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This study was carried out to design and fabricate a cost effective and efficient wear tester (pin
on disc) used in the metallurgy research field. Design and calculations were established and the
machine was fabricated with well selected materials and components all sourced locally. The
performance of the fabricated machine was finally evaluated against a standard wear machine in
the Standards Organization using statistical methods and the result showed that the locally
fabricated machine is 97% effective.















Wear testing is a method for assessing erosion or sideways displacement of material from its
"derivative" and original position on a solid surface performed by the action of another surface.
This test is commonly used as a simple measure of workability of material in service. Materials
behave differently in friction state so it may be important to perform mechanical tests which
simulate the condition the material will experience in actual use. Wear testing is typically carried
out on the A356 alloy. Wear tests of the selected alloy is a critical parameter for determining the
quality of these materials. The loads and forces acting on these materials while in service are
compressive in nature and their ability to withstand such loads and forces without failure is a
measure of their reliability. The availability of a wear testing machine for materials is the first
step to effective quality control and good manufacturing practice. The establishment of quality
control facilities by manufacturers for continuous assessment of product quality is a necessary
requirement for ensuring compliance with relevant standard and maintaining product quality that
will continue to meet the needs of the uninformed users. The pin-on-disc test is generally used
as a comparative test in which controlled wear is performed on the samples to study. The volume
lost allows the calculation of the wear rate of the material. Since the action performed on all
samples is identical, the wear rate can be used as a quantitative comparative value for wear

Pin-on-drum (POD) abrasive wear test

The pin-on-drum abrasive wear test (POD) involves high-stress, two-body abrasive
wear. In this test, one end of a cylindrical pin specimen is moved over abrasive paper
with sufficient load to abrade material from the specimen and crush the fixed abrasive
grains. This test simulates the wear that occurs during crushing and grinding of ore in
which the abrasive (the ore) is crushed. The pin also rotates while traversing. This
ensures that the pin always contacts fresh abrasive. This is a high-stress abrasion test, as
the load is sufficient to fracture the abrasive particles In this test, a rotating 6.35 mm test
pin is pressed against 500 mm diameter drum with a load of 66.7 N. The drum is covered
with an abrasive cloth, in this case a 150 mm mesh garnet. The drum is then rotated and
the pin translated down the axis of the drum (in a helical fashion) so that fresh abrasive is
constantly encountered.



Friction and wear of material have accompanied man since his very beginning (Mehulic
et al, 2005). Materials contact each other through their surfaces. Therefore the surface
and subsurface regions are affected by the interactions between two or more bodies.
Wear is defined as damage to a solid surface, generally involving progressive loss of
material, due to relative motion between that surface and a contacting substance or surface
(Gurumoorthy et al, 2007). Wear is generally described as abrasive, adhesive or erosive
(Allen and Ball, 1996). Among these types, abrasive wear is the most important due to its
destructive character (Chattopadhyay, 2001). Abrasive wear is the detachment of the
material from surfaces in relative motion, caused by sliding of hard particles between the
opposing surfaces; the hard particles normally slide on a softer surface and detach
materials from the latter (Harris et al, 2002). Wear due to highly abrasive soils have
surface damage characterised by scoring, cutting, deep grooving and gouging, and
micromachining, caused by soil constituents moving at a relative velocity of about 1 m/s
on a metal surface (Ferguson et al, 1998).

Soil tillage operations consume large amounts of energy and cause significant wear to
tillage tools (Natsis and Petropoulos, 2005). This leads to lower rates of work, decrease
in tillage depth, frequent change-over of the cutting edge and as a consequence, higher
operation and product costs (Kushwaha et al, 1990; Natsis et al, 1999). The wear rate of
all shares is higher in soils with increasing sand fraction; the main factors affecting wear

rate include chemical composition, hardness, and soil physical factors, with sand content
and share hardness being the most dominant (Bobobee et al, 2007). Agricultural
machinery parts working in the soil may be divided according to function into two basic
groups, namely soil cutting tools (ploughshares, share of root harvesters, ridger or
planters), and soil shaping tools (shoulders and wings of mouldboards, ridgers, soil
shoes of ploughs). The wear of parts of the shaping tools has been found to be more severe
(Owsiak, 1999). According to Bahyan (2006), in Turkey, there is on average 90–
210 g/ ha of wear in a ploughshare, 60–120 g/ ha wear in cultivator sweeps and 30–

