International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 11, No. 00 (2002) 1–16
c World Scientiﬁc Publishing Company
HORIZONS AND GEODESICS OF BLACK ELLIPSOIDS
SERGIU I. VACARU
Centro Multidisciplinar de Astroﬁsica – CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica,
Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, Lisboa, 1049001, Portugal
vacaru@ﬁsica.ist.utl.pt
sergiu vacaru@yahoo.com
Received 17 June 2002
Communicated by A. Ashtekar
We analyze the horizon and geodesic structure of a class of 4D oﬀ–diagonal metrics
with deformed spherical symmetries, which are exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein
equations with anholonomic variables. The maximal analytic extension of the ellipsoid
type metrics are constructed and the Penrose diagrams are analyzed with respect to the
adapted frames. We prove that for small deformations (small eccentricities) there are
such metrics that the geodesic behaviour is similar to the Schwarzcshild one. We conclude
that some vacuum static and stationary ellipsoid conﬁgurations
1,2
may describe black
ellipsoid objects.
PACS numbers: 04.20.Jb, 04.70.s, 04.70.Bw
1. Introduction
Recently, the oﬀdiagonal metrics were considered in a new manner by diagonalizing
them with respect to anholonomic frames with associated nonlinear connection
structure:
1–3
There were new classes of exact solutions of Einstein equations in three
(3D), four (4D) and ﬁve (5D) dimensions. Such vacuum solutions possesses a generic
geometric local anisotropy, e.g. static black hole and cosmological solutions with
ellipsoidal or toroidal symmetry, various soliton–dilaton 2D and 3D conﬁgurations
in 4D gravity, and wormholes and ﬂux tubes with anisotropic polarizations and/or
running constants with diﬀerent extensions to backgrounds of rotation ellipsoids,
elliptic cylinders, bipolar and toroidal symmetry and anisotropy.
A number of oﬀdiagonal metrics were investigated in higher dimensional gravity
(see, for instance, the works of Salam, Strathee, Percacci and Randjbar–Daemi
works
4
) which showed that the inclusion oﬀdiagonal components in higher dimen
sional metrics is equivalent to including U(1), SU(2) and SU(3) gauge ﬁelds.
There are various generalizations of the Kaluza–Klein gravity when the oﬀdiagonal
metrics and their compactiﬁcations are considered. These generalizations are taken
in order to reduce the vacuum 5D gravity to the eﬀective Einstein gravity and
1
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
2 S. I. Vacaru
Abelian or nonAbelian gauge theories. One also has constructed 4D exact solutions
of Einstein equations with matter ﬁelds and cosmological constants such as black
torus and black strings induced from some 3D black hole conﬁgurations by con
sidering 4D oﬀdiagonal metrics whose curvature scalar splits equivalently into a
curvature term for a diagonal metric together with a cosmological constant term
and/or a Lagrangian for gauge (electromagnetic) ﬁeld.
5
For some particular oﬀdiagonal metric ansatz and redeﬁnitions of Lagrangians
we can model certain eﬀective (diagonal metric) gravitational and matter ﬁelds
interactions. However, in general, the vacuum gravitational dynamics cannot be
associated to any matter ﬁeld contributions. Our aim is to investigate such oﬀ
diagonal vacuum gravitational conﬁgurations (deﬁned by anholonomic frames with
associated nonlinear connection structure) which describe black hole solutions with
deformed horizons, for instance, with a static ellipsoid hypersurface.
In this paper we construct the maximal analytic extension of a class of static
metrics with deformed spherical symmetry (containing as particular cases ellipsoid
conﬁgurations). We analyze the Penrose diagrams and compare the results with
those for the Reissner–Nordstrom solution. Then we state the conditions where
the geodesic congruence with ‘ellipsoid’ type symmetry can be reduced to the
Schwarzschild conﬁguration. We argue that in this case we may generate some static
black ellipsoid solutions which, for corresponding parametrizations of oﬀdiagonal
metric coeﬃcients far away from the horizon, satisﬁed the asymptotic conditions of
the Minkowski space–time.
The paper has the following structure: In Sec. 2 we present the necessary for
mula on oﬀdiagonal metrics and anholonomic frames with associated nonlinear
connection structure and write the vacuum Einstein equations with anholonomic
variables corresponding to a general oﬀdiagonal metric ansatz. In Sec. 3 we deﬁne
a class of static anholonomic deformations of the Schwarzschild metric to some oﬀ
diagonal metrics having coeﬃcients very similar to those of the Reissner–Nordstrom
but written with respect to adapted frames and deﬁned as vacuum conﬁgurations.
In Sec. 4, for static small ellipsoid deformations, we construct the maximal analytic
extension of such metrics and analyze their horizon structure. Section 5 contains a
study of the conditions where the geodesic behaviour of ellipsoidal metrics can be
congruent to the Schwarzschild one. Conclusions are given in Sec. 6.
