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You are on page 1of 8

2016

2016

& ANSWER KEY

REGION: MAHARASTRA | CENTRE: GOA

REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD – 2016 | 09-10-2016

:: IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS ::

Calculators (in any form) and protractors are not allowed.

Rulers and compasses are allowed.

Answer all the questions.

All questions carry equal marks. Maximum marks: 100.

Answer to each question should start on a new page. Clearly indicate the

question number.

1. Find distinct positive integers n1 < n2 < ….. < n7 with the least possible sum, such that their

product

n1 × n2 × ……× n7 is divisible by 2016.

Sol. The choice of distinct positive integers n1, n2, ......., n7 with the smallest possible sum is (1,2,...., 7),

5

with sum 1 + 2 + ....... + 7 = 28. However, we see that 1 × 2 × ....... × 7 = 5040 = 2016 × . This

2

means the above product is not divisible by 2016; it is falling short by just one factor of 2.

Hence, we will have to choose at least one number in our set, that is larger than 7. The smallest

such choice available is 8; which will provide us with the required additional factor of 2.

Now, to decide which number to replace : We cannot replace 7 or 6, because both contain prime

factors that are required for the product to be divisible by 2016. However, we observe that the

number 5 is not needed, since 5 and 2016 are coprime. So we can remove 5 and put 8 in our set.

Hence we get the answer as (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8); with sum 31; and product divisible by 2016.

Sol. We claim that the answer is (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8); with sum 31; and product divisible by 2016.

To prove that this is the best choice, we simply list all the possibilities with sum less than 31:

(1,2,3,4,5,6,7) with sum 28; but the product does not have sufficient occurrences of the factor 2.

(1,2,3,4,5,6,8) with sum 29; but the product does not have sufficient occurrences of the factor 7.

(1,2,3,4,5,6,9) with sum 30; but the product does not have sufficient occurrences of the foctor 7.

(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8) with sum 30; but the product does not have sufficient occurrences of the factor 3.

2. At an international event, there are 100 countries participating , each with its own distinct flag.

There are 10 distinct flagpoles at the stadium, labeled # 1, #2, …., # 10 in a row. In how many

ways can all the 100 flags be hoisted on these 10 flagpoles, such that for each i from 1 to 10, the

flagpole # i has at least i flags?

Sol. In order to distribute the flags on the poles, we use the following procedure :

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(i) First we arrange all the 100 flags in a straight row; this can be done in 100! ways.

(ii) Now we have to decide the positions at which to break up the row into 10 separate segments,

such that the first (left-most) segment goes onto flagpole 1, the next one onto pole 2, and so

on.

Let us say that the number of flags on the poles 1 to 10 is given by x1, x2,....., x10 respectively.

So we have to find the number of integer solutions for the equation : x1 + x2 + ....... + x10 = 100,

such that

x1 1, x2 2, etc. upto x10 10.

Let us define y1 = x1 – 1, y2 = x2 – 2, .............., y10 = x10 – 10. Then the above can be rephrased as

:

y1 + y2 + ....... + y10 = 45; with the constraint that yi 0 for i = 1 to 10.

with repetitions allowed; or equivalent to arranging 45 identical objects and 9 identical separators'

45 9

in a straight line. The same has solutions.

9

Finally, we observe that the steps (i) and (ii) mentioned at the beginning are idependent; i.e., for

45 9

each of the 100! ways to arrange the flags in a straight row, we have distinct ways to split

9

the row into 10 smaller segments, to get a different final configuration each time.

45 9

So by Multiplication Principle, the required answer is : 100! ×

9

3. Find all integers k such that all the roots of the following polynomial are also integers:

3 2

f(x) = x – (k – 3) x – 11x + (4k – 8).

Sol. suppose that for some value of k, all the roots of f(x) are integers. We observe that the coefficient

2

of k in the expression of the polynomial is (–x + 4); meaning that for x = 2 and x = – 2, the value of

the polynomial does not depend on k.

We get : f(–2) = 18 which is positive; and f(2) = – 10 which is negative. so at least one root lies

between – 2 and 2.

5

Case 1 : One of the roots is –1. This implies f(–1) = 3k + 5 = 0; so k = – , which is not an integer.

3

Case 2 : One of the roots is 0. This implies f(0) = 4k – 8 = 0; implying k = 2. In this case, the

3 2 2

polynomial is : f(x) = x + x – 11x = x(x + x – 11). But the quadratic expression inside the bracket

does not have integer roots.

Case 3 : One of the roots is 1. This implies f(1) = 3k – 15 = 0; impying k = 5. In this case, the

3 2 2

polynomial is f(x) = x – 2x – 11x + 12 = (x – 1)(x – x – 12) = (x – 1)(x – 4)(x + 3). So that roots of

the polynomial are 1, 4, – 3 which are all integers, as required.

3 2

Hence, the only solution is k = 5; giving f(x) = x – 2x – 11x + 12 with roots 1, 4 and – 3.

Corporate Office : CG Tower, A-46 & 52, IPIA, Near City Mall, Jhalawar Road, Kota (Raj.)- 324005

®

Website : www.resonance.ac.in | E-mail : contact@resonance.ac.in

RMO091016-3

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REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD – 2016 | 09-10-2016

4. Let ABC be scalene, with BC as the largest side, Let D be the foot of the altitude from A onto side

BC. Let points K and L be chosen on the lines AB and AC respectively, such that D is the midpoint

of segment KL. Prove that the points B, K, C, L are concyclic if and only if mBAC = 90°.