70 g/ ha wear in harrow tines. This indicates that among these tillage tools, the
ploughshare experiences the most wear in soils. If the ploughshare is not replaced when
it becomes worn, the plough will not cut into the soil or turn the soil well and ploughing
will be very difficult. The wear characteristics of a soil are related to the type of
abrasives and stones present (Zhang and Kushwaha, 1994).

For a given tillage tool, the amount of wear decreases when the hardness exceeds that of
the soil abrasives and the wear of tillage implements in most soils is caused by the stone
and gravel content .The abrasive wear resistance depends on the chemical composition,
production history, mechanical properties and microstructure of material and other soil
characteristics such as the particle shape, size, the soil strength, density and moisture,
and rock and gravel content (Yu and Bhole, 1990). Studies conducted by Baryeh (2001)
and Yu and Bhole (1990) tend to agree that wear rate increases with increasing moisture
content. Other research conducted by Natsis et al (2008) and Ferguson et al (1998)

however have shown a contrasting results of a decrease in wear rate with an increase in
moisture content.
2.1 Definition of Wear

Tribology, the study of wear, friction and lubrication is as old as human culture yet it is
considered as the Science of the future (Stachowiak, 2007). Tribologists study causes
and mechanisms of wear in daily applications (Soyjaudah and Ramasawmy, 2001).
According to Gurumoorthy et al (2007), wear may be defined as damage to a solid surface,
generally involving progressive loss of material, because of relative motion between that
surface and a contacting substance or substances. Soyjaudah and Ramasawmy (2001)
also defined wear as the progressive loss of material from the surface of a body due
to friction. According to Juhani et al (2006), wear is one of the most common causes of
failure of engineering materials.

2.2 Types of Wear

Wear has been described by a multitude of terms and interpretation depending on the
situation. However, there are three major categories of wear into which most situations
can be included: adhesive, erosive and abrasive wear (Allen and Ball, 1996).

2.2.1 Adhesive Wear

According to Harris et al (2002), adhesive wear occurs when wear particles are formed
due to interaction between the rubbing surfaces. It could also be named scuffing,
scoring, seizure and gulling due to the appearances and behaviour of the worn surface.

Adhesive wear is often associated with severe wear but its role in mild wear conditions
is unclear. Another form of adhesive wear can be termed impact wear where material is
lost due to repeated high energy impact conditions (Allen and Ball, 1996). This is
illustrated in fig. 1 below after Poeton (2011).

Fig. 1: Adhesive wears (Poeton, 2011)

2.2.2 Erosive Wear

Baryeh (1997) attributed erosive wear to the action of numerous small particles, which
impinge on a surface, such as sand blasting caused by severe plastic deformation and
subsurface damage, which eventually creates loose wear particles. It can have a serious
deteriorating effect in engineering systems, including pipelines and valve handling
gases, hydraulic systems, aerospace components and liquid impellers. The variables
affecting the severity of erosion can be interactive and include particle size, mass, shape
and velocity together with the flux of erosive particles and their angle of impact (Allen
and Ball, 1996). Fig. 2 shows how erosive wear occurs (Poeton, 2011).

Fig. 2: Erosive wear (Source: Poeton, 2011)

In high angle erosion, much of the energy is expended in deformation of the surface,
which requires a resilient coating. On the other hand in low angle erosion, the action is

more akin to abrasion and cutting. It requires a hard surface to reduce the wear rate. Fig.
3 shows how low and high angle erosion occurs (Poeton, 2011).