2. OﬀDiagonal Metrics and Anholonomic Frames
Let V
3+1
be a 4D pseudoRiemannian space–time enabled with local coordinates
u
α
= (x
i
, y
a
) where the indices of type i, j, k, . . . run values 1 and 2 and the
indices a, b, c, . . . take values 3 and 4; y
3
= v = ϕ and y
4
= t are considered
the “anisotropic” and timelike coordinates (subjected to some constraints) respec
tively. We may be provide this space–time V
3+1
with a general anholonomic frame
structure of tetrads, or vierbiends,
e
α
= A
β
α
(u
γ
)∂/∂u
β
, (1)
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 3
which satisfy some anholonomy relations
e
α
e
β
−e
β
e
α
= W
γ
αβ
(u
ε
)e
γ
, (2)
where W
γ
αβ
(u
ε
) are called the coeﬃcients of anholonomy. One deﬁnes a “holonomic”
coordinate frames, for instance, a coordinate frame, e
α
= ∂
α
= ∂/∂u
α
, as a set of
tetrads which satisfy the holonomy conditions
∂
α
∂
β
−∂
β
∂
α
= 0 .
The 4D line element
ds
2
= g
αβ
(x
i
, v)du
α
du
β
, (3)
is parametrized by an ansatz
g
αβ
=
g
1
+ w
2
1
h
3
+ n
2
1
h
4
w
1
w
2
h
3
+ n
1
n
2
h
4
w
1
h
3
n
1
h
4
w
1
w
2
h
3
+ n
1
n
2
h
4
g
2
+ w
2
2
h
3
+ n
2
2
h
4
w
2
h
3
n
2
h
4
w
1
h
3
w
2
h
3
h
3
0
n
1
h
4
n
2
h
4
0 h
4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, (4)
with g
i
= g
i
(x
i
), h
a
= h
ai
(x
k
, v) and n
i
= n
i
(x
k
, v) being some functions of
necessary smoothly class or perhaps singular in some points and ﬁnite regions.
The coeﬃcients g
i
depend only on “holonomic” variables x
i
but the rest of the
coeﬃcients may also depend on one “anisotropic” (anholonomic) variable y
3
= v,
the ansatz does not depend on the time variable y
4
= t. We shall search for static
solutions.
We can diagonalize the line element (3),
δs
2
= g
1
(dx
1
)
2
+ g
2
(dx
2
)
2
+ h
3
(δv)
2
+ h
4
(δy
4
)
2
, (5)
with respect to the anholonomic coframe
δ
α
= (d
i
= dx
i
, δ
a
= dy
a
+ N
a
i
dx
i
)
= (d
i
, δv = dv + w
i
dx
i
, δy
4
= dy
4
+ n
i
dx
i
) (6)
which is dual to the anholonomic frame
δ
α
= (δ
i
= ∂
i
−N
a
i
∂
a
, ∂
b
) = (δ
i
= ∂
i
−w
i
∂
3
−n
i
∂
4
, ∂
3
, ∂
4
) , (7)
where ∂
i
= ∂/∂x
i
and ∂
b
= ∂/∂y
b
are the usual partial derivatives. The tetrads δ
α
and δ
α
are anholonomic because, in general, they satisfy the anholonomy relations
(2) with some nontrivial coeﬃcients,
W
a
ij
= δ
i
N
a
j
−δ
j
N
a
i
, W
b
ia
= −W
b
ai
= ∂
a
N
b
i
.
The anholonomy is induced by the coeﬃcients N
3
i
= w
i
and N
4
i
= n
i
which can
“elongate” the partial derivatives and diﬀerentials if we are working with respect
to anholonomic frames. This results in a more sophisticate diﬀerential and integral
calculus (as in the tetradic and/or spinor gravity), but simpliﬁes substantially the
tensor computations, because we are dealing with diagonalized metrics.
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
4 S. I. Vacaru
With respect to the anholonomic frames (6) and (7), there is a linear con
nection called the canonical distinguished linear connection, which is similar to
the metric connection introduced by the Christoﬀel symbols in the case of holo
nomic bases, i.e. being constructed only from the metric components and satis
fying the metricity conditions D
α
g
βγ
= 0. It is parametrized by the coeﬃcients,
Γ
α
βγ
= (L
i
jk
, L
a
bk
, C
i
jc
, C
a
bc
) with the coeﬃcients
L
i
jk
=
1
2
g
in
(δ
k
g
nj
+ δ
j
g
nk
−δ
n
g
jk
) ,
L
a
bk
= ∂
b
N
a
k
+
1
2
h
ac
(δ
k
h
bc
−h
dc
∂
b
N
d
k
−h
db
∂
c
N
d
k
) ,
C
i
jc
=
1
2
g
ik
∂
c
g
jk
,
C
a
bc
=
1
2
h
ad
(∂
c
h
db
+ ∂
b
h
dc
−∂
d
h
bc
) ,
(8)
computed for the ansatz (4), which induce a linear covariant derivative locally
adapted to the nonlinear connection structure (Nconnection, see details, for
instance, in Refs. 1, 6, 7). We note that on (pseudo)Riemannian spaces the N
connection is an object completely deﬁned by anholonomic frames, when the co
eﬃcients A
β
α
(u
γ
), of tetradic transform (1), are parametrized explicitly via certain
values
N
a
i
, δ
j
i
, δ
a
b
, where δ
j
i
and δ
a
b
are the Kronecker symbols. By some straight
forward calculations we can compute (see, for instance Ref. 8) that the coeﬃcients
of the Levi–Civita metric connection
Γ
∇
αβγ
= g(δ
α
, ∇
γ
δ
β
) = g
ατ
Γ
∇τ
βγ
,
which are associated to a covariant derivative operator ∇. These coeﬃcients satisfy
the metricity condition ∇
γ
g
αβ
= 0 for g
αβ
= (g
ij
, h
ab
),
Γ
∇
αβγ
=
1
2
δ
β
g
αγ
+ δ
γ
g
βα
−δ
α
g
γβ
+ g
ατ
W
τ
γβ
+ g
βτ
W
τ
αγ
−g
γτ
W
τ
βα
. (9)
With respect to the anholonomic basis (6) they are given by the coeﬃcients
Γ
∇τ
βγ
=
L
i
jk
, L
a
bk
, C
i
jc
+
1
2
g
ik
Ω
a
jk
h
ca
, C
a
bc
, (10)
where
Ω
a
jk
= δ
k
N
a
j
−δ
j
N
a
k
.
