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You are on page 1of 54

• The ruling principle of surveying is:

to whole”.

• First; control points are established in the area to

be surveyed. This can be done through a network

of triangles or traversing.

• Control points for the „primary network‟ are

provided with the help of instruments of highest

precision and by adopting well established

methods of observation.

Basic Principle of Surveying

• If these control points are quite far apart and it is difficult to

plot details, the primary network can be further divided into a

network of „secondary triangles. This work is conducted by

less precise methods & instruments. In the end „survey of

details‟ is conducted by taking these established control

points as the base points. The underlying idea is to minimize

the accumulation of the error and to localize the error.

• If survey is made to expand outward from central point, the

minor errors will become so magnified as to become

uncontrollable at the end.

• But if the basic control points are established with highest

precision, minor errors, if any, are further localized between

the small networks in which the work is conducted.

Traverse Surveying

•A traverse surveying is one in which the

framework consists of connected lines whose

lengths are measured with a chain or tape and

the directions are determined with an angular

instrument.

1. Open Traverse

2. Closed Traverse

Open Traverse:

• A traverse is said to be an open traverse when it does not

form a closed polygon.

direction and does not return to the starting point. Similarly,

it does not start and end at points whose positions on plan

are known.

• It is suitable for the survey of a long narrow strip of country

e.g the roads, canals or railways etc.

Closed Traverse:

• A traverse is said to be closed when a complete circuit is

made i.e. when it returns to the starting point forming a

closed polygon as shown in figure. Or when it begins and

ends at points whose positions on the plan are known.

• Where N = No. of sides of closed traverse.

• +ve sign for exterior angles and –ve sign for the interior

angles.

Bearing of a line:

• The direction of a survey may be defined by the horizontal

angle between the line and the fixed line of reference

(called the meridian) called the bearing of a line.

reference direction. Reference Direction is called

meridian.”

1. A true or geographic meridian

2. A magnetic meridian

3. An arbitrary or assumed meridian

1. True or Geographic Meridian:

• The true or geographic meridian is a line in which

the plane passing through the given point and the

north and south poles intersect the surface of

earth.

• The direction of a true meridian is invariable. The

true meridians through the various stations are

not parallel, but converge to the poles.

• However, for ordinary small surveys, they are

assumed to be parallel to each other.

• The horizontal angle between the true meridian

and the line is called true bearing of a line. It is

also known as Azimuth.

2. Magnetic Meridian:

• The magnetic meridian is the direction indicated

by a freely suspended and properly balanced

magnetic needle, unaffected by the local

attractive forces.

meridian is called a magnetic meridian of a line or

simply bearing of the line.

3. Arbitrary or Assumed Meridian:

• The arbitrary or assumed meridian is usually the

direction from a survey station to some well

defined permanent object or the first line of a

survey.

known as arbitrary or assumed Bearing.

Designations of Bearings:

• The following two systems are commonly used to

express the bearings:

2. Quadrantal Bearing System (QB)

Whole Circle Bearing System:

• In the whole circle bearing system (W.C.B), the

bearing of a line is always measured clockwise

from the north point of the reference meridian

towards the line right round the circle.

• The angle measured is called whole circle

bearing (W.C.B).

• It may have any values between 00 and 3600.

• The bearing observed with the prismatic compass

are the whole circle bearings.

Quadrantal Bearing System:

• In a Quadrantal bearing system, the bearing of a

line is measured clockwise or anticlockwise from

the north or the south point whichever is nearer

the line, towards the east or west. In this system,

the bearing is reckoned from 00 and 900 in each

quadrant.

compass are the quadrantal bearing .

To find QB from WCB

N

A

35O15’

W E

P

S

Solution :

Line PA lies in 1st quadrant.

Quadrant Bearing bearing of PA = N 35o 15’ E

To find QB from WCB

W P E

130O0’

50O

B

S

Solution :

Line PB lies in 2nd quadrant.

Quadrant Bearing of PB = S 50o 00’ E

To find QB from WCB

N

P E

210O15’

C 30O15’

S

Solution :

Line PC lies in 3rd quadrant.