Fig.3: High and low angle Erosion (Source: Poeton, 2011)

2.2.3 Abrasive Wear

Abrasive wear occurs when the sharp materials produce loose grains that have a higher
hardness than the surface subject to the abrasive wear (Harris et al, 2002). Abrasive
wear is usually divided into two types: two-body and three-body abrasion. The situation
where exactly two bodies are involved in the interaction is known as two-body abrasion.
Two-body abrasive wear is caused by the displacement of material from a solid surface
due to hard particles sliding along the surface. Two-body abrasive wear is a complex
process often involving high strain and plastic deformation and fracture of micro
volumes of the material, which might be described as the removal of discrete surface by
a harder substance, which tends to gauge, score, or scratch. Two-body abrasive wear is

undesirable due to high wear rates, dramatic surface damage, and activation of other
wear mechanisms (Chattopadhyay, 2001).

Fig. 4: Two body abrasive wear (Source: Hutchings,


However, in three body abrasion (fig. 5), the grits are free to roll as well as slide over the
surface (Mohan et al, 2010; Poeton, 2011). Three-body abrasive wear is ten times lower
than the two-body abrasive wear since it has to compete with other mechanisms such as
adhesive wear (Chattopadhyay, 2001).

Fig.5: Three body abrasive wear (Source: Poeton, 2011)

The wear coefficient is determined mainly by the abrasive geometry, the effective
sharpness of the abrasive, and to a smaller extent by the lubrication which determines
the ease with which wear debris can be removed from the sliding interface. Abrasive
wear only occurs when the sharp materials produce loose grains that have a higher
hardness than the surface subject to the abrasive wear (Harris et al, 2002). Studies on the
wear of elements subjected to the impact of natural abrasives are carried out at many
research centres, but the abrasive wear resistance of material is usually determined under
laboratory conditions and includes selection of adequate grades of steel (Owsiak, 1999).
The relative abrasive wear of the commercial tillage tool share can be tested in the soil bin
and it is related to both hardness and chemical composition of the material (Bayhan,

2.3 The Mechanism of Abrasive Wear

Since abrasive wear is caused by the presence of hard particles which are between or
embedded in one or both surfaces (Yu and Bole, 1990), two forces come into play:
1) The load which acts normal to the surfaces in contact,

2) A force exerted by the machine in the direction of motion which overcomes friction,
adhesion and abrasion.
These two forces combine to subject the surface and the sub-surface of the mating
materials to stresses. This may have the following effects:
a) to work-harden the softer surface or both surfaces,

b) to cause plastic deformation of the softer of the two materials, particularly when
overcoming adhesion,
c) when junctions occur, to dislodge particles from the more wear-vulnerable of the two
d) in the presence of abrasive material, grooves are ploughed into the softer material

(Meigh, 2000).

2.4 Wear of Tillage Equipment

Wear will occur in any situation where materials with different hardness are in contact
during relative motion. The harder surface deforms that of the softer material (Kragelskii
1965). It is this very condition which exists during tillage. Soil tillage involves large
amounts of energy necessary to cut, break down, invert soil layers, reduce clod size and
rearrange aggregates, and causes significant wear to tillage tools (Formato et al, 2005 ;
Hernanz and Ortiz-Canavate , 1999; Horvat et al, 2008). A major portion of this energy

and wear loss can be attributed to the friction between the soil and tool surface (Kushwaha
et al, 1990; Kato, 2000). In this process abrasion with hard soil particles is the dominant
influence on the tillage tool wear (Heffer, 1994 ; Zum Gahr, 1998). The wear of soil tillage
tools by abrasion of soil particles highly corresponds to the mechanical and
microstructural properties of the material, which the tools are made of and also the soil
texture as well as the working conditions such as the cultivation depth and the soil moisture
content (Owsiak, 1997 ; Natsis, 1999; Horvat et al, 2008).
The life of agricultural machines and devices depends mostly on their style, features,
type of usage and maintenance and repair works of processing components, which are
usually because of breaking and wear (Tugrul and Icoz, 2005). Owsiak (1999) found that
the operational reliability of agricultural machines designed for work in the soil depends
mainly on wear and life of their soil engaging implements. Most agricultural operations
are carried out in the field and are subject to wear and friction. According to Bahyan
(2006), farmers and equipment operators often complain about the high wear rate of tillage
tools, which result in recurring labour, downtime and replacement costs of exchanging
components. A study conducted by Tugrul and Icoz (2005) found the wear of
ploughshare, cultivator and harrows to be 150 g/ha, 135 g/ha and 90 g/ha,





