pressure -Regulation of BP - Parts of respiratory system, Mechanics of respiration - Carbon dioxide
and oxygen transport - Regulation of respiration - Volumes and capacities of lung, Types of hypoxia

UNIT III - NERVOUS SYSTEM AND MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM 9


Nerve cell anatomy -Functions of nervous system - Brain anatomy and hemispheres –Meninges - Cerebro
Spinal Fluid-Circulation and Absorption-Spinal cord anatomy - Reflex action-PNS - Skeletal System -
Functions -Anatomy of long bone –Formation, growth and repair - Structural and functional classification of
joints - Functions of muscular system –Types of muscles - Sliding Filament Model - Neuromuscular junction
- Physiology of muscle contraction

UNIT IV - DIGESTIVE AND EXCRETORY SYSTEM 9


Digestive system-Organization -Movements of GI tract - Digestion at various parts (Mouth to Large
Intestine) - Accessory organs of Digestion (Salivary glands, Liver, Pancreas, Gall Bladder)– Defecation -
Excretory System - Functions of urinary system - Microanatomy and functions of nephron - Physiology of
urine formation – Micturition

UNIT V - SPECIAL ORGANS AND ENDOCRINE GLANDS 10


Eyes-retina Layers, Visual Pathway - Internal ear-Physiology-Auditory Pathway - Sense of Taste - Sense of
Smell, touch - Endocrine glands-different glands and their hormones - Pituitary, Thyroid Parathyroid glands-
Secretions – Maintenance of Calcium homeostasis - Maintenance of glucose homeostasis
Total Hours: 45
TEXTBOOKS
1. Arthur C, Guyton, John Hall.E “Textbook of Medical Physiology”, W.B. Saunders Company, Twelfth
edition, 2006
REFERENCES
1. Sarada Subramanyam,Madhavan Kutty. K and Singh. H.D, “Text Book of Human Physiology”–
Chand. S,& Company, First Edition,1996.
2. Ranganathan T S, “Text Book of Human Anatomy” , Chand S, & Co. Ltd., Fifth Edition,1996.