Quadrant Bearing of PC = S 30o 15’ W

To find QB from WCB

N

D

69O15’

W E

P

290O45’

Solution :

Line PD lies in 4th quadrant.

Quadrant Bearing bearing of PD = N 69o 15’ W

To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PA

• Ans: Line PA is in the first quadrant. Its WCB is 35o15’

N

A

35o15’

E

W P

S

To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PB

• Line PB is in second quadrant. Its WCB is 180o00’-50o00’ =

130o00’

N

130o00’

E

W P

B

S

To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PC

• Line PC is third quadrant. Its WCB is 180o00’+30o15’ =

210o15’

N

E

W P

210o15’

B

c S

To find Whole Circle Bearing from QB

• Qn: PD

• Line PD is in fourth quadrant. Its WCB is 360o00’-69o15’=

291o15’ D

N

291o45’

E

W P

S

Reduced Bearings:

• When the whole circle bearing of a line exceed

900, it may be reduced to the corresponding

angle less than 900, which has the same

numerical values of the trigonometric functions.

The angle is known as the reduced bearing (R.B).

In order to obtain the reduced bearings o the

lines, the following table may be used:

Case W.C.B between Rule of R.B Quadrant

I 0o and 90o = W.C.B N-E

II 90o and 180o = 180o - W.C.B S-E

III 180o and 270o = W.C.B - 180o S-W

IV 270o and 360o = 360o - W.C.B N-W

Fore and Back Bearing:

• Every line has two bearings, one observed at each

end of the line. The bearing of the line which is the

direction of the progress of survey is called fore or

forward bearing (F.B), while its bearing in the

opposite direction is known as back or reverse

bearing (B.B).

• It may be noted that the fore and back bearings of

a line differ exactly by 180o. In the whole circle

bearing system, the back bearing of a line may be

obtained from the fore bearing by using the

following relation:

• Back Bearing = Fore Bearing ± 180o

Fore and Back Bearing

plus sign, and if it exceeds 180o, use minus sign.

back bearings are numerically equal but with

opposite letters. For example, if the fore bearing

of a line is N 40o 25’ E, then the back bearing of a

line is S40o25’W.

To find Back Bearing from Fore Bearing

38o15’

P

To find Back Bearing from Fore Bearing

bearing.

R

210o15’

S

Measured and Calculated Bearing:

• Bearings observed in the field with the help of magnetic

compass are called observed bearings of that line.

line at this point of intersection, the bearings of second

line can be calculated, which is called the calculated

bearing of second line.

Problem:

• A,B,C,D and E are five survey stations of an closed

traverse. Following are the interior angles :

• ∟A = 78o 10' 40''

• ∟B = 165o 30' 20''

• ∟C = 85o 10' 20''

• ∟D = 120o 45' 20''

• ∟E = 90o 18' 20''

• If the observed bearing of AB is 110o 20' 40'', then

compute the bearings of remaining sides?

Solution

• Since observed bearing of AB is 110o 20' 40'' and we have

to find bearings of:

BC, CD, DE, & EA.

= B.B of BA + angle ABC

= F.B of AB ± 180o + angle ABC

= 110o 20' 40'' + 180o + 165o 30' 20''

= 455o 51' > 360o

= 95o 51' (i.e. 455o 51' – 360o )

Solution

• Bearing of CD = Bearing of CB + angle BCD

= B.B of CB + angle BCD

= F.B of BC ± 180o + angle BCD

= 95o 51' + 180o + 85o 10' 20''

= 361o 1' 20'' > 360o

= 1o 1' 20'' (i.e. 361o 1' 20'' – 360o)

= B.B of DC + angle CDE

= F.B of CD ± 180o + angle CDE

= 1o 1' 20'' + 180o + 120o 45' 20''

= 301o 46' 40''

Solution

• Bearing of EA = Bearing of ED + angle DEA

= B.B of ED + angle DEA

= F.B of DE ± 180o + angle DEA

= 301o 46' 40'' – 180o + 90o 18' 20''

= 212o 5' 0''

Latitude

OR

meridian”

Lat. (ab) = Lcosθ

Departure

• “Departure of a line is the length of its projection along a

line perpendicular to meridian”

Dep. (ab) = Lsinθ

Problem:

• Calculate the latitude & departure from the following

observations?