The support frame was constructed by using angle iron of size 5x75x75mm. It was first
marked into four parts of lengths 700mm. Another set of angle irons were cut into four
parts each of length 1000mm. A full length of angle iron was cut into six pieces of
length 900mm. Two 12 mm diameter holes (each) were drilled around the centre of four
of the 1000mm angle irons. The four 1000 mm length were welded together to form a
square brace. The four 700mm parts were also joined to each corner of the square brace
to form the legs of the frame. Four sets of footings were joined under the legs to give them
the needed stability. The six 900mm parts were joined to the sides and middle of the
standing frame.

The Arm Sub-assembly

This comprises the 50 mm and 25 mm diameter shafts, 900mm arm, roller, scraper,
share holder and a ploughshare. The 50mm shaft was machined according to the
dimensions given in the design. Three points on the metallic arm were marked and
punched using a scriber and centre punch. One point was at the centre, the other was
225mm away from the centre and the third mark was placed at the opposite side with a
distance of 250mm from the centre. Two holes of diameter 25mm were drilled at these
points (leaving the centre point). A hub of inner diameter of 50mm and outer diameter of
60mm was placed and welded around the centre mark of the arm. Two shafts of
diameter 25mm and lengths 300mm and 430mm respectively were cut using the power
hacksaw machine. Threads of diameter 25mm were formed to a depth of 70mm on each
shaft. Two holes of diameter 12mm were drilled 150mm apart on a metallic plate of
180mm length and 80mm thickness. This metallic plate (the share holder) was then welded
unto 30mm diameter shaft of 300mm length.

A roller was fabricated using two (2) steel pipes of diameters 125mm and 25mm
respectively, two (2) bushings of inner diameter of 20mm and a flat bar. It was
fabricated according to the dimensions in the design. A scraper which consists of a flat bar
and a plate was formed in such a way that the angle between the plate and the flat bar
is 45 . It was then joined by welding to the flat bar close to the side of the bigger cylinder
(by welding). The shaft of diameter 25mm and length 300mm was welded unto the centre
of the flat bar which forms the brace for the roller.

The main transmission shaft was fixed together with two flange bearings. The ploughshare
was fixed unto the share holder by using two M12 bolts, nuts and flat washers. The shaft
holding the ploughshare was fixed into the hole on the main metallic arm which is 225mm
away from the centre using flat washers as well as two nuts. The roller sub-assembly was
fixed unto the main metallic arm by inserting the threaded end of the shaft into the hole
which is 250mm away from the centre of the arm. Flat washers as well as two nuts were
then used to tighten them together using combination spanners. The other sub-assemblies
forming the complete arm sub-assemblies were then fully


Share holder


3.4.4 Power Transmission System

This system comprises a 15kW three-phase variable speed electric motor, a bevel gear
box, V-belts, aluminium pulleys of sizes 150mm, 100mm and 300mm. One 150mm
diameter pulley was fixed unto the transmission of the motor and another one was fixed
unto the input shaft of the bevel gear. A pulley of size 100mm was fixed unto the output
shaft of the bevel gear. The other 300mm pulley was fixed unto the end of the main
transmission shaft of the equipment below the soil bin. This was to ensure that the speed
from the motor which was set at 120 rpm was reduced to one-third (40 rpm). Two V- belts
each were used to join the pulleys joining the motor and the bevel gears and also that
joining the pulleys from the output of the bevel gear and the main transmission shaft.

Figure : Power Transmission System

Fig. : Assembly 3-D drawing of the equipment


When the rotation speed decreases, the grinding wheel behaves as if it were softer,
thus improving its grinding capacity. As a general guide, with every 5-8 mt/sec reduction
in peripheral speed the grinding wheel loses approximately 1 degree of hardness. In
contrast, if we need the grinding wheel to retain its profile or to produce a better finish (i.e.
behave as if it were harder) the peripheral speed should be increased. Within reason,
however: a grinding wheel that turns too slowly tends to lose its grains before the abrasive
granules have the chance to work. Conversely, when increasing the speed, the limit is the
maximum allowable speed indicated on the label of the grinding wheel, which absolutely
must not be exceeded to avoid the risk of the tool exploding. Normally the recommended
peripheral speed is slightly lower than the maximum indicated on the grinding wheel.


