You are on page 1of 54

TRAVERSE SURVEY

Basic Principle of Surveying

• The ruling principle of surveying is:

“To work from whole to part and not form part

to whole”.
• First; control points are established in the area to
be surveyed. This can be done through a network
of triangles or traversing.
• Control points for the „primary network‟ are
provided with the help of instruments of highest
precision and by adopting well established
methods of observation.
Basic Principle of Surveying
• If these control points are quite far apart and it is difficult to
plot details, the primary network can be further divided into a
network of „secondary triangles. This work is conducted by
less precise methods & instruments. In the end „survey of
details‟ is conducted by taking these established control
points as the base points. The underlying idea is to minimize
the accumulation of the error and to localize the error.
• If survey is made to expand outward from central point, the
minor errors will become so magnified as to become
uncontrollable at the end.
• But if the basic control points are established with highest
precision, minor errors, if any, are further localized between
the small networks in which the work is conducted.
Traverse Surveying
•A traverse surveying is one in which the
framework consists of connected lines whose
lengths are measured with a chain or tape and
the directions are determined with an angular
instrument.

1. Open Traverse
2. Closed Traverse
Open Traverse:
• A traverse is said to be an open traverse when it does not
form a closed polygon.

• It consists of a series of lines extending in the same general

it does not start and end at points whose positions on plan
are known.
• It is suitable for the survey of a long narrow strip of country
e.g the roads, canals or railways etc.
Closed Traverse:
• A traverse is said to be closed when a complete circuit is
made i.e. when it returns to the starting point forming a
closed polygon as shown in figure. Or when it begins and
ends at points whose positions on the plan are known.

• Sum of angles for a closed traverse = (2N ± 4) 900

• Where N = No. of sides of closed traverse.
• +ve sign for exterior angles and –ve sign for the interior
angles.
Bearing of a line:
• The direction of a survey may be defined by the horizontal
angle between the line and the fixed line of reference
(called the meridian) called the bearing of a line.

• “It is the horizontal angle which a line makes with some

reference direction. Reference Direction is called
meridian.”

• The reference direction employed in a survey may be

1. A true or geographic meridian
2. A magnetic meridian
3. An arbitrary or assumed meridian
1. True or Geographic Meridian:
• The true or geographic meridian is a line in which
the plane passing through the given point and the
north and south poles intersect the surface of
earth.
• The direction of a true meridian is invariable. The
true meridians through the various stations are
not parallel, but converge to the poles.
• However, for ordinary small surveys, they are
assumed to be parallel to each other.
• The horizontal angle between the true meridian
and the line is called true bearing of a line. It is
also known as Azimuth.
2. Magnetic Meridian:
• The magnetic meridian is the direction indicated
by a freely suspended and properly balanced
magnetic needle, unaffected by the local
attractive forces.

• The angle which the line makes with the magnetic

meridian is called a magnetic meridian of a line or
simply bearing of the line.
3. Arbitrary or Assumed Meridian:
• The arbitrary or assumed meridian is usually the
direction from a survey station to some well
defined permanent object or the first line of a
survey.

• The angle between this meridian and a line is

known as arbitrary or assumed Bearing.
Designations of Bearings:
• The following two systems are commonly used to
express the bearings:

1. Whole Circle Bearing System (WCB)

Whole Circle Bearing System:
• In the whole circle bearing system (W.C.B), the
bearing of a line is always measured clockwise
from the north point of the reference meridian
towards the line right round the circle.
• The angle measured is called whole circle
bearing (W.C.B).
• It may have any values between 00 and 3600.
• The bearing observed with the prismatic compass
are the whole circle bearings.
• In a Quadrantal bearing system, the bearing of a
line is measured clockwise or anticlockwise from
the north or the south point whichever is nearer
the line, towards the east or west. In this system,
the bearing is reckoned from 00 and 900 in each

• Thebearings observed with the surveyor‟s

compass are the quadrantal bearing .
To find QB from WCB
N
A

35O15’

W E
P

S
Solution :
Line PA lies in 1st quadrant.
Quadrant Bearing bearing of PA = N 35o 15’ E
To find QB from WCB

W P E
130O0’

50O
B
S
Solution :
Line PB lies in 2nd quadrant.
Quadrant Bearing of PB = S 50o 00’ E
To find QB from WCB
N