‘W.C.B’ ‘Lcos θ’ ‘Lsin θ’

Solution

LINE LENGTH (L) BEARINGS (θ) BEARINGS IN LATITUDE DEPARTURE

‘W.C.B’ ‘Lcos θ’ ‘Lsin θ’

CLOSING ERROR OR ERROR OF

ENCLOSURE:

• When there is a gap between the starting point of the first

line and the finishing point of last line. This gap is called

the “error of enclosure”.

Problem:

• Following data was calculated in connection with a closed

traverse PQRS.

PQ 782 140o12'

QR 1980 36o24'

RS 378 338o48'

SP ? ?

Solution

LINE LENGTH (L) BEARINGS (θ) LATITUDE DEPARTURE

‘Lcos θ’ ‘Lsin θ’

SP ? ? Lat.(sp) Dep.(sp)

Σ = 1345.31 + Σ = 1538.84 +

Lat.(sp) Dep.(sp)

Now;

Lat. (sp) = -1345.31

& Dep. (sp) = -1538.84

Solution

• Since we know that:

•

Length of SP = √ (Σ Lat.)2 + (Σ Dep.)2

OR Length of SP = √ (Lat.(sp))2 + (Dep.(sp))2

get;

• Length of SP = 2043.988

• Also;

θ = tan-1 (Σ dep. / Σ Lat.) = tan-1 (1538.84 / 1345.31)

* S θ W = 48o50'20''

Solution

• In W.C.B, we have

• θ = 180o + 48o50'20''

• θ = --do--

• *NOTE:

value of SP-Latitude is negative and we know that south

& west directions are taken as negative.

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Introduction

Almost all surveying requires some calculations to

reduce measurements into a more useful form for

determining distance, earthwork volumes, land areas,

etc.

A traverse is developed by measuring the distance and

angles between points that found the boundary of a site

We will learn several different techniques to compute the

area inside a traverse

Methods of Computing Area

A simple method that is useful for rough area estimates

is a graphical method

traverse is plotted to scale

on graph paper, and the

number of squares inside A

the traverse are counted

C

Methods of Computing Area Methods of Computing Area

B B

1 1

a

b Area ABC ac sin a

b Area ABD ad sin

2 2

A A

c

C C 1

d Area BCD bc sin

c 2

D

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Methods of Computing Area Balancing Angles

B b C Before the areas of a piece of land can be computed, it is

1 necessary to have a closed traverse

a

c Area ABE ae sin

2 The interior angles of a closed traverse should total:

A

D 1 (n - 2)(180°)

e Area CDE cd sin

d 2 where n is the number of sides of the traverse

E

Balancing Angles Balancing Angles

A A surveying heuristic is that the total angle should not

Error of closure vary from the correct value by more than the square root

of the number of angles measured times the precision of

the instrument

D the maximum error is:

Angle containing mistake

C

Balancing Angles Latitudes and Departures

If the angles do not close by a reasonable amount, The closure of a traverse is checked by computing the

mistakes in measuring have been made latitudes and departures of each of it sides

angle by 1’ B

Latitude AB

If an error of 2’ is made, the surveyor may correct two Bearing

Departure CD

angles by 1’ each W E W E

surveyor may correct each angle by 3’/12 or 15” Latitude CD

D

S S

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Latitudes and Departures Error of Closure

The latitude of a line is its projection on the north–south Consider the following statement:

meridian

“If start at one corner of a closed traverse and walk its lines

until you return to your starting point, you will have walked as

N

B The departure of a line is far north as you walked south and as far east as you have

its projection on the east– walked west”

Latitude AB

west line

W E

A northeasterly bearing has:

Therefore latitudes = 0 and departures = 0

Bearing A Departure AB + latitude and

+ departure

Error of Closure Error of Closure

When latitudes are added together, the resulting error is If the measured bearings and distances are plotted on a

called the error in latitudes (EL) sheet of paper, the figure will not close because of EL

and ED

The error resulting from adding departures together is Error of closure

B ED

called the error in departures (ED)

EL ED

EL 2 2

Eclosure

A Eclosure

C Precision

perimeter

Typical precision: 1/5,000 for rural land, 1/7,500 for

suburban land, and 1/10,000 for urban land

D

Latitudes and Departures - Example Latitudes and Departures - Example

A

N

N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W

Departure AB

234.58’ 189.53’

W (189.53 ft.)sin(615 ') 20.63 ft.