90°–

Sol.

B 90°–

D

C

90°–

K

Then in AKL, D is the midpoint of hypotenuse KL; so D is in fact the circumcentre of AKL; and

ADK is isosceles. Hence we get,

Now if O is the circumcenter of AKL, then OAK is isosceles, with the central angle

mAOK = 2(mALK) = 2x; and side angle mOAK = 90° – x

From (1) and (2), we see that DAK = OAK; meaning that O lies on line AD.

Hence O and D coincide; meaning that seg KL is in fact a diameter of the circumcircle of AKL.

Corporate Office : CG Tower, A-46 & 52, IPIA, Near City Mall, Jhalawar Road, Kota (Raj.)- 324005

®

Website : www.resonance.ac.in | E-mail : contact@resonance.ac.in

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REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD – 2016 | 09-10-2016

3 3 3

(x + 2y) (y + 2z) (z + 2x) 27

Sol. Applying AM-GM inequality to each of the brackets on the LHS, we get :

3 3 3

(x + y + y)(y + z + z)(z + x + x) (3 3 x 3 y 2 )( 33 y 3 z 2 )(3 3 z 3 x 2 ) = 27

as required.

6. ABC is an equilateral triangle with side length 11 units. As shown in the figure, points P1 , P2, ….,

P10 are taken on side BC in that order ; dividing the side into 11 segments of unit length each.

Similarly, points Q1 to Q10 are taken on side CA, and points R1 to R10 are taken on side AB. Count

the number of triangles of the form PiQjRk such that their centroid coincides with the centroid

ofABC. (Each of the indices I, j, k is chosen from {1, 2, ….., 10}, and need not be distinct.)

A

R1 Q10

R2 Q9

Q8

R3

Q7

R4

R5 Q6

Q5

R6

R7 Q4

Q3

R8

Q2

R9

R10 Q1

B C

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10

Sol. Let us setup a coordinate system in the plane, with B as the origin, and BC as the positive X-axis,

11 11 3 11 11

B (0, 0); C (11, 0); A , and the centriod of ABC is at G ,

2 2 3

2 2 3

Let Pi, Qj, Rk be some points chosen on the sides of the triangle. By applying section formulas, we

obtain the coordinates of these points along with their centroid G' as :

j j 3 11 – k (11 – k ) 3 11 2i – j – k 11 j–k

Pi (i, 0); Qj 11– , ; RK , ; and G' , .

2 2 2 2 2 6

2 3 2 3

Comparing the coordinates of G and G', we see that they will coincide if and only if i = j = k.

Hence we have exactly 10 triangles, namely P1Q1R1, P2Q2R2, ........, P10Q10R10, which satisfy

the given condition.

Sol. Let P, Q, R be any points on segment BC, CA and AB respectively. We claim that the centriod of

PQR is the same as the centriod ABC if and only if BP = CQ = AR.

For the first part, let us assume that ABC and PQR have a common centriod G.

Corporate Office : CG Tower, A-46 & 52, IPIA, Near City Mall, Jhalawar Road, Kota (Raj.)- 324005

®

Website : www.resonance.ac.in | E-mail : contact@resonance.ac.in

RMO091016-5

Toll Free : 1800 200 2244 | 1800 258 5555 | CIN: U80302RJ2007PLC024029

REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD – 2016 | 09-10-2016

meet segment BC at point T.

Now, G divides the medians AD and PS in the ratio 2 : 1. Hence DGS is similar to AGP, and

half its size. Therefore segment DS is parallel to and half the length of seg AP.

1

Hence, XDS is similar to XPA and half its size; so XS = XA.

2

In other words, S is the midpoint of segment AX. But S is also the midpoint of QR

From (1) and (2), we get AR = CQ. By symmetry, we can prove that BP = CQ = AR, as required.

Conversely, let us assume that BP = CQ = AR; and let G be the centriod of PQR. We need to

show that G is the centriod ABC.

By SAS test, we see that triangles AQR, BRP and CPQ are congruent; so QR = RP = PQ;

meaning PQR is equilateral.

So G is not only the centriod but also circumcenter of PQR; so QGR = 120° = 180º – QAR

Corporate Office : CG Tower, A-46 & 52, IPIA, Near City Mall, Jhalawar Road, Kota (Raj.)- 324005

®

Website : www.resonance.ac.in | E-mail : contact@resonance.ac.in

RMO091016-6

Toll Free : 1800 200 2244 | 1800 258 5555 | CIN: U80302RJ2007PLC024029

®

REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD – 2016 | 09-10-2016

Corporate Office : CG Tower, A-46 & 52, IPIA, Near City Mall, Jhalawar Road, Kota (Raj.)- 324005

®

Website : www.resonance.ac.in | E-mail : contact@resonance.ac.in

RMO091016-7

Toll Free : 1800 200 2244 | 1800 258 5555 | CIN: U80302RJ2007PLC024029

®

REGIONAL MATHEMATICAL OLYMPIAD – 2016 | 09-10-2016

Corporate Office : CG Tower, A-46 & 52, IPIA, Near City Mall, Jhalawar Road, Kota (Raj.)- 324005

®

Website : www.resonance.ac.in | E-mail : contact@resonance.ac.in

RMO091016-8

Toll Free : 1800 200 2244 | 1800 258 5555 | CIN: U80302RJ2007PLC024029

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