P E
210O15’

C 30O15’
S
Solution :
Line PC lies in 3rd quadrant.
Quadrant Bearing of PC = S 30o 15’ W
To find QB from WCB
N

D
69O15’

W E
P
290O45’

Solution :
Line PD lies in 4th quadrant.
Quadrant Bearing bearing of PD = N 69o 15’ W
To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PA
• Ans: Line PA is in the first quadrant. Its WCB is 35o15’

N
A
35o15’

E
W P

S
To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PB
• Line PB is in second quadrant. Its WCB is 180o00’-50o00’ =
130o00’
N

130o00’

E
W P

B
S
To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PC
• Line PC is third quadrant. Its WCB is 180o00’+30o15’ =
210o15’
N

E
W P

210o15’
B
c S
To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PD
• Line PD is in fourth quadrant. Its WCB is 360o00’-69o15’=
291o15’ D
N
291o45’

E
W P

S
Reduced Bearings:
• When the whole circle bearing of a line exceed
900, it may be reduced to the corresponding
angle less than 900, which has the same
numerical values of the trigonometric functions.
The angle is known as the reduced bearing (R.B).
In order to obtain the reduced bearings o the
lines, the following table may be used:
Case W.C.B between Rule of R.B Quadrant
I 0o and 90o = W.C.B N-E
II 90o and 180o = 180o - W.C.B S-E
III 180o and 270o = W.C.B - 180o S-W
IV 270o and 360o = 360o - W.C.B N-W
Fore and Back Bearing:
• Every line has two bearings, one observed at each
end of the line. The bearing of the line which is the
direction of the progress of survey is called fore or
forward bearing (F.B), while its bearing in the
opposite direction is known as back or reverse
bearing (B.B).
• It may be noted that the fore and back bearings of
a line differ exactly by 180o. In the whole circle
bearing system, the back bearing of a line may be
obtained from the fore bearing by using the
following relation:
• Back Bearing = Fore Bearing ± 180o
Fore and Back Bearing

• When the fore bearing is less than 180o, then use

plus sign, and if it exceeds 180o, use minus sign.

• In the quadrantal bearing system, the fore and

back bearings are numerically equal but with
opposite letters. For example, if the fore bearing
of a line is N 40o 25’ E, then the back bearing of a
line is S40o25’W.
To find Back Bearing from Fore Bearing

Back Bearing =218o15’

38o15’

P
To find Back Bearing from Fore Bearing

bearing.
R

210o15’

Back Bearing =30o30’

S
Measured and Calculated Bearing:
• Bearings observed in the field with the help of magnetic
compass are called observed bearings of that line.

• If we measure the angle between this line and another

line at this point of intersection, the bearings of second
line can be calculated, which is called the calculated
bearing of second line.
Problem:
• A,B,C,D and E are five survey stations of an closed
traverse. Following are the interior angles :
• ∟A = 78o 10' 40''
• ∟B = 165o 30' 20''
• ∟C = 85o 10' 20''
• ∟D = 120o 45' 20''
• ∟E = 90o 18' 20''
• If the observed bearing of AB is 110o 20' 40'', then
compute the bearings of remaining sides?
Solution
• Since observed bearing of AB is 110o 20' 40'' and we have
to find bearings of:
BC, CD, DE, & EA.

• Bearing of BC = Bearing of BA + angle ABC

= B.B of BA + angle ABC
= F.B of AB ± 180o + angle ABC
= 110o 20' 40'' + 180o + 165o 30' 20''
= 455o 51' > 360o
= 95o 51' (i.e. 455o 51' – 360o )
Solution
• Bearing of CD = Bearing of CB + angle BCD
= B.B of CB + angle BCD
= F.B of BC ± 180o + angle BCD
= 95o 51' + 180o + 85o 10' 20''
= 361o 1' 20'' > 360o
= 1o 1' 20'' (i.e. 361o 1' 20'' – 360o)

• Bearing of DE = Bearing of DC + angle CDE

= B.B of DC + angle CDE
= F.B of CD ± 180o + angle CDE
= 1o 1' 20'' + 180o + 120o 45' 20''
= 301o 46' 40''
Solution
• Bearing of EA = Bearing of ED + angle DEA
= B.B of ED + angle DEA
= F.B of DE ± 180o + angle DEA
= 301o 46' 40'' – 180o + 90o 18' 20''
= 212o 5' 0''
Latitude

OR

meridian”

AB' is the latitude of AB.