B A

W E

E

S 29° 38’ E

S 6° 15’ W

142.39’ Latitude AB

N 12° 24’ W 175.18’ 189.53 ft.

175.18’ S (189.53 ft.)cos(615 ') 188.40 ft.

D N 81° 18’ W B

C S

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Latitudes and Departures - Example Latitudes and Departures - Example

Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure

N degree m inutes

AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634

Departure BC BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617

CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504

DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576

E (175.18 ft.)sin(2938 ') 86.62 ft. EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933

W B E 939.46 -0.079 -0.163

175.18 ft.

Latitude BC

S 29° 38’ E

S (175.18 ft.)cos(2938 ') 152.27 ft.

C

S

Latitudes and Departures - Example Group Example Problem 1

Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure A

degree m inutes S 77° 10’ E

AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634

BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617 N 29° 16’ E 651.2 ft.

CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504

DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576 B

EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933 660.5 ft.

939.46 -0.079 -0.163

S 38° 43’ W

EL ED 0.079 0.163 0.182 ft.

2 2 2 2

Eclosure

D 491.0 ft.

826.7 ft.

Eclosure 0.182 ft. 1 N 64° 09’ W

Precision

perimeter 939.46 ft. 5,176 C

Group Example Problem 1 Balancing Latitudes and Departures

attempts to obtain more probable values for the locations

of the corners of the traverse

Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure

degree m inutes A popular method for balancing errors is called the

AB

BC

S

S

77

38

10

43

E

W

651.2

826.7

compass or the Bowditch rule

CD N 64 9 W 491.0

DE N 29 16 E 660.5 The “Bowditch rule” as devised by Nathaniel

Bowditch, surveyor, navigator and mathematician, as

a proposed solution to the problem of compass

traverse adjustment, which was posed in the

American journal The Analyst in 1807.

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

1) angles and distances have same error

2) errors are accidental 234.58 ft. 189.53 ft.

B

The rule states:

E

S 29° 38’ E

“The error in latitude (departure) of a line is to the 142.39 ft.

total error in latitude (departure) as the length of the N 12° 24’ W 175.18 ft.

line is the perimeter of the traverse” 175.18 ft.

D N 81° 18’ W

C

Latitudes and Departures - Example Latitudes and Departures - Example

Recall the results of our example problem Recall the results of our example problem

Side Bearing Length (ft) Latitude Departure Side Bearing Length (ft) Latitude Departure

degree m inutes degree m inutes

AB S 6 15 W 189.53 AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634

BC S 29 38 E 175.18 BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617

CD N 81 18 W 197.78 CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504

DE N 12 24 W 142.39 DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576

EA N 42 59 E 234.58 EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933

939.46 -0.079 -0.163

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N N

Latitude AB Departure AB

W (189.53 ft.)sin(615 ') 20.63 ft.

W A E W A E

Correction in Lat AB LAB Correction in Dep AB LAB

S 6° 15’ W EL perimeter S 6° 15’ W ED perimeter

189.53 ft. EL LAB 189.53 ft. ED LAB

Correction in Lat AB Correction in Dep AB

perimeter perimeter

B B

S S

Correction in Lat AB 0.016 ft. Correction in Dep AB 0.033 ft.

939.46 ft. 939.46 ft.

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N N

Latitude BC Departure BC

E (175.18 ft.)sin(2938 ') 86.62 ft.

W B E W B E

Correction in LatBC LBC Correction in DepBC LBC

EL perimeter ED perimeter

175.18 ft. 175.18 ft.