When the speed of the workpiece is reduced, each granule has to remove a larger
quantity of material and is therefore subjected to greater pressure, meaning that the
grinding wheel self-dresses more easily, and so behaving as if it were softer. The desired
effect is not always achieved, however. Often on grinding wheels of medium-to-high
hardness the greater stress to which they are subjected cancels out the self-dressing action
of this expedient. As a rule, the speed of the workpiece can range between 10 and 20 metres
per minute. For surfaces grinding this value corresponds to the table speed.


Normal parameters used in grinding operation are cutting speed, feed rate and
depth ofcut. These parameters are described below.

Cutting Speed

Cutting speed is grinding wheel is the relative peripheral speed of the wheel with
respectto the workpiece. It is expressed in meter per minute (mpm) or meter per second
(mps).The cutting speed of grinding wheel can be calculated as mpm

where, D is diameter of grinding wheel in mm. N are the number of revolution of
grinding wheel if N is expressed in number of revolutions per minute, V will be in mpm,if
N is expressed in number of revolution per second, V will be in mps.

Feed Rate

Feed rate is a significant parameter in case of cylindrical grinding and surface

grinding. Feed rate is defined as longitudinal movement of the workpiece relative to axis of
grinding wheel per revolution of grinding wheel. Maximum feed rate should be upto 0.9
time of face width of grinding wheel for rough grinding and upto 0.6 times of face width of
grinding wheel for finish grinding. Feed can not be equal to or more than the width of
grinding wheel. Feed is used to calculate the total grinding time as given below.

where T is the grinding time (min) L is the required longitudinal travel in mm. i is
the number of passes required to cover whole width S is the longitudinal feed rate (mm/rev.).
N is the rpm and K is the coefficient depending on the specified grade of accuracy and class
of surface finish for rough grinding K = 1 to 1.2 and for finish grinding K = 1.3 to 1.5.

Depth of Cut

Depth of cut is the thickness of the layer of the metal removal in one pass. It is
measured in mm. normally depth of cut is kept ranging 0.005 to 0.04 mm. Smaller depth of
cuts are set for finish and precision grinding. The table given below shows recommended
bonds and cutting speed for type of a workpiece.


Tool Steel Vitrified 15 TO 25 PRECISION

High Speed Steel Vitrified 15 TO 25 GRINDING

Cemented Resin or Rubber 15 TO 25


CAST IRON Resin or Rubber UP TO 30 ROUGH

Bronze UP TO 20

Soft Iron UP TO 20


Application of grinding fluids has been found to be effective in reducing the adverse
thermal effects and high work surface temperature. All cutting fluids can be used as coolant
in grinding operations and so these can also be named as grinding fluids.

Normally grinding fluids remove heat from grinding zone and wash the clips away.
Generally two types of grinding fluids are used :
(a) Water based fluids, and
(b) Oils based fluids.

Water based fluids remove heat from grinding zone but these do not provide any
lubrication to the grinding zone. However, oil based fluids provides lubrication properties
also. Heat removing capability of oil base fluid is more due to their high specific heat.
Examples of water based fluids are dissolved chemicals into water like sulfur chlorine,
phosphorus, etc. Examples of oil based fluids are oils originated from petroleum, animals
and vegetables. They can be emulsified oils suspended in water in the form of droplets.
Cutting fluids can be recycled in flow after filtering them by separating out chips and dirt.


Major and inevitable defects in grinding are glazing of grinding wheels. Its remedy
will be discussed later. After the continuous use grinding wheel becomes dull or glazed.
Glazing of the wheel is a condition in which the face or cutting edge acquires a glass like
appearance. That is, the cutting points of the abrasives have become dull and worn down
to bond. Glazing makes the grinding face of the wheel smoother and that stops the process
of grinding. Sometimes grinding wheel is left ‘loaded’. In this situation its cutting face is
found being adhering with chips of metal. The opening and pores of the wheel face are
found filled with workpiece material particals, preventing the grinding action. Loading
takes place while grinding workpiece of softer material.