Lat. (ab) = Lcosθ
Departure
• “Departure of a line is the length of its projection along a
line perpendicular to meridian”

AB'' is the departure of AB.

Dep. (ab) = Lsinθ
Problem:
• Calculate the latitude & departure from the following
observations?

LINE LENGTH (L) BEARINGS (θ) BEARINGS IN LATITUDE DEPARTURE

‘W.C.B’ ‘Lcos θ’ ‘Lsin θ’

DA 360.0 S 60o 30' W 240o 30'

Solution
LINE LENGTH (L) BEARINGS (θ) BEARINGS IN LATITUDE DEPARTURE
‘W.C.B’ ‘Lcos θ’ ‘Lsin θ’

DA 360.0 S 60o 30' W 240o 30' --do-- --do--

CLOSING ERROR OR ERROR OF
ENCLOSURE:
• When there is a gap between the starting point of the first
line and the finishing point of last line. This gap is called
the “error of enclosure”.
Problem:
• Following data was calculated in connection with a closed
traverse PQRS.

PQ 782 140o12'

QR 1980 36o24'

RS 378 338o48'

SP ? ?

Calculate the missing length & bearing of SP?

Solution
LINE LENGTH (L) BEARINGS (θ) LATITUDE DEPARTURE
‘Lcos θ’ ‘Lsin θ’

RS 378 338o48' 352.418 -136.694

SP ? ? Lat.(sp) Dep.(sp)
Σ = 1345.31 + Σ = 1538.84 +
Lat.(sp) Dep.(sp)

Now;
Lat. (sp) = -1345.31
& Dep. (sp) = -1538.84
Solution
• Since we know that:

Length of SP = √ (Σ Lat.)2 + (Σ Dep.)2
OR Length of SP = √ (Lat.(sp))2 + (Dep.(sp))2

• Thus on substituting the vales in the above equation, we

get;
• Length of SP = 2043.988
• Also;
θ = tan-1 (Σ dep. / Σ Lat.) = tan-1 (1538.84 / 1345.31)
* S θ W = 48o50'20''
Solution
• In W.C.B, we have
• θ = 180o + 48o50'20''
• θ = --do--

• *NOTE:

• Why we have written “S θ W” and not only “θ”, because

value of SP-Latitude is negative and we know that south
& west directions are taken as negative.
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Introduction
 Almost all surveying requires some calculations to
reduce measurements into a more useful form for
determining distance, earthwork volumes, land areas,
etc.
 A traverse is developed by measuring the distance and
angles between points that found the boundary of a site
 We will learn several different techniques to compute the
area inside a traverse

Surveying - Traverse Distance - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area
 A simple method that is useful for rough area estimates
is a graphical method

 In this method, the B

traverse is plotted to scale
on graph paper, and the
number of squares inside A
the traverse are counted
C

Distance - Traverse Distance - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area Methods of Computing Area
B B
1 1
a
b Area ABC  ac sin  a
b Area ABD  ad sin 

2 2
A A

c
C C 1
d Area BCD  bc sin 
c 2
D

Area ABCD  Area ABD  Area BCD

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Distance - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area Balancing Angles
B b C  Before the areas of a piece of land can be computed, it is
1 necessary to have a closed traverse
a
c Area ABE  ae sin 
2  The interior angles of a closed traverse should total:
A

D 1 (n - 2)(180°)
e Area CDE  cd sin 
d 2 where n is the number of sides of the traverse
E

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Angles Balancing Angles
A  A surveying heuristic is that the total angle should not
Error of closure vary from the correct value by more than the square root
of the number of angles measured times the precision of
the instrument

B  For example an eight-sided traverse using a 1’ transit,

D the maximum error is:

1' 8  2.83 '  3'

Angle containing mistake
C

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Angles Latitudes and Departures
 If the angles do not close by a reasonable amount,  The closure of a traverse is checked by computing the
mistakes in measuring have been made latitudes and departures of each of it sides