S 29° 38’ E EL LBC S 29° 38’ E ED LBC

Correction in LatBC Correction in DepBC

perimeter perimeter

C C

S S

0.079 ft. 175.18 ft. 0.163 ft. 175.18 ft.

Correction in LatBC 0.015 ft. Correction in DepBC 0.030 ft.

939.46 ft. 939.46 ft.

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure

189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601

175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648

197.78 29.916 -195.504 197.78 29.916 -195.504

142.39 139.068 -30.576 142.39 139.068 -30.576

234.58 171.607 159.933 234.58 171.607 159.933

939.46 -0.079 -0.163 939.46 -0.079 -0.163

Balancing Latitudes and Departures Balancing Latitudes and Departures

Combining the latitude and departure calculations with

Corrections Balanced

Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure corrections gives:

Corrections Balanced

189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601

Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure

175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648 degree m inutes

197.78 29.916 -195.504 0.017 0.034 29.933 -195.470 AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634 0.016 0.033 -188.388 -20.601

142.39 139.068 -30.576 0.012 0.025 139.080 -30.551 BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648

CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504 0.017 0.034 29.933 -195.470

234.58 171.607 159.933 0.020 0.041 171.627 159.974 DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576 0.012 0.025 139.080 -30.551

939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000 EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933 0.020 0.041 171.627 159.974

939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Group Example Problem 2 Group Example Problem 3

Balance the latitudes and departures for the following In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will

traverse. have to balance data collected in the following form:

Corrections Balanced

N 69° 53’ E B

Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure A

N 51° 23’ 713.93 ft. 105° 39’

600.0 450.00 339.00 606.06 ft.

750.0 -164.46 -599.22

781.18 ft. 78° 11’

1800.0 0.54 -0.72

C

124° 47’

391.27 ft.

D

Group Example Problem 3 Calculating Traverse Area

In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will The best-known procedure for calculating land areas is

have to balance data collected in the following form: the double meridian distance (DMD) method

Corrections Balanced

Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure The meridian distance of a line is the east–west

AB N

degree m inutes

69 53 E 713.93 distance from the midpoint of the line to the reference

BC

CD

606.06

391.27

meridian

The meridian distance is positive (+) to the east and

DA 781.18

Eclosure = ft.

1

Precision =

Calculating Traverse Area Calculating Traverse Area

N A The most westerly and easterly points of a traverse may

be found using the departures of the traverse

N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W

234.58 ft. 189.53 ft.

Begin by establishing a arbitrary reference line and using

the departure values of each point in the traverse to

B

determine the far westerly point

E

S 29° 38’ E

142.39 ft.

N 12° 24’ W 175.18 ft.

Reference

175.18 ft.

Meridian

D N 81° 18’ W

C

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Calculating Traverse Area Calculating Traverse Area

Corrections Balanced N A

Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure

175.18 -152.268 86.617 0.015 0.030 -152.253 86.648

Reference N 42° 59’ E S 6° 15’ W

197.78 29.916 -195.504 0.017 0.034 29.933 -195.470

142.39 139.068 -30.576 0.012 0.025 139.080 -30.551 Meridian 234.58 ft.

234.58 171.607 159.933 0.020 0.041 171.627 159.974 189.53 ft.

939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000

B

-20.601 B A E

86.648

B C 142.39 ft. S 29° 38’ E

-195.470

D C N 12° 24’ W 175.18 ft.

-30.551 E D 175.18 ft.