The remedies of glazing and loading is dressing of grinding wheels. Dressing
removes the loading and breaks away the glazed surface so that sharp abrasive particals
can be formed again ready for grinding. Different type of dressing operations are done on
a grinding wheel. One of them is the dressing with the help of star dresser. It consists of a
number of hardened steel wheels with sharp points on their periphery. The total is held
against the face of revolving wheel and moved across the face to dress the whole surface.
Another type of wheel dresser consists of a steel tube filled with a bonded abrasive. The
end of the tube is held against the wheel and moved across the face.

Truing is the process of restoring the shape of grinding wheel when it becomes
worn and break away at different points. Truing makes the wheel true and concentric with
the bore.


Due to continuous used a grinding wheel may become out of balance. It con not be
balanced either by truing or dressing. Here it is important to explain the meaning of a
balanced wheel. It is the coincidence of centre of mass of wheel with it axis of rotation.
Wheels which are out of balance produce poor quality of surface and put undue strains on
the grinding machine. Balancing of wheel is normally done at the time of its mounting on
the grinding machine with the help of
moving weights around a recessed flange.


The surface contact area between grinding wheel and workpiece is very important.
The smaller it is, the more the grinding wheel cuts and does not become clogged. If greater
grinding capacity is required, reducing the surface contact area is strongly recommended,
especially when grinding using vertical-axis wheels, for example cup or segmented wheels.
In this case simply executing a chamfer on the edge of the cup wheel of reducing the
number of segments fitted on the head of the grinding machine solves a lot of problems.
The following table summarises the effect of changing operating parameters on the
behaviour of the grinding wheel.


It is a device consisting of two parallel jaws for holding a work piece; one of the jaws is fixed
and the other movable by a screw, a lever, or a cam. When used for holding a work piece during
hand operations, such as filing, hammering, or sawing, the vise may be permanently bolted to a
bench. In vises designed to hold metallic work pieces.

The active faces of the jaws are hardened steel plates, often removable, with serrations that
grip the work piece to prevent damage to soft parts; the permanent jaws can be covered with
temporary jaws made from sheet copper or leather. Pipe vises have double V-shaped jaws that grip
in four places instead of only two. Woodworking vises have smooth jaws, often of wood, and rely
on friction alone rather than on serrations.


The automobile chassis is mounted on the axles not direct but through some form of
springs. This is done to isolate the vehicle body from the road shocks which may be in the form of
bounce, pitch, roll or sway. These tendencies give rise to an uncomfortable ride and also cause
additional stress in the automobile frame and body. All the parts which perform the function of
isolating the automobile from the road shocks are collectively.


A cam plate is a projecting part of a rotating wheel or shaft that strikes a lever at one or
more points on its circular path. The cam plate can be a simple tooth, as is used to deliver pulses
of power to a steam hammer, for example, or an eccentric disc or other shape that produces a
smooth reciprocating (back and forth) motion in the follower which is a lever making contact with
the cam.

The reason the cam acts as a lever is because the hole is not directly in the centre, therefore
moving the cam rather than just spinning. On the other hand, some cams are made with a hole
exactly in the centre and their sides act as cams to move the levers touching them to move up
and down or to go back and forth.


A bearing is a device to permit constrained relative motion between two parts, typically
rotation or linear movement. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they
allow and according to their principle of operation. Low friction bearings are often important for
efficiency, to reduce wear and to facilitate high speeds.
26 Essentially, a bearing can reduce friction
by virtue of its shape, by its material, or by introducing and containing a fluid between surfaces.
By shape, gains advantage usually by using spheres or rollers. By material, exploits the nature of
the bearing material used. The Sliding bearings, usually called bushes bushings journal bearings
sleeve bearings rifle bearings or plain bearings. Rolling-element bearings such as ball bearings and
roller bearings.