 If an error of 1’ is made, the surveyor may correct one N N

angle by 1’ B
Latitude AB
 If an error of 2’ is made, the surveyor may correct two Bearing 
Departure CD
angles by 1’ each W E W E

 If an error of 3’ is made in a 12 sided traverse, the Bearing  A Departure AB C

surveyor may correct each angle by 3’/12 or 15” Latitude CD
D
S S
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures Error of Closure
 The latitude of a line is its projection on the north–south  Consider the following statement:
meridian
“If start at one corner of a closed traverse and walk its lines
N
B  The departure of a line is far north as you walked south and as far east as you have
its projection on the east– walked west”
Latitude AB
west line
W E
 A northeasterly bearing has:
 Therefore  latitudes = 0 and  departures = 0
Bearing  A Departure AB + latitude and
+ departure

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Error of Closure Error of Closure
 When latitudes are added together, the resulting error is  If the measured bearings and distances are plotted on a
called the error in latitudes (EL) sheet of paper, the figure will not close because of EL
and ED
 The error resulting from adding departures together is Error of closure
B ED
called the error in departures (ED)
 EL    ED 
EL 2 2
Eclosure 

A Eclosure
C Precision 
perimeter
 Typical precision: 1/5,000 for rural land, 1/7,500 for
suburban land, and 1/10,000 for urban land
D

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example Latitudes and Departures - Example
A
N
N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W
Departure AB
234.58’ 189.53’
W  (189.53 ft.)sin(615 ')  20.63 ft.
B A
W E
E
S 29° 38’ E
S 6° 15’ W
142.39’ Latitude AB
N 12° 24’ W 175.18’ 189.53 ft.
175.18’ S  (189.53 ft.)cos(615 ')  188.40 ft.
D N 81° 18’ W B
C S
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example Latitudes and Departures - Example
Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure
N degree m inutes
AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634
Departure BC BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617
CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504
DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576
E  (175.18 ft.)sin(2938 ')  86.62 ft. EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933
W B E 939.46 -0.079 -0.163

175.18 ft.
Latitude BC
S 29° 38’ E
S  (175.18 ft.)cos(2938 ')  152.27 ft.
C
S

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example Group Example Problem 1
Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure A
degree m inutes S 77° 10’ E
AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634
BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617 N 29° 16’ E 651.2 ft.
CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504
DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576 B
EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933 660.5 ft.
939.46 -0.079 -0.163

S 38° 43’ W
 EL    ED    0.079    0.163   0.182 ft.
2 2 2 2
Eclosure 
D 491.0 ft.
826.7 ft.
Eclosure 0.182 ft. 1 N 64° 09’ W
Precision   
perimeter 939.46 ft. 5,176 C

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 1 Balancing Latitudes and Departures

 Balancing the latitudes and departures of a traverse

attempts to obtain more probable values for the locations
of the corners of the traverse
Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure
degree m inutes  A popular method for balancing errors is called the
AB
BC
S
S
77
38
10
43
E
W
651.2
826.7
compass or the Bowditch rule
CD N 64 9 W 491.0
DE N 29 16 E 660.5  The “Bowditch rule” as devised by Nathaniel
Bowditch, surveyor, navigator and mathematician, as
a proposed solution to the problem of compass
traverse adjustment, which was posed in the
American journal The Analyst in 1807.
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W

1) angles and distances have same error
2) errors are accidental 234.58 ft. 189.53 ft.

B
 The rule states:
E
S 29° 38’ E
“The error in latitude (departure) of a line is to the 142.39 ft.
total error in latitude (departure) as the length of the N 12° 24’ W 175.18 ft.
line is the perimeter of the traverse” 175.18 ft.
D N 81° 18’ W
C

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example Latitudes and Departures - Example
 Recall the results of our example problem  Recall the results of our example problem

Side Bearing Length (ft) Latitude Departure Side Bearing Length (ft) Latitude Departure
degree m inutes degree m inutes
AB S 6 15 W 189.53 AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634
BC S 29 38 E 175.18 BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617
CD N 81 18 W 197.78 CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504
DE N 12 24 W 142.39 DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576
EA N 42 59 E 234.58 EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933
939.46 -0.079 -0.163

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures
N N
Latitude AB Departure AB

S  (189.53 ft.)cos(6 15 ')  188.40 ft.