We emphasize that the (pseudo)Riemannian spacetimes admit nontrivial torsion
components,
T
i
ja
= −T
i
aj
= C
i
ja
,
T
a
jk
= −T
a
kj
= Ω
a
kj
,
T
a
bk
= −T
a
kb
= ∂
b
N
a
k
−L
a
bk
,
(11)
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 5
if oﬀdiagonal metrics and anholomomic frames are considered. This is a “pure”
anholonomic frame eﬀect: The torsion vanishes for the Levi–Civita connection
stated with respect to a coordinate frame. However this metric connection contains
some torsion coeﬃcients if it is deﬁned with respect to anholonomic frames (this
follows from the Wterms in (9)). We can conclude that Einstein theory transforms
into an eﬀective Einstein–Cartan theory with anholonomically induced torsion if the
general relativity is formulated with respect to general frame bases (both holonomic
and anholonomic).
Another speciﬁc property of oﬀdiagonal (pseudo)Riemannian metrics is that
they can deﬁne diﬀerent classes of linear connections which satisfy the metricity
conditions for a given metric, or conversely, there is a certain class of metrics which
satisfy the metricity conditions for a given linear connection. This result was origi
nally obtained by A. Kawaguchi.
9
(Details can be found in Ref. 6, see Theorems 5.4
and 5.5 in Chapter III, formulated for vector bundles. Here we note that similar
proofs also hold on manifolds enabled with anholonomic frames associated to a
Nconnection structure.)
With respect to anholonomic frames, we cannot distinguish the Levi–Civita con
nection as both the unique metric and torsionless one. For instance, both linear con
nections (8) and (10) contain anholonomically induced torsion coeﬃcients. However
they are compatible with the same metric and transform into the usual Levi–Civita
coeﬃcients for vanishing Nconnection and “pure” holonomic coordinates. This
means that to an oﬀdiagonal metric in general relativity one may associate diﬀerent
covariant diﬀerential calculi, all being compatible with the same metric structure
(like in the noncommutative geometry, which is not a surprising fact because the
anolonomic frames satisfy by deﬁnition some noncommutative relations (2)). In
such cases we have to select a particular type of connection following some physi
cal or geometrical arguments, or to impose some conditions when there is a single
compatible linear connection constructed only from the metric and Ncoeﬃcients.
We note that if Ω
a
jk
= 0 the connections (8) and (10) coincide, i. e. Γ
α
βγ
= Γ
∇α
βγ
.
The vacuum Einstein equations R
β
α
= 0 computed for the metric (5) and the
connection (8) with respect to anholonomic frames (6) and (7) transform into a
system of partial diﬀerential equations with anholonomic variables,
1,2,7
R
1
1
= R
2
2
= −
1
2g
1
g
2
[g
••
2
−
g
•
1
g
•
2
2g
1
−
(g
•
2
)
2
2g
2
+ g
1
−
g
1
g
2
2g
2
−
(g
1
)
2
2g
1
] = 0 , (12)
R
3
3
= R
4
4
= −
β
2h
3
h
4
= −
1
2h
3
h
4
h
∗∗
4
−h
∗
4
ln
h
3
h
4

∗
= 0 , (13)
R
3i
= −w
i
β
2h
4
−
α
i
2h
4
= 0 , (14)
R
4i
= −
h
4
2h
3
[n
∗∗
i
+ γn
∗
i
] = 0 , (15)
where
α
i
= ∂
i
h
∗
4
−h
∗
4
∂
i
ln
h
3
h
4
 , γ = 3h
∗
4
/2h
4
−h
∗
3
/h
3
, (16)
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
6 S. I. Vacaru
and the partial derivatives are denoted by g
•
1
= ∂g
1
/∂x
1
, g
1
= ∂g
1
/∂x
2
and h
∗
3
=
∂h
3
/∂v. We additionally impose the condition δ
i
N
a
j
= δ
j
N
a
i
in order to have Ω
a
jk
=
0 which may be satisﬁed, for instance, if
w
1
= w
1
(x
1
, v) , n
1
= n
1
(x
1
, v) , w
2
= n
2
= 0 ,
or, conversely, if
w
1
= n
1
= 0 , w
2
= w
2
(x
2
, v) , n
2
= n
2
(x
2
, v) .
In this case the canonical connection (8) is equivalent to the Levi Civita connection
(10) written with respect to anholonomic frames and containing some nontrivial
coeﬃcients of induced torsion (11).
In this paper we shall select a class of static solutions parametrized by the
conditions
w
1
= w
2
= n
2
= 0 . (17)
The system of equations (12)–(15) can be integrated in general form.