The Jewel with bearings, in which the load is carried by rolling the axle slightly off-center.
fluid bearings, in which the load is carried by a gas or liquid magnetic bearings, in which the load
is carried by a magnetic field Flexure bearings, in which the motion is supported by a load element
which bends. Bearings vary greatly over the forces and speeds that they can support. Forces can
be radial, axial (thrust bearings) or moments perpendicular to the main axis.

A linear-motion bearing or linear slide is a bearing designed to provide free motion in one
dimension. There are many different types of linear motion bearings and this family of products
is generally broken down into two sub-categories: rolling-element and plane.

Motorized linear slides such as machine slides, roller tables and some dovetail slides are
bearings moved by drive mechanisms. Not all linear slides are motorized and non-motorized
dovetail slides, ball bearing slides and roller slides provide low-friction linear movement for
equipment powered by inertia or by hand.

All linear slides provide linear motion based on bearings, whether they are ball bearings,
dovetail bearings or linear bearings. Linear stages, machine slides and other advanced slides use
linear motion bearings to provide movement.


Reducing friction in bearings is often important for efficiency, to reduce wear and to
facilitate extended use at high speeds and to avoid overheating and premature failure of the bearing.
Essentially, a bearing can reduce friction by virtue of its shape, by its material, or by introducing
and containing a fluid between surfaces or by separating the surfaces with an electromagnetic field.
By shape, gains advantage usually by using spheres or rollers, or by forming flexure bearings. By
material, exploits the nature of the bearing material used. (An example would be using plastics
that have low surface friction.) 27
By fluid, exploits the low viscosity of a layer of fluid, such as a lubricant or as a pressurized
medium to keep the two solid parts from touching, or by reducing the normal force between them.
By fields, exploits electromagnetic fields, such as magnetic fields, to keep solid parts from
touching. Combinations of these can even be employed within the same bearing. An example of
this is where the cage is made of plastic, and it separates the rollers/balls, which reduce friction by
their shape and finish.


A second source of motion is elasticity in the bearing itself. For example, the balls in a ball
bearing are like stiff rubber, and under load deform from round to a slightly flattened shape. The
race is also elastic and develops a slight dent where the ball presses on it.

The stiffness of a bearing is how the distance between the parts which are separated by the
bearing varies with applied load. With rolling element bearings this is due to the strain of the ball
and race. With fluid bearings it is due to how the pressure of the fluid varies with the gap (when
correctly loaded, fluid bearings are typically stiffer than rolling element bearings).

Rolling Element Bearings

Rolling element bearing life is determined by load, temperature, maintenance, lubrication,

material defects, contamination, handling, installation and other factors. These factors can all have
a significant effect on bearing life. For example, the service life of bearings in one application was
extended dramatically by changing how the bearings were stored before installation and use, as
vibrations during storage caused lubricant failure even when the only load on the bearing was its
own weight; the resulting damage is often false brandling. Bearing life is statistical: several
samples of a given bearing will often exhibit a bell curve of service life, with a few samples
showing significantly better or worse life. Bearing life varies because microscopic structure and
contamination vary greatly even where macroscopically they seem identical.

Plain Bearings

For plain bearings some materials give much longer life than others. Some of the John
Harrison clocks still operate after hundreds of years because of the lignum vitae wood employed
in their construction, whereas his metal clocks are seldom
28 run due to potential wear.
Flexure Bearings

Flexure bearings rely on elastic properties of material. Flexure bearings bend a piece of
material repeatedly. Some materials fail after repeated bending, even at low loads, but careful
material selection and bearing design can make flexure bearing life indefinite. Bearing life is
statistical: several samples ofa given bearing will often exhibit a bell curve of service life, with a
few samples showing significantly better or worse life.

Short-life Bearings

Although long bearing life is often desirable, it is sometimes not necessary. Tedric, Harris
describes a bearing for a rocket motor oxygen pump that gave several hours life, far in excess of
the several tens of minutes life needed.