W  (189.53 ft.)sin(615 ')  20.63 ft.
W A E W A E
Correction in Lat AB LAB Correction in Dep AB LAB
 
S 6° 15’ W EL perimeter S 6° 15’ W ED perimeter
189.53 ft. EL  LAB  189.53 ft. ED  LAB 
Correction in Lat AB  Correction in Dep AB 
perimeter perimeter
B B
S S

0.079 ft. 189.53 ft. 0.163 ft. 189.53 ft.

Correction in Lat AB    0.016 ft. Correction in Dep AB    0.033 ft.
939.46 ft. 939.46 ft.
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures
N N
Latitude BC Departure BC

S  (175.18 ft.)cos(29 38 ')  152.27 ft.

E  (175.18 ft.)sin(2938 ')  86.62 ft.
W B E W B E
Correction in LatBC LBC Correction in DepBC LBC
 
EL perimeter ED perimeter
175.18 ft. 175.18 ft.
S 29° 38’ E EL  LBC  S 29° 38’ E ED  LBC 
Correction in LatBC  Correction in DepBC 
perimeter perimeter
C C
S S
0.079 ft. 175.18 ft. 0.163 ft. 175.18 ft.
Correction in LatBC    0.015 ft. Correction in DepBC    0.030 ft.
939.46 ft. 939.46 ft.

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

Corrections Balanced Corrections Balanced

Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure

189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601
175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648
197.78 29.916 -195.504 197.78 29.916 -195.504
142.39 139.068 -30.576 142.39 139.068 -30.576
234.58 171.607 159.933 234.58 171.607 159.933
939.46 -0.079 -0.163 939.46 -0.079 -0.163

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures
Combining the latitude and departure calculations with
Corrections Balanced
Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure corrections gives:
Corrections Balanced
189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601
Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure
175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648 degree m inutes
197.78 29.916 -195.504 0.017 0.034 29.933 -195.470 AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601
142.39 139.068 -30.576 0.012 0.025 139.080 -30.551 BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648
CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504 0.017 0.034 29.933 -195.470
234.58 171.607 159.933 0.020 0.041 171.627 159.974 DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576 0.012 0.025 139.080 -30.551
939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000 EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933 0.020 0.041 171.627 159.974
939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000

No error in corrected latitudes and departures

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 2 Group Example Problem 3
Balance the latitudes and departures for the following In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will
traverse. have to balance data collected in the following form:

Corrections Balanced
N 69° 53’ E B
Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure A
N 51° 23’ 713.93 ft. 105° 39’
600.0 450.00 339.00 606.06 ft.

450.0 -285.00 259.50

750.0 -164.46 -599.22
781.18 ft. 78° 11’
1800.0 0.54 -0.72
C
124° 47’
391.27 ft.
D

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3 Calculating Traverse Area
In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will  The best-known procedure for calculating land areas is
have to balance data collected in the following form: the double meridian distance (DMD) method
Corrections Balanced
Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure  The meridian distance of a line is the east–west
AB N
degree m inutes
69 53 E 713.93 distance from the midpoint of the line to the reference
BC
CD
606.06
391.27
meridian
 The meridian distance is positive (+) to the east and
DA 781.18

Eclosure = ft.

1
Precision =

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area Calculating Traverse Area
N A  The most westerly and easterly points of a traverse may
be found using the departures of the traverse
N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W
234.58 ft. 189.53 ft.
 Begin by establishing a arbitrary reference line and using
the departure values of each point in the traverse to
B
determine the far westerly point
E
S 29° 38’ E
142.39 ft.
N 12° 24’ W 175.18 ft.
Reference
175.18 ft.
Meridian
D N 81° 18’ W
C
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area Calculating Traverse Area
Corrections Balanced N A
Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure

189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601

175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648
Reference N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W
197.78 29.916 -195.504 0.017 0.034 29.933 -195.470
142.39 139.068 -30.576 0.012 0.025 139.080 -30.551 Meridian 234.58 ft.
234.58 171.607 159.933 0.020 0.041 171.627 159.974 189.53 ft.
939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000
B
-20.601 B A E
86.648
B C 142.39 ft. S 29° 38’ E
-195.470
D C N 12° 24’ W 175.18 ft.
-30.551 E D 175.18 ft.
159.974 Point E is the farthest D N 81° 18’ W
E A C
to the west