7
Physi
cal solutions are selected following some additional boundary conditions, imposed
symmetry types, nonlinearities and singular behaviour and compatibility in the
locally anisotropic limits with some wellknown exact solutions.
3. Anholonomic Deformations of the Schwarzschild Solution
As a background for our investigations we consider an oﬀdiagonal metric ansatz
δs
2
=
¸
−
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
r
2
−1
dr
2
−r
2
dθ
2
−η
3
(r, ϕ)r
2
sin
2
θdϕ
2
+ η
4
(r, ϕ)
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
r
2
δt
2
(18)
where the “polarization” functions η
3,4
are expanded in terms of a small parameter
ε, 0 < ε 1,
η
3
(r, ϕ) = η
3[0]
(r, ϕ) + ελ
3
(r, ϕ) + ε
2
γ
3
(r, ϕ) +· · · ,
η
4
(r, ϕ) = 1 + ελ
4
(r, ϕ) + ε
2
γ
4
(r, ϕ) +· · · ,
(19)
and
δt = dt + n
1
(r, ϕ)dr
for n
1
∼ ε · · ·+ε
2
terms. The functions η
3,4
(r, ϕ) and n
1
(r, ϕ) will be shown to equal
the metrices which deﬁne a solution of the vacuum Einstein equations generated by
small deformations of the spherical static symmetry on a small positive parameter
ε (in the limits ε → 0 and η
3,4
→ 1 we have just the Schwarzschild solution for a
point particle of mass m). The metric (18) is a particular case of a class of exact
solutions constructed in Refs. 1, 2 and 7.
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 7
The vanishing of the metric coeﬃcient for order lower than δt
2
:
η
4
(r, ϕ)
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
r
2
= 1 −
2m
r
+ ε
Φ
4
r
2
+ ε
2
Θ
4
= 0 ,
Φ
4
= λ
4
(r
2
−2mr) + 1 ,
Θ
4
= γ
4
1 −
2m
r
+ λ
4
,
(20)
deﬁnes a rotation ellipsoid conﬁguration if
λ
4
=
1 −
2m
r
−1
cos ϕ −
1
r
2
and
γ
4
= −λ
4
1 −
2m
r
−1
.
To ﬁrst order in ε one obtain a zero value for the coeﬃcient linear in δt if
r
+
=
2m
1 + ε cos ϕ
= 2m[1 −ε cos ϕ] , (21)
which is the equation for a 3D ellipsoid like hypersurface with a small eccentricity
ε. In general, we can consider arbitrary pairs of functions λ
4
(r, θ, ϕ) and γ
4
(r, θ, ϕ)
(for ϕanisotropies, λ
4
(r, ϕ) and γ
4
(r, ϕ)) which may be singular for some values of
r, or on some hypersurvaces r = r(θ, ϕ) (r = r(ϕ)).
The simplest way to analyze the condition of vanishing of the metric coeﬃcient
linear in δt is to choose γ
4
and λ
4
to have Θ = 0. In this case we ﬁnd from (20):
r
±
= m±m
1 −ε
Φ
m
2
= m
¸
1 ±
1 −ε
Φ
4
2m
2
, (22)
where Φ
4
(r, ϕ) is taken for r = 2m.
Having introduced a new radial coordinate
ξ =
dr
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
r
2
(23)
and deﬁned
h
3
= −η
3
(ξ, ϕ)r
2
(ξ) sin
2
θ , h
4
= 1 −
2m
r
+ ε
Φ
4
r
2
, (24)
for which r = r(ξ) is deﬁned as the inverse function after integration in (23), we
write the metric (18) as
ds
2
=
−dξ
2
−r
2
(ξ)dθ
2
+ h
3
(ξ, θ, ϕ)δϕ
2
+ h
4
(ξ, θ, ϕ)δt
2
,
δt = dt + n
1
(ξ, ϕ)dξ ,
(25)
where the coeﬃcient n
1
is assumed to solve (15) and to satisfy (17).
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
8 S. I. Vacaru
Let us deﬁne the conditions when the coeﬃcients of metric (18) deﬁne solu
tions of the vacuum Einstein equations: For g
1
= −1, g
2
= −r
2
(ξ) and arbitrary
h
3
(ξ, θ, ϕ) and h
4
(ξ, θ) we get the solutions in (12)–(14). If h
4
depends on anisotropic
variable ϕ, then (13) may be solved if we have
η
3
 = η
0
η
4

∗
(26)
for η
0
= const. Considering decompositions of type (19) we put η
0
= η/ε where the
constant η is taken to give
η
3
 = 1 in the limits as
η
4

∗
→0
ε →0
→
1
η
= const . (27)
These conditions are satisﬁed if the functions η
3[0]
, λ
3,4
and γ
3,4
are related via the
relations
η
3[0]
 =
η
2
λ
∗
4
, λ
3
= η
η
3[0]
γ
∗
4
for arbitrary γ
3
(r, ϕ). In this paper we select only such solutions which satisfy the
conditions (26) and (27).