159.974 Point E is the farthest D N 81° 18’ W

E A C

to the west

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations

The meridian distance of The meridian distance of line AB

N A line EA is: Meridian distance is equal to:

of line AB

N the meridian distance of EA

N A + ½ the departure of line EA

B + ½ departure of AB

A

E

Reference B meridian distance of line AB

Meridian E

D

C E

departure of line

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations

Balanced

Meridian distance The DMD of any side is equal to

of line AB the DMD of the last side plus the Side Latitude Departure

N DMD

A

departure of the last side plus the

departure of the present side AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601

BC -152.253 86.648

CD 29.933 -195.470

B DE 139.080 -30.551

E EA 171.627 159.974

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations

Balanced Balanced

Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure

DMD DMD

AB -188.388 -20.601 + -20.601 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601

BC -152.253 86.648 + 45.447 BC -152.253 86.648 + 45.447

CD 29.933 -195.470 CD 29.933 -195.470 + -63.375

DE 139.080 -30.551 DE 139.080 -30.551

EA 171.627 159.974 EA 171.627 159.974

The DMD of line BC is DMD of line AB + departure of line AB The DMD of line CD is DMD of line BC + departure of line

+ the departure of line BC BC + the departure of line CD

DMD Calculations DMD Calculations

Balanced Balanced

Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure

DMD DMD

AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601

BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447

CD 29.933 -195.470 + -63.375 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375

DE 139.080 -30.551 + -289.397 DE 139.080 -30.551 + -289.397

EA 171.627 159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 + -159.974

The DMD of line DE is DMD of line CD + departure of line The DMD of line EA is DMD of line DE + departure of line DE

CD + the departure of line DE + the departure of line EA

DMD Calculations Traverse Area - Double Area

The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude

Balanced equal twice the area, or the double area

Side Latitude Departure

DMD Balanced

Side Latitude Departure

AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 DMD Double Areas

BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881

CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447

139.080 -30.551 -289.397 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375

DE

DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397

EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974

Notice that the DMD values can be positive or negative The double area for line AB equals DMD of line AB times

the latitude of line AB

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area

The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude

equal twice the area, or the double area equal twice the area, or the double area

Balanced Balanced

Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure

DMD Double Areas DMD Double Areas

AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881

BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919

CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897

DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397

EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974

The double area for line BC equals DMD of line BC times The double area for line CD equals DMD of line CD times

the latitude of line BC the latitude of line CD

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area

The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude

equal twice the area, or the double area equal twice the area, or the double area

Balanced Balanced

Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure

DMD Double Areas DMD Double Areas

AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881

BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919

CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897

DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249 DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249

EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 -27,456

The double area for line DE equals DMD of line DE times The double area for line EA equals DMD of line EA times

the latitude of line DE the latitude of line EA

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area

The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude

equal twice the area, or the double area equal twice the area, or the double area

Balanced Balanced

Side Latitude Departure Side Latitude Departure

DMD Double Areas DMD Double Areas

AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881 AB -188.388 -20.601 -20.601 3,881

BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919 BC -152.253 86.648 45.447 -6,919

CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897 CD 29.933 -195.470 -63.375 -1,897

DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249 DE 139.080 -30.551 -289.397 -40,249

EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 -27,456 EA 171.627 159.974 -159.974 -27,456

2 Area = -72,641 2 Area = -72,641

36,320 ft.2 36,320 ft.2

1 acre = 43,560 ft.2 Area = 1 acre = 43,560 ft.2 Area =

0.834 acre 0.834 acre

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area - Double Area

The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer

(originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish (originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish

"åker", German acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος "åker", German acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος

(agros). (agros).

The acre was selected as approximately the amount of A long narrow strip of land is more efficient to plough than

land tillable by one man behind an ox in one day. a square plot, since the plough does not have to be turned

so often.

This explains one definition as the area of a rectangle with

sides of length one chain (66 ft.) and one furlong (ten The word "furlong" itself derives from the fact that it is one

chains or 660 ft.). furrow long.

Traverse Area - Double Area Traverse Area – Example 4

The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer Find the area enclosed by the following traverse

(originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish

"åker", German acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος Balanced

(agros). Side Latitude Departure

DMD Double Areas

AB 600.0 200.0

BC 100.0 400.0

CD 0.0 100.0

DE -400.0 -300.0

EA -300.0 -400.0

2 Area =

ft. 2

1 acre = 43,560 ft.2 Area =

acre

DPD Calculations Rectangular Coordinates

The same procedure used for DMD can be used the Rectangular coordinates are the convenient method

double parallel distances (DPD) are multiplied by the available for describing the horizontal position of survey

balanced departures points

The parallel distance of a line is the distance from the With the application of computers, rectangular

midpoint of the line to the reference parallel or east–west

line coordinates are used frequently in engineering projects

direction and the y–axis to the north–south direction

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Rectangular Coordinates Example Rectangular Coordinates Example