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations
The meridian distance of  The meridian distance of line AB
N A line EA is: Meridian distance is equal to:
of line AB
N the meridian distance of EA
N A + ½ the departure of line EA
B + ½ departure of AB
A
E

 The DMD of line AB is twice the

Reference B meridian distance of line AB
Meridian E
D
C E

DMD of line EA is the

departure of line

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations
Balanced
Meridian distance The DMD of any side is equal to
of line AB the DMD of the last side plus the Side Latitude Departure
N DMD
A
departure of the last side plus the
departure of the present side AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601
BC -152.253 86.648
CD 29.933 -195.470
B DE 139.080 -30.551
E EA 171.627 159.974

The DMD of line AB is departure of line AB

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations
Balanced Balanced
Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure
DMD DMD
AB -188.388 -20.601 + -20.601 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601
BC -152.253 86.648 + 45.447 BC -152.253 86.648 + 45.447
CD 29.933 -195.470 CD 29.933 -195.470 + -63.375
DE 139.080 -30.551 DE 139.080 -30.551
EA 171.627 159.974 EA 171.627 159.974

The DMD of line BC is DMD of line AB + departure of line AB The DMD of line CD is DMD of line BC + departure of line
+ the departure of line BC BC + the departure of line CD

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations
Balanced Balanced
Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure
DMD DMD
AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601
BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447
CD 29.933 -195.470 + -63.375 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375
DE 139.080 -30.551 + -289.397 DE 139.080 -30.551 + -289.397
EA 171.627 159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 + -159.974

The DMD of line DE is DMD of line CD + departure of line The DMD of line EA is DMD of line DE + departure of line DE
CD + the departure of line DE + the departure of line EA

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations Traverse Area - Double Area
 The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude
Balanced equal twice the area, or the double area
Side Latitude Departure
DMD Balanced
Side Latitude Departure
AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 DMD Double Areas
BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881
CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447
139.080 -30.551 -289.397 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375
DE
DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397
EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974

Notice that the DMD values can be positive or negative  The double area for line AB equals DMD of line AB times
the latitude of line AB
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area
 The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude  The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude
equal twice the area, or the double area equal twice the area, or the double area
Balanced Balanced
Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure
DMD Double Areas DMD Double Areas
AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881
BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919
CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897
DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397
EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974

 The double area for line BC equals DMD of line BC times  The double area for line CD equals DMD of line CD times
the latitude of line BC the latitude of line CD

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area
 The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude  The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude
equal twice the area, or the double area equal twice the area, or the double area
Balanced Balanced
Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure
DMD Double Areas DMD Double Areas
AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881
BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919
CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897
DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249 DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249
EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 -27,456

 The double area for line DE equals DMD of line DE times  The double area for line EA equals DMD of line EA times
the latitude of line DE the latitude of line EA

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area
 The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude  The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude
equal twice the area, or the double area equal twice the area, or the double area
Balanced Balanced
Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure
DMD Double Areas DMD Double Areas
AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881
BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919
CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897
DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249 DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249
EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 -27,456 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 -27,456
2 Area = -72,641 2 Area = -72,641
36,320 ft.2 36,320 ft.2
1 acre = 43,560 ft.2 Area = 1 acre = 43,560 ft.2 Area =
0.834 acre 0.834 acre
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area
 The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer  The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer
(originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish (originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish
"åker", German acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος "åker", German acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος
(agros). (agros).

 The acre was selected as approximately the amount of  A long narrow strip of land is more efficient to plough than
land tillable by one man behind an ox in one day. a square plot, since the plough does not have to be turned
so often.
 This explains one definition as the area of a rectangle with
sides of length one chain (66 ft.) and one furlong (ten  The word "furlong" itself derives from the fact that it is one
chains or 660 ft.). furrow long.