In order to consider linear inﬁnitesimal extensions on ε of the Schwarzschil
metric we may write the solution of (15) as
n
1
= ε¯ n
1
(ξ, ϕ)
where
¯ n
1
(ξ, ϕ) = n
1[1]
(ξ) + n
1[2]
(ξ)
dϕη
3
(ξ, ϕ)
η
4
(ξ, ϕ)
3
, η
∗
4
= 0 ;
= n
1[1]
(ξ) + n
1[2]
(ξ)
dϕη
3
(ξ, ϕ) , η
∗
4
= 0 ;
= n
1[1]
(ξ) + n
1[2]
(ξ)
dϕ
η
4
(ξ, ϕ)
3
, η
∗
3
= 0 ; (28)
with the functions n
k[1,2]
(ξ) to be deﬁned by boundary conditions.
The data
g
1
= −1 , g
2
= −r
2
(ξ) ,
h
3
= −η
3
(ξ, ϕ)r
2
(ξ) sin
2
θ ,
h
4
= 1 −
2m
r
+ ε
Φ
4
r
2
,
w
1,2
= 0 , n
1
= εˆ n
1
(ξ, ϕ) , n
2
= 0 ,
(29)
for the metric (18) deﬁnes a class of solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations
with nontrivial polarization function η
3
and extend on in parameter ε up to the
second order (the polarization functions being taken as to make the second order
coeﬃcients zero). Such solutions are generated by small deformations (in particular
the case of rotation ellipsoid symmetry) of the Schwarschild metric.
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 9
We can relate our solutions with some small deformations of the Schwarzschild
metric; as well we can satisfy the asymptotically ﬂat condition, if we chose such
functions n
k[1,2]
(x
i
) as n
k
→ 0 for ε → 0 and η
3
→ 1. These functions have to be
selected as to vanish far away from the horizon, for instance, like ∼ 1/r
1+τ
, τ > 0,
for long distances r →∞.
4. Analytic Extensions of Ellipsoid Metrics
The metric (18) (equivalently (25)) considered with respect to the anholonomic
frame (6) has a number of similarities with the Schwrzschild and Reissner–
Nordstrem solutions. If we identify ε with e
2
, we get a static metric with eﬀective
“electric” charge induced by a small, quadratic in ε, oﬀdiagonal metric extension.
The coeﬃcients of this metric are similar to those from the Reissner–Nordstrem
solution however in additional to the mentioned frame anholonomy there are extra
polarizations by the functions h
3[0]
, η
3,4
and n
1
. Another very important property
is that the deformed metric was stated to deﬁne a vacuum solution of the Einstein
equations which diﬀers substantially from the usual Reissner–Nordstrem metric
being an exact static solution of the Einstein–Maxwell equations.
For ε →0 and h
3[0]
→1. the metric (18) transforms into the usual Schwarzschild
metric. A solution with ellipsoid symmetry can be selected by a corresponding
condition of vanishing of the coeﬃcient linear in δt which deﬁnes an ellip
soidal hypersurface like for the Kerr metric, but in our case the metric is non
rotating.
The metric (18) has a singular behaviour for r = r
±
, see (22). The aim of this
section is to prove that in this way we have constructed a solution of the vacuum
Einstein equations with an “anisotropic” horizon being a small deformation on
parameter ε of the Schwarzschild’s solution. We may analyze the anisotropic hori
zon’s properties for some ﬁxed “direction” given in a smooth vicinity of any values
ϕ = ϕ
0
and r
+
= r
+
(ϕ
0
). The ﬁnal conclusions will be some general ones for arbi
trary ϕ where the explicit values of coeﬃcients will have a parametric dependence
on angular coordinate ϕ. The metrics (18) and (25) are regular in the regions I
(∞ > r > r
Φ
+
), II (r
Φ
+
> r > r
Φ
−
) and III (r
Φ
−
> r > 0). As in the Schwarzschild,
Reissner–Nordstrem and Kerr cases these singularities can be removed by introduc
ing suitable coordinates and extending the manifold to obtain a maximal analytic
extension.
12,13
We have similar regions as in the Reissner–Nordstrem space–time,
but with just only one possibility ε < 1 instead of three relations for static electro
vacuum cases (e
2
< m
2
, e
2
= m
2
, e
2
> m
2
).
a
So, we may consider the usual Pen
rose’s diagrams as for a particular case of the Reissner–Nordstrem space–time but
keeping in mind that such diagrams and horizons have an additional parametriza
tion on an angular cordinate.
a
Where e and m are correspondingly the electric charge and mass of the point particle in the
Reissner–Nordstrem metric.
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
10 S. I. Vacaru
To construct the maximally extended manifold, we proceed in steps analogous to
those in the Schwarzschild case (see details, for instance, in Ref. 10)). We introduce
a new coordinate
r
=
dr
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
r
2
−1
for r > r
1
+
and ﬁnd explicitly the coodinate
r
= r +
(r
1
+
)
2
r
1
+
−r
1
−
ln(r −r
1
+
) −
(r
1
−
)
2
r
1
+
−r
1
−
ln(r −r
1
−
) , (30)
where r
1
±
= r
Φ
±
with Φ = 1. If r is expressed as a function on ξ, than r
can be also
expressed as a function on ξ depending additionally on some parameters.