In this example, the length of AB is 300 ft. and bearing is In this example, it is assumed that the coordinates of points

shown in the figure below. Determine the coordinates of A and B are known and we want to calculate the latitude and

point B departure for line AB

y Latitude AB =300 ft. cos(4230’) y Coordinates of Point A Latitude AB = y B – y A

B = 221.183 ft. A (100, 300)

Latitude AB = -400 ft.

N 42 30’ E Departure AB =300 ft. sin(4230’)

= 202.677 ft. Departure AB = x B – x A

A

x B = 200 + 202.667 = 402.667 ft. Departure AB = 220 ft.

Coordinates of Point A x B x

(200, 300) y B = 300 + 221.183 = 521.183 ft. Coordinates of Point B

(320, -100)

Rectangular Coordinates Example Rectangular Coordinates Example

y

A x coordinates

Consider our previous example, determine the x and y

coordinates of all the points E B E = 0 ft.

D C x

A Side Latitude De parture

B = A – 20.601 = 139.373 ft.

AB -188.388 -20.601 Balance d

BC -152.253 86.648 Side Latitude De parture C = B + 86.648 = 226.021 ft.

E B

CD 29.933 -195.470

DE 139.080 -30.551 AB -188.388 -20.601 D = C – 195.470 = 30.551 ft.

EA 171.627 159.974 BC -152.253 86.648

D C x CD 29.933 -195.470

E = D – 30.551 = 0 ft.

DE 139.080 -30.551

EA 171.627 159.974

Rectangular Coordinates Example Rectangular Coordinates Example

y

A y coordinates y

A (159.974, 340.640)

E B C = 0 ft.

D = C + 29.933 ft.

D C x

E = D + 139.080 = 169.013 ft. B (139.373, 152.253)

Balance d (0.0, 169.013) E

Side Latitude De parture A = E + 171.627 = 340.640 ft.

AB -188.388 -20.601 B = A –188.388 = 152.252 ft.

BC -152.253 86.648 (30.551, 29.933) D

CD 29.933 -195.470

C = B –152.252 = 0 ft.

DE 139.080 -30.551 C (226.020, 0.0) x

EA 171.627 159.974

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

Group Example Problem 5 Area Computed by Coordinates

Compute the x and y coordinates from the following 7he coordinate

balanced. method for area computation

Balanced Coordinates y A (159.974, 340.640)

Side Bearing Length (ft.) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Points x y

degree m inutes

AB S 6 15 W 189.53 -188.403 -20.634 -188.388 -20.601 A 100.000 100.000 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x1

BC S 29 38 E 175.18 -152.268 86.617 -152.253 86.648 B

CD N 81 18 W 197.78 29.916 -195.504 29.933 -195.470 C

y1 y2 y3 y4 y5 y1

DE N 12 24 W 142.39 139.068 -30.576 139.080 -30.551 D B (139.373, 152.253)

EA N 42 59 E 234.58 171.607 159.933 171.627 159.974 E (0.0, 169.013) E

939.46 -0.079 -0.163 0.000 0.000 Twice the area equals:

(30.551, 29.933) D

= x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y4 + x4y5 + x5y1

C (226.020, 0.0) x

Surveying - Traverse

Area Computed by Coordinates Any Questions?

There is a simple variation of the coordinate

method for area computation

y A (159.974, 340.640)

Twice the area equals:

159.974(152.253) + 139.373(0.0) +

226.020(29.933) + 30.551(169.013) +

B (139.373, 152.253) 0.0(340.640)

(0.0, 169.013) E

- 340.640(139.373) – 152.253(226.020)

- 0.0(30.551) – 29.933(0.0)

(30.551, 29.933) D

– 169.013(159.974)

C (226.020, 0.0) x

= -72,640 ft.2

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