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area – Example 4
 The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer  Find the area enclosed by the following traverse
(originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish
"åker", German acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος Balanced
(agros). Side Latitude Departure
DMD Double Areas
AB 600.0 200.0
BC 100.0 400.0
CD 0.0 100.0
DE -400.0 -300.0
EA -300.0 -400.0
2 Area =
ft. 2
1 acre = 43,560 ft.2 Area =
acre

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

DPD Calculations Rectangular Coordinates

 The same procedure used for DMD can be used the  Rectangular coordinates are the convenient method
double parallel distances (DPD) are multiplied by the available for describing the horizontal position of survey
balanced departures points
 The parallel distance of a line is the distance from the  With the application of computers, rectangular
midpoint of the line to the reference parallel or east–west
line coordinates are used frequently in engineering projects

 In the US, the x–axis corresponds to the east–west

direction and the y–axis to the north–south direction
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example Rectangular Coordinates Example

In this example, the length of AB is 300 ft. and bearing is In this example, it is assumed that the coordinates of points
shown in the figure below. Determine the coordinates of A and B are known and we want to calculate the latitude and
point B departure for line AB
y Latitude AB =300 ft. cos(4230’) y Coordinates of Point A Latitude AB = y B – y A
B = 221.183 ft. A (100, 300)
Latitude AB = -400 ft.
N 42 30’ E Departure AB =300 ft. sin(4230’)
= 202.677 ft. Departure AB = x B – x A
A
x B = 200 + 202.667 = 402.667 ft. Departure AB = 220 ft.
Coordinates of Point A x B x
(200, 300) y B = 300 + 221.183 = 521.183 ft. Coordinates of Point B
(320, -100)

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example Rectangular Coordinates Example
y
A  x coordinates
Consider our previous example, determine the x and y
coordinates of all the points E B E = 0 ft.

y Balance d A = E + 159.974 = 159.974 ft.

D C x
A Side Latitude De parture
B = A – 20.601 = 139.373 ft.
AB -188.388 -20.601 Balance d
BC -152.253 86.648 Side Latitude De parture C = B + 86.648 = 226.021 ft.
E B
CD 29.933 -195.470
DE 139.080 -30.551 AB -188.388 -20.601 D = C – 195.470 = 30.551 ft.
EA 171.627 159.974 BC -152.253 86.648
D C x CD 29.933 -195.470
E = D – 30.551 = 0 ft.
DE 139.080 -30.551
EA 171.627 159.974

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example Rectangular Coordinates Example
y
A  y coordinates y
A (159.974, 340.640)

E B C = 0 ft.

D = C + 29.933 ft.
D C x
E = D + 139.080 = 169.013 ft. B (139.373, 152.253)
Balance d (0.0, 169.013) E
Side Latitude De parture A = E + 171.627 = 340.640 ft.
AB -188.388 -20.601 B = A –188.388 = 152.252 ft.
BC -152.253 86.648 (30.551, 29.933) D
CD 29.933 -195.470
C = B –152.252 = 0 ft.
DE 139.080 -30.551 C (226.020, 0.0) x
EA 171.627 159.974
Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Surveying - Traverse Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 5 Area Computed by Coordinates
Compute the x and y coordinates from the following 7he coordinate
balanced. method for area computation
Balanced Coordinates y A (159.974, 340.640)
Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Points x y
degree m inutes
AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634 -188.388 -20.601 A 100.000 100.000 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x1
BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617 -152.253 86.648 B
CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504 29.933 -195.470 C
y1 y2 y3 y4 y5 y1
DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576 139.080 -30.551 D B (139.373, 152.253)
EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933 171.627 159.974 E (0.0, 169.013) E
939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000 Twice the area equals:
(30.551, 29.933) D
= x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y4 + x4y5 + x5y1
C (226.020, 0.0) x

- x2y1 – x3y2 – x4y3 – x5y4 – x1y5

Surveying - Traverse
Area Computed by Coordinates Any Questions?
 There is a simple variation of the coordinate
method for area computation
y A (159.974, 340.640)
Twice the area equals:
159.974(152.253) + 139.373(0.0) +
226.020(29.933) + 30.551(169.013) +
B (139.373, 152.253) 0.0(340.640)
(0.0, 169.013) E

- 340.640(139.373) – 152.253(226.020)
- 0.0(30.551) – 29.933(0.0)
(30.551, 29.933) D
– 169.013(159.974)
C (226.020, 0.0) x
= -72,640 ft.2