Deﬁning the advanced and retarded coordinates, v = t + r
and w = t − r
,
with corresponding elongated diﬀerentials
δv = δt + dr
andδw = δt −dr
the metric (25) takes the form
δs
2
= −r
2
(ξ)dθ
2
−η
3
(ξ, ϕ
0
)r
2
(ξ) sin
2
θδϕ
2
+
1 −
2m
r(ξ)
+ ε
Φ
4
(r, ϕ
0
)
r
2
(ξ)
δvδw,
where (in general, in nonexplicit form) r(ξ) is a function of type r(ξ) = r(r
) =
r(v, w). Introducing new coordinates (v
, w
) by
v
= arctan
¸
exp
r
1
+
−r
1
−
4(r
1
+
)
2
v
, w
= arctan
¸
−exp
−r
1
+
+ r
1
−
4(r
1
+
)
2
w
and multiplying the last term on the conformal factor we obtain
δs
2
= −r
2
dθ
2
−η
3
(r, ϕ
0
)r
2
sin
2
θδϕ
2
+ 64
(r
1
+
)
4
(r
1
+
−r
1
−
)
2
1 −
2m
r(ξ)
+ ε
Φ
4
(r, ϕ
0
)
r
2
(ξ)
δv
δw
, (31)
where r is deﬁned implicitly by
tanv
tanw
= −exp
¸
r
1
+
−r
1
−
2(r
1
+
)
2
r
r −r
1
+
(r −r
1
−
)
χ
, χ =
r
1
+
r
1
−
2
.
As particular cases, we may chose η
3
(r, ϕ) as the condition of vanishing of the
metric coeﬃcient up to order δv
δw
. This will describe a horizon parametrized by
a resolution ellipsoid hypersurface.
The maximal extension of the Schwarzschild metric deformed by a small param
eter ε,
b
i.e. the extension of the metric (18), is deﬁned by taking (31) as the metric on
the maximal manifold on which this metric is of class C
2
in smoothness. The Penrose
diagram of this static but locally anisotropic space–time, for any ﬁxed angular value
b
For ellipsoid conﬁgurations this is treated as the eccentricity.
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 11
ϕ
0
, is similar to the Reissner–Nordstrom solution, for the case e
2
→ε and e
2
< m
2
(see, for instance, Ref. 10)). There are an inﬁnite number of asymptotically ﬂat
regions of type I, connected by intermediate regions II and III, where there is still an
irremovable singularity at r = 0 for every region III. We may travel from a region I to
another ones by passing through the ’wormholes’ made by anisotropic deformations
(ellipsoid oﬀdiagonality of metrics, or anholonomy) like in the Reissner–Nordstrom
universe because
√
ε may model an eﬀective electric charge. One cannot however
turn back in such a travel.
It should be noted that the metric (31) is analytic everywere except at r = r
1
−
.
We may eliminate this coordinate degeneration by introducing another set of new
coordinates
v
= arctan
¸
exp
r
1
+
−r
1
−
2n
0
(r
1
+
)
2
v
,
w
= arctan
¸
−exp
−r
1
+
+ r
1
−
2n
0
(r
1
+
)
2
w
,
where the integer n
0
≥ (r
1
+
)
2
/(r
1
−
)
2
. In these coordinates, the metric is analytic
everywhere except at r = r
1
+
where it is degenerate. In this way the space–time
manifold can be covered by an analytic atlas using coordinate carts deﬁned by
(v
, w
, θ, ϕ) and (v
, w
, θ, ϕ). Finally we note that the analytic extensions of
the deformed metrics were performed with respect to anholonomc frames which
distinguish such constructions from those dealing only with holonomic coordinates,
such as those for the usual Reissner–Nordstrom and Kerr metrics.
5. Geodesics on Static Ellipsoid Backgrounds
In this section we analyze the geodesic congruence of the metric (25) with the data
(29). For simplicity, we assume linearity in ε and introduce the eﬀective Lagrangian
(for instance, see Ref. 14)
2L = g
αβ
δu
α
ds
δu
β
ds
= −
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
r
2
−1
dr
ds
2
−r
2
dθ
ds
2
−η
3
(r, ϕ)r
2
sin
2
θ
dϕ
ds
2
+
1 −
2m
r
+
εΦ
4
r
2
dt
ds
+ εˆ n
1
dr
ds
2
, (32)
for r = r(ξ).
The corresponding Euler–Lagrange equations
d
ds
∂L
∂
δu
α
ds
−
∂L
∂u
α
= 0
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
12 S. I. Vacaru
are
d
ds
¸
−r
2
dθ
ds
= −η
3
r
2
sinθ cos θ
dϕ
ds
2
,
d
ds
¸
−η
3
r
2
dϕ
ds
= −η
∗
3
r
2
2
sin
2
θ
dϕ
ds
2
+
ε
2
1 −
2m
r
¸
Φ
∗
4
r
2
dt
ds
2
+ ˆ n
∗
1
dt
ds
dξ
ds
(33)
and
d
ds
¸
1 −
2m
r
+
εΦ
4
r
2
dt
ds
+ εˆ n
1
dξ
ds
= 0 , (34)
where, for instance we have omitted the variations for dξ/ds from Φ
∗
4
= ∂ Φ
4
/∂ϕ
which may be found from (32). The sistem of equations (32)–(34) transform into the
usual system of geodesic equations for the Schwarzschild space–time if ε → 0 and
η
3
→1, which can be solved exactly.
14
For nontrivial values of the parameter ε and
polarization η
3
even to obtain some decompositions of solutions on ε for arbitrary
η
3
and n
1[1,2]
, is a cumbersome task (see (28)). In spite of the fact that with respect
to anholonomic frames the metric (25) has the coeﬃcients being very similar to
the Reissner–Nordstom solutions, the geodesic behaviour, in our anisotropic case is
more sophisticate because of anholonomy and “elongation” of partial derivatives.