Maintenance and Lubrication

Many bearings require periodic maintenance to prevent premature failure, but many others
require little maintenance. The latter include various kinds of fluid and magnetic bearings,
as well as rolling-element bearings that are described with terms including sealed bearing and
sealed for life. These contain seals to keep the dirt out and the grease in. They work successfully
in many applications providing maintenance-free operation. Some applications cannot use them

No sealed bearings often have a grease fitting, for periodic lubrication with a grease gun,
or an oil cup for periodic filling with oil. Before the 1970s, sealed bearings were not encountered
on most machinery, and oiling and greasing were a more common activity than they are today. For
example, automotive chassis used to require "lube jobs" nearly as often as engine oil changes, but
today's car chassis are mostly sealed for life. From the late 1700s through mid 1900s, industry
relied on many workers called oilers to lubricate machinery frequently with oil cans.

Splash Lubrication

Some machines contain a pool of lubricant in the bottom, with gears partially immersed in
the liquid or crank rods that can swing down into the pool as the device operates. The spinning
wheels fling oil into the air around them, while the crank rods slap at the surface of the oil,
splashing it randomly on the interior surfaces of the engine. Some small internal
combustion engines specifically contain special plastic flinger wheels which randomly scatter oil
around the interior of the mechanism.

Pressure Lubrication

For high speed and high power machines, a loss of lubricant can result in rapid bearing
heating and damage due to friction. Also in dirty environments the oil can become contaminated
with dust or debris that increases friction. In these applications, a fresh supply of lubricant can be
continuously supplied to the bearing and all other contact surfaces, and the excess can be collected
for filtration, cooling, and possibly reuse. Pressure oiling is commonly used in large and complex
internal combustion engine in parts of the engine where directly splashed oil cannot reach, such as



The wear test was performed on Pin-on-Disc apparatus shown in figure 1. In this test the
flat end of cylindrical specimen 8 mm in diameter and 12 mm length was fixed in chuck jaws to
prevent specimens from rotation during the test. Axial load was applied to the pins against the
plane surface of the rotating disc. The specimen's ends were polished with 1200 grit SiC emery
paper and cleaned with acetone. The wear test reported is the average of two readings and was
carried out at room temperatures. The standard disc used for testing was made of hard steel ASE
1045 with hardness of 263BHN whose surface roughness was 0.2 µm. The materials chosen for
the present study was A356. The material was received in the form of bar. Each specimen was
weighed before the experiment and after it by a digital balance having sensitivity of 0.001gm.



Lathe = Rs 300

Drilling = Rs 250

Welding = Rs 500

Gas cutting cost = Rs450





1 Hacksaw Blade 20

2 Spring 40

3 Hacksaw Frame 140

4 Load 1200

5 Bearing 350

6 Bench Vice 1200

7 Linkages 620

8 Rod 900

9 Grinding base and tool 600

TOTAL Rs.5070


 Cheapest method
 portable
 Low power consumption
 Available source


 Minimum dia specimen may be tested


 Used small scale industries

 Pattern shops
 Lathe workshops for make surface finish in specimens



The pin-on-testing machine is designed, fabricated and tested. This machine does not employees
any use of power equipments such as DC motors and it is fully human operated . The use of this
machine makes the testing process faster hence reduce most of the time and labour required to
operate the machine is also less. This machine is helpful for small as well as big firms. This human
powered machine will help to improve an economical condition. This is new type of machine
which is different to the other machine which are used for testing purpose till now.

Scope for future work

 To improve the design for universal testing

 To minimize the human effort.


1. Design data book -P.S.G.Tech.

2. Machine tool design handbook –Central machine tool Institute,
i. Bangalore.
3. Strength of Materials - R.S.Kurmi
4. Manufacturing Technology - M.Haslehurst.
5. Design of machine elements - R.S.Kurmi

6. Mell, B. and Begin, G (2010). Wear Rate Analysis using Tribology and 3D Metrology,
NANOVEA, Irvine.

7. Miller, A.E. (1984). Wear in Tillage Tools . In: Wear Control Handbook (Editors: M. D.
Peterson; W. O Winer), ASME, New York, 987-998.

8. MINITAB Inc. (2007). MINITAB Statistical Software Release 15 for Windows.

Minitab Inc. State College, Pennsylvania.

9. Meigh, H.J. (2000). Resistances to wear of Aluminium Bronzes, CDA Publication 126.