For instance, the equations (33) state that there is not angular conservation law on
ϕ if η
∗
3
= 0, even for ε →0 (which holds for both the Schwarzschild and Reissner–
Nordstom metrics). It follows from (34) that the existence of an energy like integral
of motion, E = E
0
+ εE
1
, with
E
0
=
1 −
2m
r
dt
ds
,
E
1
=
Φ
4
r
2
dt
ds
+
1 −
2m
r
ˆ n
1
dξ
ds
.
The introduced anisotropic deformations of congruences of Schwarzschild’s
space–time geodesics maintain the known behaviour in the vicinity of the horizon
hypersurface deﬁned by the condition of vanishing of the coeﬃcient (1 − 2m/r +
εΦ
4
/r
2
) in (31). The simplest way to prove this is to consider radial null geodesics
in the “equatorial plane”, which satisfy the condition (32) with θ = π/2, dθ/ds = 0,
d
2
θ/ds
2
= 0 and dϕ/ds = 0. From here it follows that
dr
dt
= ±
1 −
2m
r
+
ε
0
r
2
[1 + εˆ n
1
dϕ] .
The integral of this equation, for every ﬁxed value ϕ = ϕ
0
is
t = ±r
+ ε
¸
Φ
4
(r, ϕ
0
) −1
2(r
2
−2mr)
2
− ˆ n
1
(r, ϕ
0
)
dr
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 13
where the coordinate r
is deﬁned in (30). In this formula the term proportional to
ε can have nonsingular behaviour for a corresponding class of polarizations λ
4
, (see
(20)). Even the explicit form of the integral depends on the type of polarizations
η
3
(r, ϕ
0
) and n
1[1,2]
(r), which results in some small deviations of the nullgeodesics,
we may conclude that for an ingoing nullray the coordinate time t increases from
−∞to +∞as r decreases from +∞to r
1
+
, decreases from +∞to −∞as r further
decreases from r
1
+
to r
1
−
, and increases again from −∞to a ﬁnite limit as r decreses
from r
1
−
to zero. We have a similar behaviour as for the Reissner–Nordstromsolution
but with some additional anisotropic contributions being proportional to ε. Here
we also note that as dt/ds tends to +∞ for r →r
1
+
+ 0 and to −∞ as r
−
+ 0, any
radiation received from inﬁnity appear to be inﬁnitely redshifted at the crossing of
the event horizon and inﬁnitely blueshifted at the crossing of the Cauchy horizon.
The mentioned properties of nullgeodesics allow us to conclude that the metric
(18) (equivalently, (25)) with the data (29) and their maximal analytic extension
(31) really deﬁne a black hole static solution which is obtained by anisotropic small
deformations on ε and renormalization by η
3
of the Schwarzchild solution. (For
a corresponding type of deformations the horizon of such black holes is deﬁned
by ellipsoid hypersurfaces.) We call such objects black ellipsoids, or black rotoids.
They exists in the framework of general relativity as certain vacuum solutions of
the Einstein equations deﬁned by static generic oﬀdiagonal metrics and associated
anholonomic frames. This property disinguishes them from similar conﬁgurations of
Reissner–Norstrom type (which are static electrovacuum solutions of the Einstein–
Maxwell equations) and of Kerr type rotating conﬁgurations with ellipsoid horizon,
also deﬁned by oﬀdiagonal vacuum metrics. Here we emphasized that the spherical
coordinate system is associated to a holonomic frame which is a trivial case of the
anholonomic bases (our case).
6. Conclusions
We proved that there are such small, nonlinear gravitational polarization, static
deformations of the Schwarschild black hole solution (for instance, to some resolu
tion ellipsoid like conﬁgurations) which preserve the horizon and geodesic beha
viour, but slightly deform the spherical constructions. This means that we may
state such parameters of the exact solutions of vacuum Einstein equations deﬁned
by oﬀdiagonal metrics with ellipsoid symmetry, constructed in Refs. 1, 2 and 7, as
the solutions which deﬁne static ellipsoid black hole conﬁgurations.
The new class of static ellipsoidal black hole metrics possesses a number of
similarities with the Reissner–Nordstrom metric: The parameter of ellipsoidal
deformation may be considered as an eﬀective electromagnetic charge induced by
oﬀdiagonal vacuum gravitational interactions. Eﬀective electromagnetic charges
and Reissner–Nordstrom metrics, induced by interactions in the bulk of extra
dimension gravity, were considered recently in brane gravity.
16
In this paper (see
also Refs. 7) we proved that such Reissner–Nordstrom like ellipsoid black hole
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
14 S. I. Vacaru
conﬁgurations may be constructed even in the framework of vacuum Einstein
gravity if oﬀdiagonal metrics and anholonomic frames are taken into consideration.
We emphasize that the static ellipsoid black holes possess spherical topology and
satisfy the principle of topological censorship.
15
They are also compatible with the
black hole uniqueness theorems.
17
At asymptotics, at least for a very small eccen
tricity, such metrics transforms into the usual Schwarzschild one. We note that the
stability of static ellipsoid black holes can be proved similarly by considering small
perturbations of the spherical black holes.
18
(On the stability of the Schwarzschild
solution see details in Ref. 14.)
It is interesting to compare the oﬀdiagonal ellipsoidal metrics with those de
scribing the distorted diagonal black hole solutions (see the vacuum case in Ref. 19,
and an extension to the case of nonvanishing electric ﬁelds
20
). In our ellipsoidal
cases the distorsion of spacetime is caused by some anisotropic oﬀdiagonal terms
being nontrivial in some regions but in the case of “pure diagonal” distorsions
one treats such eﬀects following the fact that the vacuum Einstein equations are
not satisﬁed in some regions due to the presence of matter. As we emphasized in
the introduction section, the oﬀdiagonal gravity may model some gravitymatter
like interactions (like in Kaluza–Klein theory, for some very particular conﬁgura
tions and topological compactiﬁcations) but, in general, the oﬀdiagonal vacuum
gravitational dynamics cannot be associated to any eﬀective matter dynamics in
a holonomic gravitational background. So, we may consider the anholonomic ellip
soidal deformations of the Schwarzschild metric to be some kind of anisotropic
oﬀdiagonal distorsions modeled by certain vacuum gravitational ﬁelds with the
distorsion parameteres (equivalently, vacuum gravitational polarizations) depend
ing both on radial and angular coordinates. In general, both classes of oﬀdiagonal
anisotropic and “pure” diagonal distorsions (like that in Refs. 19) result in solutions
which are not asymptotically ﬂat. However, it is possible to ﬁnd asymptotically ﬂat
extensions, as it was shown in this paper, even for ellipsoidal conﬁgurations by
introducing the corresponding oﬀdiagonal terms (the asymptotic conditions for
the diagonal distorsions are discussed in Ref. 20. To satisfy such conditions one has
to include some additional matter ﬁelds in the exterior portion of spacetime).
Using the methods elaborated and developed in Refs. 1, 3 and 7, and in this
paper, we can construct oﬀdiagonal ellipsoidal extensions of the already diagonally
disturbed Schwarzschild metric (see the metric (3.7) from Ref. 20). Such anholo
nomic deformations would contain in the diagonal limit conﬁgurations with ε →0
but η
3
= 1. For such conﬁgurations the function η
3
has to be related in the corre
sponding limits with the values ¯ γ
D
,
¯
ψ
D
and A from Ref. 20. We remark that there
are diﬀerent classes of ellipsoidal deformations of the Schwarschild metric which
result in a vacuum conﬁguration. The conditions ε → 0 and η
3
= 1 select just
the limit of the usual radial Schwarschild asymptotics without any (and possible)
additional diagonal distorsions.
The deformation parameter ε eﬀectively seems to put an “electric charge” on
the black hole which is of gravitational oﬀdiagonal/anholonomic in origin. It can
October 22, 2002 14:14 WSPC/142IJMPD 00272
Horizons and Geodesics of Black Ellipsoids 15
describe eﬀectively both positive and negative gravitational polarizations (even
some repulsive gravitational eﬀects). This is not surprising because the coeﬃcients
of an anisotropic black hole are similar to those of the Reissner–Nordstrem solution
only with respect to the corresponding anholonomic frames which are subjected to
some constraints (anholonomy conditions). Intuitively, we may compare such eﬀects
with those from the usual Newton gravity: a ball falls directly on the Earth but it
can run under an angle inside a tube because of constraints imposed at the bound
ary (by anholonomic frames in general relativity we may model a more sophisticate
behaviour with locally anisotropic gravitational polarizations and even repulsion).
For the ellipsoidal metrics with Schwarzschild asymptotics, the ellipsoidal char
acter could result in some observational eﬀects in the vicinity of the horizon (for
instance, the scattering of particles on a static ellipsoid; we can compute anisotropic
matter accretion eﬀects on an ellipsoidal black hole put in the center of a galac
tic being of ellipsoidal or another conﬁguration). A point of further investigations
could be the anisotropic ellipsoidal collapse when both the matter and spacetime
are of ellipsoidal generic oﬀdiagonal symmetry (theoretical and computational in
vestigations were performed only for rotoids with anisotropic matter and particular
classes of perturbations of the Schwarzshild solutions
21
). For very small eccentric
ities, we may not have any observable eﬀects like perihelion shift or light bending
if we restrict our investigations only to the Schwarzshild–Newton asymptotics.
Finally, we present some comments on mechanics and thermodynamics of ellip
soidal black holes. For the static black ellipsoids with ﬂat asymptotics we can
compute the area of the ellipsoidal horizon, associate an entropy and develop a
corresponding black ellipsoid thermodynamics. But this would be a very rough
approximation because, in general, we are dealing with oﬀdiagonal metrics
depending anisotropically on two/theree coordinates. Such solutions are with
anholonomically deformed Killing horizons and should be described by a thermo
dynamics (in general, both nonequilibrium and irreversible) of black ellipsoids self
consistently embedded into an oﬀdiagonal anisotropic gravitational vacuum. This
is a ground for numerous new conceptual issues to be developed and related to
anisotropic black holes and the anisotropic kinetics and thermodynamics
2
as well
as to a framework of isolated anisotropic horizons
22
which is a matter of our further
investigations.
Acknowledgements
The work is supported by a NATO/Portugal fellowship at CENTRA, Instituto
Superior Tecnico, Lisbon. The author is very grateful to the referee who pointed to
very important references and subjects for research and discussion.
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